Early stages of ringworm pictures: Treatment, Pictures, Causes, and Symptoms
Treatment, Pictures, Causes, and Symptoms
Dogs and Cats, and Other Pets
When a person contracts ringworm, dogs and cats are the most common culprits. Cats are especially vulnerable to this infection. One study showed that when a cat has it, there is a 30 to 70 percent chance someone in the household will contract the disease, too.
Ringworm on a cat usually goes away without treatment, but it takes nine months to a year. During that time the cat’s hair will continue to fall out, putting it at greater risk of wounds and infections. Plus, the cat remains contagious to anyone in the home. Symptoms in cats include:
- Broken or stubbly hair
- Crusty, scaling skin
- Changes in hair or skin color
- Inflamed skin
- Circular spots where hair has fallen out
- Excessive grooming
- Infected claws
With treatment, a cat can be cleared in as little as six weeks, though it can take much longer.
For dogs, ringworm infection usually comes from the fungal species Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
Unlike cats, dogs often (but not always) show symptoms. Hairless, circular lesions on the head, ears, paws, and forelimbs are the main symptoms dogs show. These lesions expand, and when they do, they become more irregular in shape and may become scabby.
Puppies, malnourished or stressed dogs, and dogs that have been in a kennel or shelter are especially prone to infection.
Treatment for Dogs
A veterinarian will determine the severity of an infection before recommending treatment. There are various treatments available, including shampoos, ointments, dips, oral treatments and simply clipping back fur.
The lesions should begin to clear up in about one to three weeks. But keep treating your dog for as long as the veterinarian recommends. Just because a lesion heals does not necessarily mean the infection has been cured.
Cats and dogs aren’t the only mammals susceptible to these infections. Ringworm can be transmitted from horses, pigs, cattle, rodents, and hedgehogs. These are only some of the animals that might pick up this potentially itchy disease.
Ringworm (Tinea Corporis) in Adults: Condition, Treatments, and Pictures – Overview
caption goes here…
Images of Tinea Corporis (Ringworm of Body)
Tinea infections are commonly called ringworm because some may form a ring-like pattern on affected areas of the body. Tinea corporis, also known as ringworm of the body, tinea circinata, or simply ringworm, is a surface (superficial) fungal infection of the skin. Ringworm may be passed to humans by direct contact with infected people, infected animals, contaminated objects (such as towels or locker room floors), or the soil.
There are several kinds of ringworm, including:
- Majocchi’s granuloma, a deeper fungal infection of skin, hair, and hair follicles. It is most common in women who shave their legs.
- Tinea corporis gladiatorum, a special name given to tinea corporis spread by skin-to-skin contact between wrestlers.
- Tinea imbricata, a form of tinea corporis seen in Central and South America, Asia, and the South Pacific.
Who’s at risk?
Ringworm may occur in people of all ages, of all races, and of both sexes.
People who are more likely to develop ringworm include:
- Women of child-bearing age who come into contact with infected children
- People who have another tinea infection elsewhere on their bodies: tinea capitis (scalp), tinea faciei (face), tinea barbae (beard area), tinea cruris (groin), tinea pedis (feet), or tinea unguium (fingernails or toenails)
- Athletes, especially those involved in contact sports
- People in frequent contact with animals, especially cats, dogs, horses, and cattle
- People with weakened immune systems
- People who sweat heavily
- People who live in warmer, more humid climates
Signs and Symptoms
The most common locations for ringworm include the following:
- Trunk (chest, abdomen, back)
Ringworm appears as red ring-shaped patches with a raised scaly border ranging from 1 to 10 cm. The central area may be clear of any redness. The border of the affected skin may contain blisters, bumps, or scabs.
Ringworm may cause itching or burning, especially in people with weak immune systems.
If you suspect that you have ringworm, you might try one of the following over-the-counter antifungal creams or lotions:
Apply the cream to each lesion and to the normal-appearing skin 2 cm beyond the border of the affected skin for at least 2 weeks until the area is completely clear of the lesion. Because ringworm is very contagious, avoid contact sports until lesions have been treated for a minimum of 48 hours. Do not share towels, hats, or clothing with others until the lesions are healed.
Since people often have tinea infections on more than one body part, examine yourself for other ringworm infections, such as on the face (tinea faciei), in the beard area (tinea barbae), in the groin (tinea cruris, jock itch), or on the feet (tinea pedis, athlete’s foot).
Have any household pets evaluated by a veterinarian to make sure that they do not have a fungal (ie, dermatophyte) infection. If the veterinarian discovers an infection, be sure to have the animal treated.
When to Seek Medical Care
If large areas of the body are affected or if the lesions do not improve after 1–2 weeks of applying over-the-counter antifungal creams, see your doctor for an evaluation.
Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe
In order to confirm the diagnosis of ringworm, your physician might scrape some surface skin material (scales) onto a slide and examine them under a microscope. This procedure, called a KOH (potassium hydroxide) preparation, allows the doctor to look for tell-tale signs of fungal infection.
Once the diagnosis of ringworm has been confirmed, your physician will likely start treatment with an antifungal medication. Most infections can be treated with prescription-strength topical creams and lotions, including:
Rarely, more extensive infections or those not improving with topical antifungal medications may require 3–4 weeks of treatment with oral antifungal pills, including:
The ringworm should go away within 4–6 weeks after using effective treatment.
MedlinePlus: Tinea InfectionsClinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Tinea Corporis (Ringworm of Body)
Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.1174-1185. New York: Mosby, 2003.
Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed. pp.1997-1998, 2239-2243. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Ringworm rash: Pictures, treatments, and prevention
Ringworm is a common fungal infection, and it usually forms a circular or oval-shaped rash.
The fungi responsible for ringworm thrive in hot, moist environments, such as the tropics, or more specifically, locker rooms and indoor pools.
Sometimes, we classify ringworm by the area of the body that it affects — other names include jock itch and athlete’s foot. A doctor may also refer to the rash as tinea or dermatophytosis.
Anyone, of any age, can develop this infection. On darker skin, the rash may be brown or gray. On lighter skin, it may be red.
The rash usually develops 4–14 days after the person comes into contact with the fungi and develops the infection.
A person with a weakened immune system is more likely to experience symptoms of the infection.
Beyond the rash, ringworm can occur with itchiness, cracked skin, and hair loss. Other symptoms depend on the location of the infection, which may be:
Commonly known as athlete’s foot, ringworm on the feet causes the skin between the toes to become itchy and scaly, and it may also soften, blister, and bleed.
The infection may spread to the heels and soles, and touching the feet can cause the ringworm to spread to the hands.
Learn more about athlete’s foot here.
On the hands, the rash may resemble very dry skin that cracks. These skin changes may form in ring-shaped patches.
Learn more about ringworm on the hands, or tinea manuum, here.
Ringworm on the groin is also known as jock itch. It may first appear where the leg meets the body, then spread to the inner thigh.
The infected area is often itchy and sore, with scaling, flaking skin.
Learn more about jock itch here.
Ringworm can affect the fingernails, toenails, or both, and an infection in these areas causes no visible rash.
Thickening of the nails is an early sign, and the nails may change color, start to disintegrate, and seem to rise away from the nail bed.
Ringworm on the scalp is also known as tinea capitis. It is more common in children than adults and especially common in kids aged 3–7.
Tinea capitis is contagious, and it can cause scaly, itchy bald patches to form. Not everyone exposed to the fungi develops this rash, however.
Learn more about ringworm on the scalp here.
Arms, legs, and trunk
On these areas of the body, ringworm is most likely to cause its characteristic circular rash with raised edges.
The infection gets its name because the raised edges may look a little like worms.
The beard area
Ringworm in this area commonly affects agricultural workers who have contact with infected animals.
The affected skin on the face and neck may:
- turn reddish or purplish
- develop pus-filled bumps
- lose hair
- otherwise look and feel damaged
Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications can treat ringworm. The location of the infection helps determine the right type and length of treatment.
Always follow the instructions carefully and complete the full course of treatment, even if the rash and other symptoms fade. Also, wash the hands thoroughly after applying the medication, to prevent the infection from spreading.
Experts recommend the following, if the infection is on the:
- Feet: A person typically uses an OTC spray or cream for at least 2–4 weeks.
- Hands: Depending on the severity of the infection, a doctor may recommend mild antifungal medication or more powerful treatments.
- Groin: Using an OTC powder, cream, or spray twice a day for up to 2 weeks is usually effective, and applying cool, wet compresses several times a day can help. It is essential for people with this infection to wash their clothes after wearing them.
- Nails: This requires prescription antifungal medication, often for a long period.
- Scalp: A person needs a course of prescription medication, often for 1–3 months. The person and everyone in their household may need to use an antifungal shampoo.
- Beard: This requires a tailored treatment plan that may involve prescription medication, shaving, and the removal of damaged tissue.
As a general rule, it is important to keep the affected area dry, clean, and as cool as possible.
Learn about home remedies for ringworm here.
Ringworm is contagious, and regular handwashing helps prevent its spread. Also, avoid contact with any animals other people who have recently had the infection.
Also, the fungus can survive on objects for quite a while. Regularly cleaning shared objects in a household or workplace, for example, is key. A person should avoid touching anything recently held or operated by a person with ringworm before the object is cleaned.
It may be a good idea for people living in close quarters, such as military housing, dormitories, or summer camps, to avoid sharing combs, phones, razors, or towels. It is also advisable to wear flip flops or waterproof shoes in widely shared showers or pool areas.
Make sure that children with ringworm do not share toys, clothes, towels, or bedding.
Anyone who thinks that their pet may have ringworm should take them to a veterinarian for treatment and disinfect the home by:
- washing and bleaching, if possible, the pet’s bedding and favorite areas
- vacuuming areas that the pet has access to
- making sure that everyone is washing their hands with soap and water after touching the pet
How long is ringworm contagious? Find out here.
A professional visual examination is a key element in diagnosing a ringworm rash — not all of these rashes have the telltale circular shape with raised edges. Thickening of the nails can also be a key indication.
While it is possible for a person to correctly identify ringworm and effectively treat it with OTC medications, see a doctor of the symptoms do not improve or worsen.
Dermatologists can make a definitive diagnosis by taking a biopsy, a small sample of an affected area of nail, hair, or skin. An analysis can show whether the fungi are present.
Ringworm is a common fungal infection that can develop on many areas of the body. The specific symptoms, including skin changes, and the right treatments depend on the affected area.
Itchiness is generally a key symptom of a ringworm rash, which may be circular and have raised edges. A doctor may also look for thickening of the fingernails or toenails.
Ringworm tends to respond well to OTC treatment, but if symptoms persist, a doctor can prescribe stronger medication.
Ringworm – NHS
Ringworm is a common fungal infection. It’s not caused by worms. You can usually buy medicine from a pharmacy to treat it.
Check if it’s ringworm
The main symptom of ringworm is a rash. It may look red, silver or darker than surrounding skin, depending on your skin tone.
The rash may be scaly, dry, swollen or itchy.
Ringworm can appear anywhere on the body, including the scalp (tinea capitis) and groin (jock itch).
The rash is usually ring-shaped, but it may look different on your face, neck or scalp.
The colour of the ringworm rash may be less noticeable on brown and black skin.
Sometimes the rash grows, spreads, or there’s more than 1 rash.
Ringworm on the face or scalp may also cause patchy hair loss.
Other common fungal infections
A pharmacist can help with ringworm
Speak to a pharmacist first.
They can look at the rash and recommend the best antifungal medicine. This might be a cream, gel or spray depending on where the rash is.
You may need to use an antifungal medicine every day for up to 4 weeks. It’s important to use it for the right amount of time, even if the rash has gone away.
A pharmacist will tell you if they think you should see a GP.
Non-urgent advice: See a GP if:
- ringworm has not improved after using antifungal medicine recommended by a pharmacist
- you have ringworm on your scalp – you’ll usually need prescription antifungal tablets and shampoo
- you have a weakened immune system – for example, from chemotherapy, steroids or diabetes
How ringworm is passed on
Ringworm is caused by a type of fungi.
It can be passed on through close contact with:
- an infected person or animal
- infected objects – such as bedsheets, combs or towels
- infected soil – although this is less common
It’s fine for your child to go to school or nursery once they have started treatment. Let your child’s teachers know they have ringworm.
How to stop ringworm spreading
start treatment as soon as possible
wash towels and bedsheets regularly
keep your skin clean and wash your hands after touching animals or soil
regularly check your skin if you have been in contact with an infected person or animal
take your pet to the vet if they might have ringworm (for example, patches of missing fur)
do not share towels, combs or bedsheets with someone who has ringworm
do not scratch a ringworm rash – this could spread it to other parts of your body
Page last reviewed: 26 October 2020
Next review due: 26 October 2023
Ringworm of the Skin | Michigan Medicine
Is this topic for you?
This topic is about ringworm of the skin, groin, or hands. For information about other fungal infections, see the topics:
What is ringworm of the skin?
Ringworm of the skin is an infection caused by a fungus.
Jock itch is a form of ringworm that causes an itchy rash on the skin of your groin area. It is much more common in men than in women. Jock itch may be caused by the spread of athlete’s foot fungus to the groin.
What causes ringworm?
Ringworm is not caused by a worm. It is caused by a fungus. The kinds of fungi (plural of fungus) that cause ringworm live and spread on the top layer of the skin and on the hair. They grow best in warm, moist areas, such as locker rooms and swimming pools, and in skin folds.
Ringworm is contagious. It spreads when you have skin-to-skin contact with a person or animal that has it. It can also spread when you share things like towels, clothing, or sports gear.
You can also get ringworm by touching an infected dog or cat, although this form of ringworm is not common.
What are the symptoms?
Ringworm of the skin usually causes a very itchy rash. It often makes a pattern in the shape of a ring, but not always. Sometimes it is just a red, itchy rash.
Jock itch is a rash in the skin folds of the groin. It may also spread to the inner thighs or buttocks.
Ringworm of the hand looks like athlete’s foot. The skin on the palm of the hand gets thick, dry, and scaly. And skin between the fingers may be moist and have open sores.
How is ringworm of the skin diagnosed?
If you have a ring-shaped rash, you very likely have ringworm. Your doctor will be able to tell for sure. He or she will probably look at a scraping from the rash under a microscope to check for the ringworm fungus.
How is it treated?
Most ringworm of the skin can be treated at home with creams you can buy without a prescription. Your rash may clear up soon after you start treatment, but it’s important to keep using the cream for as long as the label or your doctor says. This will help keep the infection from coming back. If the cream doesn’t work, your doctor can prescribe pills that will kill the fungus.
If ringworm is not treated, your skin could blister, and the cracks could become infected with bacteria. If this happens, you will need antibiotics.
If your child is being treated for ringworm, you don’t have to keep him or her out of school or day care.
Can you prevent ringworm?
To prevent ringworm:
- Don’t share clothing, sports gear, towels, or sheets. If you think you have been exposed to ringworm, wash your clothes in hot water with special anti-fungus soap.
- Wear slippers or sandals in locker rooms and public bathing areas.
- Shower and shampoo well after any sport that includes skin-to-skin contact.
- Wear loose-fitting cotton clothing. Change your socks and underwear at least once a day.
- Keep your skin clean and dry. Always dry yourself completely after showers or baths, drying your feet last.
- If you have athlete’s foot, put your socks on before your underwear so that fungi do not spread from your feet to your groin.
- Take your pet to the vet if it has patches of missing hair, which could be a sign of a fungal infection.
If you or someone in your family has symptoms, it is important to treat ringworm right away to keep other family members from getting it.
Ringworm infection is caused by a fungus. Fungi (plural of fungus) that cause ringworm live and spread on the outer layer of skin. Ringworm is not caused by a worm or other parasite.
Fungi are present everywhere in our environment, including on the human body. They thrive in warm, moist areas, such as locker rooms and swimming pools, and in skin folds. You can get ringworm of the skin by sharing contaminated towels, clothing, and sports equipment, and by direct contact with an infected person.
Ringworm of the skin (tinea corporis) is most commonly caused by the fungus Trichophyton rubrum, which spreads from one person to another. It can also be caused by Microsporum canis, which is spread by cats and dogs. This type is less common but causes a more severe infection.
People often get ringworm of the groin (“jock itch”) by accidentally spreading athlete’s foot fungus to their own groin area. People who have athlete’s foot also commonly spread it to their hands (tinea manuum).
Some people are more likely to get fungal infections than others. The tendency to get fungal skin infections or to have them return after treatment seems to run in families.
Most ringworm infections cause a rash that may be peeling, cracking, scaling, itching, and red. Sometimes the rash forms blisters, especially on the feet.
Symptoms of ringworm of the body include a rash:
- On the chest, stomach, arms, legs, or back.
- With edges that are red and scaly or moist and crusted. The rash also may have small bumps that look like blisters. The center of the rash may be clear, giving it a ring-shaped appearance, or there may be a cluster of red bumps.
- That may form large, round patches.
Symptoms of ringworm of the face include a rash:
- On the face, the ears, or both.
- With a border that may not be very distinct.
- That may get worse after being in the sun.
Symptoms of ringworm of the groin (jock itch) include a rash:
- On the groin, skin folds, inner thighs, or buttocks. The rash usually does not occur on the scrotum or penis.
- With edges that are very distinct and may be scaly or have bumps that look like blisters.
- That may have a red-brown center.
and athlete’s foot frequently occur at the same time.
Symptoms of ringworm on the hand include a rash:
- On the palm that may be mistaken for eczema.
- On the palm that is thickened, dry, and scaly, similar to athlete’s foot, while skin between the fingers may be moist and have open sores.
- On the back of the hand that is red and scaly, with edges that have bumps that look like blisters.
Fingernails can also be infected. For more information, see the topic Fungal Nail Infections.
Ringworm of the skin may be confused with other conditions with similar symptoms, such as eczema or psoriasis.
Ringworm of the skin can start as a small patch of itchy, red, or scaling skin. The rash can spread and cover a large area.
Clothing that rubs the skin can irritate the rash. Sweat, heat, or moisture in the air (humidity) can make the itching and infection worse.
As the infection becomes worse, the ring-shaped pattern and red-brown color may become more visible. If not treated, the skin can become irritated and painful. Skin blisters and cracks can become infected with bacteria and require antibiotics.
Ringworm can also spread to other parts of the body, including the feet, nails, scalp, or beard.
After treatment, the rash will go away. But ringworm can return unless you follow steps to prevent it. The tendency to get fungal skin infections or to have them return after treatment seems to run in families.
What Increases Your Risk
Your risk of getting ringworm is higher if:
- You come in contact with a person who has a fungal infection or with a carrier, a person who has the fungi but does not have symptoms.
- You are susceptible to fungal infections or you have had a previous fungal infection.
- You have an impaired immune system due to a disease such as diabetes or cancer.
- You live in a warm, damp climate.
- You wear tight-fitting clothes or you let your skin stay damp for long periods, such as by staying in a wet bathing suit or sweaty workout clothes.
- You are a wrestler.
When should you call your doctor?
If you suspect you have ringworm of the skin, call your doctor if:
- You have patches of skin that are itchy, red, or scaly with bumps that look like blisters, and they have not improved after 2 weeks of treatment with a nonprescription antifungal product.
- Signs of bacterial infection develop. Signs may include:
- Increased pain, swelling, redness, tenderness, or heat.
- Red streaks extending from the area.
- Discharge of pus.
- Fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher with no other cause.
- The rash appears to be spreading even after treatment.
Watchful waiting is a wait-and-see approach. If you get better on your own, you won’t need treatment. If you get worse, you and your doctor will decide what to do next.
You can treat ringworm at home with medicines you can buy without a prescription. If symptoms do not improve after 2 weeks of treatment with this medicine, call your doctor.
Any persistent, severe, or recurring infection should be checked by your doctor.
Who to see
The following health professionals can diagnose and treat ringworm of the skin:
Exams and Tests
Doctors often can easily recognize ringworm by its ring-shaped rash. Your doctor will probably also look at a skin sample (KOH preparation) under a microscope to confirm that fungus is present.
Tests for ringworm of the skin include:
- A KOH (potassium hydroxide) preparation. This test can help your doctor find out whether a fungus is causing your rash. The doctor will take a sample of your skin by lightly scraping the infected area. The sample is placed on a slide with potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution and gently heated. If fungus cells are present, the doctor can then see them with a microscope.
- A Wood’s light exam. This test may be used to see if the rash is caused by a fungus. Your doctor will shine a special light on your skin where you have the rash. Certain kinds of fungi glow under this light.
- A fungal culture (skin culture). This test can identify the type of fungus that is causing your infection. Usually a culture is only done if the diagnosis is difficult or the skin condition is not responding to treatment. This test may take up to 4 weeks, because it takes time for the fungus to grow.
Most cases of ringworm of the skin, including jock itch and ringworm of the hand, can be treated with creams or ointments that you put on your skin to kill fungi. These are called topical antifungals. You can get many topical antifungals without a prescription. Brand names include Micatin, Tinactin, Mycelex, and Lamisil.
You may need to take antifungal pills (oral treatment) if the ringworm does not go away after you have tried different topical antifungals or if the infection is widespread. Oral treatments include azoles such as fluconazole (Diflucan), allylamines such as terbinafine (Lamisil), and griseofulvin (Grifulvin V).
Your rash may start to clear up soon after you begin treatment, but it is important to use the medicine exactly as the label or your doctor says. This will help keep the infection from coming back. You will probably need to continue treatment for 2 to 4 weeks.
If not treated, ringworm can spread and the skin can become irritated and painful. Skin blisters and cracks can become infected with bacteria. If this happens, you may need to take antibiotics.
What to think about
You should treat a fungal infection right away. Severe and widespread infections can be hard to treat.
To prevent ringworm of the skin:
- Keep your skin clean and dry. Change your socks and underwear at least once a day.
- Wear loose-fitting cotton clothing. Avoid tight underwear, pants, and panty hose.
- Always dry yourself completely after showers or baths. After drying your skin with a towel, allow your skin to air-dry before putting your clothes on. You can also use a hair dryer, set on a cool setting, to dry your skin.
- Do not share clothing, sports equipment, towels, or sheets. If you think you have been exposed to ringworm, wash your clothes in hot water with fungus-killing (fungicidal) soap.
- Wear slippers or sandals in locker rooms, showers, and public bathing areas.
- Shower and shampoo thoroughly after any sport that requires skin-to-skin contact.
- If you have athlete’s foot, put your socks on before your underwear so that fungi do not spread from your feet to your groin. Also, when toweling off after a shower or bath, dry your feet last.
- Take your pet to a veterinarian if it has patches of missing hair, which may be a sign of a fungal infection. Household pets can spread fungi that cause ringworm in people.
In most cases, you can treat ringworm of the skin with antifungal creams or ointments. Many are available without a prescription. Use a nonprescription antifungal cream with miconazole or clotrimazole in it. Brand names include Micatin, Mycelex, and Tinactin. Terbinafine cream (Lamisil) is also available without a prescription.
- Wash the rash with soap and water, and dry thoroughly. For large areas of blistered sores, use compresses such as those made with Burow’s solution (available without a prescription) to soothe and dry out the blisters.
- Apply antifungal cream beyond the edge or border of the rash.
- Follow the directions on the package. Don’t stop using the medicine just because your symptoms go away. You will probably need to continue treatment for 2 to 4 weeks.
- If symptoms do not improve after 2 weeks, call your doctor.
If your rash does not clear after you have tried different topical antifungals, or if the infection is widespread, you may need prescription antifungal pills.
If you have both athlete’s foot and ringworm of your groin or legs, you should treat both infections. This will prevent you from re-infecting your legs or groin with the athlete’s foot fungus, when you put on your underwear.
Most ringworm infections of the skin can be treated at home with nonprescription antifungal creams. The rash will usually improve within 2 weeks.
If the rash does not improve after you have used an antifungal cream and it is severe and widespread or returns frequently, you may need antifungal pills that your doctor prescribes. When you are treating ringworm, it is important to finish the full course of medicine prescribed, even if the symptoms have gone away, so that the infection does not return.
The most common antifungals used to treat ringworm of the skin are:
- Allylamines, such as terbinafine (Lamisil). Allylamines come as creams, pills, and gels. Terbinafine also comes as oral granules, which are little grains that can be sprinkled over food and easily swallowed. Lamisil is available as a cream without a prescription.
- Azoles. Oral prescription forms include fluconazole (Diflucan) and itraconazole (Sporanox). Some of these medicines are available without a prescription. Brand names include Micatin and Mycelex.
- Griseofulvin (Grifulvin V). Griseofulvin comes in pill form and requires a prescription.
- Other antifungals such as tolnaftate (Tinactin). Tinactin is available without a prescription and comes in lotion, cream, gel, and spray forms.
Clotrimazole/betamethasone (Lotrisone), a combination antifungal and corticosteroid, is sometimes used to treat ringworm that is burning, itchy, and inflamed. This prescription medicine should be used with caution and for no longer than 2 weeks, because complications can occur with long-term use of corticosteroids.
What to think about
People who are taking antifungal pills should have a doctor monitor their blood counts and liver and kidney function during treatment to watch for any harmful side effects.
Other Works Consulted
- Grossberg R (2015). Fungal diseases of the skin. In ET Bope et al., eds., Conn’s Current Therapy 2015, pp. 261–262. Philadelphia: Saunders.
- Habif TP, et al. (2011). Tinea of the body (tinea corporis) and face (tinea faciei). In Skin Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment, 3rd ed., pp. 275–279. Edinburgh: Saunders.
- Hall JC (2010). Dermatologic mycology. In JC Hall, ed., Sauer’s Manual of Skin Diseases, 10th ed., pp. 246–266. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Current as of:
July 2, 2020
Author: Healthwise Staff
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine
What Is Ringworm? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention
Some types of ringworm can be treated with over-the-counter medications, but other forms require prescription antifungal medication. (11)
Treatment of ringworm depends on the location of the infection. Nonprescription antifungal creams, lotions, or powders that can treat tinea pedis (athlete’s foot) and tinea cruris (jock itch) include:
- Clotrimazole (Lotrimin, Mycelex)
- Miconazole (Aloe Vesta Antifungal, Azolen, Baza Antifungal, Carrington Antifungal, Critic-Aid Clear, Cruex Prescription Strength, DermaFungal, Desenex, Fungoid Tincture, Micaderm, Micatin, Micro-Guard, Miranel, Mitrazol, Podactin, Remedy Antifungal, Secura Antifungal)
- Terbinafine (Lamisil)
- Ketoconazole (Xolegel)
Prescription antifungal medications that can treat ringworm on the scalp include:
Alternative and Complementary Therapies
Tinea cruris (jock itch) can typically be treated with over-the-counter topical medications. (12) Dermatologists also advise wearing breathable, cotton underwear. To relieve the symptoms of jock itch, the AAD recommends applying a cool, wet washcloth to the area for 20 to 30 minutes two to six times a day. (13) It’s important to use a clean washcloth each time and to use it only on the itch, and to wash it in hot, soapy water before using it again.
There has been some research into the use of herbal remedies in treating ringworm, but it has been mostly limited to animals. A study in the Hong Kong Medical Journal found that a topical herbal formula of traditional Chinese medicines with antifungal properties was effective in treating athlete’s foot in guinea pigs, though not as effective as a topical antifungal medication. (14) And a study in Mycoses found that an herbal formula of essential oils, applied topically, appeared to limit fungal growth in sheep affected with ringworm. (15) The German organization Informed Health Online notes that applications of tea tree oil have been recommended for athlete’s foot, but that there’s not much scientific evidence to support these recommendations. (16)
Prevention of Ringworm
Ringworm can be challenging to prevent, but there are a number of simple steps you can take to reduce your risk, or to prevent the infection from spreading to other areas of your body or to other people. (4)
- Avoid sharing personal items such as clothing, towels, hairbrushes, and sports gear.
- Don’t wear heavy clothing for long periods of time if you’re in a warm, humid climate.
- Try to avoid excessive sweating.
- Wash your hands often and well.
- Shower right after playing sports and keep your uniform and gear clean.
- Avoid infected animals, and have your pets or animals checked for ringworm.
- Change your clothes, including your underwear and socks, every day, and wash them before wearing them again. (10)
- Shower after exercising.
- Wear waterproof shoes in locker rooms, public or shared showers, and pool areas.
- Disinfect or throw out clothes and items that may be infected with ringworm, or that you wore while you had ringworm.
- Wash towels and bedding that you use while you have ringworm in hot, soapy water.
Ringworm (Tinea Corporis): Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention
Ringworm of the body (tin ee uh COR por is) is an infection of the skin caused by a fungus (a plant which is too small to see). Ringworm is not caused by a worm.
The infection starts as a rash with tiny red pimples. The pimples slowly spread and form a round or oval ring, typically ½ to 1 inch (12 to 25 mm) in size. The edges of the area are red, raised or scaly. After the ring has formed, the skin inside the rash may look pink or almost normal. The rash usually appears in only a few places on the skin but it may occur anywhere on the body and may itch. Ringworm rarely causes serious problems.
Ringworm is contagious. It can spread to humans from puppies, kittens and pet rodents. It can also spread from people to people when someone touches the rash or handles something that has touched it.
The doctor will diagnose ringworm based on the child’s health history and by looking at the rash. A few scales from the infected area may be scraped and sent to the lab for more testing.
A single patch of ringworm can be treated with an over-the-counter antifungal cream. The cream will usually contain miconazole, ketoconazole or clotrimazole.
- Read the medicine’s label or ask your doctor or pharmacist to know if the cream you choose is safe for children.
- Ask how often it should be applied and for how many days.
- If there are many patchy areas, the doctor may prescribe a stronger medicine.
Ringworm usually goes away within 4 weeks of treatment.
How to Put on the Antifungal Cream
- Wash and dry your hands.
- Wash the rash with soap and water in the bathtub, bathroom sink or pan. Do not use the kitchen sink to wash the rash.
- Dry the rash completely with a paper towel or clean cloth towel. Do not touch this towel to healthy skin. (A cloth towel must be washed before it is used again.)
- Apply a thin layer of cream just past the outside edges of the rash.
- Spread the cream, beginning from the outside area first, then move toward the center of the rash (Picture 1).
- Do not cover the ringworm with a bandage.
- Wash and dry your hands well.
How to Prevent Ringworm
The fungus grows well on warm, dark, moist areas of the body. To prevent ringworm from spreading to others:
- Keep the skin clean and dry. Dry the skin well after washing or bathing.
- Wash hands well and right away if a ringworm rash is touched.
- Wear clean clothes, socks and underwear every day and do not share clothes or personal items (brushes, combs, barrettes) with others (Picture 2).
- Wash and dry clothing and towels that have come in contact with the rash using the hottest settings allowed on the care labels.
- Wash the bathtub, bathroom sink or pan well after each use.
- Wear shoes in locker rooms and public showers.
- Shower right away after all contact sports like wrestling and football.
- Keep fingernails short and clean.
- Wash hands after playing with pets. Check pets for ringworm and get them treated if necessary.
- Your child can return to daycare or school after treatment has begun.
When to Call the Doctor
Call your child’s doctor if the rash:
- Gets worse and shows signs of infection (pus, swelling or discharge)
- Does not seem to be healing after 2 weeks
- Has not healed completely after 4 weeks
Ringworm (Tinea Corporis) (PDF)
HH-I-143 1/91, Revised 10/17 Copyright 1991, Nationwide Children’s Hospital
90,000 what is the danger of illness Saratovnews.ru
Ringworm in humans is a common dermatological disease that can be contracted from animals and people who are sick. If a disease is suspected, the patient should consult a doctor for the appointment of qualified treatment.
WHAT IS SHEARS IN HUMAN
This type of lichen is one of the most common pathologies. At risk are young people and children.But lichen can be diagnosed in a patient of a different age group.
This is a fungal disease. The source is a sick animal or person. Favorable conditions for infection are the following factors:
- frivolous attitude to the rules of personal hygiene;
- reduced immunity;
- any damage to the surface of the skin.
ROUTES OF INFECTION
This type of lichen is a contagious disease transmitted by contact and household means.In the children’s environment, stray animals – puppies and kittens affected by the disease – often become the source of infection. It is enough just to pet the animal or play with it.
The conditions of infection from another person are the following factors:
- Use of general items such as combs.
- Direct contact with a sick person.
Young children are most prone to fungi that cause lichen.This is due to the fact that with age, the formation of skin resistance to pathogenic microflora occurs.
The fungus, which is the source of ringworm, can persist on various surfaces for months, posing a threat to others.
SYMPTOMS: HOW TO RECOGNIZE ILLNESS
After infection of the disease, an incubation period passes, which can range from literally a few days to several weeks. At the next stage of the disease, the symptoms of lichen, shown in the photo, begin to appear.The peculiarity of the ringworm type of disease is in dislocation in different areas:
- Skin surface;
Symptoms of the disease differ depending on the affected area:
- Nails. Grayish spots appear on the nail plates, which become larger over time and lead to increased fragility. The patient feels a burning sensation in the affected area and experiences itching.
- Hairy part of the head. At the onset of the disease, lesions appear with pronounced edges under the hair, the skin on which changes color and flakes. Hair in this place changes its structure, bristles, breaks and falls out.
- Open skin. Red spots appear, bubbles form, which burst, leaving crusts behind.
How the symptoms look, depending on the affected area, can be seen in the photo on the network.
In the form of the disease, which is accompanied by suppuration, the symptoms are brighter:
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- large plaques, up to 10 centimeters in diameter, which have an uneven surface and tuberosity;
- general poor health;
- hives-type rashes;
- increase in body temperature;
- swelling of the affected areas;
- soreness in areas affected by the disease;
- scar formation.
The development of the disease goes through stages of development: from initial to active.
An accurate diagnosis of ringworm can only be made by a specialist, since individual manifestations often signal other diseases. To do this, the patient must visit a dermatologist or mycologist specializing in fungal infections of the body.
The causative agent of this type of lichen can be one of the types of fungus:
Separately, mention should be made of infiltrative-suppurative trichophytosis, which a sick person can only contract from animals. This type of ringworm is accompanied by severe inflammation and the development of putrefactive processes. This disease can last from 60 to 100 days, leaving behind scars. On the scalp where the scar is located, hair no longer grows.
Standard diagnostics include:
- Medical examination.
- Analysis for the detection of fungus using special equipment.
- Hair collection.
The collected material is inoculated under laboratory conditions in order to obtain information about the microflora. At the same time, the sensitivity of the fungus to drugs becomes known.
This type of lichen is a curable disease. The sooner the treatment starts, the faster the result will be achieved.Usually, the full course of therapy is up to two months. It includes a whole range of measures.
Medicines prescribed by a doctor may include the following:
- oral antifungal preparations;
- application of ointments;
- iodine-containing antiseptic solutions;
- hormonal drugs.
A set of measures for the treatment of ringworm should be selected by a doctor, taking into account the characteristics of the course of the disease.If the treatment is not completed or the treatment measures are ignored, the disease can become chronic. Most often, doctors diagnose relapses of trichophytosis of the nail plates.
Treatment for ringworm can be carried out in a hospital or at home.
Since children are at risk, it is necessary to provide regular medical examination. Preventive measures also include:
- compliance with hygiene rules;
- timely vaccinations and periodic examinations of domestic animals;
- exclusion of contact with sick animals and people.
When a healthy person enters a team in which there are those infected with ringworm, preventive measures should be selected by a dermatologist or mycologist.
Upon completion of treatment, the patient should be re-examined to confirm complete recovery. And in the future, adhere to preventive measures. With competent, timely treatment started, the disease in most cases goes away without consequences.
Materials taken from Plastichno.com
90,000 types, methods of dealing with the problem – World of news
Deprive a person: symptoms with a photo and treatment
Lichen in humans can appear at any time. What are the types of pathology? What are the symptoms of the disease, its danger? Treatment methods. Photo of manifestations.
The concept of lichen in humans unites a group of dermatological diseases that require special treatment. It is selected depending on the type of pathology, the severity of the condition and the individual characteristics of the organism.
DEPRIVATE A MAN – WHAT IS
This skin disease is infectious in nature. It can be caused by a fungus or a virus.
It should be borne in mind that the vast majority of lichen species are infectious, and are transmitted through contact with humans or animals. Without therapy, the patient poses a threat to others.
There are 3 types of pathogens:
- Soil-dwelling, geophilic.
- Anthropophilic inhabiting human skin.
- Animal-dwelling, zooanthropophilic.
The external manifestations of pathology may differ, since it is influenced by the type of pathogen. The extent of the lesion and the extent of the body area depend on many factors. Among them:
- the degree of neglect of the disease;
- strength of immunity;
- individual features, etc.
The risk of encountering pathology is increased in people of the following categories:
- If a person has weakened immunity.
- People with chronic diseases, etc.
The earlier the patient is diagnosed and started treatment, the higher the chances of coping with the disease quickly and without consequences.
A unifying group of skin diseases, the disease manifests itself on the body as eruptions in the form of spots that itch and flake. The type and form of manifestations depend on the pathogen. The severity of symptoms is also influenced by a person’s health.What the lichen of various types looks like will be shown below in the photo.
The incubation period, depending on the pathogen, can range from several days to several weeks.
This species is caused by a fungal infection. You can get it through direct contact. Very often, the spread of ringworm occurs in a child’s environment.
Outwardly, this type of lichen is characterized by round spots of pink or red color.Defeat most often affects:
- scalp with hair loss at the site of the rash;
In the absence of treatment, the situation is aggravated, the affected area increases.
The causative agent of this type of lichen is a fungal infection. Most often, the disease affects people with chronic diseases of internal organs, prone to excessive sweating.Infection occurs after contact with the source of infection.
Rashes can appear on any part of the body, except for the legs, arms and head. The size of the rashes can reach several centimeters.
Without the use of medicines, the disease can torment a person for years.
This variety does not have a fully elucidated nature. Body spots most often appear on the abdomen, chest, or back. The color of the spots is pink, the surface is itchy and flaky.
For infection, favorable factors are:
- young age.
Women are more susceptible to this type of disease than men.
This species is a chronic disease. Dislocation of rashes – skin and mucous membranes. External manifestation is a large number of characteristic rashes of purple or red on the skin, and whitish-gray on the mucous membranes.
Factors that contribute to the onset of the disease are:
- gastrointestinal tract diseases;
- diabetes mellitus;
- age 30-60 years.
This type of lesion is caused by a herpes infection. Rashes are dislocated mainly along the lines of nerve passage under the ribs. Unlike other varieties, this type of lichen is painful. Reduced immunity, hypothermia, colds can lead to rashes.
Externally, the rash looks like bubbles with liquid. After a few days of development, they burst, forming crusts. Why is such a lichen dangerous? Aggravation of the condition and deterioration of health.
Externally, lichen is represented by white spots of various shapes. Rashes occur mainly during the cold season.
This disease has another name – psoriasis. The chronic form can be localized on the skin on large joints.
Lichen simplex is caused by a streptococcal infection. It is characterized by rounded spots with a flaky surface. This variety is an atypical form of the disease, characteristic of boys 7-10 years old.
When a rash is found, the patient should consult a specialist to clarify the diagnosis and choose the right treatment. You can get rid of most varieties of lichen in 7-20 days.
With an advanced disease, treatment will be long.
The main remedy in the fight against disease is ointments. The choice of a specific drug depends on the form of the disease. Additionally, patients are prescribed fortifying vitamin complexes, means to improve the state of immunity.
- Pink. The use of antihistamines and immunostimulating drugs, exclusion from the diet of foods that can cause an allergic reaction.
- Shearing. Use of corticosteroid ointments, antihistamines.
- Shingles. The use of antiviral ointments. This could be, for example, Acyclovir. In addition, diuretics, analgesics, immunomodulators.
- Pityriasis. Use of antifungal ointments. For example, Lamisil.
In some cases, for example, with pink lichen, the disease can go away even without specific treatment.In the case of more severe skin lesions, it is necessary to take medications.
Treatment with ointments allows you to act directly on the affected area, relieve itching and stop other unpleasant sensations. In case of damage to significant areas of the body, the patient is also prescribed oral means.
Ointments, depending on the pathogen, are also used different:
- antiviral, etc.d.
There is no universal ointment suitable for all types of shingles.
Treatment of lichen at home should be carried out only as directed by a doctor. If all the necessary instructions are followed, the spread of the rash stops, and the relief of the condition comes quickly enough.
Materials taken from Plastichno.com
Caution MICROSPORIA | GAUZ “Regional Clinical Dermatovenerologic Dispensary”
Microsporia is a fungal disease involving hair, smooth skin with or without vellus hair, extremely rarely nails, caused by fungi of the genus Microsporum.
In addition to the medical name, this fungal disease has another widespread name – ringworm.
The term “ringworm” is the traditional designation for a group of diseases of the skin and scalp, in which the hair is affected and breaks off, resulting in the formation of bald patches.And since even 100 years ago, doctors did not know how to identify the causative agents of infections due to the lack of appropriate methods, all diseases were classified, described and named mainly by their external manifestations. This is why microsporia has been named ringworm. However, with the development of science and technological progress, doctors were able to identify not only the signs of diseases, but also to isolate their pathogens, which was literally a breakthrough. During this period, it was possible to establish that the disease, which has always been called ringworm, can be caused by two types of pathogenic fungi – Trichophyton and Microsporum.And then the variety of ringworm caused by fungi of the genus Trichophyton began to be called trichophytosis, and Microsporum, respectively, microsporia. But since the external signs and the course of trichophytosis and microsporia are very similar, the former common name for these two infections remained – ringworm. Thus, according to modern concepts, microsporia is a fungal infection (mycosis) that affects the skin, hair, very rarely nails, and at the same time is considered one of the varieties of ringworm.
Currently, microsporia is the most common mycosis in children.
Causative agent of infection. Among the fungi of the genus Microsporum, there are about 20 species that can cause disease. Fungi of the genus Microsporum are resistant to damaging environmental factors, as well as to various antifungal drugs, which is associated with structural features. In this type of fungi, an ultrastructurally dense thick wall, consisting of 6 layers, reinforced with rib projections, was revealed.These fungi are able to remain viable in hair for up to 10 years, in skin scales for up to 7 years.
Animals, humans and soil can be sources of microsporia.
The main animals participating in the preservation and transmission of infection are cats, especially kittens (70-80%), less often dogs (4%). mushrooms in these species of cats.
Contact with stray cats and dogs, which often turn out to be sick with microsporia, is extremely dangerous.
Also, infection with this mycosis is possible from a person with microsporia, more often children (3-10%), and extremely rarely – from the soil (0.7%).
Monkeys, tigers, lions, wild and domestic pigs (especially piglets), horses, sheep, silver-black foxes, rabbits, rats, mice, hamsters, guinea pigs and other small rodents, as well as domestic birds.
Most often they are infected with microsporia directly from a sick animal, when they play with it, wash it, warm it under a shirt, let it go to bed, as well as through objects of the environment infected from it. And since kittens are most often carriers of microsporia, there are two seasonal peaks in the increase in the incidence of this infection – in the middle of summer and in autumn, when cats give birth. To get infected with microsporia, all you have to do is pet a cat or dog that has the infection or is asymptomatic.
Infection with microsporia is possible not only through direct contact with a sick animal, but also by touching objects that have wool and skin scales of an infected animal.
The fact is that cats and dogs suffering from microsporia or being carriers of the fungus can leave small and inconspicuous pieces of wool on various household items (furniture, carpets, beds, sofas, armchairs, clothes, shoes, etc.), in which contain spores of the fungus. A person, touching such pieces of wool containing spores of the fungus, also becomes infected with microsporia.
Transmission of infection from a sick person to a healthy person through direct close contact or when using various objects on which the skin scales of an infected person are located (for example, when using a comb, hat, hair clipper belonging to a person suffering from microsporia).
At home – the subject of infection can be bed linen, towels, clothing, bedding for animals and items for their care.
In the entrances of houses and courtyards, the infection can be transmitted through door mats, dust of staircases, sand of children’s sandboxes, water puddles.
The source of infection in newborns can be a baby stroller left overnight in the entrance of the house and chosen by cats.
In hairdressing salons, with improper sterilization, you can become infected through hair clippers, scissors, combs, peignoirs, curlers, hair dryers, and washing brushes.
With a simple contact of the fungus on the skin, a person will not get sick with microsporia, since the pathogenic fungus will be destroyed by normal microflora and the immune system, or simply washed away during hygiene measures.
Thus, for the disease with microsporia, it is necessary not only to get the fungus on the skin, but also to have some predisposing factors that will allow it to penetrate the skin and provoke an infection. These include: 1. Traumatic skin injuries; 2. Maceration of the skin; 3. Reduced immunity 4. Failure to comply with hygiene measures.
An increase in the incidence of microsporia is noted from June to November, then decreases to a minimum by April.
Microsporia is more often recorded in cities with multi-storey buildings, where stray animals come into contact with pets. The incidence among stray animals reaches 50%.
Microsporia in children occurs much more often in children than in adults, which is explained by two main factors. Firstly, children are more likely to come into contact with sick animals, respectively, they have a higher risk of contracting an infection. And secondly, the sebaceous glands of the skin of children do not produce acids that have a detrimental effect on fungi.That is, a fungus that has got on the skin of a child will cause microsporia with a much greater probability than in an adult in a similar situation, since after puberty, the glands begin to produce acids that have a detrimental effect on microsporia pathogens. It is important that children have less developed hygiene skills than adults.
The incubation period is 1-2 weeks in most cases.
With microsporia of the scalp, there are single 1 or 2 lesions up to 3-5 cm in diameter, regular round-oval shape with clear boundaries. Hair in the hearth becomes dull, grayish, broken off at the same level at a height of 4-6 mm, as if cut. At a cursory glance, the foci resemble the appearance of “gray spots”. The surface of the foci is sometimes covered with grayish scales, as if lightly sprinkled with flour.
With microsporia of smooth skin, lesions are most often observed on the face, neck, hands, forearms, shoulders, but can also be on the trunk.Typical are round or oval erythematosquamous edematous spots from 0.5 to 2-3 cm in diameter, surrounded by a continuous rising peripheral roller, on which vesicles and rapidly drying crusts are determined. Microsporia can also affect vellus hair.
Diagnosis of microsporia.
The clinical diagnosis of microsporia must be confirmed by laboratory data.
Treatment principles include:
- Isolation from a sick animal;
- Taking systemic antifungal drugs by mouth
- Local ointment antifungal treatment.
Principles of prevention of microsporia
- The main measures for the prevention of microsporia in children are teaching the baby how to communicate with animals: the child should be aware that such contacts may be unsafe. The child should know the external signs of microsporia in animals, not allow communication with sick animals. After the child has stroked the cat or dog, he should wash his hands.
- It is unacceptable to use other people’s objects – such as a comb, handkerchief, etc.n. Do not wear someone else’s clothes.
- It is forbidden to let animals, especially cats and dogs, into bed, to warm them under a shirt. After playing with them, you should immediately wash your hands with warm water and soap.
- Contact with stray animals should be avoided, examination of domestic animals, including those that do not come into contact with wild animals, reduce the risk of microsporia infection.
- Examination of children in organized groups (kindergartens, pioneer camps) should be carried out at least 2 times a year, using a Wood lamp
- If a disease is detected, the child should be isolated from other children.
- By decision of the doctor, the patient may be sent for treatment to a specialized hospital. The indications for hospitalization are:
– severe course of the disease and the presence of concomitant pathology
– lack of effect from outpatient treatment;
– according to epidemiological indications: patients from organized groups in the absence of the possibility of isolating them from healthy persons (for example, in the presence of microsporia in persons living in boarding schools, orphanages, hostels, children from large and asocial families).
- All things belonging to a sick child must be disinfected in a steam-air chamber, and in its absence – boiled and ironed.
- In the apartment where the sick kitten was, all furniture, equipment, floors, carpets, bedding for animals should be treated with a disinfectant with antifungal effect. After processing things with a disinfectant, they are washed with hot water and soap.
- Children must have individual bedding, underwear, towels, combs, hairpins, bows, etc.d.
- Contact with stray cats and dogs, and often those with microsporia, is especially dangerous. Sometimes a monkey, a hamster, a guinea pig donated by parents can infect a child, which, although rarely, also suffer from this mycosis. Therefore, pets should be monitored periodically by a veterinarian.
- Pets with microsporia are subject to full treatment with the implementation of veterinary supervision over their recovery.
- In childcare facilities, especially in kindergartens and nurseries, it is prohibited to keep any animals.
- Hair clippers, scissors, combs in hairdressing salons must be disinfected after each client.
- Health education plays an essential role in the fight against microsporia. In special lectures, wall newspapers, mass print media, it is advisable to talk about the ways of infection with microsporia, preventive measures, the consequences of the disease.
90,000 Lichen in children – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of lichen in children in Moscow in the children’s clinic “SM-Doctor”
Description of the disease
Lichen is a common dermatological disease characterized by the appearance of various types of spots on the skin.A dermatologist is involved in the treatment of this disease.
Description of the disease
Depending on the type of lichen, rashes can be dry or weeping, pale pink or bright red. Most often, the disease affects the back, face and chest of the child (it is in these areas that the largest number of sweat glands are located). The disease is of infectious origin and is caused by viruses or fungi. Most often, the disease manifests itself in the spring-summer season, when it is warm and humid outside.
At the moment, a large number of varieties of lichen are known. Many of them are highly contagious and are potentially dangerous to the close environment of the child. That is why, in case of any suspicion of an infectious disease, it is necessary to immediately show the patient to a qualified specialist.
Symptoms of lichen
The clinic of the disease directly depends on its form. There are 5 most common lichen variants: pink, multicolored, red flat, ringworm, shingles.
- Manifestations of pink lichen.
This type is characterized by the appearance on the child’s skin of a single pink plaque with a diameter of 3-4 cm. The formation is prone to peeling, provoking moderate itching. A week after the appearance of the plaque on the child’s skin, multiple daughter rashes are formed. Pityriasis rosacea often affects a child’s back, shoulders, and abdomen. Often, the localization of the rash occurs in natural folds and bends.
- Symptoms of varicoloured lichen.
Versicolor versicolor usually occurs on the scalp or upper torso of a child. This is one of the few varieties that affect only the upper layer of the epidermis and are not transmitted by contact. At the very beginning of the course of the disease, lichen can be suspected by the appearance of small spots of pink, yellow or brownish color. Then the spots that appear gradually grow, forming large foci with uneven edges. Versicolor versicolor got its name due to its distinctive feature: focal eruptions can change color over time, becoming dark brown or dark brown spots.In addition, this form has another distinctive feature – the skin elements are not accompanied by itching or burning of the skin, and therefore do not cause any particular discomfort to the child.
- Manifestations of lichen planus.
In this form, scaly patches of bright red or dark brown color appear on the mucous membranes or skin of the child. The disease can be identified by severe itching, which significantly reduces the quality of life of the child, and by characteristic depressions in the middle of each rash.In most cases, the formations are localized on the skin in the natural folds, abdomen and back. After recovery, at the site of the rash, long-term non-transient age spots may remain.
- The clinical picture of ringworm.
Ringworm is the most common form of the disease in children and adolescents. Pathology develops on the skin, nails, scalp and hair itself. The skin is affected by reddish, rounded spots, accompanied by peeling and itching.If lichen affects the scalp, this is accompanied by the appearance of a rather large focus of baldness, at the edges of which the hair breaks off at a level of 0.5-1 cm from the dermis (taking a trimmed look). In addition to the main formation, multiple small lesions may occur.
- Symptoms of shingles.
This form predominantly occurs in older adolescents who have previously had chickenpox. Before the appearance of skin rashes, the patient develops the following symptoms: weakness, drowsiness, chills, an increase in body temperature to subfebrile values.Often, the onset of the disease is confused with influenza or ARVI.
A few days later, multiple rashes, filled with transparent liquid contents, appear on the child’s skin in the area of passage of large nerve trunks and branches. Then the bubbles dry up, darken, covered with crusts.
Causes of lichen
The main reason for the formation of lichen is associated with the penetration of a viral or fungal infection into the body. However, the infection process itself has not been fully understood.Scientists remain unknown why not all children (even those at risk) suffer from shingles.
Despite this, there are factors that increase the risk of developing a disease in a child:
- excessive emotional and physical stress;
- exposure to stress;
- decreased immunity;
- the presence of infectious inflammatory processes;
- vitamin deficiency;
- allergic reactions;
- increased sweating;
- hereditary predisposition.
Infection of children most often occurs in crowded places: in kindergarten, school, summer camp, common pool. Also, a common cause of the development of lichen is contact with pets or street animals, after which the rules of personal hygiene were not followed.
Each form of lichen has specific causes. So, in pink lichen, an infectious-allergic nature is clearly traced. Shingles develops as a result of the ingestion of various types of virus, ringworm and multi-colored – fungi.
Diagnosis of lichen
Dermatologists of the SM-Doctor Medical Center have many years of experience in diagnosing and treating children infected with lichen. Modern examination methods and high-tech equipment allow specialists to identify the form and features of the course of the disease even at the first visit to the clinic.
At the initial appointment, the doctor talks with the child and his parents, listens to complaints, tries to determine the factors that contributed to the occurrence of skin pathology (contacts with street animals, infected people, etc.). Then the specialist proceeds to a visual examination, during which he assesses the size of the formations, their color, shape and location.
After establishing the preliminary diagnosis, the child is sent for additional research to confirm it:
- microscopic examination of scrapings of rashes;
- Balzer iodine test;
- Wood’s luminescence microscopy;
- Benier symptom test.
In addition, a general analysis of blood and urine will help to determine the presence of an inflammatory process in the body.
Treatment of lichen
The peculiarities of the treatment of lichen are determined by its type, the severity of the course and the localization of the lesion. Depending on the cause of the disease, the child may be prescribed antifungal, antihistamines or antimicrobial drugs, corticosteroids, immunomodulators and multivitamin complexes. It is recommended to apply antipruritic and anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of ointments or creams directly to the lesion.
In addition, physiotherapeutic procedures have proven themselves well in the treatment of lichen: laser therapy, cryotherapy, UV treatment, etc.
To prevent re-infection, all clothing, linen and towels must be specially treated or replaced with new ones. Disease prevention is about following the rules of personal hygiene, strengthening the immune system and keeping the house clean.
Diagnostics and treatment of lichen in the clinic for children and adolescents “SM-Doctor” is professionalism, modern equipment and affordable cost. Our specialists know how to get rid of the disease as soon as possible.Contact dermatologists “CM-Doctor” at a convenient time!
Children’s Clinic Metro Maryina Roscha
Children’s Clinic Metro Voykovskaya
Children’s clinic m.Novye Cheryomushki
Children’s Clinic Metro Tekstilshchiki
Bozunov Alexey Viktorovich
Pediatric dermatologist, pediatric mycologist
Smoleva Maria Borisovna
Pediatric dermatologist of the highest category, pediatric mycologist, pediatric trichologist, pediatric cosmetologist
Korolkova (Simonovich) Polina Askoldovna
Pediatric dermatologist, pediatric trichologist, pediatric mycologist
Chekrygina Marina Vyacheslavovna
Children’s dermatologist, children’s mycologist, doctor of the highest category.Deputy Chief Physician for Medical Affairs in the Children’s Department at Volgogradsky Prospect
Zueva Ksenia Mikhailovna
Pediatric dermatologist II category, pediatric mycologist, pediatric trichologist
Children’s clinic m.Youth
Children’s Clinic Metro Chertanovskaya
Children’s clinic m.VDNKh
Children’s clinic in Solnechnogorsk, st. Red
To make an appointment
We guarantee non-disclosure of personal data and the absence of advertising mailings by
the phone you specified.Your data is necessary to provide feedback and
arranging an appointment with a clinic specialist.
Lichen in a dog – photos, signs and treatment
The word lichen is used in everyday life when an animal has bald spots. However, this name hides diseases with different pathogens, external symptoms and treatment methods. They do not fall into the category of difficult or incurable, and only one is transmitted to a person. In this article, we will consider what a dog’s lichen looks like in the photo, signs and treatment of skin lesions of various origins.
Varieties of lichen in dogs
4 types of lichen are diagnosed in animals:
- Ringworm – dermatophytosis.
- Pink – Gibert’s disease.
- Weeping – eczema.
- Pityriasis, another name is multicolored.
The listed diseases are also found in humans, but you can only get infected from a dog with dermatophytosis. Dogs do not have shingles. It develops due to the Varicella-zoster virus, which only affects humans.Probably, this is how the owners mistakenly call herpesvirus infection or other skin diseases.
Ringworm in a dog – photos, signs and treatment
The causative agents of the disease are dermatophyte fungi of the genus Microsporum and Trichophyton. Hence the names of two types of ringworm – microsporia and trichophytosis. The signs and treatments for these diseases are similar, the differences are only noticeable under a microscope. Trichophytosis and microsporia quickly spread through the skin and are transmitted to mammals and humans.
This is what ringworm looks like under a microscope.
Dermatophyte fungi reproduce by spores that can withstand temperature extremes. In a humid warm environment, they live up to 1.5 years. Infection begins when the spore gets on the skin or hair, and the immune system cannot cope with the attack of the fungus. Microorganisms feed on keratin, destroying the surface of the skin, follicles, hair, claws.
The main sources of dermatophytosis are sick animals. Spores from the affected areas of the skin easily get into the air, soil, grass, water.They are carried by rats, mice, enter the house on shoes, clothes. It is impossible to completely protect the pet.
A dog can pick up lichen spores while playing for a walk.
Domestic dogs become infected in three ways:
- after direct contact with a sick animal;
- through shared toys, bedding, combs, leashes, collars;
- for walks on spore-contaminated soil, grass.
Animals with strong immunity cope with the fungus and lichen does not develop.The risk group includes dogs with weakened defenses, which are caused by unfavorable factors:
- chronic diseases;
- bacterial, viral infections;
- inadequate feeding;
- parasites – worms, ticks, fleas;
- uncontrolled medication intake;
- Constant nervous tension.
This group includes puppies up to 12 months old, older animals after 9 years. In the former, immunity has not fully formed, in the latter it weakens with age.The risk of infection is increased for dogs with long, thick coats and animals that walk unattended. Dogs also become more vulnerable to fungus during pregnancy and nursing.
Signs of ringworm
The incubation period of dermatophytosis lasts 10 – 40 days. Before the appearance of visible clinical symptoms, the dog’s behavior changes. The animal is unreasonably “sad”, eats worse, does not react to toys, communicates less with the owner.
The first external sign of ringworm is one or more rounded bald spots on the skin up to 2 cm in diameter with clear even borders.
At the initial stage, the hair at the site of the lesion breaks off and looks like cut, hence the name. The lesions occur in any area, but more often at the bottom of the limbs, behind the ears, around the tail.
Ringworm in a dog.
Without treatment, the symptoms increase:
- the skin is peeling, covered with whitish scales, itching;
- hair falls out completely;
- color changes: from pink to red-brown, brown;
- the surface is covered with nodules with liquid inside;
- then greasy crusts appear.
Due to severe itching, the dog scratches the affected areas, they become inflamed, bleed. With delayed treatment, the lesions increase in size, merge. Pathogenic bacteria enter the wounds and complicate the course of the disease. In severe cases, dermatophytosis turns into a generalized form: the fungus affects more than half of the skin surface.
Ringworm on the paw.
In dogs with strong immunity, dermatophytosis develops latently: partially breaks off the hair, the skin almost does not change.Such animals themselves do not suffer, but they tolerate dermatophyte spores. When the fungus infects the claws, their shape is curved, the horny part is exfoliated.
Treatment of ringworm in a dog with ointments and solutions
The choice of medication depends on the degree of skin damage. In mild cases, external preparations help: cream, emulsion, solution or ointment. Before processing, the wool around the hearth is cut, a protective collar is put on the neck. Then the remedy is applied with a cotton swab, capturing healthy areas by 2 cm.
Dogs are treated with medicines from a veterinary or regular pharmacy:
- Fucoricin is an antiseptic antifungal solution with boric acid, resorcinol. Sore spots are treated up to 4 times a day. After drying, rub in an ointment or cream.
- YAM BK – veterinary ointment contains a whole list of useful, safe components. Salicylic acid destroys harmful bacteria, exfoliates scales and crusts. Birch tar and sulfur restore skin structure and reduce inflammation.Zinc oxide dries, turpentine, lysol is disinfected. The ointment is applied in a thin layer twice a day. The course of treatment continues until the crusts come off. This takes up to 10 days.
- Sulfur ointment – inhibits the spread of fungus, accelerates skin regeneration. The agent is rubbed into the foci 1 – 2 times a day for 2 – 3 weeks.
- Clotrimazole – ointment against fungus contains the active ingredient of the same name. The tool is applied daily 3 times a day from 2 weeks to a month.
- Sanoderm is a triple action veterinary ointment. Clotrimazole in the composition of the drug suppresses the fungus, betamethasone reduces itching, inflammation, allergies. Gentamicin destroys harmful bacteria. The ointment is applied twice a day, after improvement 1 time. The course of treatment lasts 2 to 4 weeks.
- Fungin – veterinary solution and spray against trichophytosis and microsporia in dogs and cats. In addition to clotrimazole, the composition contains propolis, glycerin. They soften, restore the skin, enhance the effect of the active substance.Fungin treat sore spots 1 time a day for 10 – 15 days.
- Miconazole – for dogs use a cream or spray with the same active substance. In addition to dermatophytes, the agent destroys staphylococci, streptococci, which often complicate fungal infections. Treatments with cream or spray are repeated 1 – 2 times a day until recovery and another 2 weeks to avoid relapse.
- Imaverol – veterinary emulsion with enilconazole against fungus.The drug is diluted in warm water, observing a ratio of 1 to 50. Sore spots are treated with the prepared solution 4 times with intervals of 3 – 4 days. Imaverol is safe for puppies and pregnant dogs.
- Zoomycol is a veterinary solution with two active ingredients: thiabendazole and nitroxoline. The agent is sprayed on the affected areas every 3 – 5 days, capturing 1 – 2 cm of healthy skin. 3 – 4 treatments are enough for the course.
After regular use of the preparations, the fungus ceases to spread, the skin gradually recovers.Wool begins to grow on the outbreaks. To increase the tone, stimulate hair growth, you can additionally pierce the dog with Catosal solution.
Tablets for ringworm
When external agents do not help, or dermatophytes affect a large area of the skin, the doctor prescribes tablets for oral administration:
They cause side effects if dosage is incorrect.The amount of medicine is calculated only by the veterinarian based on the body weight of the animal.
Ringworm treatment takes from 3 weeks to six months, the specific period depends on the area and depth of the lesion.
Handy and folk remedies complement the main treatment:
- Birch tar reduces itching, inflammation, heals wounds, regenerates the skin, but does not affect the fungus population.
- Iodine is just an antiseptic that inhibits the spread of fungi and protects against secondary bacterial infection.For dogs, an alcoholic 5% solution is half diluted with boiled water, but it is safer to take an iodine-containing veterinary antiseptic without the risk of burning the skin. Iodine is toxic to dogs; large areas of the skin are not treated with it.
- Hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, miramistin disinfect the skin, cleanse of scales, crusts. Antiseptics are used to treat wounds and scratches at the place of scratches to prevent secondary bacterial infection.
Sometimes the owners write about the successful treatment of dermatophytosis in 3 days with lemon juice, raisins, newspaper ash, herbal decoction and even condensation.These funds do not stop dermatophytes from multiplying. Probably, the animals were cured of another skin disease.
The improvised means of dermatophytes cannot be removed, they are combined with medications against the fungus. If you use only folk recipes, then the treatment stretches for months. In isolated cases, it is pumped in with complete recovery. But this is not the merit of peroxide and tar, but the strong immunity of the dog.
Vaccines against ringworm
Vaccines against dermatophytosis are given to animals only in Russia, in other countries they are skeptical.Veterinarians use 3 vaccines for dogs:
- Polivak TM;
They are available in the form of a ready-made solution or powder and contain inactivated dermatophyte spores.
Vaccine Polivac against lichen.
For prophylaxis, 2 injections are made with an interval of 10-14 days. Immunity is formed after a month and lasts 1 year. Vaccines are allowed to be administered from the age of two months and only in a veterinary clinic after a preventive examination.
It is useful for dog breeders to read: What to give a dog for pain, an overview of safe drugs from the NSAID group.
Pink lichen in a dog – photos, signs and treatment
The disease was first described by dermatologist K. Gibert in 1860, but it remains poorly understood to this day. Presumably, lichen pink occurs as an allergic reaction after colds, viral infections, vaccinations, and digestive disorders.
Pink lichen develops for no apparent reason, risk factors – congenital predisposition and weak immunity.Gibert’s disease is not completely cured; after remission, it often returns. It is not included in the infectious category, although there is no consensus among doctors either. Gibert’s disease is not transmitted to people with strong immunity, but it is better for children and the elderly not to contact sick animals.
Signs of lichen pink
The disease begins with the appearance of a maternal plaque – a round pink spot up to 2 – 3 cm in diameter. In the center, it shrivels, flakes, turns yellow. After 3 – 4 days, small specks with scales in the middle are sometimes poured out.More often they appear on the head, stomach, groin.
The lesions are very itchy. Gradually turn into yellow spots with dry crusts. The acute period lasts from 3 to 6 weeks, during which time the lesions do not increase significantly.
Treatment for pink lichen in dogs
The exact causes of the disease are unknown. Therefore, treatment is aimed at alleviating the symptoms and strengthening the dog’s immunity. Here are examples of medicines and folk remedies:
- Antihistamines – Tavegil, Suprastin, Loratadin, Cetirizine.Medicines are prescribed to relieve itching and other manifestations of allergies.
- Antiseptics – Miramistin, Chlorhexidine. Sore spots are wiped with solutions when wounds appear, abrasions from combs.
- Natural oils – rose, peach, apricot, sea buckthorn. It is used to nourish, restore and protect the skin. The lesions are lubricated 3 times a day.
- Apple cider vinegar. Reduces itching, discomfort. The plaques are treated 6 to 7 times a day.
- Licorice syrup. The mechanism of action of the drug is unknown.The drug is prescribed for coughing, but for some unknown reason, it helps to quickly cope with Gibert’s disease. The dog is given 1 teaspoon of syrup by mouth once a day.
Plaques should not be wetted, smeared with iodine, it burns the skin and worsens the condition. At the same time, the animal is fully fed, excluding unfamiliar food that can cause allergies. Dogs on finished industrial feed are transferred to hypoallergenic lines. They walk in the same mode, but on the street they are protected from direct sunlight.
Pityriasis versicolor in a dog
The disease is caused by conditionally pathogenic yeast Malassezia Pityrosporum. Microorganisms live on the skin of healthy animals and people. When the immune system ceases to restrain reproduction, the fungus spreads, secretes an acidic secretion, and corrodes the skin.
The development of pityriasis versicolor is provoked by yeast fungi.
Five factors predispose to the development of the disease:
- Humid hot climate: this is a favorable environment for the growth of fungus.In the middle lane, the disease is more often diagnosed in the summer.
- Long, dense coat: less ventilated.
- Improper nutrition: excess of fatty, smoked, fried foods, lack of vitamins, microelements in feed, poor-quality ready-made feed.
- Improper care of hair, skin: too frequent or infrequent bathing, abuse of cosmetics.
- Long-term corticosteroid treatment.
The disease is not contagious, because yeast-like fungi live on the skin of all people and animals.However, for reassurance, it is better to limit the pet’s communication with preschool children, the elderly, people after serious illnesses.
Read also: Scabies (sarcoptic mange) in dogs: causative agent, signs, treatment
Signs of pityriasis versicolor
The disease begins with the appearance of pink balding spots with uneven borders without signs of inflammation, irritation and peeling. They occur anywhere: on the trunk, limbs, head. The coat of light dogs darkens.
Gradually the symptoms intensify:
- Hair completely falls out on the affected areas.
- The color changes to yellow, reddish, brown, brown. Hence the second name of the disease is versicolor versicolor.
- The lesions are covered with scales.
Launched pityriasis versicolor.
Without treatment, the fungus invades healthy areas of the skin. The spots grow and merge.
Treatment of pityriasis versicolor
To reduce the colony of the fungus, the animal is bathed every 3 to 5 days with antifungal shampoos.The detergent is diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 5 and foamed onto the wool. Then it is kept for 5 – 7 minutes and washed off.
For dogs use shampoos:
- Keto plus;
- Noroclin Profi;
Spray Zoomicol against fungus.
Small lesions are smeared with cream or ointment. For this, remedies for dermatophytosis are suitable.It is more convenient to spray large areas with a spray:
- Fungin Forte.
Spray the solution onto the stains twice a day. Hydrogen sulfide lime Lime Sulfur Dip gives a good result. 1 ml of the concentrate is diluted in 33 ml of water, the animal is treated completely once a week.
Weeping lichen in a dog
Other names for the disease are weeping eczema, weeping dermatitis.
The beginning of the development of weeping lichen.
Both internal disturbances and external stimuli become an impetus for development:
- long non-healing wounds, scratches, burns;
- Constant friction of the collar;
- Parasites – helminths, ticks, fleas;
- hormonal failure;
- careless skin and coat care or, on the contrary, too frequent bathing;
- Allergies – food, medicinal, seasonal, shampoo and cosmetics;
- severe stress;
- weakening of the immune system after a serious illness;
- Dysfunctions of the liver, kidneys, stomach, intestines.
Propensity for weeping eczema is transmitted to puppies from parents. It is difficult to treat, returns from the slightest internal or external stimulus.
Signs of weeping lichen
A swollen, hot spot appears at an early stage. The dog constantly scratches or licks the sore spot. The coat looks disheveled, unkempt.
Wet lichen on a dog’s head.
Then the symptoms worsen:
- The inflamed areas are covered with a rash, small blisters with a yellow-pink liquid.
- After 2 – 3 days, they are opened. The content spreads, softens and irritates the skin, captures healthy areas.
- After 2 – 3 days, the wool gradually thinns, sometimes completely falls out.
- If bacteria enter the inflamed area, purulent mucus is formed.
- At the final stage, 2 variants of development are possible. The discharge dries up, turns into scabs, crusts and falls off or weeping ulcers remain on the skin.
Neglected weeping lichen.
If the cause of the disease is not identified, then eczema occurs in another place, and the cycle repeats.
Treatment of weeping lichen
First, the veterinarian uses biochemical blood and urine tests to determine possible internal disorders. If diseases are detected, he develops a treatment regimen.
All doctor’s prescriptions are followed to the end, even if the eczema goes away.
If there are no health problems, it is useful for the owner to analyze the content of the pet at home:
- Revise the diet: reduce the amount of fats, carbohydrates.
- Change pet shampoo.
- Unscheduled treatment for fleas, worms, ticks.
At the same time, the doctor prescribes external medicines with antimicrobial, drying, wound healing properties.
Weeping wounds are treated with the following preparations:
- Sulfur tar ointment. It contains a whole list of medicinal components: sulfur, tar, salicylic acid, zinc oxide, gum turpentine, lysol. The medicine is applied in a thin layer 1 – 2 times a day every day.Instead of sulfur-tar, you can use YM BK ointment, they have a similar composition and medicinal properties.
- Safroderm-gel. The product contains herbal extracts, essential oils, tannins, flavonoids, vitamins. The medicine accelerates healing and tissue regeneration. The gel is rubbed 1 – 2 times a day until the skin is completely restored.
- Levomekol-vet. The ointment contains the antimicrobial component chloramphenicol and is prescribed for the accumulation of pus. The agent is applied to the affected area 2 times a day.The course of treatment is continued for no longer than 10 days.
- Triderm. Triple action ointment and cream: reduces itching and allergies, destroys bacteria and fungi. With weeping eczema, it is better to use a cream: treat the lesions in the morning and evening for 7 to 10 days.
Treatment of weeping dermatitis lasts from 2 weeks to six months, depending on the cause and depth of the lesion. In severe cases, Prednisolone or its veterinary analogue Prednivet is prescribed to relieve inflammation.
The cause of skin changes is first determined by external signs, animal behavior. If a fungal infection is suspected, three laboratory methods are used:
- Examination of the skin under a Wood lamp. Under ultraviolet rays, wool affected by microsporia glows blue-green in the dark. The accuracy of the method is 50%. Not all Microsporum strains “glow”, and Trichophyton is not detected at all. Before the examination, the dog is not washed, medications are not applied.
Fungus spores give a blue-green glow under Wood’s lamp.
- Microscope analysis. The damaged hair is examined under magnification, the spores and mycelium of dermatophytes are clearly visible on it. If pityriasis versicolor is suspected, scrapings are taken at the border of the affected and healthy skin.
- Sowing of fungal culture. Scraping from the lesion is placed in a nutrient medium. If the dog has ringworm, dermatophyte colonies will soon grow. This method is more reliable than the others, but it takes 2 – 3 weeks to get the result.
If dermatophytosis is confirmed, then the studies are repeated during treatment and after recovery.
Deprive the dog in the photo, the signs and treatment depend on the form of the disease. Therefore, if any balding spots appear, the dog is taken to the clinic. Based on the results of the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes medications. Then the animal is treated at home, exactly following the instructions of the veterinarian.
Dear readers, write your comments. Your additions will be useful to other users and make the article much more informative.
causes of the disease, stages, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of lichen – Experienced neurologists in Moscow – Clinic of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Shingles has vivid and painful symptoms. Most often, the disease is detected in the elderly. Unfavorable ecology contributes to the development of infection in young people with weak immunity. Shingles often develops against the background of oncological processes, especially in people with weakened immunity (after chemotherapy, for example).
Signs of illness
The onset of the disease is quite pronounced – there is a burning sensation and soreness of a certain area of the skin. Often these areas coincide with the location of the trigeminal facial nerve, affect the forehead, back of the head, neck, and can be located in accordance with the course of the nerves.
Forms of lichen
The disease can be typical or atypical.
In the atypical form, the symptoms may be mild:
- In the abortive form, the rash is absent or there is a single focus;
- Bullous form – multiple vesicles with a clear liquid;
- Hemorrhagic form – bubbles with bloody fluid, in place of which scars remain.
- Gangrenous form leaves difficult healing ulcers and rough scars.
Causes of occurrence
Infections that are present in the body in a dormant state are activated. The following factors provoke the development of the process:
- Preparations that suppress immunity;
- Heavy loads, stresses;
- Cancer processes;
- Radiation therapy;
- Organ transplant.
Repeated episodes require special attention, since the rash is often localized at the site of the tumor. The development of shingles goes through certain stages.
The initial stage of the disease
About four days pass from the incubation to the active period. At this time, there is:
- Malaise, weakness, chills;
- Temperature rise;
- Burning and itching;
- Lymph nodes are enlarged;
- Possible disorders of the organs and systems of the body.
The frustrations subside afterwards.
Period of rashes
The type of rash depends on the severity of the disease. At the initial stage, the rash looks like small pink spots located on healthy skin.
If the process develops typically, then the next day they are replaced by bubbles with a transparent liquid – grouped vesicles. After 3 days, their contents become cloudy. Rashes occur in fits and starts, with breaks of several days.
If a severe gangrenous form develops, then the filling of the vesicles may be mixed with blood. It seems that the bubbles are moving to another place, being located around the body.
If the form of inflammation is mild, the manifestation of the disease can only be neurological in nature, when the patient feels pain, but there is no rash. This is herpetic neuralgia.
As a rule, crusts form after 2-3 weeks from the onset of the rash.The areas of the rash turn pale and dry. Small pigmentation remains in place of the fallen off crusts.
With a pronounced manifestation of the skin forms of the disease, it is not difficult to make a diagnosis. Errors occur at the initial stage, when angina pectoris, pulmonary infarction, pleurisy, acute appendicitis are misdiagnosed.
Laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis using a microscope or immunofluorescence method. In general practice, laboratory diagnostics are not used.
How to treat an infection?
If young people who do not have chronic diseases are sick, then treatment is not carried out. The disease will completely disappear within a month. To rule out pain with herpes, your doctor may prescribe pain relievers. For intense pain, pain relievers are used along with antiviral drugs. The use of non-steroidal drugs is possible. Prescribe antiherpetic drugs in tablets, creams, ointments or intramuscular injections.
What are antiviral drugs used for?
The goal is to exclude the development of complications. Antiherpetic treatment helps in the rapid healing of ulcers and improves the patient’s condition.
The course of treatment and dosage of drugs are determined by the doctor, taking into account the general condition of the patient. On average, the treatment time does not exceed 10 days.
If a gangrenous form with a bacterial infection develops, antibiotics, immunomodulators, physiotherapy procedures and vitamins are prescribed.
With regard to the treatment of rashes, there are different opinions about the use of drying agents. In any case, they should be used with caution so as not to worsen the skin condition with a burn.
Hormonal medications should not be used as they suppress the immune system.
Treatment of the disease in elderly patients is not always successful, as antiviral drugs do not justify themselves.
- Paralysis of the facial or other nerves.
- Decreased vision.
- Disorders of the internal organs.
- Meningoencephalitis causing disability.
- With a bacterial infection, treatment is delayed for months.
Is shingles contagious?
Most often, cases of the development of the disease are recorded in the off-season. If a person has previously had chickenpox and has good immunity, then the likelihood of becoming infected by contact with the patient is minimal.
If the immunity to the herpes virus is weakened or not formed, then the likelihood of getting sick on contact exists, including repeatedly.
When lichen is transmitted
- A sick person can infect those who have not had chickenpox – adults and children.
- In the presence of strong immunity and good health, the probability of infection is zero.
- Children most often get sick.
- Almost everyone can get shingles if their defense mechanisms are weakened.
- Dangerous during the period of the formation of fresh bubbles. During the formation of crusts, there is no danger of infection.
It is necessary to isolate the sick, avoid contact with the sick (for those who have not had chickenpox), observe the rules of hygiene, and take measures to strengthen the immune system.
Which doctor should I contact with this disease
You should first contact a therapist, then an infectious disease specialist or dermatologist.If the form of herpes is severe, the help of a neurologist is needed, in case of eye damage – an ophthalmologist.
We recommend making an appointment at the neurological department of the clinic of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow). The best doctors will examine you, study the signs of the disease, determine the causative agent of the infection, diagnose, consult, issue clinical recommendations and prescribe effective treatment.
Do not postpone your visit to a specialist! Specialists of the neurological department of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow remind: any symptoms that disturb you are a reason for consulting a neurologist.In this case, the doctor will be able to recognize and stop the disease at an early stage, until the situation worsens and becomes irreversible. You can make an appointment with a neurologist by calling the clinic, as well as using the form on the website.
Ringworm is a highly contagious fungal infection of the human skin, nails and hair. The causative agents of this type of lichen are diaphoretic fungi Microsporum and Trichophyton .This is the most studied type of lichen, which in medicine has 2 main names Trichophytosis and Microsporia, depending on the fungus that caused ringworm in humans. Its treatment mainly consists of local therapy and oral administration of antifungal drugs in tablets. Since this is a fungal skin disease, in addition to the popular name – ringworm – doctors also use such terms – Dermatomycosis, Dermatophytosis, Dermatophytosis, as well as Trichophytosis and Microsporia. The difference between trichophytosis and microsporia is that the latter is transmitted to humans from domestic animals, most often from cats, and trichophytosis parasitizes only on the human body.
Risk factors and routes of infection with ringworm. The main route of infection is contact-household, through direct contact with a sick person or animal: Children from 4 to 15 years old are most susceptible to ringworm infection, microsporia is especially easily transmitted by contact with infected animals. Both trichophytosis and microsporia can be transmitted from a sick person to a healthy contact-household route, that is, through household items, clothes, combs, linen. Even in a hairdresser, if you don’t disinfect your clipping and shaving tools, you can get ringworm.Transmission of lichen is also possible upon contact with the affected skin of the patient. However, in addition to getting the pathogen on the skin, in order for infection and reproduction of fungi on the skin, nails and scalp of a healthy person to occur, certain provoking conditions are necessary, since with a strong immune system and no damage to the skin, the risk of developing the disease is minimal.
Subject to the rules of personal hygiene, all pathogenic fungi, when in contact with the skin, are simply washed off after a shower and other hygienic procedures.If there is a patient with ringworm in your environment, you should be very careful, neat, follow the rules of personal hygiene, do not use combs and other common household items that come into contact with the patient’s skin. Risk factors for ringworm include the following: Skin maceration – softening of the skin with prolonged contact with water. Violation of the integrity of the skin – trauma, abrasions, scratches, burns, etc. Low immunity and the presence of other skin diseases.Constant stress, depression is the strongest factor leading to a decrease in the body’s defenses.
What does ringworm look like and its differential diagnosis. To establish the diagnosis of ringworm, in addition to the initial examination by a dermatologist, for a more accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to do a bacteriological examination of a scraping taken from the focus of inflammation, while hemp of hair and skin scales are examined for the presence of fungi. If it is ringworm, then fungal spores are found.If ringworm is localized on the scalp, then it should be differentiated from baldness and favus (another type of fungal skin lesions). If ringworm is on the body, then it should be distinguished from eczema and psoriasis. In the chronic course of the disease, ringworm is differentiated from candidiasis, acne, psoriasis, eczema of the nails and lichen planus. With deep ringworm in humans, symptoms should be differentiated from staphylococcal sycosis, iodine and bromoderma, ostiofolliculitis and phlegmon.
Symptoms, signs of ringworm. How does ringworm manifest and how is it treated? This type of lichen can affect almost any part of the body, and doctors subdivide the localization of ringworm into the following areas: the skin of the arms, legs, trunk of the feet, the nails of the feet and hands, the inguinal folds and armpits, the scalp of the head, the hands, palms, the skin of the face Depending from the location of the lichen, the depth of the skin lesion, and the state of the immune system, which cannot cope with ringworm, the symptoms and signs of the disease may differ.Therefore, it is customary to classify all types of fungal disease as follows:
- Superficial lichen of the scalp.
Ringworm infection in children usually occurs either from sick adults or from pets. And if such a lichen is not cured in childhood, it will continue chronically up to 13-15 years – the period of puberty. In boys at this age, self-healing most often occurs and lichen does not return anymore, but in girls, without adequate treatment, it can drag on and acquire a chronic form.
Ringworm symptoms on the head:
– When the hairy part of the head is affected by ringworm in a person, round foci are first formed, in which hair thinning is observed, there may be several, or maybe just a single area. In the area of the lichen lesion, the skin begins to peel off, forming gray or whitish small scales that can be mistaken for dandruff. As the disease progresses, the hair begins to break off, as if this area was cut 1-2 mm from the scalp.This may be accompanied by slight reddening of the skin. Small bubbles form along the edges of the affected area, which are further transformed into yellowish crusts. In size, the areas affected by lichen can be quite large, 3-10 cm in diameter and even more. Superficial lichen of this type does not lead to inflammation, and only a few patients may experience mild itching. However, such a lichen causes considerable psychological discomfort, since the aesthetic appearance of the head and hairline is significantly deteriorated.
- Superficial ringworm on smooth skin.
– On smooth skin without hair, ringworm, in terms of its primary symptoms, can be confused with lichen rosacea, the treatment of which is completely different. The difference between ringworm is that it can affect any part of the body, and pink does not exist on the face, hands, on the soles of the feet, also pink lichen usually does not last more than 2 months, and ringworm, microsporia without treatment can last for years with periodic relapses.A favorite localization of ringworm on smooth skin is the face and neck, and it can also be on the legs and body. A distinctive feature of this lichen is the clear contours of the spots, along the edges of which, as it were, a roller of bright color is formed, consisting of bubbles and pink nodes. In the center of the patch, the skin is usually lighter in color with gray scales. With the progression of the disease, the foci increase in size. This shingle is usually accompanied by itching.
- Chronic ringworm.
In adults, chronic ringworm occurs only in women who have not been treated for ringworm in childhood. It usually occurs when a woman has dysfunctions of the thyroid gland, ovaries, with a lack of vitamins and a general weakening of the immune system. The symptoms of chronic ringworm in women are as follows:
– It can be both on the scalp and on smooth skin and nails. Its favorite localization on the head is the back of the head and temples.If the lesion is localized on the hairy part of the skin, then the hair breaks down to the very root, and the resulting spot is called a black point, while the lesion is usually quite small up to 1 cm, a scaly scar, without inflammatory symptoms. If lichen is localized on smooth skin, then, as a rule, these are elbows, palms, thighs and buttocks. The contours of the spots become indistinct, their size can be very significant, the color varies from pink to bluish, and peeling of the skin is also characteristic. With any type of chronic lichen, besides itching and an external, non-aesthetic appearance, lichen does not manifest itself in any way.When the nails are damaged, they become either gray or cloudy, dull, the edges quickly crumble, jags appear, and the nail can become either too thick or very thin.
- Deep ringworm: infiltrative-suppurative.
– This type of ringworm is transmitted to humans only from animals, the pathogens of which multiply in human hair follicles. Usually, with deep ringworm in a person, the symptoms are joined by an increase and soreness of the lymph nodes, fever, allergic rashes and general malaise.On average, the inflammatory process lasts 2-3 months. A sign of deep ringworm on the scalp is the formation of large bright red plaques 5-10 cm, they are uneven, bumpy, resembling tumor growths. This is due to purulent inflammation of the follicles, edema of the skin, so the plaques rise significantly above the scalp. This is a very painful type of ringworm, moreover, when the follicles are opened, purulent fluid is released. As the inflammatory process subsides, loose brown crusts form in the center of the plaques.In men, lichen deep can be located not only on the scalp, but also affect the mustache and beard.
Treatment of ringworm in humans. In the treatment of ringworm in humans, the basis of therapy is the fight against the fungus that caused dermatomycosis. Treatment is prescribed only by a dermatologist, who combines local treatment with lichen ointments – antifungal creams, sprays, shampoos with taking antifungal drugs inside. For local treatment, the doctor may recommend various ointments, creams, shampoos containing Clotrimazole, Ketoconazole, Mikoseptin, Terbinafine, Micoconazole.(Topical antifungal agents – creams, sprays, gels) Ringworm of smooth skin responds better to treatment with Terbinafine and Tolnaftate. For the treatment of lichen in the morning, a 5% iodine solution is usually used. And in the evening, as a rule, sulfur-salicylic or sulfur-digester ointment is prescribed, treatment with pure salicylic acid 3% is also possible. The doctor can write a prescription for the manufacture of Vidal milk in the prescription department of the pharmacy – alcohol, camphor, salicylic acid, lotion with sulfur, boric acid, glycerin.Or Lassar pastes – petroleum jelly, starch, salicylic acid, zinc oxide. For systemic treatment for dermatomycosis, Griseofulvin is used, it is a natural antimycotic that has a narrow spectrum of action, namely, it is active against dermatomycete fungi, Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epydermophyton, Achorionum.
For the treatment of chronic ringworm, in addition to antifungal agents, both local and oral (Griseofulvin), vitamin therapy, immunomodulators, drugs that strengthen blood vessels and improve microcirculation are also indicated.After the end of treatment for ringworm, scraping is again taken for bacterial analysis from the surface of the skin in places where the lichen used to be, it is taken 3 times – immediately after the end of treatment, after a week and after 2-3 months.