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Mood swings menstrual cycle: Menstrually Related Mood Disorders – Center for Women’s Mood Disorders


Menstrually Related Mood Disorders – Center for Women’s Mood Disorders

Menstrually-related mood disorders are mood disorders associated with the menstrual cycle. Menopause and cycles of menstruation are time of intense hormonal fluctuation that can cause increased vulnerability to depression. Perimenopausal Depression, Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) are menstrually-related mood disorders treated in our program.


Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

Many women experience symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). In some instances the mood symptoms and emotional components of PMS are the most troubling. To women in such cases, PMS is often referred to as Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD).

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder is a more severe form of PMS, affecting 5-10% of women in their reproductive years. In contrast to PMS, PMDD is characterized by more significant premenstrual mood disturbance that can seriously impact relationships and impair functioning. Many women with PMDD experience clinical levels of depression or anxiety during the week or two before each menstrual cycle. It is not uncommon that the emotional symptoms of depression anxiety and irritability can seriously interfere with normal functioning and relationships.

Common symptoms include: irritability, depressed mood, anxiety, or mood swings. Mood symptoms are only present for a specific period of time, during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms emerge one to two weeks before menses and resolve completely with the onset of menses. Women with PMDD should experience a symptom-free interval between menses and ovulation. An estimated 40% of women who seek treatment for PMDD actually have a premenstrual exacerbation of an underlying mood disorder rather than PMDD. Therefore, it is important for patients to be carefully evaluated for the presence of an underlying mood disorder in order to develop the best treatment plan.

For more information:

Watch these videos about PMDD:
The Biology behind PMDD
Oral Contraceptive relief for PMDD

Or read these articles about PMDD research at UNC:
Oral Contraceptives May Ease Suffering of Women with Severe PMS
Study finds hereditary link to premenstrual depression

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Perimenopausal Depression

Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of the menses. Perimenopause is defined as the transitional period from normal menstrual periods to no periods at all. At this time menstrual periods gradually lighten and become less frequent. The transition to complete menopause may last anywhere from a few months to a few years.
During the perimenopausal transition you may experience a combination of PMS and menopausal symptoms or no symptoms at all. Some normal symptoms of the perimenopause period are hot flashes, insomnia, vaginal dryness, and mood problems. Symptoms of perimenopausal depression are emotional flatness, “inability to cope,” irritability, social isolation, tearfulness, decreased energy, and failure to enjoy normal activities and relationships.

Times of intense hormonal fluctuation can cause increased vulnerability to depression. Perimenopause may be a period of increased vulnerability to the onset of depression in women with no prior history of depression. Since symptoms are gradual in onset, women will not recognize symptoms as part of a reversible disorder, but rather will interpret them as a permanent change in their life.

For more information:
UNC researchers investigate estrogen replacement therapy to prevent depression and cardiovascular disease

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Different from PMS?

What’s the difference between premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)? How is PMDD treated?

Answer From Tatnai Burnett, M.D.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe, sometimes disabling extension of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Although PMS and PMDD both have physical and emotional symptoms, PMDD causes extreme mood shifts that can disrupt daily life and damage relationships.

In both PMDD and PMS, symptoms usually begin seven to 10 days before your period starts and continue for the first few days of your period.

Both PMDD and PMS may cause bloating, breast tenderness, fatigue, and changes in sleep and eating habits. In PMDD, however, at least one of these emotional and behavioral symptoms stands out:

  • Sadness or hopelessness
  • Anxiety or tension
  • Extreme moodiness
  • Marked irritability or anger

The cause of PMDD isn’t clear. Underlying depression and anxiety are common in both PMS and PMDD, so it’s possible that the hormonal changes that trigger a menstrual period worsen the symptoms of mood disorders.

Treatment of PMDD is directed at preventing or minimizing symptoms and may include:

  • Antidepressants. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, others) and sertraline (Zoloft), may reduce emotional symptoms, fatigue, food cravings and sleep problems. You can reduce symptoms of PMDD by taking SSRIs all month or only during the interval between ovulation and the start of your period.
  • Birth control pills. Taking birth control pills with no pill-free interval or with a shortened pill-free interval may reduce PMS and PMDD symptoms.
  • Nutritional supplements. Consuming 1,200 milligrams of calcium daily may possibly reduce symptoms of PMS and PMDD. Vitamin B-6, magnesium and L-tryptophan also may help, but talk with your doctor for advice before taking any supplements.
  • Herbal remedies. Some research suggests that chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus) may possibly reduce irritability, mood swings, breast tenderness, swelling, cramps and food cravings associated with PMDD, but more research is needed. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration doesn’t regulate herbal supplements, so talk with your doctor before trying one.
  • Diet and lifestyle changes. Regular exercise often reduces premenstrual symptoms. Cutting back on caffeine, avoiding alcohol and stopping smoking may ease symptoms, too. Getting enough sleep and using relaxation techniques, such as mindfulness, meditation and yoga, also may help. Avoid stressful and emotional triggers, such as arguments over financial issues or relationship problems, whenever possible.

If you have symptoms of PMDD, talk with your doctor about testing and treatment options.


Tatnai Burnett, M.D.

March 11, 2021

Show references

  1. Yonkers KA, et al. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 26, 2021.
  2. Casper RF, et al. Treatment of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 26, 2021.
  3. AskMayoExpert. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Mayo Clinic; 2020.
  4. Ferri FF. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder. In: Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2021. Elsevier; 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 10, 2021.
  5. Kellerman RD, et al. Premenstrual syndrome. In: Conn’s Current Therapy 2021. Elsevier; 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 10, 2021.
  6. Vitex agnus-castus. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch. com. Accessed Feb. 10, 2021.

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Period mood swings: PMS, symptoms, and treatments

Many people experience mood swings and other psychological symptoms before a period. For most, the symptoms are relatively mild. However, some females may experience severe symptoms that interfere with their personal relationships and day-to-day life.

This article outlines the causes of mood swings before a period and lists other symptoms that may occur around this time. We also provide information on how to treat mood swings, and when to see a doctor.

According to the MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health, some people are hypersensitive to natural hormone changes that happen during the menstrual cycle. This hypersensitivity may predispose a person to premenstrual mood swings.

Severe premenstrual mood swings can sometimes indicate an underlying health condition.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

The term premenstrual syndrome (PMS) describes a variety of physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that occur before menstruation.

Many females who menstruate experience symptoms of PMS, and it is not uncommon for these to be mild. However, a proportion of those with PMS may experience more severe or clinically significant symptoms, as we describe below.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is an extreme form of PMS. The chief difference between PMS and PMDD is the severity and duration of symptoms.

A person with PMDD will have significant mood swings that can interfere with personal and professional relationships. According to the Child Mind Institute, these symptoms can continue after a period has ended.

Premenstrual exacerbation (PME)

A female who has a preexisting mental health condition may find that the condition worsens prior to a period. The medical term for this is premenstrual exacerbation (PME).

Some mental health conditions that may become more severe shortly before a period include:

According to the International Association for Premenstrual Disorders, it can be difficult to distinguish between PMDD and PME. However, it is important for a person to receive the correct diagnosis, as the treatment options for each condition differ.

The symptoms and signs of PMS and PMDD are similar. The key differences between the two conditions are the severity and duration of symptoms.

A person who has either condition may experience physical, behavioral, or psychological symptoms or a combination of symptoms.

These include the following:

Physical symptoms

Behavioral symptoms

  • difficulty concentrating
  • fatigue
  • forgetfulness

Psychological symptoms

  • mood swings
  • feeling overwhelmed or out of control
  • crying without knowing the reason
  • loss of interest in most activities
  • sudden sadness
  • sensitivity to rejection
  • social withdrawal
  • anxiety
  • depressed mood
  • irritability

Mood swings and other symptoms associated with PMS are very common. According to one estimate, at least 90% of those who have a menstrual cycle experience physical or psychological symptoms of PMS. For most women, the symptoms are not severe.

However, PMDD is also not uncommon, affecting between 3–8% of people in their reproductive years. The symptoms usually develop when someone is in their 20s and may worsen over time.

Some major risk factors for PMDD include:

  • stress
  • a pre-existing mood or anxiety disorder
  • a family history of PMDD

There are several potential treatment and management options for people dealing with mood swings prior to their period. Some common options include the following:

Natural treatments and lifestyle changes

Certain nonmedical treatments might help to reduce the frequency and severity of premenstrual mood swings. Examples include:

  • Keeping a mood diary: People can try keeping a record of their mood swings and when they occur during the menstrual cycle. This can help a person recognize the hormonal causes of their mood swings, and anticipate them happening.
  • Eating a balanced diet: A balanced diet low in added sugars, sodium, and caffeine could help to reduce mood swings.
  • Exercising regularly: According to the MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health, regular aerobic exercise can lessen the emotional and physical symptoms of PMS and PMDD.
  • Reducing stress: Yoga, meditation, or talking therapy can help to reduce stress levels and balance mood.
  • Taking herbal supplements: According to a 2017 review of eight randomized controlled trials, the herbal medicine known as chasteberry is a safe and effective treatment for PMS and PMDD.
  • Taking calcium supplements: A 2017 study found that calcium supplements improved anxiety, depression, and emotional changes connected with PMS.


There are several medications that may help to treat mood swings before a period.

One option is an oral contraceptive. Some people notice an improvement in their PMS symptoms when taking an oral contraceptive, while others find that their symptoms worsen. As such, a person should monitor their symptoms closely and return to their doctor for alternative treatment if necessary.

If a person has severe PMS or PMDD, their doctor may prescribe one of the following medications:

  • Selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs): The brain chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine are important for regulating mood. SSNRIs, such as venlafaxine and duloxetine, increase levels of these chemicals in the brain. They are usually the first-line treatment for PMDD.
  • Benodiazepines: These are a type of sedative drug. They relax muscles and help to slow down certain types of brain activity. Doctors may prescribe benzodiazepines to treat sleep and anxiety disorders. The benzodiazepine known as alprazolam appears beneficial in treating PMDD.
  • Antianxiety medications: According to a 2015 review, the antianxiety medication buspirone may be a useful treatment for PMDD.

People should talk to their doctor if they experience mood swings or other symptoms of PMS or PMDD. If the mood swings are severe or disruptive, a person should talk to their doctor as soon as possible.

During the consultation, a doctor may try to rule out possible psychological disorders, such as depression or anxiety. This will be an important step in differentiating PMDD from PME.

After making a diagnosis, the doctor may recommend certain lifestyle changes, or may prescribe medical treatments. If a person continues to experience mood swings, they should return to the doctor for a change of treatment.

Many females experience mood swings and other symptoms prior to their period. For some individuals, the mood swings are severe and could be a sign of PMDD or PME.

There are many steps a person can take to help reduce mood swings and other premenstrual symptoms. They may benefit from certain lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthful diet, exercising regularly, and reducing stress levels.

If symptoms are severe or lifestyle changes are not working, a person should see their doctor. The doctor will likely prescribe medications to help reduce the frequency and severity of mood swings.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)?

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a much more severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It may affect women of childbearing age. It’s a severe and chronic medical condition that needs attention and treatment. Lifestyle changes and sometimes medicines can help manage symptoms.

What causes PMDD?

The exact cause of PMDD is not known. It may be an abnormal reaction to normal hormone changes that happen with each menstrual cycle. The hormone changes can cause a serotonin deficiency. Serotonin is a substance found naturally in the brain and intestines that narrows blood vessels and can affect mood and cause physical symptoms.

What are the risk factors for PMDD?

While any woman can develop PMDD, the following may be at increased risk:

  • Women with a family history of PMS or PMDD  
  • Women with a personal or family history of depression, postpartum depression, or other mood disorders

Other possible risk factors include lower education and cigarette smoking

Talk with your healthcare provider for more information.

What are the symptoms of PMDD?

Symptoms of PMDD appear during the week before menstruation and end within a few days after your period starts. These symptoms disrupt daily living tasks. Symptoms of PMDD are so severe that women have trouble functioning at home, at work, and in relationships during this time. This is markedly different than other times during the month.

The following are the most common symptoms of PMDD:

Psychological symptoms

  • Irritability
  • Nervousness
  • Lack of control
  • Agitation
  • Anger
  • Insomnia
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Depression
  • Severe fatigue
  • Anxiety
  • Confusion
  • Forgetfulness
  • Poor self-image
  • Paranoia
  • Emotional sensitivity
  • Crying spells
  • Moodiness
  • Trouble sleeping

Fluid retention

  • Swelling of the ankles, hands, and feet
  • Periodic weight gain
  • Diminished urine output
  • Breast fullness and pain

Respiratory problems

Eye complaints

  • Vision changes
  • Eye infection

Gastrointestinal symptoms

  • Abdominal cramps
  • Bloating
  • Constipation
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Pelvic heaviness or pressure
  • Backache

Skin problems

  • Acne
  • Skin inflammation with itching
  • Aggravation of other skin disorders, including cold sores

Neurologic and vascular symptoms

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Numbness, prickling, tingling, or heightened sensitivity of arms and/or legs
  • Easy bruising
  • Heart palpitations
  • Muscle spasms


  • Decreased coordination
  • Painful menstruation
  • Diminished sex drive
  • Appetite changes
  • Food cravings
  • Hot flashes

The symptoms of PMDD may look like other conditions or medical problems, such as a thyroid condition, depression, or an anxiety disorder. Always talk with a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is PMDD diagnosed?

Aside from a complete medical history and physical and pelvic exam, there are very few diagnostic tests. Because there are mental health symptoms, your healthcare provider may want you to be evaluated for mental health concerns. In addition, your healthcare provider may ask that you keep a journal or diary of your symptoms for several months. In general, to diagnose PMDD the following symptoms must be present:

  • Over the course of a year, during most menstrual cycles, 5 or more of the following symptoms must be present:
    • Depressed mood
    • Anger or irritability
    • Trouble concentrating
    • Lack of interest in activities once enjoyed
    • Moodiness
    • Increased appetite
    • Insomnia or the need for more sleep
    • Feeling overwhelmed or out of control
    • Other physical symptoms, the most common being belly bloating, breast tenderness, and headache
  • Symptoms that disturb your ability to function in social, work, or other situations
  • Symptoms that are not related to, or exaggerated by, another medical condition

How is PMDD treated?

PMDD is a serious, chronic condition that does need treatment. Several of the following treatment approaches may help relieve or decrease the severity of PMDD symptoms:

  • Changes in diet to increase protein and carbohydrates and decrease sugar, salt, caffeine, and alcohol
  • Regular exercise
  • Stress management
  • Vitamin supplements (such as vitamin B6, calcium, and magnesium)
  • Anti-inflammatory medicines
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
  • Birth control pills

For some women, the severity of symptoms increases over time and lasts until menopause. For this reason, a woman may need treatment for an extended time. Medicine dosage may change throughout the course of treatment.

Key points about PMDD

PMDD is a much more severe form of t premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

The exact cause of PMDD is not known.

  • The main symptoms that distinguish PMDD from other mood disorders or menstrual conditions is when symptoms start and how long they last.
  • Symptoms of PMDD are so severe that it affects your ability to function at home, work and in relationships.
  • Aside from a complete medical history and physical and pelvic exam, there are very few tests to diagnose the condition.
  • Over the course of a year, during most menstrual cycles, 5 or more of the following symptoms must be present:
    • Depressed mood
    • Anger or irritability
    • Trouble concentrating
    • Lack of interest in activities once enjoyed
    • Moodiness
    • Increased appetite
    • Insomnia or feeling very sleepy
    • Feeling overwhelmed or out of control
  • PMDD is a serious, chronic condition that does need treatment that may include lifestyle changes and sometimes medicines.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down the questions you want to be answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also, write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also, know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

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How to Reduce Your PMS Mood Swings

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) can cause wild, emotional mood swings for some women. In one day we can go from an angry outburst to a crying spell, followed by an anxiety attack. These emotional rises and falls are usually due to our fluctuating hormones. The good news is, we can become more strategic in how we heal the underlying causes of these symptoms in order to live without mood swings, depression, and anxiety. For most women, successfully healing PMS can occur with changes to lifestyle and diet. Here are some ways to begin addressing underlying causes and access your healing.

Erotic Wellness

Sex and self-pleasure not only have you feeling great but also have hormonal health benefits. If you’re feeling cramping and/or bloated, sex or self-pleasure can improve circulation to organs in the pelvic cavity, promote healthier estrogen levels, and provide relaxation by boosting estrogen levels and flushing out cortisol. Sex also increases levels of oxytocin, the hormone of bonding and success, which is linked to passion, intuition, and social skills. If you’re experiencing PMS during your ovulation phase, sex can be the estrogen detoxing ticket. If you are in the second half of your luteal phase, you may need more lube to help stimulate your connection with your sensations. But you’ll soon feel connected to yourself, juiced, and relaxed.

Get your herbs

Rhodiola rosea is an herbal medicine that regulates your stress response, reduces anxiety, and give our adrenals much-needed TLC! Rhodiola will shelter your brain from cortisol. Take this herb right when you have signs of depression and anxiety during PMS; however, it’s most effective to take daily for three months. The recommendation is 150-300 mg per day with 2 percent of the active constituent rosavin.

Self Inquiry

Each month, through menstruation, we go through an internal transformational process of letting go and being reborn. Our uterus sheds its lining and we release from the past and set free into the future. It is a time when deeply repressed and ignored emotions from the past month are brought to the surface, and into consciousness so we can acknowledge them, seek expression, and let them go. When we disregard or ignore our feelings or simply don’t give ourselves enough time to switch off and reconnect, PMS is likely to surface. When you feel anxious, angry or depressed, remember your greatest wisdom is already within you. Stop and listen. Have a conversation with your mental and physical sensations. Say, “Thank you for showing up so I can live a better life. Now, what do you want to tell me?” Also look at your relationships and creative outlets. Where are you silencing your authentic self? Find time to admire your uniqueness, follow your heart, and do things your way. Your unique opinions and authentic self is the reason you are here and loved.

Meditation to Master Your Moods

Kirtan Kriya is a meditation chant that comes from Kundalini yoga. The practice uses repetitive finger movements to help break habits and assist you in going through any life changes. It can also help heal negative sexual memories and traumas. Kirtan Kriya is believed to stimulate your pituitary and pineal glands, which allows you to become more active and balanced. It’s very helpful in connecting and balancing your menstrual cycle and the moon energy centers.

Here’s how you can try Kirtan Kriya for yourself.

The mantra includes primal sounds that reflect the wheel of life. The mantra is Saa (birth) Taa (life) Naa (death) Maa (rebirth).

Lie on your stomach and place your chin on the floor. Keep your head straight. Place your arms alongside your body, with the palms of your hands facing upward. Begin mentally chanting Saa Taa Naa Maa. Focus your eyes on your brow point. Imagine the sound current passing through your head in an L shape, entering the top of your head and flowing out through the center of your forehead. As you chant Saa, press your index finger to the tip of your thumb; on the Taa, press your middle finger to your thumb; on Naa, press your ring finger to your thumb; and on Maa, press your little finger to your thumb. Continue for 3 to 31 minutes. You can do this meditation when you want relief and insight from the emotional swings of PMS, and it can be done as a 40 day meditation practice. Observe how you feel before and after your practice. There are great insights when you stay still for a minute after the practice.

Upping Your Serotonin

Certain foods can affect the balance of our biochemistry. When we eat foods high in sugar, insulin is quickly released out of the bloodstream. At that time, insulin removes all of the amino acids except for one, tryptophan. Tryptophan is the precursor for our pleasure and happiness hormone, serotonin. Sugar cravings during PMS can then lead to increased amounts of serotonin in the brain. Our bodies seek out substances that balance us out biochemically. If we have low serotonin, we will seek out substances that raise serotonin levels. Foods that are high in sugar are a way for us to do this. When you experience mood swings, try eating complex carbohydrates to stabilize your serotonin levels. Apples, avocado, cucumbers, and carrots are great pick me ups when you are on the go and feel the sudden sugar cravings! My favorite is roasted sweet potatoes, which remind me of my childhood. When you’re PMS, nothing beats the cozy feeling of home and comfort.  

To master your PMS mood swings, go to bed

Since serotonin is critical to mood, low levels of serotonin can be directly linked to the depression, irritability, and mood changes experienced by women with PMS.

In addition, serotonin is important to sleep regulation. Low serotonin levels may affect the onset and quality of sleep. In addition, low serotonin levels also mean low melatonin levels. Melatonin is key for our sleep cycle, which has a direct impact on our hormonal balance, so when we don’t have enough of it, we might experience a significant disruption to the sleep-wake cycle.

It’s essential to have a night time ritual so your serotonin and melatonin can work properly. This might include  a calming and relaxing activity before bed like reading a book or taking a bath. You should also keep electronics out of your bedroom and try using blue light technology in front of electronic devices.

Go get started

You have undoubtedly fought a monthly uphill battle. With these simple tips and becoming more aware of your PMS symptoms, your hormones will respond to help your body get balanced. When you feed and move your body in ways that work with its natural rhythms and use your body as a resource, you will tap into your personal best self and live the life you want to live.

Featured image by Claire Jantzen

Menstrual cycle and mood – Blackmores

If you feel more moody, sad, angry or just plain irritated in the days before your period is due, you’re definitely not imagining it.

Nine out of 10 women say they experience some premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms, and mood swings and irritability are the most common.

Researchers still aren’t sure exactly what causes PMS, but changes in and interactions between hormones and certain brain chemicals are likely to play a key role.  

But the hormones that control your menstrual cycle ebb and flow, meaning you’ll probably experience mood changes at other times of the month, too.  

Here’s how you might feel during the four different phases  of your menstrual cycle.

Phase 1: Menstruation

This phase kicks off on day one of your period,  and typically lasts between three days and one week.  Menstruation occurs when an egg hasn’t been fertilised, causing estrogen and progesterone levels to drop . Research shows it’s quite common to continue to feel a little down or experience mood swings during the first few days of your period.

Phase 2: The follicular phase

Technically, this phase also starts on day one of your period, so there’s a slight cross over with the menstruation phase.  

It begins when your hypothalamus (a region of your brain) signals to the pituitary gland (also located in your brain) to release the follicle-stimulation hormone. This leads to a surge in estrogen that thickens the lining of your uterus .

If you have a 28-day cycle, this phase typically lasts for two weeks  and once the first couple of days of your period are over, you might start to notice your energy levels increasing. 

Plus, you might feel as if your brain’s sharper, so that you can remember and recall things more easily. Your tolerance for pain might be higher, too.

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Phase 3: Ovulation

The shortest phase of the cycle, ovulation only lasts between 16 and 32 hours, and is when you’re most fertile.

For many women, positive emotions and feelings peak at this phase of the cycle,  perhaps thanks to the surge in luteinising hormone that’s required to trigger ovulation.

Phase 4: The luteal phase

This lasts for about 14 days  and, as those days pass, you may start to feel a little sluggish and absent-minded,  as well as irritable, sad, moody and even angry, as PMS well and truly kicks in.  

One explanation for the mood-related symptoms may be that during the luteal phase, there is a drop  in levels of serotonin, a brain chemical that’s sometimes called the “happy chemical ”. For most women, symptoms of PMS start between four and 10 days before menstruation begins.

If you experience PMS symptoms, including mood swings, and they bother you, increasing your intake of healthy fatty acids and vitamin B foods may help to turn the dial down.

90,000 when emotions are stronger than you / Obstetrics-gynecology, reprudoctology / Articles about health / Articles and encyclopedia / madez.ru

Sudden tearfulness, mood swings, irritability … On the eve of critical days, hormones play a cruel joke with women, and cope with these conditions not everyone succeeds. About what premenstrual syndrome is and how doctors can help a woman, we talked with Yanina Stanislavovna Zinkevich, candidate of medical sciences, gynecologist-endocrinologist at the Women’s Health Center.

– Yanina Stanislavovna, from a physiological point of view, is PMS a disease? I don’t want to believe it, because then, probably, 90% of women can be considered sick …

– Unfortunately, few people fully realize the seriousness of this issue. And until some time, premenstrual syndrome really did not cause concern for doctors. However, modern medicine estimates this factor in a completely different way. The condition of women during the second phase of the menstrual cycle can not only cause her discomfort, but even affect the performance of professional duties in the workplace, on family relationships.And this is really a problem that can and should be solved with medication. For example, if on the eve of critical days something suddenly flooded a woman and she burst into tears – that’s okay. But if she cries incessantly for several days in a row, we can talk about PMS as a disease.

What happens to the female body? Why are her emotions suddenly spiraling out of control?

– The hormone progesterone is responsible for women’s health, beauty and peace of mind.In the second phase of the menstrual cycle, some time after ovulation, the level of this hormone begins to rise. It is during this period that an imbalance of the two main female hormones – estrogen and progesterone – can occur. As a result, women who release more estrogen on critical days become nervous, irritable and even aggressive, and those who have an increase in the proportion of progesterone feel endless fatigue and depression. In addition, an increase in progesterone in the blood of women causes an increase in glandular tissue and congestion in the blood vessels of the chest, painful sensations, weight gain and fluid retention in the body.Puffiness is, by the way, another type of PMS manifestation.

– On what grounds can a girl determine whether she has premenstrual syndrome and is it time for her to see a gynecologist?

– I recommend at least consulting a doctor if you experience any of the listed symptoms for three months in a row, several days before the onset of critical days. At least, because in the future, the gynecologist, based on the results of your conversation, will draw conclusions about the presence of certain problems, prescribe an examination and, in the future, medical correction.

Do not underestimate the severity and even the danger of premenstrual syndrome for a woman’s health. Studies have shown that women with PMS have a high risk of developing infertility. And if violations are not detected in a timely manner, it may be too late.

– If PMS is a disease, then there is a cure? Or is it just a correction of the psychological state?

– Of course, it all depends on the severity of the symptoms.In milder forms, nutritional correction, sports, herbal medicine are enough. So, one of the manifestations of PMS is a strong desire to eat any product. Usually it is necessarily something very unhealthy – very sweet, spicy or salty. While these products, on the contrary, can worsen a woman’s condition, for example, pickles with a tendency to edema.

If it is found that some hormonal imbalance, some wrong reaction of the body to its own hormones, is the cause of premenstrual syndrome, then corrective therapy will be prescribed.

Usually, it is enough to take medication for 6 months to even out the hormonal background of a woman and relieve suffering in the premenstrual period.

To carry out a comprehensive examination and restore the emotional and physical health of a woman at any stage of the menstrual cycle, you will be helped by the specialists of the Center for Women’s Health. Appointment to the gynecologist by phone. 405-999

Material published in the “Wedding” magazine

Key words of the media about the Center, PMS, endocrinology 90,000 PMS: truth and myths about premenstrual syndrome

When a woman is of reproductive age, the menstrual cycle plays an important role in her life.During the cycle, the mature egg descends into the uterus and waits for fertilization. If pregnancy does not occur, the egg dies, the endometrium of the uterus exfoliates and leaves the body, making room for the events of the new cycle. The total length of the cycle is 28-30 days, hence the popular name for menstruation – menstruation. During all phases of the menstrual cycle, the hormonal background changes in a woman’s body. Often, hormonal swings affect a woman’s mood and behavior. Feelings of a woman before the onset of menstruation are called premenstrual syndrome, or PMS.

Is there an ICP

It is rather difficult to describe how the PMS proceeds. Each woman reacts to hormonal changes in her own body differently. Moreover: in the same woman, the symptoms accompanying the onset of menstruation can change from month to month. Due to the lack of clear signs applicable to all women, the question arose – is there any premenstrual syndrome at all?

Certainly exists. In a healthy female body, hormonal fluctuations naturally occur.Not all women feel this, and fortunately, many get through the onset of menstruation quite easily. But there are also enough of those who somehow feel the changes.

What are the most common PMS symptoms:

  • pulling pain in the lower abdomen, in the back;

  • soreness in the chest;

  • 90,040 mood swings, irritability;

  • pallor, dizziness;

  • decreased pressure, drowsiness;

  • lack of appetite, nausea;

  • general apathy.

Externally, PMS manifests itself as poor general health and irritability.

What are the common myths associated with PMS

Alas, talking about menstruation in modern society is not always considered decent. Accordingly, there is a mythology around premenstrual syndrome. What are the myths associated with PMS:

  • PMS occurs just before menstruation.

Wrong.Unpleasant sensations can begin a week before the onset of menstruation, and continue for another week after its onset, or capture an arbitrary part of this period.

  • You must not have sex during PMS.

Wrong. If you want, you can have sex. For many women, orgasm can help relieve muscle decline and improve well-being. Protection is also recommended: the chance of getting pregnant during PMS is quite real.

  • Do not play sports during PMS.

And also wrong. You should not overexert yourself, but the usual load will only benefit.

  • With PMS, you need to eat chocolate to raise your mood.

Yes and no. On the one hand, chocolate contains tonic substances, and it will be pleasant and healthy to eat a small piece. On the other hand, you should not get carried away with eating chocolate: it does not remove the symptoms of PMS, but it can add kilograms.

  • If you fast during PMS, your symptom may improve.

This is also not the case. Controlled fasting is indeed used as a curative therapy. But you shouldn’t use it every time during PMS. But heavy food and overeating should be avoided: the congested intestines will put pressure on the pelvic organs and increase the discomfort.

  • During PMS, bed rest must be observed.

PMS is not a disease, although it is often accompanied by unpleasant experiences.Bed rest is not needed, and discomfort can be weakened with medication. Check with your doctor about this.

Can PMS be Treated

Alas, it is impossible to cure PMS. The unpleasant symptoms associated with menstruation disappear only with the menstruation itself, that is, at the end of reproductive age and the onset of menopause.

But unpleasant symptoms can be removed. Pharmacies offer numerous pre-menstrual wellness medications.Most are based on the pain reliever ibuprofen and herbal extracts.

90,000 We and hormones: how do they affect us?

1 day

The first day of the cycle is usually the day of the onset of menstrual bleeding. Against the background of a decrease in the concentration of the main “female” hormones (progesterone and estrogen), rejection of the endometrium begins – a thick layer of the mucous membrane of the uterus, the “feather bed” prepared by the body in case of a possible pregnancy.

Increases the concentration of prostaglandins – mediators of pain, stimulants of uterine contractility. Good for the body – the uterus contracts, throwing out the old endometrium and constricting the bleeding vessels. And for us – one disorder: pain and heaviness in the lower abdomen.

Spasmolytics will help relieve discomfort: No-shpa, Belastezin, Papaverin, Buscopan. But “Aspirin” is desirable not to take, as it can increase blood loss.

In the ovaries, the most “advanced” follicle, which bears the egg, begins to develop. Sometimes there are more than one “advanced”, and then, after successful fertilization, several babies may appear at once.

2nd day

I really want to be beautiful, but today hormones are working against us. As a result of low estrogen production, the activity of the sweat and sebaceous glands increases. You have to spend half a day in the shower, devote more time to your face and correct your makeup more often.

Hair changes its chemical structure and is less amenable to styling. Perms done during your period last less, so do not plan to visit your hairdresser on these days.

Pain sensitivity is still high. In order to avoid “thrills” it is better to postpone the visit to the dentist, epilation and other unpleasant manipulations for 4-5 days.

30-50 g of mulled wine made from good red wine will help relieve stress and possible painful sensations in the lower abdomen.However, more alcohol on these days is contraindicated: it can lengthen menstruation and increase blood loss.

3rd day

The phrase is especially relevant: “Cleanliness is the guarantee of health!” In the uterus, after mucosal rejection, a wound surface is formed. And the cervix these days is as open as possible, and therefore is the entrance gate for infection.

It is advisable to abstain from sex. However, if “you can’t, but you really want to”, then be sure to use barrier contraception. Remember that a condom will reduce the likelihood of infections and also prevent pregnancy, which is possible even on these days.

Day 4

Critical days are coming to an end. The mood improves, and we feel a surge of strength and energy. However, you shouldn’t overestimate yourself.

At this time, sports feats, repair work, rearrangement of furniture and other activities associated with heavy physical exertion are contraindicated. But morning exercises will help reduce the duration of menstruation and the amount of blood loss.

Day 5

The healing process in the uterus ends. During normal menstruation, a woman usually loses about 100 ml of blood. Such blood loss stimulates the body’s defenses, activates metabolism, while being the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia in women from 13 to 50 years old.

Therefore, it will be useful to include iron-containing products in the diet – beef, liver, seafood, buckwheat, pomegranates, apples, dried apricots.And also foods rich in vitamin C: meat, leafy greens, currants, gooseberries, apples, citrus fruits, rosehip broth, juices, etc.

6 day

If you want to lose weight, improve your figure or to achieve sports victories, start doing it today.

In the renewed body after menstruation, the metabolism is accelerated, which means that excess calories are burned faster, fat is broken down, protein for muscles is more actively synthesized, the general tone of the body, strength and endurance increase.

Day 7

The “advanced” follicle in the ovaries, which is increasing every day, produces more and more estrogens. At the same time, the level of testosterone begins to rise, which in the female body is responsible for the qualities usually attributed to men: high performance, sharp mind, broad outlook, excellent memory and ability to concentrate.

Therefore, this day was simply created for study and career growth. Estrogen and testosterone together drive away habitual drowsiness, give vigor and freshness of thoughts better than the most expensive coffee.It’s like an extra 25th hour appears in the day – use it!

Week 3

PMS cause mood swings?


  1. PMS disorder is a mixture of physical and psychological symptoms associated with mood and hormonal fluctuations before menstruation.

Premenstrual syndrome is defined as recurrent mild psychological and physical symptoms that occur during the luteal phase of menstruation and subside with menstruation.It affects 20 to 32 percent of premenopausal women. Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder experience affective or somatic symptoms that cause severe social or occupational dysfunction. The disease affects 3 to 8 percent of premenopausal women. Source: American Family Physician.

  1. There is some difference in some women who develop PMS or PMDD, as it is noted that those who develop PMDD are very sensitive to changes in hormone levels.

However, it is unclear why some women develop premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) while others do not. Estrogen and progesterone levels are the same in women with and without these conditions. The most likely explanation, based on several studies, is that women who develop PMDD are highly sensitive to changes in hormone levels. Source: update

  1. Research shows that women in some countries do not report negative mood disorders before menstruation at the same levels as in other countries.However, they seem to report the same physical changes.

Researchers found that women in India, China, or Hong Kong report physical changes during their menstrual cycle, but do not report negative mood before menstruation or attribute negative mood to PMS. Equally, the longer Asian or Latin women migrants live in the United States, the more likely they are to report PMS. This has led to PMS and PMDD being described as culturally related syndromes, calling into question the validity of the widespread psychiatric diagnosis of premenstrual mood change.Source: Conversation

  1. The media have a strong bias in reporting negative changes in the menstrual cycle.

Seventy-eight articles were identified and scored to discuss symptoms and treatments, language and terms used in articles and their titles, and types of problems covered in various journals. The results indicate a strong bias in favor of reporting negative changes in the menstrual cycle. Articles are generally negative in tone and contain a confusing array of symptoms and conflicting treatment recommendations.Source: Women and Health.


  1. There are differences between women’s experiences of fluctuating hormones and negative mood before menstruation, and there is no evidence of a correlation between mood and menstrual cycle.

Romans and her colleagues do not deny menstrual pain or even PMS. Their research shows that very few women experience cyclical negative mood changes associated with the premenstrual phase of their ovulatory cycle.PMS is not widespread, and the authors are trying to distinguish it from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is even less common. As one of the researchers, Gillian Einstein, a Toronto star, said, “We have our menstrual cycle and mood, but they don’t necessarily correlate.” Source: MS magazine.

  1. The study mentioned by the OP does not deny the presence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, which was observed later with menstruation, or physical symptoms that some women experienced before menstruation.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a clinical mood disorder associated with the menstrual cycle, characterized by severe physical and behavioral symptoms during the second half of the menstrual cycle, was not reviewed in this review. It also did not discount the presence of physical symptoms such as bloating and cramping associated with the premenstrual phase. Source: University of Toronto

  1. Recent research has challenged the hypothesis of a relationship between premenstrual phase and mood swings.

Culturally held beliefs about PMS appear to have influenced the expectations of women and researchers during the premenstrual period, but a new study exposes the existence of negative moods caused by PMS in the general female population. Evidence that we have PMS is limited, and psychosocial factors such as physical health and social support appear to be more closely related to mood than any phase of the menstrual cycle. Research that challenges assumptions about a biological relationship between premenstrual phase and mood could ultimately change societal attitudes about women’s mood and menstruation.Source: Canadian Institute for Health Research

  1. There is no predictable pattern for detecting mood swings in women based on hormone levels, as different levels can have different effects on mood in different women. Men also tend to experience fluctuations in hormones and mood swings, but there is no exact mechanism, like the menstrual period, to track this.

As for the tradition of portraying women as victims of their changing hormones, it is possible that men experience the same fluctuations in testosterone with similar ups and downs in mood and emotional stability.It just might be easier to attribute women’s mood swings to reproductive hormones, because tracking the menstrual cycle provides a non-invasive window into their swings. Thus, while the new review suggests that most women do not have a predictable pattern of low mood prior to their periods, it does not absolve reproductive hormones from any role in how people feel. Source: Time

TL; DR: all women do not experience the same symptom pattern for premenstrual syndrome, and there is no evidence of negative premenstrual mood.

Taken together, these studies do not provide clear evidence to support the existence of a specific premenstrual negative mood syndrome in the general female population, the authors say. They say, “This mysteriously pervasive belief needs to be challenged as it perpetuates negative concepts linking female reproduction to negative emotionality.” Source: NHS

90,000 6 common habits that can suddenly worsen PMS

Author: Female staff

Tracking your period can help you get ready for your period and also help you spot women’s health problems if you are experiencing missed periods or irregularities.But if you have premenstrual syndrome or PMS, you probably don’t need to keep an eye on your period, as PMS symptoms can alert you when your period is approaching. If you have severe PMS symptoms, it is possible that one or more of your lifestyle habits can suddenly make it worse.

About severe PMS symptoms

PMS can cause either minor symptoms that don’t affect your life or severe PMS symptoms that affect your physical, emotional and mental well-being.PMS can cause irritability, depression, mood swings, cramps, bloating, migraines, acne, and more. Be aware that one or more of your lifestyle habits can suddenly worsen your PMS. Six common habits that can make PMS worse:

  1. You are consuming too much caffeine
  2. You are physically inactive
  3. Do you smoke
  4. You are consuming excess sodium
  5. You are not dealing with stress effectively
  6. You don’t get enough sleep

1.You are consuming too much caffeine.

Caffeine may be effective in helping you stay alert and alert, but it can increase anxiety and irritability. Plus, caffeine can interfere with your sleep and make you nervous. Limit your caffeine intake on a daily basis and consider replacing coffee, sodas, and energy drinks with green tea, which has less caffeine.

2. You are physically inactive.

Exercise offers countless health benefits that can help you suddenly and relieve severe PMS symptoms.Exercise improves circulation and blood flow, naturally improves your mood, and helps regulate hormone levels. Increase your physical activity and exercise regularly to reduce PMS symptoms.

3. You smoke

Smoking suppresses blood flow and circulation. Poor circulation leads to hormonal imbalances that can affect estrogen and progesterone levels and thus worsen PMS. Quit smoking as soon as possible, or seek help from a smoking cessation program if you are having trouble doing so.

4. You are consuming excess sodium.

Water binds to sodium, which means that consuming too much sodium can dramatically worsen PMS with bloating and water retention. Avoid adding table salt to food and avoid processed foods high in sodium. Eat more fruits and vegetables instead to flush sodium and waste products from your body and reduce bloating.

5. You are not dealing with stress effectively.

Stress is a normal part of life. However, prolonged stress without relief increases cortisol levels in the body, unbalancing other hormones. Find new ways to deal with stress more effectively by doing things that help you relax. Try yoga, meditation, deep breathing, relaxing in a warm bath, or detaching yourself from people and doing other things that stress you out. It can help to suddenly relieve these severe PMS symptoms.

6.You don’t get enough sleep

Lack of sleep increases stress levels and disrupts healthy hormonal balance. Lack of sleep can also affect hunger, emotions, and mental clarity. Improve your sleep conditions as needed so you can get a good night’s sleep and eliminate problems that contribute to poor sleep.

If you still experience PMS symptoms after your healthy lifestyle change, make an appointment with your gynecologist to discuss other possible treatments.Together, you and your doctor can identify the source of PMS and develop an effective treatment plan.

Do you suffer from PMS and want to get rid of your monthly symptoms? Women’s Care Certified Doctors offer comprehensive certified gynecological care, including annual check-ups, menopause and other gynecological conditions.

If you have severe PMS, Schedule an appointment with Women’s Care to help manage and manage your PMS symptoms.

90,000 Treatment of premenstrual syndrome – appointment with a gynecologist at VESNA Clinic

To diagnose PMS, the specialist must confirm a number of symptoms in the patient. These symptoms should:

  • appear within 5 days before the onset of menstruation at least 3 cycles in a row;
  • end within 4 days after the start of the menstrual cycle;
  • interfere with other activities in a woman’s life.

For the diagnosis and effective management of PMS, we recommend keeping a diary. Describe your symptoms in it every day for at least 2-3 months, and also mark the dates of the onset of menstruation there.

Why does PMS develop?

The exact causes and mechanisms of PMS development have not been established at present. Today, experts agree that the mechanism of the appearance of premenstrual syndrome is complex and affects not only the endocrine, but also the immune, central nervous and other systems of the body.

There is a group of factors that can contribute to the development of PMS. These include:

  • hormonal disorders;
  • low level of physical activity;
  • concomitant diseases of the reproductive system;
  • stress, depression;
  • unbalanced diet.

Clinical manifestations

The exact set of symptoms can vary significantly from case to case. There are several symptom complexes that manifest themselves to varying degrees:

  • vegetative disorders – nausea, vomiting, headache, heart rhythm disturbances;
  • psychoemotional disorders – bad mood, irritability, tearfulness;
  • symptoms characteristic of endocrine disorders – fever, breast hardening, development of edema, itching.

Depending on the severity of a particular group of symptoms during PMS, 4 forms are distinguished:

  1. Edematous. The clinical picture is dominated by edema of varying intensity, increased body weight.
  2. Crisis. In this case, the so-called hot flashes are not the first place, which are accompanied by pronounced redness of the skin of the face, an increase in pulse and blood pressure.
  3. Neuropsychic. Among the main symptoms are irritability, aggressiveness, mood swings, hypersensitivity to smells and sounds.
  4. Cephalgic. Complaints of severe throbbing headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness.

Sometimes there is an atypical form of the course of premenstrual syndrome, which includes other nonspecific symptoms.

It is important to distinguish PMS from a number of other diseases, such as:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety Disorder
  • Perimenopause
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Thyroid diseases

To exclude these pathologies, in some cases, the gynecologist may refer to an endocrinologist, psychotherapist or therapist.

Treatment methods

Modern approaches to therapy allow to get rid of unpleasant PMS symptoms or reduce their severity and thereby improve the patient’s quality of life. Treatment can also be aimed at eliminating concomitant diseases, which will also have a beneficial effect on the course of premenstrual syndrome.

90,000 Science vs PMS – Knife

Like the Marvel Hulk, she too was transforming – not into a caricatured bitch with PMS, but into a hypersensitive paranoid-depressive version of herself.These hormonal attacks destroyed her relationship, but even after this, the girl did not want to admit their existence for fear that she would be known as a walking stereotype. Finally she shared with me and asked – is there an antidote?

Surprisingly, premenstrual mood swings are still a medical mystery. They are known to be caused by a combination of hormonal fluctuations, individual biology, and environmental factors, but this delicate balance of ingredients makes finding a way out of them a long journey of trial and error.

“PMS has been talked about for as long as there is speech,” says Ira Jaffy, a gynecologist at the Langon Clinic in New York. “If there was one 100% working way to cope with it, we would all use it. But so far no one has found him. ”

I did some research and, as I later told my unhappy friend, found that there are still proactive steps that can be taken to minimize the damage.

The first step is to acknowledge that mood disorders exist, that you may be susceptible to them, and that it is not embarrassing.

Over the past half century, the number of working women has increased dramatically, and discussion of the psychological effects of menstruation has become a taboo. We still live in a world where women are discriminated against just because they have uterine bleeding – remember Donald Trump’s famous attack on Fox News reporter Megyn Kelly: “She has blood gushing everywhere.” Therefore, admitting that periods affects our state of mind can seem risky. But until we start discussing the problem openly, we will not see progress in solving it.So it’s time, right?

What causes mood swings during PMS?

Most women know the physiology of menstruation, but not everyone understands how complex hormonal and chemical changes occur in the body before and after it.

PMS occurs once a month during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which is the 14-day window before the onset of menstruation. Not all women suffer from PMS, but 80-90% of them experience some kind of physical and emotional changes on the eve of bleeding, and about 15% experience multiple severe symptoms that seriously affect their lives.

“PMS can manifest itself in a variety of symptoms,” says Dr. Jaffey. “In particular, increased irritability, short temper, trouble concentrating, and a tendency to cry on small occasions are the same symptoms that define clinical depression.”

Hormonal reasons for this are a lack or excess of estrogen or progesterone at a particular point in time. At the very beginning of the cycle, just after menstruation, estrogen enters the bloodstream, forcing the lining of the uterus to grow new cells.But in the middle of the cycle, the amount of estrogen decreases and the level of progesterone rises, which helps to stabilize these cells. This is key – the progesterone spike usually coincides with mood swings that last until your period begins. As soon as bleeding begins, the level of both hormones drops, and a relief of the psycho-emotional state is observed.

But hormones are only part of the puzzle. Women also experience changes in the rate and volume of secretion of neutrotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid).The latter substance is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, also known as the “anti-anxiety neurotransmitter”. GABA reduces anxiety and improves mood. When these neurotransmitters are randomly generated by the body, melancholy, tearfulness, and unreasonable anger ensues.

It would seem that since scientists know what happens to the female body, why can’t they invent a universal pill for PMS? The problem here is not only the complexity of regulating the level of several substances at once and the occurrence of chain reactions, but also that the body of each woman reacts differently to the intervention.The doctor can, according to the analyzes of a particular patient, determine what is not so specific with her hormones, and adjust their level.

But there is no universal medicine, taking which every girl would feel herself again.

Elizabeth Burton-Johnson, professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Massachusetts, has been looking for such a drug for years. According to her, surges in hormones and neurotransmitters do not exhaust a number of factors in the onset of PMS – evidence is that women who take hormonal birth control pills are also not immune to mood swings.

The manifestation of PMS symptoms is influenced by the level of cortisol that is released during stress, the food a woman takes, the presence or absence of support on difficult days, smoking, the frequency of sports – and even with the healthiest lifestyle, individual psychological attitudes and characteristics of chemical processes in the brain can ruin everything. Of course, this does not mean that resistance is useless.

What food helps?

Since we will not wait for a miracle pill, we will have to change our lifestyle, and nutrition plays a crucial role here.It is common knowledge that maintaining normal blood sugar levels is the key to health. When sugar drops, we get irritated, worried, and tired. When it is constantly elevated, it threatens with diabetes, the symptoms of which, oddly enough, are similar.

On the days of the luteal phase, sugar levels fluctuate along with other substances that prevent us from living in peace. According to female nutritionist Robin Srigley, the diet at this time of the month should consist of foods rich in “lean protein” (skinless chicken breasts, tofu and other soy foods, beans, lentils, dairy products, eggs), as well as fiber (bran, berries , pistachios, peanuts, corn), plus some healthy fats (olive oil, nuts, fish).

A trick to trick the body is to add a teaspoon of cinnamon to drinks. The ovaries are insulin sensitive, and cinnamon stimulates the conversion of sugar into energy.

Some studies show that a surge in progesterone reduces the body’s sensitivity to insulin, which is not good – it is this state that causes thoughts like “I need to eat something urgently, otherwise I am now tearing someone apart.”

Food can also help curb estrogen – for this purpose Srigly recommends eating broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale.Their fiber binds the excess amount of the hormone.

The next step is to get rid of anxiety and feelings of dullness by counteracting progesterone. This hormone can induce ravenous appetite, which can be fought with protein-rich foods. Progesterone selectively breaks down proteins, which will increase the metabolic rate by 10% if you eat lean beef, veal, chicken, turkey, fish and seafood.

Now take a vitamin – according to a study by Burton-Johnson, women who consume more vitamin D and calcium are 30-40% less prone to the pangs of premenstrual syndrome.B vitamins also reduce symptoms. Egg and milk for breakfast, salmon and spinach for lunch – and you can do without pills.

The popular cliché that sweets help against PMS is a myth.

On the contrary, dessert should be avoided: it will quickly increase blood sugar, and then drop just as sharply, and the mood will only get worse. The exception is a small piece of the dark chocolate itself.

What is the role of stress?

When we are nervous, the adrenal glands release cortisol into the bloodstream.Too much cortisol means an increased susceptibility to inflammation, poor resistance to infection, and depression. Stress before menstruation causes a vicious circle effect: a release of cortisol – pain – a new release of cortisol.

Therefore, the luteal phase should be the period when you take on everything that brings you pleasure.

Try to postpone important tasks, showdowns and marathons until the beginning of the cycle, read more, walk, do yoga and any other activities that relax you, whether it is cleaning the closet or drawing demons in the pages of the magazine “Relax”.

According to research by Iranian psychologists, partner support significantly reduces the manifestations of PMS, so the best behavior is to share this article with a guy, tell your feelings about your feelings without false shame and ask him to make your life easier. You can also just whine in posts shared only with a group of sympathetic women.

Remember that asking for help is not a sign of weakness, but suffering in silence when you can avoid it is a sign of stupidity.