Early symptoms of a blood clot in leg: The request could not be satisfied
Blood Clots: Risks, Symptoms, Treatments, Prevention
What is a blood clot?
Blood clots are gel-like collections of blood that form in your veins or arteries when blood changes from liquid to partially solid. Clotting is a normal function that stops your body from bleeding too much when you get hurt. However, blood clots that form in some places and don’t dissolve on their own can be dangerous to your health.
Normally, a blood clots start as a response to injury of a blood vessel. At first, the blood stays in one place. Two substances — platelets (a type of blood cell) and fibrin (a firm string-like substance) — combine to form what is called a platelet plug to stop up the cut or hole.
When a blood clot forms where it should not have developed, it is called a thrombus. A blood clot is also called a thrombus. The clot may stay in one spot (called thrombosis) or move through the body (called embolism or thromboembolism). The clots that move are especially dangerous. Blood clots can form in arteries (arterial clots) or veins (venous clots).
The symptoms of a blood clot, and the recommended treatment, depend on where a clot forms in your body and how much damage it could cause. Knowing the most common blood clot signs and risk factors can help you spot or even prevent this potentially life-threatening condition.
Which blood clots pose the most health risk?
Any blood clots that form in arteries (arterial clots) or veins (venous clots) can be serious. You should call your healthcare provider immediately if you suspect a blood clot.
A clot that forms in one of your body’s larger veins is called a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A stationary blood clot, or one that stays in place, may not hurt you. A blood clot that dislodges and begins moving through the bloodstream can be harmful.
One of the most pressing blood clot concerns is when a DVT makes its way to your lungs and gets stuck. This condition, called pulmonary embolism (PE), can stop blood from flowing and the results can be very serious, even fatal. In fact, as many as 100,000 people in the United States die from DVTs and PEs every year.
Arterial clots in the brain are called strokes. Clots can form in the heart arteries, causing heart attacks. Blood clots can also form in the abdominal blood vessels, causing pain and/or nausea and vomiting.
You don’t need to be worried about blood clots that you might see during your period causing these kinds of symptoms or effects.
Who is most at risk for blood clots?
Some risk factors put certain people at higher risk for developing a blood clot.
Blood clots become more common as people get older, especially when they are over age 65. Long hospital stays, surgeries and trauma may significantly increase your risk of blood clots.
Other factors can increase your risk to a lesser degree. You might be more at risk if you:
Some factors are based on lifestyle choices. Risks might be higher if you:
- Are overweight or obese.
- Live a sedentary (or inactive) lifestyle.
- Smoke cigarettes.
Symptoms and Causes
What are the most common symptoms of a blood clot?
Blood clot symptoms will depend on where a clot forms in your body. Some people may experience no symptoms at all. Blood clots can occur in the:
- Abdomen: Blood clots in the belly area can cause pain or nausea and vomiting.
- Arms or legs: A blood clot in the leg or arm may feel painful or tender to the touch. Swelling, redness and warmth are other common signs of blood clots.
- Brain: Blood clots in the brain (strokes) can cause a range of symptoms, depending which part of the brain they affect. These clots may cause problems speaking or seeing, inability to move or feel one side of your body and sometimes seizure.
- Heart or lungs: A blood clot in the heart will cause symptoms of a heart attack such as crushing chest pain, sweating, pain that travels down the left arm, and/or shortness of breath. A blood clot in the lungs can cause chest pain, difficulty breathing, and sometimes can lead to coughing up blood.
Diagnosis and Tests
How are blood clots diagnosed?
Blood clot symptoms can mimic other health conditions. Doctors use a variety of tests to detect blood clots and/or rule out other causes. If your doctor suspects a blood clot, he or she may recommend:
- Blood tests can, in some cases, be used to rule out a blood clot.
- Ultrasound provides a clear view of your veins and blood flow.
- CT scan of the head, abdomen, or chest, may be used to confirm that you have a blood clot. This imaging test can help rule out other potential causes of your symptoms.
- Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is an imaging test similar to a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test. An MRA looks specifically at blood vessels.
- V/Q scans test circulation of air and blood in the lungs.
Management and Treatment
How are blood clots treated?
The goal in treating blood clots, especially DVTs, is to prevent the blood clot from getting larger or breaking loose. Treatment can reduce your chances of developing more blood clots in the future.
Treatment depends on where the blood clot is and how likely it is to harm you. Your doctor might recommend:
- Medication: Anticoagulants, also called blood thinners, help prevent blood clots from forming. For life-threatening blood clots, drugs called thrombolytics can dissolve clots that are already formed.
- Compression stockings: These tight-fitting stockings provide pressure to help reduce leg swelling or prevent blood clots from forming.
- Surgery: In a catheter-directed thrombolysis procedure, specialists direct a catheter (a long tube) to the blood clot. The catheter delivers medication directly to the clot to help it dissolve. In thrombectomy surgery, doctors use special instruments to carefully remove a blood clot.
- Stents: Doctors may decide if a stent is necessary to keep a blood vessel open.
- Vena cava filters: In some cases, a person might be unable to take blood thinners, and a filter is put into the inferior vena cava (the body’s largest vein) to catch blood clots before they can travel to the lungs.
How can you prevent blood clots?
You can reduce your risk of blood clots by:
- Enjoying regular physical activity.
- Do not smoke.
- Eating a healthy diet and making sure that you stay hydrated.
- Maintaining a healthy weight.
- Controlling medical problems such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
- Make sure you are up to date with cancer screening.
When should you call the doctor about a blood clot?
If you think you have a blood clot, you go to the nearest emergency room or call 911. Call 911 right away if you have chest pain, trouble breathing or problems seeing or speaking that come on suddenly.
What should you know about living with a higher risk of blood clots or if you have already had a blood clot?
If you are concerned about your blood clot risk in certain situations, such as when you are traveling or after a surgery, your doctor can give you more information on other habits that can help.
If you are able to walk around while you are traveling, you should make sure you do so at least once every couple of hours. If you are traveling by air, your provider might suggest you wear compression stockings. You can do exercises that move your feet and legs while you are sitting.
If you have a blood clot, your provider might suggest that you take anticoagulants for a certain period of time. Some people may need to take them for life. Make sure you understand how you should take this medication and what types of interactions you should avoid. It is important to have regular follow with a provider who is specifically discussing blood thinner medication with you.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
A blood clot can be serious, even fatal. If you know you are at risk for blood clots, you can help yourself by moving around, by eating well and maintaining a healthy weight and following your healthcare provider’s suggestions on medication and lifestyle changes. (For instance, if you smoke, stop.)
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Excessive Blood Clotting (Hypercoagulation)
Many factors can lead to excessive blood clotting, causing limited or blocked blood flow and can be life-threatening. Signs and symptoms of excessive blood clotting depend on where the clots form.
- A blood clot in the heart or lungs could include symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and upper body discomfort in the arms, back, neck, or jaw, suggesting a heart attack or pulmonary embolism (PE).
- A blood clot in the brain could cause headaches, speech changes, paralysis (an inability to move), dizziness, and trouble speaking or understanding speech, suggesting a possible stroke.
- A blood clot in the deep veins of the leg may create symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling in the lower leg, and could suggest deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). If you have signs or symptoms of a heart attack, PE or stroke, call 911 right away. If you have signs or symptoms of DVT, call your doctor right away. The cause of the blood clot needs to be found and treated as soon as possible.
If your healthcare provider thinks that you have excessive blood clotting, he or she will look for the cause of the condition by doing a physical exam.
Medical and family histories will also be reviewed in case you have a blood relative who has had the following:
- Relatives with abnormal or excessive clotting
- A history of repeated blood clots before age 40
- Blood clots during pregnancy or while on birth control pills
- Unexplained miscarriages
- A history of excessive or unusual blood clots (such as in the veins in the liver or kidneys)
Blood work will also be reviewed. Initial blood tests will include a complete blood count and a platelet count. These tests measure the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in your blood. In this situation, your doctor will want to know the number of platelets in your blood. Platelets are blood cell fragments that stick together to form clots.
Your doctor may choose to do additional blood tests if more information is needed.
8 Signs of a Blood Clot
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Most of the time, blood clots are a good thing. When you get injured, you need your blood to solidify and clump together at the site to help stop the bleeding. But sometimes clots crop up when they’re not needed, and that can spell trouble—especially if they form in the deep veins near your muscles.
“When blood clots form in this deeper system, they can be painful and very dangerous,” says Luis Navarro, M.D., founder of the Vein Treatment Center in New York City. This kind of clot is called a deep vein thrombosis, or DVT. They’re like roadblocks on your blood highway, causing traffic jams in your circulation and prevent the blood flow that keeps your system up and running.
Things can get even more serious if a DVT breaks away from its original spot and travels to your lungs. Then it becomes a pulmonary embolism, a clot that prevents these vital organs from getting the oxygen and blood they need. That can damage your lungs and other organs and may even be fatal.
Some people are more prone to a DVT than others, so it’s worth staying on top of any risk factors. What’s more, “it’s important to recognize symptoms of a blood clot because they can often be minimal or overlooked,” and getting prompt treatment is key, says Dr. Navarro. Here are the warning signs of a blood clot to watch for, so you can act quickly if one strikes.
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Swelling in one limb
A swollen leg or arm is one of the most common signs of a DVT. “Blood clots can block the healthy flow of blood in the legs, and blood can pool behind the clot causing swelling,” says Dr. Navarro.
It’s normal to overlook leg swelling as a symptom of a DVT if you always get large or stiff legs when you fly or during periods of immobility. But be suspicious if your bloated limb comes on quickly, especially if it shows up with a side of pain.
Leg or arm pain
Usually, DVT pain comes as a combo with other symptoms like swelling or redness, but sometimes it can stand alone.
“Unfortunately, pain from a blood clot can easily be mistaken for a muscle cramp or strain, which is why the issue often goes undiagnosed and is specifically dangerous,” says Dr. Navarro.
DVT pain tends to strike when you’re walking or when you flex your foot upward. If you have a charley horse you can’t seem to shake—especially if the skin near it is warm or discolored—have your doctor take a look.
Redness on your skin
While it’s true that a bruise is a type of blood clot, it’s not the kind you have to worry about. You can’t see a DVT. You might see some bruise-like discoloration, but you’re more likely to see red. A DVT causes redness in the affected limb and makes your arm or leg feel warm to the touch.
Related: Why Do I Bruise So Easily?
A pain in your chest may make you think heart attack, but it could be a pulmonary embolism. “Both a PE and a heart attack share similar symptoms,” says Dr. Navarro. However, PE pain tends to be sharp and stabbing, and feels worst when you take a deep breath.
Heart attack pain often radiates from upper areas of your body like your shoulders, jaw, or neck. The biggest clue is in your breathing—PE pain gets steadily worse with every breath you take. Either way, you need help immediately, so call 911.
Shortness of breath
A blood clot in your lung slows your oxygen flow, and that can leave you feeling winded. “You often won’t have the stamina or breath to make it up stairs. You feel lousy,” says George P. Teitelbaum, M.D., interventional neuroradiologist and director of the Stroke & Aneurysm Center at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, Calif. Get help quickly, especially if this comes on suddenly.
Can’t stop hacking? If you’re also having shortness of breath, fast heart rate, or chest pain, it could be a PE. “The cough will be dry, but sometimes people can cough up mucus and/or blood,” says Dr. Navarro. When in doubt, phone your doc or go straight to the ER.
Related: How to Get Rid of a Lingering Cough
A racing heart
When oxygen is low, your heart rate goes high to try to make up for the shortage. Feeling a flutter in your chest and having trouble with deep breaths could be your body sending out an SOS that you’ve got a PE lurking in your lungs, Dr. Teitelbaum says.
“For a small blood clot, the heart rate rises in part due to chest pain, shortness of breath, and the related anxiety that these cause,” says Lewis Nelson, M.D., chair of the department of emergency medicine at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. There is also a release of chemicals from lung tissues that leads to a rise in heart rate.
If the clot is larger, it can cause a reduction in blood oxygen content “and even changes in blood flow that lead to a compensatory rise in heart rate,” Dr. Nelson says.
“The lightheadedness is due in part to the chemical released from the lungs, changes in oxygenation of the blood, and in the blood pressure and heart rate,” Dr. Nelson says. “The brain is sensitive to changes in oxygen and to changes in blood flow. ”
While it’s not an overly common symptom of a blood clot, it happens enough. One study published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that pulmonary embolisms were responsible for about 17% of hospitalizations for fainting in the 560 older people who were studied.
What to do if you think you have a blood clot
“It depends on how sick you feel,” Dr. Teitelbaum says. If you’re having shortness of breath and no energy and this is unusual for you, call 911 immediately. “You need to go to the emergency room and be evaluated,” he says. But if you have leg tenderness or swelling and you’re not sure what’s going on, it’s okay to call your doctor about next steps.
Treatment usually includes blood-thinning medications, per the American Heart Association (AHA). Those can generally be broken down into anticoagulants, which are tablets or injectables that help prevent blood clots, and thrombolytic therapy, which involves taking medication to dissolve clots. These can be given through an arm vein or by inserting catheters into the clot in the vein or lung. In more severe cases, you may need surgery.
Just know that treatment doesn’t end once the blood clot is gone. “If you have a blood clot, you may need to continue to take anti-coagulants for a few months afterward,” Dr. Teitelbaum says.
Additional reporting by Korin Miller
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Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) – Illnesses & conditions
If you have deep vein thrombosis (DVT), you’ll need to take a medicine called an anticoagulant.
Anticoagulant medicines prevent blood clots getting bigger. They can also help stop part of the blood clot breaking off and becoming lodged in another part of your bloodstream (an embolism).
Although they’re often referred to as “blood-thinning” medicines, anticoagulants don’t actually thin the blood. They alter proteins within it, which prevents clots forming so easily.
Heparin and warfarin are 2 types of anticoagulants that are used to treat DVT. Heparin is usually prescribed first because it works immediately to prevent further clotting. After this initial treatment, you may also need to take warfarin to prevent another blood clot forming.
Heparin is available in 2 different forms:
- standard (unfractioned) heparin
- low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)
Standard (unfractioned) heparin can be given as:
- an intravenous injection – an injection straight into one of your veins
- an intravenous infusion – where a continuous drip of heparin (via a pump) is fed through a narrow tube into a vein in your arm (this must be done in hospital)
- a subcutaneous injection – an injection under your skin
LMWH is usually given as a subcutaneous injection.
The dose of standard (unfractionated) heparin to treat a blood clot varies significantly from person to person, so the dosage must be carefully monitored and adjusted if necessary. You may need to stay in hospital for 5 to 10 days and have frequent blood tests to ensure you receive the right dose.
LMWH works differently from standard heparin. It contains small molecules, which means its effects are more reliable and you won’t have to stay in hospital and be monitored.
Both standard heparin and LMWH can cause side effects, including:
- a skin rash and other allergic reactions
- weakening of the bones if taken for a long time (although rare with LMWH)
In rare cases, heparin can also cause an extreme reaction that makes existing blood clots worse and causes new clots to develop. This reaction, and weakening of your bones, is less likely to occur when taking LMWH.
In most cases, you’ll be given LMWH because it’s easier to use and causes fewer side effects.
Warfarin is taken as a tablet. You may need to take it after initial treatment with heparin to prevent further blood clots occurring. Your doctor may recommend that you take warfarin for 3 to 6 months. In some cases, it may need to be taken for longer, even for life.
As with standard heparin, the effects of warfarin vary from person to person. You’ll need to be closely monitored by having frequent blood tests to ensure you’re taking the right dosage.
When you first start taking warfarin, you may need to have 2 to 3 blood tests a week until your regular dose is decided. After this, you should only need to have a blood test every 4 weeks at an anticoagulant outpatient clinic.
Warfarin can be affected by your diet, any other medicines you’re taking, and by how well your liver is working.
If you’re taking warfarin you should:
- keep your diet consistent
- limit the amount of alcohol you drink (no more than 14 units of alcohol a week)
- take your dose of warfarin at the same time every day
- not start to take any other medicine without checking with your GP, pharmacist or anticoagulant specialist
- not take herbal medicines
Warfarin isn’t recommended for pregnant women who are given heparin injections for the full length of treatment.
Rivaroxaban is a medication recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as a possible treatment for adults with DVT, or to help prevent recurrent DVT and pulmonary embolism.
Rivaroxaban comes in tablet form. It’s a type of anticoagulant known as a directly acting oral anticoagulant (DOAC). It prevents blood clots forming by inhibiting a substance called factor Xa and restricting the formation of thrombin (an enzyme that helps blood clot).
Treatment usually lasts 3 months and involves taking rivaroxaban twice a day for the first 21 days and then once a day until the end of the course.
Read the NICE guidance about rivaroxaban
NICE also recommends apixaban as a possible method of treatment and prevention for DVT and pulmonary embolism.
Like rivaroxaban, apixaban is a DOAC that’s taken orally as a tablet, and prevents blood clots forming by hindering factor Xa and restricting the formation of thrombin.
Treatment usually lasts at least 3 months and involves taking apixaban twice a day.
Read the NICE guidance about apixaban
Wearing compression stockings helps prevent calf pain and swelling, and lowers the risk of ulcers developing after having DVT.
They can also help prevent post-thrombotic syndrome. This is damage to leg tissue caused by the increase in venous pressure that occurs when a vein is blocked by a clot and blood is diverted to the outer veins.
After having DVT, stockings should be worn every day for at least 2 years. This is because symptoms of post-thrombotic syndrome may develop several months or even years after having a DVT.
Compression stockings should be fitted professionally and your prescription should be reviewed every 3 to 6 months. The stockings need to be worn all day but can be taken off before going to bed or in the evening while you rest with your leg raised. A spare pair of compression stockings should also be provided.
Your healthcare team will usually advise you to walk regularly once compression stockings have been prescribed. This can help prevent symptoms of DVT returning and may help to improve or prevent complications of DVT, such as post-thrombotic syndrome.
Raising your leg
As well as wearing compression stockings, you might be advised to raise your leg whenever you’re resting. This helps to relieve the pressure in the veins of the calf and stops blood and fluid pooling in the calf itself.
When raising your leg, make sure your foot is higher than your hip. This will help the returning blood flow from your calf. Putting a cushion underneath your leg while you’re lying down should help raise your leg above the level of your hip.
You can also slightly raise the end of your bed to ensure that your foot and calf are slightly higher than your hip.
Read more about preventing DVT
Inferior vena cava filters
Although anticoagulant medicines and compression stockings are usually the only treatments needed for DVT, inferior vena cava (IVC) filters may be used as an alternative. This is usually because anticoagulant treatment needs to be stopped, isn’t suitable, or isn’t working.
IVC filters are small mesh devices that can be placed in a vein. They trap large fragments of a blood clot and stop it travelling to the heart and lungs. They can be used to help prevent blood clots developing in the legs of people diagnosed with:
- pulmonary embolism
- multiple severe injuries
IVCs can be placed in the vein permanently, or newer types of filters can be placed temporarily and removed after the risk of a blood clot has decreased.
The procedure to insert an IVC filter is carried out using a local anaesthetic (where you’re awake but the area is numb). A small cut is made in the skin and a catheter (thin, flexible tube) is inserted into a vein in the neck or groin area. The catheter is guided using an ultrasound scan. The IVC filter is then inserted through the catheter and into the vein.
17 signs of a blood clot that are easy to miss
Blood clotting is a normal and important process in the body. It often occurs to repair injured blood vessels. According to the American Society of Hematology, the human body naturally dissolves blood clots after the internal injury has healed.
However, when clots don’t dissolve naturally, they may restrict normal blood flow to the heart, turning into a serious medical condition.
Common types of blood clots
The two major types of dangerous blood clots are called deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism. Though they share many similarities, they occur differently: A DVT develops in a blood vessel and reduces blood flow through the vessel, while embolism occurs when a piece of a blood clot becomes stuck in a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood.
Moreover, one can (and usually does) lead to another. In many cases, an embolism develops when a DVT in the leg veins travels to the lung and lodges itself there. This can happen suddenly or slowly over time.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that as many as 100,000 Americans die each year from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism, which is why it’s so important to know the warning signs.
Though symptoms can be sneaky, many people are able to identify them and seek medical attention to treat the clot.
Subtle signs you’re dealing with a dangerous clot
“Developing a DVT is considered a tip-off that a pulmonary embolism could follow,” Alan Ackermann, DO, founder and medical director of Aventura Institute for Cardiovascular Wellness in Aventura, Florida told Everyday Health.
DVT signs to look for include:
- Warmth to the touch
- Worsening leg pain when bending the foot
- Leg cramps
- Discoloration of skin
The most common signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism, according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute are:
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Unexplained cough
- Rapid heart rate
Symptoms of smaller pulmonary embolisms may not be as obvious. These may include:
- Anxiety or dread
- Passing out
- Rapid breathing
- An irregular or rapid heartbeat
Catching a clot early
There is, however, no need to live in fear of blood clotting. Keep in mind that, according to the American Society of Hematology, blood clots are among the most preventable types of blood conditions.
Staying active, taking all medicines your doctor prescribes, and maintaining a balanced diet are some of the most effective ways to prevent dangerous clotting.
How to Spot and Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis
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When the Clot Thickens
Lots of things can cause pain and swelling in your leg. But if your symptoms stem from a blood clot deep in your leg, it can be dangerous. Blood clots can happen to anyone, anytime. But some people are at increased risk. Taking steps to reduce your chances of a blood clot forming in your veins can help you avoid potentially serious problems.
Blood clots can arise anywhere in your body. They develop when blood thickens and clumps together. When a clot forms in a vein deep in the body, it’s called deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein blood clots typically occur in the lower leg or thigh.
“Deep vein thrombosis has classic symptoms—for example swelling, pain, warmth, and redness on the leg,” says Dr. Andrei Kindzelski, an NIH blood disease expert. “But about 30–40% of cases go unnoticed, since they don’t have typical symptoms.” In fact, some people don’t realize they have a deep vein clot until it causes a more serious condition.
Deep vein clots—especially those in the thigh—can break off and travel through the bloodstream. If a clot lodges in an artery in the lungs, it can block blood flow and lead to a sometimes-deadly condition called pulmonary embolism. This disorder can damage the lungs and reduce blood oxygen levels, which can harm other organs as well.
Some people are more at risk for deep vein thrombosis than others. “Usually people who develop deep vein thrombosis have some level of thrombophilia, which means their blood clots more rapidly or easily,” Kindzelski says. Getting a blood clot is usually the first sign of this condition because it’s hard to notice otherwise. In these cases, lifestyle can contribute to a blood clot forming—if you don’t move enough, for example. Your risk is higher if you’ve recently had surgery or broken a bone, if you’re ill and in bed for a long time, or if you’re traveling for a long time (such as during long car or airplane rides).
Having other diseases or conditions can also raise your chances of a blood clot. These include a stroke, paralysis (an inability to move), chronic heart disease, high blood pressure, surgical procedure, or having been recently treated for cancer. Women who take hormone therapy pills or birth control pills, are pregnant, or within the first 6 weeks after giving birth are also at higher risk. So are those who smoke or who are older than 60. But deep vein thrombosis can happen at any age.
You can take simple steps to lower your chances for a blood clot. Exercise your lower leg muscles if you’re sitting for a long time while traveling. Get out of bed and move around as soon as you’re able after having surgery or being ill. The more active you are, the better your chance of avoiding a blood clot. Take any medicines your doctor prescribes to prevent clots after some types of surgery.
A prompt diagnosis and proper treatment can help prevent the complications of blood clots. See your doctor immediately if you have any signs or symptoms of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (see the Wise Choices box). A physical exam and other tests can help doctors determine whether you’ve got a blood clot.
There are many ways to treat deep vein thrombosis. Therapies aim to stop the blood clot from getting bigger, prevent the clot from breaking off and moving to your lungs, or reduce your chance of having another blood clot. NIH scientists continue to research new medicines and better treatment options.
If you think you may be at risk for deep vein thrombosis, talk with your doctor.
Stay Alert for These Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis
With National Pulmonary Rehabilitation Week coming up on March 11 through 17, we take some time to educate you on the role of pulmonary rehabilitation to enhance the quality of life for those with lung and other diseases. Here at Pathways Home Health and Hospice, we see a lot of individuals in hospice that suffer from end-stage lung disease in San Francisco. Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, can travel through the bloodstream to the lungs, causing a blockage called pulmonary embolism (PE).
Unfortunately, venous thromboembolism, including deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among elderly patients, according to the NIH. Both Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (DVT/PE) are often under-diagnosed and can cause serious yet preventable illnesses and disabilities, and even death. In a nutshell, deep vein thrombosis happens when a blood clot forms in a deep vein, typically in the lower leg, thigh, pelvis and even arm.
If the vein swells, thrombophlebitis is the condition that can develop. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem in the lung, referred to as a pulmonary embolism.
If caught early, DVT can be treated. It’s important to know what to look for in terms of symptoms in your loved one.
Symptoms to Be on the Lookout For
Deep vein thrombosis comes with many signs and symptoms that can alert you to potential danger. WebMD says cause for concern includes:
- Swelling in one or both legs
- Change in color of one leg to blue or purple
- Pain or tenderness in one or both legs
- Warm skin on leg
- Red or discolored skin on leg
- Visible veins
- Tired legs
These symptoms can either come on suddenly or develop slowly over time. Sometimes, there are no symptoms at all. About one half of all people with DVTs have no recognizable symptoms, says the Vascular Disease Foundation.
The danger arises when a blood clot breaks free with the potential to travel to your lungs, resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This can be deadly and you may not even see any warning signs.
However, the warning signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism are a bit different from DVT, and include:
- Sudden shortness of breath
- Chest pain or discomfort that gets worse when you take a deep breath or cough
- Feeling lightheaded or fainting
- Rapid pulse
- Coughing up blood
- Feelings of apprehension
- Profuse sweating
There are many things that can cause the above, including slow blood flow through a deep vein, tendency for quick blood clotting, and irritation or inflammation of the vein’s inner lining.
Some factors can put patients at an increased risk for DVT. Those risk factors, according to the CDC, include:
- Injury to a vein due to fractures, muscle injuries and major surgeries
- Slow blood flow due to bed confinement, limited movement due to cast, long-term sitting or crossing of legs, and paralysis
- Increased estrogen brought on by birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy, and pregnancy
- Chronic medical illnesses, such as heart disease, lung disease and Crohn’s Disease
- Previous DVT or PE
- Family history
- Age (the older you are, the more at risk you are)
- Catheter placed in a central vein
- Clotting disorders
Fortunately, there are ways to prevent or lessen the risk of DVT. It can be tough for those in hospice or those who are home bound, simply due to the inability to move around on a regular basis. Often times, hospice patients are confined to a bed and can’t even get up to walk. However, your hospice care team knows how to deal with possible DVTs and PEs and can suggest ways to lower the risk even in bed-bound patients, such as through anti-coagulant medication as well as physical therapy.
Here are some general tips for prevention:
- Move around as soon as possible after long-term bed confinement, particularly after an illness or surgery.
- Wear compression stockings.
- Take medication such as anti-coagulants
- Exercise legs while sitting by raising and lowering heels while keeping toes on floor, or tightening and releasing leg muscles.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Follow doctor’s recommendations based on individual risk factors.
It’s important to note that anti-coagulants can stop clots from getting bigger and prevent new ones from forming, but they do not break up existing clots. Your body’s natural healing process will have to take care of dissolving existing clots, provided you take the above suggestions, such as getting enough exercise.
Contact Pathways Home Health and Hospice
For more information on how our hospice and home health care teams can help your loved one avoid DVT, please contact us at 888-755-7855. Pathways Home Health and Hospice can alert you to the signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis so you can be educated and proactive on this important topic. Remember, National Pulmonary Rehabilitation Week is March 11 through 17!
90,000 6 Signs of Thrombosis You Must Know
Most often, thrombosis is formed in the legs
The earlier it turns out to detect the formation of blood clots, the higher the chances of maintaining health, and even life, doctors warn.
The health consequences of thrombosis are catastrophic. A blood clot formed in a vein can break off at any time and block blood access, leading to a stroke, heart attack, or death.
Thrombosis can be recognized by certain symptoms. The main thing to remember is that blockage of veins can form in different parts of the body, but most often it occurs in the legs or hip part of the body.
Six signs of thrombosis, knowledge of which can save life
If there is a blood clot, the inside of the foot, calf, or leg is usually very painful.The pain subsides a little when you lift your leg.
Soreness or severe muscle tension is felt in the leg.
Swelling may occur in the area where the blood clot has formed.
Pain in the calf muscles that occurs when the foot is bent or when pressing on the calves.
Veins are strongly inflated with bumps.
Burning sensation in the leg, as if from fire.
Attention! With arm thrombosis, the symptoms are usually more noticeable. In addition, the signs mentioned above may appear unevenly, depending on the general condition of the person.
What you need to know about thrombosis
Most often, blood clots occur in the veins connected to the heart – these are the pelvis and legs.
Pulmonary embolism is a dangerous consequence of thrombosis. This happens when a blood clot breaks down and travels through the veins, through the heart, to the lungs.
In some cases, the blood clot can also be infected with bacteria. They can then spread, resulting in blood poisoning.
As a result of thrombosis, inflammation of the skin may occur, ulcers may appear, or edema of the legs and arms may occur.
Earlier, “Kubanskie Novosti” told about the danger of varicose veins.
90,000 Deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) – what is it?
- Deep vein thrombosis is dangerous!
- Deep vein thrombosis with varicose veins
- Deep vein thrombosis – causes of DVT
- Risk groups for deep vein thrombosis
- What symptoms develop with deep vein thrombosis
- Deep vein thrombosis – diagnosis
- Surgical treatments for deep vein thrombosis
- Deep vein thrombosis – treatment in Moscow
- Deep vein thrombosis – conservative treatment
- Deep vein thrombosis drug treatment
- Diet for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities
- Deep vein thrombosis – home treatment
- Prevention of deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities
- Deep vein thrombosis – reviews of our patients
- Frequently asked questions from our patients on the Internet about deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) – what is it?
Deep vein thrombosis is a disease in which blood clots (thrombi) form in the lumen of the deep veins. The lower limbs are most often affected.
The mechanism of development of deep vein thrombosis
With the development of the disease, the health of the deep vessels is threatened. If treatment is not prescribed on time, there can be serious consequences.
Deep vein thrombosis is dangerous!
This is what a tangle-like vein thrombosis of the lower extremities looks like
Due to the formation of blood clots, the normal blood flow is disturbed, and this leads to blockage of blood vessels.With such disorders, tissue necrosis can occur in some areas of the body. In the worst case, the resulting blood clots break off and enter the heart or lung. In such cases, due to thromboembolism of the artery of the lung, the person dies.
Deep vein thrombosis – Wikipedia says …
DVT is considered a pathological condition characterized by the formation of blood clots in the deep vein cavity. This disease is observed in 10-20% of the total population. 3-15% of people who do not receive proper treatment die from pulmonary embolism.
Deep vein thrombosis with varicose veins
Very often, deep vein thrombosis becomes a complication of varicose veins.
Deep vein thrombosis is often a complication of varicose veins
The severity of the disease will depend on the location of the thrombus and its size. If a complete blockage of the vessel does not occur, symptoms of the disease may be completely absent.
Deep vein thrombosis – causes of DVT
Deep vein thrombosis most often occurs when several factors are combined:
- for blood clotting disorders;
- when blood flow is slowed down;
- for damage to the vascular walls.
There are risk factors that provoke the occurrence of thrombosis, these are:
- old age;
- use of certain drugs, including oral contraceptives;
- pregnancy and childbirth;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- some operations;
- injuries damaging blood vessels.
Risk groups for deep vein thrombosis
The risk group includes people who have:
- varicose veins;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- operations were performed on the limbs, as well as in the pelvis and abdomen;
- had fractures of the leg bones;
- there are tumors in the abdominal cavity, pelvis and retroperitoneal space;
- dyshormonal state of the endocrine or reproductive system;
- Positional Compression Syndrome.
What symptoms develop with deep vein thrombosis
As a rule, symptoms do not appear immediately, only in the case of an increase in the blood clot. If there is a separation of the clot, shortness of breath, chest pain, hemoptysis may occur.
You can recognize the development of the disease by the following symptoms:
- swelling of the legs;
- bluish skin tone;
- pain when moving.
The main symptom of deep vein thrombosis is leg pain!
If you have these signs, you most likely have deep vein thrombosis. The stages or variants of the course determine the method of treatment.
Deep vein thrombosis – diagnosis
The main method for diagnosing deep vein thrombosis today is ultrasound duplex scanning. With ultrasound, it is possible to determine the location of the thrombus, its size, condition (it is attached to the walls of the vein or dangles in the lumen – it floats).
Doctor Malakhov A.M. conducts ultrasound diagnostics of deep veins of the lower extremities
Phlebography and radionuclide scanning are also prescribed to assess venous blood flow.The state of microcirculation is assessed based on the data of rheovasography.
Surgical methods for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis
If a patient has a severe form of thrombosis of the lower extremities, the most effective method of treatment, surgical intervention, is thrombolysis. A timely operation makes it possible to restore full blood flow, if the diagnosis is deep vein thrombosis. Only a timely intervention can completely cure the patient from this serious condition.Thrombolysis is performed only in an inpatient setting and by highly experienced endovascular surgeons. Treatment after surgery is also aimed at the same goal – resorption of blood clots.
In addition to thrombolysis, there are two more surgical methods for treating deep vein thrombosis – thrombectomy with angioplasty and installation of a thrombus trap – cava filter.
Surgical treatments for deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis – treatment in Moscow
Modern Moscow medicine offers several methods for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis, the use of which depends on the severity of the disease.In the early stages, thrombolytic drugs can be dispensed with if you have deep vein thrombosis. Treatment (Moscow is a city where there are world luminaries in phlebology) must be very qualified. In the later stages, such therapy is dangerous due to the possible separation of a thrombus and the occurrence of thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery. If severe circulatory disorders and deep vein thrombosis are observed, treatment is an operation (thrombectomy).
Deep vein thrombosis – conservative treatment
With conservative treatment, you can only stop or slow down the progression of the disease.Such therapy can also be prescribed with complex treatment.
Principles of Conservative Therapy:
- compression therapy (elastic compression) – the result of this effect is the elimination of the mechanisms of the progress of varicose veins, without such therapy, conservative treatment is impossible;
- The required compression level is achieved through the use of special jersey (special medical product), in this case it is important to choose the right size of compression jersey;
- compression hosiery is able to relieve swelling, pain and increased fatigue of the lower extremities;
- The required result is achieved with the constant use of elastic compression.
Deep vein thrombosis drug treatment
This implies a course of treatment with anticoagulants (drugs that prevent blood from clotting). The average duration of such a course is at least 3 months, and sometimes even longer. A combination of drugs that differ in the mechanism of action is envisaged. An important step in the medical treatment of DVT is the selection of blood thinners. To prevent gastrointestinal complications, some medications are given parenterally.
Pharmacotherapy is often performed on an outpatient basis. In severe forms of the disease, patients who have suffered thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery or thrombosis of the vena cava are annually hospitalized in the therapeutic or cardiological department for 2-3 weeks, where infusion hemorheological and cardiotonic therapy is performed.
Diet for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities
In case of venous thrombosis, you need to follow a diet, excluding foods containing a significant amount of vitamin K and C from the diet.Moderate fluid intake is also recommended.
You should eat foods that thin your blood, such as garlic, peppers and artichokes.
Deep vein thrombosis – home treatment
Today, along with traditional methods of treating the disease, traditional medicine is practiced if deep vein thrombosis is determined. Treatment with folk remedies is used as an adjunct to the main treatment.
The first thing to do is to thin the blood.If you have deep vein thrombosis, alternative treatments include the following foods:
- onions and garlic;
- sunflower seeds;
- apple cider vinegar;
- tomatoes or tomato juice;
Blood thinning should be approached with caution so as not to provoke bleeding.It is not recommended to eat fatty and meat products if there is deep vein thrombosis. Photos, the results of the wrong treatment are on the Internet.
Every day you can eat one spoonful of a mixture made from crushed garlic, two tablespoons of unrefined vegetable oil and one tablespoon of honey.
Prevention of deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities
Prevention of the disease is primarily aimed at eliminating the causes of the development of vascular diseases.Thus, you need to get rid of bad habits, reduce body weight, treat diabetes mellitus, lower blood cholesterol levels and move more. So it will be possible to defeat deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities (diet, photos, results should be a stimulus!).
Deep vein thrombosis – reviews of our patients.
Testimonial of our patient about the deep vein thrombosis treatment performed at the MIFC
Anita, 38 years old, Moscow.
I would like to thank the clinic staff for their professionalism.With their help, I began to trust traditional medicine again. Before I went to the clinic, I repeatedly underwent various therapeutic procedures for deep vein thrombosis in my legs. At first I had varicose veins with a complication, in which they underwent an operation to “suture the veins.” As a result, I practically became disabled. On the advice of my friends, I turned to the doctors of the MIFC clinic, who brought me back to a full life. It’s good that everything was done without surgery. Anita, 38 years old, Moscow.
Patient testimonial on the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in our center
Andrey, 40 years old, Krasnogorsk.
Due to frequent stressful situations and bad habits, I have problems with my legs, or rather, impaired blood circulation. The legs were often swollen, blue and sometimes painful when walking. On the Internet, I accidentally saw an article about venous thrombosis, while the described symptoms coincided with my feelings. I was just recently advised a phlebology clinic, and I decided to go for a consultation.Doctor Malakhov A.M. diagnosed with acute deep vein thrombosis. At first, I was reassured and told that in this case, surgical intervention is indispensable. Since there was no other way out, I agreed and did not regret it. The operation in the vascular department of the city hospital, where I was urgently hospitalized, to remove the blood clot was successful and without complications. Now nothing threatens my life, thanks to the doctors of the clinic “MIFC” for their professionalism and “human” attitude towards patients! Andrey, 40 years old, Moscow.
Frequently asked questions from our patients on the Internet about deep vein thrombosis
How to understand that there are blood clots in the veins?
Only a specialist, phlebologist or vascular surgeon can reliably understand that there are blood clots in the veins. And even a specialized specialist will need instrumental support, an ultrasound examination of blood vessels. You can assume that you have blood clots in your veins by the following signs:
- Cyanosis of the skin.
- Soreness, swelling of tissues, redness of the skin along the veins.
If there are blood clots in the veins, how are they recognized, symptoms and treatment?
Blood clots in the veins can be detected using duplex ultrasound scanning. The following symptoms indicate the presence of blood clots in the veins: swelling, pain, discoloration of the limb. The best diagnostic option, as well as subsequent treatment, would be to contact a good phlebological center.
How to recognize a blood clot in your leg?
In order to recognize a blood clot on the leg, you must seek professional medical attention. Alternatively, do an ultrasound examination of the vessels of the lower extremity. The best solution would be to consult a narrow specialist, phlebologist.
How to identify blood clots in the legs?
From the point of view of modern diagnostics, the best way to identify blood clots in the legs is an ultrasound examination of the vessels of the lower extremities.
A blood clot in a vein, how is it formed?
A thrombus in a vein is formed as a result of a complex chain of biochemical reactions, during which a network of insoluble fibrin molecules is formed from fibrinogen molecules. In the latter, blood cells are fixed, creating a dense intravascular structure, which is a thrombus.
How to identify a blood clot?
A thrombus can be determined by various methods, both computed and magnetic resonance imaging, and a good ultrasound examination.The latter technique is more optimal in terms of price-quality ratio and is the gold standard for the diagnosis of thrombosis.
How to prevent blood clots in blood vessels?
It is possible to prevent the formation of blood clots in the vessels if you are examined by a phlebologist in a timely manner, follow the doctor’s recommendations, eliminate varicose veins, if detected.
90,000 5 signs of thrombosis | PHARMACY Weekly
Blood clots can help “close” a wound and stop excessive bleeding, but this process can be very dangerous if it occurs in the deep veins of the body.It often occurs in the vessels of the lower extremities, which is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
“When blood clots form in deep vessels, they can cause pain and health risks,” said Dr. Luis Navarro, founder of the Vein Treatment Center in New York, USA. … The most serious complication can occur if the clot travels to the lungs and blocks systemic blood flow.It is important to know the symptoms of thrombosis, because they can often be subtle or imperceptible at all, ”said L. Navarro.
These 5 signs can help identify the presence of a blood clot.
- Swelling of one leg
In most cases, deep vein thrombosis results in edema in the affected limb. It becomes noticeably below the knee and rarely affects both legs. “When a blood clot forms in a vein, blood cannot return to the heart, which causes swelling of the limb,” explains Dr. Patricia Vassallo, assistant professor of cardiology at Northwestern University, USA.
- Skin discoloration
When blood flow is blocked in the veins, the color of the skin over this area may change. You can see shades of blue, magenta, or even red. If this area also feels itchy or feels warm to the touch, it is highly recommended to seek the advice of a specialist.
- Shortness of breath
Due to the effect of the formed blood clot on the circulatory system, the oxygen level may begin to fall.As a result, you can feel an increase in heart rate, a suffocating cough appears and breathing becomes difficult.
This may be a sign that a blood clot has moved to the lungs, especially if on top of that there is dizziness. If these symptoms appear, you must immediately call an ambulance.
- Pain in one leg
This pain may occur on its own or be accompanied by signs of discoloration of the skin and swelling in the limb. “Unfortunately, pain caused by a blood clot can easily be mistaken for muscle cramps or overexertion, so the problem is often misdiagnosed and especially dangerous,” said Dr. L.Navarro.
- Acute chest pain
When a blood clot travels to the lungs, it can cause a pulmonary embolism and cause symptoms similar to a heart attack.
According to Dr. Thomas Maldonado of NYU Langone Medical Center, dull pain that is concentrated in the chest but radiates to surrounding parts of the body is most likely a heart attack. On the other hand, he noted that a pulmonary embolism can manifest itself as acute pain, which the patient feels is getting worse with each breath.
Based on materials from www.medicaldaily.com
90,000 Signs of thrombosis in COVID-19 coronavirus
More than 83 million.
This is the statistics of COVID-19 coronavirus infections at the end of 2020. Moreover, only official WHO data are indicated here, and the exact number of cases cannot be determined.
Up to 80% of patients recover without hospitalization.
15% of patients develop a serious form of pathology, which requires connection to a ventilator.
Sometimes they have complications:
- Respiratory failure
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome
- Multiple organ failure
Among these factors, it is important to single out pulmonary embolism, since it is often fatal.
This complication sometimes develops with thrombosis. Therefore, you need to know how often dense blood clots form in the vessels due to COVID-19.
The exact risk of thrombosis in coronavirus is difficult to determine. Much depends on the state of the person. In 16-30% of those hospitalized, doctors diagnose blood clots in the arteries or veins.
Thrombosis as a complication of coronavirus occurs even more often in people with severe pathology. For example, a person is admitted to an intensive care unit with COVID-19. With a probability of 50%, he will be diagnosed with thrombosis.
Dense blood clots in blood vessels, in addition to thromboembolism, sometimes provoke a heart attack or stroke.
So during a pandemic, doctors recommend not only to monitor for signs of coronavirus, but also to note any symptoms of vascular thrombosis. This will help prevent dangerous complications.
In addition, blood clots affect blood circulation. Therefore, people with varicose veins and other vein diseases often feel worse when blood clots form.
Why does thrombosis occur with coronavirus?
Scientists have identified three potential causes of this problem at once:
1.Damage to the inner wall of blood vessels
Even with minor injuries, the blood becomes thicker to prevent severe blood loss. That is, this mechanism should be useful. However, with a large number of blood clots, blood circulation is impaired, and dangerous complications can develop.
2. Blood congestion during hospitalization
Blood circulation in the veins largely depends on muscle contraction. When people walk or run, muscles constrict blood vessels and help push blood to the heart.
Patients in the hospital do not move much. Because of this, blood often accumulates in the veins and blood clots often form in it.
3. Increased blood clotting
When infected with coronavirus, a special protein is activated in the body, which affects the functioning of the immune system. As a result, the blood becomes thicker and the risk of thrombosis increases.
Among the causes of thrombosis in coronavirus, doctors consider the third factor the most important – the body’s response to a viral attack.So let’s take a closer look at it.
A whole system of proteins circulates in the blood. They identify and neutralize viruses, bacteria and damaged cells. Under normal conditions, these proteins cleanse the body of dangerous elements without harming the body itself.
However, with coronavirus, the defense system is too active and damages tissue, which increases the likelihood of thrombosis.
Doctors have not yet developed a cure for this problem. Therefore, it is important to reduce the incidence of blood clots.First of all, this applies to people who are at risk for thrombosis of the lower extremities.
They are influenced by the following factors:
- Age over 65 years old
- Previous deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism
- Myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular pathologies
To reduce the threat of blood clots, it is necessary to deal with the prevention of deep vein thrombosis after coronavirus.We will talk about this a little later.
First, it is important to understand what thrombosis is and what vessels it affects.
Thrombosis of the lower extremities after coronavirus
This is the name of a disease of the venous system of the legs, in which dense blood clots form in the vessels.
This pathology develops for the following reasons:
- Increased blood clotting
- Slowing blood flow
- Damage to the venous walls during trauma or surgery
- Taking certain contraceptives
The disease affects the superficial or deep veins.In coronavirus, deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities is considered the most dangerous, since its complications sometimes lead to death.
A blood clot forms on the walls of blood vessels. Because of this, blood circulation in them is disturbed, which sometimes causes pain, swelling and other symptoms. However, pathology often proceeds without visible signs.
Sometimes blood clots come off the veins. These dense blood clots enter the bloodstream and often travel to the heart, lungs, or brain. If they get stuck in the vessels of the lungs, then the person may stop breathing.This phenomenon is called thromboembolism.
After leg thrombosis in coronavirus, some develop post-thrombotic disease. A blood clot damages blood vessels, which is why blood circulation in them is impaired. This provokes swelling and pain. Without timely treatment, the skin over the affected area darkens, and then ulcers form on it. This reduces the quality of life and makes it easier for bacteria to enter the body. In rare cases, trophic ulcers cause gangrene.
Symptoms of pulmonary thrombosis after coronavirus
Pulmonary embolism is mainly associated with deep vein thrombosis of the legs.However, exceptions are possible. For example, in rare cases, pulmonary thrombosis in coronavirus occurs due to blood clots that have formed in the veins of the arms or chest cavity.
The severity of the pathology depends on the following factors:
- Number and size of thrombus fragments
- Initial lung condition
- Efficiency of the right ventricle
- The effectiveness of the thrombolytic system
Small blood clots are not dangerous.They dissolve quickly and sometimes last no longer than two hours.
If large blood clots block large pulmonary arteries or small clots block more than half of the distal vessels, the pressure in the right ventricle increases. This can lead to sudden death. The risk of death depends on the state of health of the patient. Young people with good health often experience pulmonary embolism, even if more than 50% of the vessels are blocked.
Signs of pulmonary thrombosis in coronavirus:
- Cough with blood
- Acute dyspnea
- Rapid breathing
- Discomfort or pain in the chest when coughing and taking deep breaths
- Rapid heart rate
For these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor who will order a D-dimer blood test.This protein is produced by blood clots. A high level of D-dimer will not indicate the location of blood clots, but a low level will immediately exclude pulmonary embolism.
Ultrasound scanning is often done to detect blood clots in the upper or lower extremities. The doctor runs a special device along the vessels. The sound wave penetrates the body and is reflected, and an image of the veins appears on the monitor screen. Blood clots are visible on it.
Signs of thrombosis in coronavirus
Let us repeat – not all patients develop symptoms of this disease.Therefore, the absence of symptoms of thrombosis after coronavirus does not guarantee protection against pulmonary embolism.
Under normal conditions, this complication is rare. However, with a severe form of COVID-19, the likelihood of blood clots increases more than tenfold. So blood clots are more likely to end up in the lungs.
How does deep vein thrombosis manifest after coronavirus?
Patients with this condition are often diagnosed with the following symptoms:
In most cases, stagnation of lymphatic fluid occurs in only one limb.Sometimes edema affects both legs.
Unpleasant sensations often arise in the calves, and then spread to the limb. More pain appears during seizures.
- Skin pallor
Blood circulation is impaired in the affected area. The skin does not receive enough oxygen and gradually takes on a painful appearance.
- Redness and warmth in the leg
These signs usually indicate inflammation of the venous walls.
If blood clots form in superficial vessels, then the pathology manifests itself more clearly and more strongly affects the patient’s quality of life.
It has the following symptoms:
- Hypersensitivity in the affected area of the leg
- Redness of the skin over a blocked vein
- Continuous burning pain along the thrombosed vessels
- Swelling of the ankles and lower legs
- Temperature rise near the affected vein
- Dilation of subcutaneous vessels
Although blood clots in superficial veins do not cause pulmonary embolism, they sometimes cause serious consequences.For example, a blood clot destroys the valves in a vessel. Because of this, varicose veins and blood stasis can develop.
It is important for people at risk of thrombosis to use all available means to prevent this disease. Especially if they are struck by COVID-19.
Prevention of thrombosis in coronavirus
The following measures will help reduce the likelihood of blood clots:
- Drink plenty of fluids
When the body is dehydrated, the blood becomes thicker.This increases the risk of thrombosis.
The required daily dose of liquid depends on the weight of the person: at 50 kg it is 1.7 liters, at 60 kg it is 2.1 liters, at 70 kg it is 2.4 liters. People get about 20% of their fluids from food. The rest is from drinks.
Excessive drinking rarely causes problems. So even if you drink more than three liters of liquid per day, it will not harm your health. But the passion for alcoholic beverages often leads to dehydration.
- Do not sit still for more than an hour
Venous circulation depends on the movement of the leg muscles.The longer a person sits or stands motionless, the more often the blood stagnates in the vessels.
Yes, during self-isolation, people are afraid to go for a walk. However, to reduce the risk of thrombosis, it is not necessary to walk on the street for hours near potential sources of the disease. Even a short walk at home will disperse the blood in your veins. Just get out of your chair or sofa and walk around the apartment for five minutes. Repeat this every hour.
When walking, muscles constrict blood vessels and push stagnant blood to the heart, which reduces pressure on the venous walls and reduces the risk of thrombosis.
- Quit smoking
For many during the pandemic, bad habits only worsened. For example, some people smoke more often to ease feelings of anxiety.
Smoking increases the likelihood of blood clots forming, and therefore this habit will prevent you from avoiding deep vein thrombosis in coronavirus.
Yes, not everyone will be able to immediately give up cigarettes. But any reduction in your daily dose of nicotine will still benefit your vascular health.
- Fight overweight
Blood volume is 7-8% of body weight. The increase in weight inevitably leads to increased stress on the venous walls and valves. The more blood in the vessels, the higher the likelihood of stagnation. That is, in overweight people, blood more often accumulates in the veins, which increases the risk of thrombosis.
First calculate your optimal weight. For this, two formulas are used: (Height (in cm) – 110) * 1.15) – for men, (Height (in cm) – 100) * 1.15) – for women.
Try not to deviate too much from the norm. However, a difference of a few kilograms will hardly affect the likelihood of blood clots.
Unfortunately, preventive measures are not always effective. If it was not possible to avoid thrombosis after coronavirus, then it is necessary to start fighting the disease as soon as possible.
Treatment of thrombosis in coronavirus
Doctors choose the method of therapy depending on the patient’s condition.First, the doctor finds out the location and size of the blood clots. He performs an ultrasound scan of blood vessels or venography, which allows you to detect blood clots and monitor their changes.
Treatment of thrombosis after coronavirus is mainly performed with the help of anticoagulants. We will talk about these drugs later.
In rare cases, surgery is required. For example, sometimes doctors insert a special filter into the affected vein, which traps the fragments of blood clots and prevents pulmonary embolism.
Sometimes urgent operations are carried out. When a large blood clot clogs important vessels in the lungs or heart, doctors may remove it surgically.
Many are afraid that thrombosis in coronavirus will cause gangrene. These fears are justified. However, one should not exaggerate the threat – for the entire time of the pandemic, doctors have identified only a few cases of mass destruction of limbs by blood clots. Some patients required amputation.
If the pathology is mild, then the infected recover at home without drugs and surgery.However, some of them buy anticoagulants without prescription. So you need to figure out how high the effectiveness of these funds is in a pandemic.
Medicines for thrombosis in coronavirus
First, a few words about drugs.
Anticoagulants do not destroy blood clots. They only prevent the growth of old and the formation of new blood clots. The duration of the use of these funds depends on the number and size of blood clots. Sometimes people take them for months.
Important point – Anticoagulants can cause bleeding.
Therefore, it is dangerous to exceed the indicated dosage or to use anticoagulants without a doctor’s prescription.
In common deep vein thrombosis, blood thinners are effective, although not in all cases. These medications are also prescribed for COVID-19.
All hospitalized patients are prescribed heparin and other drugs for coronavirus thrombosis. They are administered subcutaneously or intravenously.Such funds are not recommended only for people with contraindications.
Unfortunately, anticoagulants do not help everyone. We have already said that blood clots form in patients with coronavirus due to increased blood clotting. Medicines do not fix this problem. So it is difficult for doctors to determine the effective and safe dose of blood thinning drugs for each patient.
Some studies show that a therapeutic dose is more effective than a prophylactic dose.However, this is more likely to cause bleeding. As you can see, there are clear benefits and risks to anti-thrombosis drugs for coronavirus.
Self-medication with anticoagulants may be useless or dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to take these funds only as directed by a doctor and without violating the dosage. The doctor will not only determine the correct dose. He will also ask the patient about taking other medications, which sometimes provoke dangerous reactions when interacting with anticoagulants.This will make the treatment as safe as possible.
How to be tested for thrombosis after coronavirus?
Patients discharged from the hospital continue to take blood thinners to reduce the risk of blood clots forming.
What about people with mild COVID-19?
They are rarely prescribed anticoagulants. Basically, doctors prescribe medications to representatives of the risk group for thrombosis. That is, patients with obesity, vascular injuries and limited mobility.
How to check for thrombosis in coronavirus?
Unfortunately, when a person does not need hospitalization, it is difficult for him to identify the need for medication. In such a situation, doctors are advised to monitor for signs of the disease. If they appear, then it is important to immediately seek help. For many, blood clots simply dissolve in the blood, and recovery occurs imperceptibly for the patient.
Thrombosis has become a common problem among hospitalized coronavirus patients.It affects over half of people with severe COVID-19.
Anticoagulants are used against blood clots.
They reduce the risk of thick blood. However, doctors have not yet figured out which drugs and in what doses are best to take to prevent pulmonary embolism and other complications of thrombosis. So it is dangerous to use blood thinners for self-medication.
Doctors of the clinic “Institute of Vienna”
Surgeon of the highest category, phlebologist
Experience: 21 years
Surgeon of the highest category, phlebologist
Work experience: 20 years
Phlebologist of the highest category
Work experience: 34 years
Dermatologist higher.cat., director
Work experience: 20 years
First category surgeon
Work experience: 15 years
Work experience: 17 years
Work experience: 5 years
First category surgeon
Work experience: 12 years
Vascular surgeon, chief physician
Work experience: 11 years
Vascular surgeon, phlebologist
Work experience: 10 years
Vascular surgeon, phlebologist
Work experience: 8 years
Vascular surgeon, phlebologist
Work experience: 5 years
Vascular surgeon, phlebologist
Work experience: 8 years
90,000 Dangerous clots: what are the first symptoms of thrombosis
Mortality from cardiovascular diseases directly related to thrombosis is quite high.Blood clots are blood clots that interfere with blood circulation. They can slow it down or stop it altogether. There are many reasons for the formation of blood clots: from injuries of the vascular walls to increased blood clotting. At risk of developing the disease are people over 65 years of age, with bad habits, obesity and leading a sedentary lifestyle, write “Vesti”.
Thrombosis, like most diseases, is important to detect at an early stage in order to prevent complications. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in half of people, blood clots barely show themselves.However, there are signs indicating possible thrombosis in different parts of the body.
First, there is swelling in the leg or arm. Moreover, in this case, only one limb suffers, in the vessels of which the alleged thrombus is located. Symptoms of circulatory disorders are regular convulsions. Sudden pain in the leg should also alert. This is one of the main symptoms of deep vein thrombosis. Changes in skin color may indicate obstructed blood circulation. In the area of a blood clot, the skin can regularly heat up and itch.
Regular feeling of nausea, abdominal pain can be a sign of blockage of mesenteric vessels.
If you suspect, you need to consult a therapist who, if necessary, will send you to a narrow specialist – a phlebologist or vascular surgeon. If a blood clot is detected early, complications can be easily avoided with proper treatment.
Add, thrombosis is recognized as a rare but dangerous side effect of the AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria) vaccine. This is the conclusion reached by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and it concluded that the benefits of vaccination are greater than the potential harm.
People who have received the AstraZeneca vaccine should seek immediate medical attention if they develop shortness of breath, chest pain, swelling of the legs, abdominal pain, headaches or blurred vision, or small spots of blood under the skin outside the vaccine site.
Treatment of thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities
Venous thrombosis is a dangerous inflammatory disease that develops against the background of existing varicose veins.Only timely and correct treatment of thrombosis of the lower extremities can direct the course of the disease to a favorable scenario and ensure the safety of the patient. If you miss the moment and do not perform the correct treatment of vein thrombosis, the pathological process may spread to the deep veins of the extremities, as a result of which the risk of blood clots moving through the bloodstream and pulmonary embolism (which ends fatally) is significantly increased.
Clinic of thrombosis: how not to miss the main symptoms
Superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities begins as a worsening of the habitual varicose veins.Therefore, many patients do not pay attention to the first symptoms in time. However, acute thrombophlebitis requires immediate treatment, so you should consult a doctor if you notice the following symptoms:
- Local pain in the area of varicose veins. When thrombosis and hemostasis begin, the subcutaneous veins are clearly visible on the skin, painful to touch.
- The appearance of additional seals around the vein. It is manifested by a noticeable and sharp soreness of the entire area around the affected vein.
- The acute form of thrombophlebitis can be accompanied by a sharp rise in temperature up to 39 ° C, fever and chills. There is also a sharp redness, swelling and swelling of the surface around the veins.
If you have some or all of the above symptoms, you should have a thrombosis test.
In modern conditions, the doctor determines thrombosis in the course of an ultrasound examination. Ultrasound of blood vessels is the most accurate method of localizing the inflammatory process, as well as accurately determining blood flow disorders.In particular, if the patient has severe thrombosis, high-precision diagnostics are provided with the help of ultrasound.
If the diagnosis is confirmed, venous thrombosis treatment involves the use of modern technologies and methods. Our clinic has all the necessary equipment for a highly accurate and reliable solution to the problem.
Modern methods of treatment
Conservative methods of treating thrombophlebitis help only to mitigate the course of the disease, but only a well-performed endovenous laser obliteration can radically solve the problem and remove the threat of serious complications that are life-threatening.This is one of the most modern methods of surgical treatment.
Laser obliteration of the lower extremities involves the introduction of special laser equipment into the vein, which, with the help of temperature exposure, “seals” the affected vein and stops the process of blood clots in it. An important advantage of laser obliteration of the vessels of the lower extremities , is that there is no need to perform surgical incisions, which allows the operation to be performed on an outpatient basis.
Another modern method is miniflebectomy, removal of damaged veins through small punctures. The miniflebectomy operation is also performed on an outpatient basis and provides a minimum rehabilitation period, as well as a relatively easy subjective perception.
In our clinic, laser obliteration and miniflebectomy prices are the most attractive, so you can get the highest quality services at an affordable price.
90,000 do not miss the first symptoms, how to identify a blood clot (photo)
Most often, a violation of blood flow in the legs is recorded in smokers, diabetics, hypertensive patients due to its stagnation.This is an acute and dangerous circulatory pathology. If you miss the first symptoms of blood clots, do not start qualified treatment in a timely manner, gangrene may form on the leg, which will lead to amputation of the limb. We will tell you how to identify a blood clot, show a photo.
- What is thrombosis
- Symptoms of the disease
What is thrombosis
To avoid the formation of blood clots, you need to know what this problem is and what its danger is.Pathology consists in blockage of the vessels of the legs, which occurs in the presence of various factors.
Today, there is no universal way to recognize an emerging blockage. Thrombosis in the veins, arteries of the legs manifests itself in different ways. At the same time, doctors recommend paying attention to some changes in the state of health, in the condition of the legs, their mobility, and the degree of fatigue.
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It is almost impossible to independently identify the onset of blood clots in the legs.The appearance of the slightest symptoms is the reason for an urgent appeal to a surgeon, an ambulance call. When the doctor sees that the symptoms are clear, informative, an urgent examination is carried out. Time is counted on the clock, the pathology is so serious.
Untimely removal of a thrombus threatens its separation and direct passage through the jugular artery to the heart or necrosis of the tissues surrounding the affected veins. On an emergency basis, a serious operation is performed, after which a person often becomes disabled.
Need to know!
Blood clots in the veins never move, the pressure in such vessels is low, there are valves that stop clots. Arterial clots are dangerous, they move freely, high blood pressure quickly carries them through the vessels.
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Symptoms of the disease
Vascular occlusion manifests itself differently, depending on the location. It is difficult to notice the smallest clots, but they give serious complications – rapid blockage of blood vessels, tissue necrosis.You need to know the first symptoms in order not to miss their appearance.
The manifestation of blood clots is determined by a specific lesion visible to the naked eye:
- The skin over the affected area turns red, looks like a bruise.
- The body temperature rises at the site of the thrombus, which indicates the onset of inflammation.
- A seal appears under the place of hyperemia. It is easily palpable, gives severe pain when pressed.
- Pressing pain, pulsating in time with the rhythm of the heart.
- Intense pain is relieved when the leg is in a still, comfortable position.
- There is a feeling of fullness, characteristic of vascular lesions.
- The motor activity of the leg decreases. The person begins to limp due to severe pain.
Symptoms develop quickly, if a person calmly endures pain, a sharp deterioration in the condition, irreversible changes in tissues is possible.
Thrombi that form in the deep veins give a different clinical picture:
- There is heaviness in the leg.
- Movements decrease or stop almost completely.
- Severe edema appears as a result of the absence of blood outflow from the veins, blood stagnation.