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Facts about diseases: 10 Essential Facts about Rare Diseases

10 Essential Facts about Rare Diseases

Although cancer and heart disease get plenty of media attention, research money, and pharmaceutical advances, another group of diseases that affect nearly 1 in 10 Americans garner little notice. Together, they’re referred to as rare diseases.

There are approximately 7,000 rare diseases – defined by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as conditions that affect 200,000 people or fewer. Some you’ve probably heard of — such as spina bifida, cystic fibrosis, or Tourette syndrome — but the rest can be more obscure.

Most are caused by a genetic mutation or defect, and the majority affect children and have no cure. Here are 10 facts everyone should know about rare diseases.

1. Rare diseases affect nearly 30 million Americans combined. When you take into account the total number of people living with a rare disease in the United States, they don’t sound so rare.

For perspective, consider that in 2014, there were 14. 5 million Americans with a history of cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. And 1.5 million Americans have a stroke or heart attack each year. Rare diseases, by comparison, impact many more people.

2. It can take several years to diagnose a rare disease. Many rare diseases have nonspecific symptoms such as pain, weakness, and dizziness, which can make them hard to diagnose. They can also be hard to diagnose because they’re so unusual. Your doctor may never have seen a similar case and may not even realize a specific disease exists.

In addition, it could take weeks or months for you to get an appointment with a specialist. Then, if that specialist was not the right one, you might wait months before seeing the next one. Patients with rare diseases visit more than seven doctors on average before receiving an accurate diagnosis, according to a 2013 study published in the Journal of Rare Disorders.

While it’s certainly frustrating, it’s important that you don’t give up searching for an accurate diagnosis, whether you suspect a rare disease or something more common. Continue to see your primary care physician, who can help track your symptoms and let you know if any new research has been done that might help.

3. Only 5 percent of rare diseases have treatments. Drug research that helps a limited number of people can be cost-prohibitive for pharmaceutical companies. (Remember, the pool of prospective patients with a rare condition is by definition less than 200,000, compared to the pool of those who could potentially take cholesterol-lowering drugs, for example.)

In response, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created the Office of Orphan Products Development (OOPD) in 1983 to offer grants and other incentives to pharmaceutical companies for research.

4. Genetic testing can help diagnose many rare diseases, but not all. Genetic testing identifies a genetic cause in an estimated 25 percent to 30 percent of cases. As mentioned above, even with a diagnosis, it’s still unlikely that there is a cure or even treatment for any given rare disease.

However, one major benefit of getting a definitive diagnosis of a rare disease is peace of mind. You also may have an easier time getting insurance to cover doctor bills, procedures, and tests once a condition has been diagnosed.

5. Newborn screening for rare diseases is recommended. Screening requirements for newborns vary by state, but they’re increasingly becoming routine, especially for cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and other conditions where early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for the child.

Even without a cure for a particular condition, early diagnosis is important to prevent death or disability and to help children reach their full potential.

6. Prenatal testing for rare diseases is becoming more advanced. It’s now possible to test early in a woman’s pregnancy for a handful of rare diseases, including Trisomy 18 syndrome, also known as Edward’s syndrome, and Trisomy 13, also known as Patau syndrome.

The procedure is a simple blood test that can be performed as early as the 10th week of pregnancy. More prenatal screening for other rare diseases is on the horizon.

7. Some cancers are rare diseases. There are cancers that happen so infrequently they fall under the rare-disease threshold.

Examples include tongue cancer (about 39,500 people will get oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer in 2015), thyroid cancer (about 62,000 cases were diagnosed in 2014), and testicular cancer (8,430 new cases of testicular cancer will be diagnosed in 2015), according to the American Cancer Society.

8. Having a rare disease can be costly. Between visits to numerous specialists, traveling hundreds of miles to specialty centers, and paying for tests and procedures that may not be covered by insurance, the costs associated with a rare disease can be debilitating.

There are, however, numerous groups that can help with the costs. The National Organization for Rare Diseases has a patient assistance program, and Rare Disease United lists other organizations and websites for resources.

9. Finding a support group is important. A rare disease can be isolating for the patient as well as for the caregiver, especially when it’s your child who has the disease.

Connecting with others can be essential, not only for support, but also to share information and resources. Find a support group through the National Organization for Rare Diseases.

10. Rare Disease Day is on Leap Day. Fitting for rare diseases, the national awareness day is on February 29, a date that’s only on the calendar every four years. (It’s moved to February 28 on non-leap years.)

The day was started by the European Organisation for Rare Diseases and is now recognized globally. The symbol for rare disease awareness is a zebra-striped ribbon.

Facts about ID

Infectious diseases are caused by microscopic organisms that penetrate the body’s natural barriers and multiply to create symptoms that can range from mild to deadly. Although progress has been made to eradicate or control many infectious diseases, humankind remains vulnerable to a wide array of new and resurgent organisms.

Obstacles in Infection Treatment

  • New, potentially dangerous bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerge every year.
  • Previously recognized pathogens can evolve to become resistant to available antibiotics and other treatments.
  • Population crowding and easy travel also make us more vulnerable to the spread of infectious agents.
  • Recent concerns about bioterrorism have focused new attention on eradicated or rare infectious diseases such as smallpox and anthrax.

Types of Infection

Some infections, such as measles, malaria, HIV and yellow fever, affect the entire body. Other infections affect only one organ or system of the body. The most frequent local infections, including the common cold, occur in the upper respiratory tract. A serious and usually local infection of the respiratory tract is tuberculosis, which is a problem worldwide.

Other common sites of infection include the digestive tract, the lungs, the reproductive and urinary tracts, the eyes or ears. Local infections can cause serious illnesses if they affect vital organs such as the heart, brain or liver. They also can spread through the blood stream to cause widespread symptoms.

The outcome of any infection depends on the virulence of infectious agents, the number of organisms in the infecting inoculum and the response of the immune system. A compromised immune system, which can result from diseases such as AIDS or treatment of diseases such as cancer, may allow organisms that are ordinarily harmless to proliferate and cause life-threatening illness.

Modes of Infection

Common ways in which infectious agents enter the body are through skin contact, inhalation of airborne microbes, ingestion of contaminated food or water, bites from vectors such as ticks or mosquitoes that carry and transmit organisms, sexual contact and transmission from mothers to their unborn children via the birth canal and placenta.

Prevention and Treatment

Modern vaccines are among our most effective strategies to prevent disease. Many devastating diseases can now be prevented through appropriate immunization programs. In the United States, it is recommended that all children be vaccinated against diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus, polio, measles, rubella (German measles), mumps, Haemophilus influenza type B (a common cause of pneumonia and meningitis in infants), hepatitis B, varicella (chickenpox) and influenza.

Travelers to foreign countries may require vaccinations against yellow fever, cholera, typhoid fever or hepatitis A or B.

Public Health Measures
Measures that assure clean water supplies, adequate sewage treatment, and sanitary handling of food and milk also are important to control the spread of infectious disease.

The fight against infectious diseases requires worldwide surveillance by physicians, scientists and public health officials who gather information on communicable diseases, report new or resurgent outbreaks of disease, and develop standards and guidelines for treating and controlling disease.

The development of antibiotics and other antimicrobials has played an important role in the fight against infectious diseases, but some microorganisms develop resistance to the drugs used against them. Modern physicians must prescribe antibiotics carefully, and research and development of new drugs is needed. The more widely antibiotics and antivirals are used, the more likely it is that antimicrobial-resistant strains of microorganisms will emerge.

Key facts about major deadly diseases


Epidemics of infectious diseases are occurring more often, and spreading faster and further than
ever, in many different regions of the world. The background factors of this threat are biological,
environmental and lifestyle changes, among others.
A potentially fatal combination of newly-discovered diseases, and the re-emergence of many
long-established ones, demands urgent responses in all countries. Planning and preparation for
epidemic prevention and control are essential.
The purpose of this “Managing epidemics” manual is to provide expert guidance on those
Although this publication is open to a wide readership, it is primarily intended to help the World
Health Organization (WHO) country representatives (WRs) to respond effectively and rapidly at
the very start of an outbreak.
The manual provides concise and basic up-to-date knowledge with which WRs can advise
Ministries of Health in all countries. Specifi cally, it examines and explains in detail a total of 15
different infectious diseases and the necessary responses to each and every one of them.
These diseases have been selected because they represent potential international threats for
which immediate responses are critical. Nearly all of them are subject to WHO’s International
Health Regulations (2005) monitoring, and are part of the Global Health Security Agenda.
Perhaps the greatest threat outlined in the manual is an infl uenza pandemic, which is both
unpredictable and inevitable. In the worst-case scenario, there will be no protective vaccine for
six months or longer after the virus is identifi ed, and even there will be a global shortage of doses.
On this and other threats, the manual focuses on practical and indispensable things to know about
infectious diseases that are most important for national political and operational decision-makers;
it also links readers to more exhaustive WHO guidance.


Order copies from WHO’s bookstore:

Order online

Order via email: [email protected]


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Diseases – Statistics & Facts

The group of major chronic diseases responsible for the most deaths each year also includes all types of cancer, respiratory diseases and diabetes. In 2018, lung cancer alone caused over 1.7 million deaths, while liver cancer caused almost 782 thousand deaths. Chronic diseases are especially widespread in developed high income countries. Here, Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia have become more and more prevalent over the last decades.

Communicable diseases are particularly prevalent in undeveloped, lower-income countries. Diseases like HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and all types of diarrheal conditions are much more prevalent than in developed countries. For example, there were around 228 million reported cases of infections of malaria all over the world, with approximately 405 thousand deaths in 2018. Most of these cases and fatalities were reported in Africa.

In the United States, chronic diseases also account for the largest portion of death cases. All types of heart diseases and cancers are responsible for nearly half of all deaths. The risk of developing heart disease among all adults in the U.S. has remained constant at around 11 percent over the last decade. As of 2019, about 16.9 million U.S. Americans had been affected by cancer during their lifetime.

As in other developed countries, diabetes and Alzheimer’s are becoming growing burdens in the United States. More than a hundred years ago, none of these conditions were among the main health problems affecting the nation. In the year 1900, the most dangerous diseases for Americans were pneumonia or influenza, tuberculosis, and gastrointestinal infections.

This text provides general information. Statista assumes no
liability for the information given being complete or correct.
Due to varying update cycles, statistics can display more up-to-date
data than referenced in the text.

Goats and Soda : NPR

Fishermen in Papua New Guinea, living on their boats, wait for the tide to change before going out to fish. Tuberculosis is a major health threat in the Pacific Ocean nation.

Jason South/The AGE/Fairfax Media via Getty Images

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Jason South/The AGE/Fairfax Media via Getty Images

Fishermen in Papua New Guinea, living on their boats, wait for the tide to change before going out to fish. Tuberculosis is a major health threat in the Pacific Ocean nation.

Jason South/The AGE/Fairfax Media via Getty Images

When 1,700 specialists in global health descended upon Washington, D.C., this past weekend, they brought suitcases full of data and experience.

The Consortium of Universities for Global Health conference offered marathon sessions that covered everything from noncommunicable diseases and breast-feeding to climate science and injury prevention.

We edit a daily email newsletter, Global Health NOW. But we found out there’s still a lot to learn about our field. Here are some of the facts and figures that made an impression on us.

  1. Infectious diseases remain big killers. They are responsible for nearly 9 million deaths a year, about 16 percent of the world’s roughly 56 million annual total deaths, according to Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
  2. But there are other significant — and sometimes overlooked — causes of death. Injury and violence are among the less appreciated issues in global health, despite the fact that they account for more than 5 million deaths every year, said Adnan A. Hyder, director of the International Injury Research Unit at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (Full disclosure: Our newsletter is published by the Bloomberg school.)
  3. Heart disease is falling and rising. The heart disease death rate in the United States has fallen by 70 percent since the mid-20th century thanks to a better understanding of the disease’s causes and ways to prevent it, said Gary H. Gibbons, director of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (although it still kills 375,000 Americans per year). Yet in developing countries, things are moving in the opposite direction. From 1990 to 2020, coronary heart disease is expected to increase by 120 percent for women and 137 percent for men, according to estimates in a Columbia University report.
  4. Global health is largely a man’s world. Among World Health Organization member states, only 28 percent of top health officials are female.
  5. Impacts of climate change are causing unlikely health problems: Rising sea temperatures have meant that the vibrio cholerae bacteria, which can cause cholera, is able to exist in shellfish in Alaska and is causing wound infections among fishermen and others, said Juli Trtanj, a NOAA climate and health researcher.
  6. In some countries, rates of spousal violence are notably higher than the world average. The World Health Organization has reported that 35.6 percent of women have been subjected to physical or sexual violence. In Mozambique, the percentage is more than half of women, said Ana Baptista, who works for Jhpiego in the country.
  7. History shows that predictions about health-related matters aren’t easy to make. In the late 19th century, horses in New York City dropped 50,000 tons of manure every month onto streets plagued by flies and congestion, said Bruce Friedrich, executive director of The Good Food Institute. Experts considered the problem impossible to solve. Then Henry Ford introduced the Model T.

Brian W. Simpson and Dayna Kerecman Myers edit Global Health NOW, an initiative of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Disease Facts for Kids

Examining a patient in a tank respirator

A disease or medical condition is an unhealthy state where something bad happens to the body or mind. Diseases can cause pain, parts of the body to stop working the right way, or death. The word disease is sometimes used to include:

  • parts of the body being hurt,
  • not having the usual abilities,
  • medical problems or syndromes,
  • infections by microorganisms,
  • feeling unhealthy, such as having pain or feeling hot (called ‘symptoms’),
  • unusual shapes of body parts.


A disease can be caused by many things. Sometimes germs enter our body through food, water or air. A person can be infected by infectious agents like bacteria, viruses or fungus. Disease can also be caused by eating bad or old foods. There are small germs in old foods that can cause diseases. Sometimes the germs produce chemicals or toxins which causes the disease.

One of the most common causes of disease is poor sanitation and lack of clean water. Some deadly diseases like malaria in tropical parts of the world are spread by a mosquito. Animals that spread disease are called vectors. There are many vectors, including snails, ticks, and fleas.

Some people are born with ‘genetic diseases’. These are diseases because of an error or mutation in a person’s DNA. An example of a mutation is cancer. Living or working in an unhealthy environment can also be a cause for diseases. Diseases are more common in older people.


Some diseases can be helped with medicine. Infections can often be cured by antibiotics, though resistance to antibiotics is a problem. Some disease may be helped by surgery. Not every disease can be helped with medicine or surgery, though. Some diseases must be treated during the whole life; they are chronic (long-lasting) diseases. An example of a chronic disease is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can be treated (made better) but it can not yet be cured (made to totally go away). People who usually treat diseases are called doctors or physicians.


Some diseases that are common or very bad are tested for even in people who do not show any symptoms. If these diseases are found early they can be treated before they cause problems. An example would be checking a woman for cervical cancer with a test called a pap smear. If cervical cancer is found early it can be cured. If it is found later it usually causes death.

Another example is immunization. The basic idea is to make the body ready for a disease. The body has its own defense against disease called the immune system. One special characteristic of the immune system is its ability to remember some diseases. If a person is sick and recovers, the immune system will produce a substance called antibodies which fight the disease if it comes back to the person.

The antibody is specific to a particular disease or antigen. An example of this is measles which is a virus. A person usually a child who had never been sick with measles is given a milder form of the virus, this causes the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. If this person is exposed to the same virus in the future, the person’s immune system will remember and will fight the virus.

For general prevention to be useful:

  • The disease must be found and stopped in early stage.
  • The disease should be common or be easy to recognize.
  • The test for the disease should be easy, work all the time, and not hurt people.
  • The society is well-trained and can recognize most common symptoms on some diseases.
  • The treatment for the disease should be safe and be easy for people to get.


Epidemiology is the study of the cause of disease. Some diseases are more popular for people with common characteristics, like similar origins, sociological background, food or nationality. Without good epidemiological research some diseases can be hard to track and to name. Some diseases can be taken for something else. This is why epidemiology takes a huge part in understanding how to protect ourselves against viruses, toxins and bacteria.

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25 Interesting Facts about Diseases


The SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) virus is so infectious that one man in Hong Kong infected 183 people in 8 apartment buildings with one horrific bowel movement, causing a plume of aerosolized feces to circulate through the ventilation system and outside in the wind.

2. Malaria was once used to treat syphilis. Dr. Wagner von Jauregg injected sufferers with malaria-infected blood, causing an extremely high fever that would ultimately kill the disease. Jauregg won the Nobel Prize for the treatment and it remained in use until the development of penicillin.

3. Rosacea is a skin disease found mainly in those of Northern European descent and also known as The Curse of the Celts. It is actually an evolutionary adaptation acquired by ancestral Celtic people to fend off bacteria during seasonal periods of low ultraviolet levels.

4. Fatal Familial Insomnia is an inherited brain disease that eventually causes one to be incapable of sleep. It has no known cure. It involves progressively worsening insomnia, which leads to hallucinations, confusional states like that of dementia, and eventually death.

5. Alzheimer’s disease does not affect emotional memory as strongly as informational memory. As a result, Alzheimer’s patient’s given bad news will quickly forget the news, but will remain sad and have no idea why.

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Beer is considered to be the most effective remedy for the prevention of infant diseases in Malaysia. And locals often bathe newborns in this foamy drink.

The Spanish flu, which swept across Europe from 1918 to 1920, has claimed the lives of more than 20 million people. For comparison: during the years of World War I, 14 million Europeans died.

The surname of one of the classics of world literature – Stendhal – gave the name to psychosomatic disorder. Stendhal’s syndrome is an extremely agitated state that a person experiences while watching a work of art. For some people, emotions can be so strong that, together with extreme excitement, they are overwhelmed by a passion for the destruction of an artistic object.Stendhal himself described this condition after visiting the Church of the Holy Cross.

  • Placebo effect …

Lewis Carroll, known in the scientific world as professor of mathematics Charles Dodgson, suffered from several chronic diseases at once. He was diagnosed with arthritis, rheumatism, cystitis, pleurisy, eczema and other ailments. The scientist and writer almost constantly suffered from severe headaches.

The famous Olympic woman D.Joyner-Kersey, a medal winner in running and jumping, suffered from bronchial asthma.

When potatoes were brought to Europe, the French were extremely wary of the new vegetable. They thought that using it could cause leprosy.

A depressed person notices that the world seems to be becoming gray, its colors fade. There is a scientific basis for this, which was made by German scientists. With prolonged depression, the retina weakens and becomes less susceptible to distinguishing contrasting colors.

  • Disease of geniuses – Dyslexia

Certain diseases often had specific nationalities. But not in reality, but in the language of various peoples. For example, syphilis, which was actually imported from America, was called the “French disease” by Italians in the 16th century. The French did not remain in debt and called her “Italian”.

Chocolate was and is considered a “catalyst” for many diseases. The sweet delicacy is accused of raising the maximum permissible threshold of “bad cholesterol”, aggravating acne, and provoking caries.Finally, it promotes weight gain, and obesity is known to lead to a variety of chronic diseases. But all these hypotheses are currently not refuted and not proven. And Californian scientists are even sure that in moderate doses, chocolate contributes to weight loss.

In the 18th century, noblemen were very often sick with tsingoi, and the commoners practically did not know what it was. The reason was in the diet. Ordinary people leaned on onions, carrots, cabbage and other “low”, but very rich in vitamins vegetables.I disdained them and, accordingly, was ill.

In 1961, while on an Antarctic expedition, Dr. L. Rogozov felt the symptoms of a very acute appendicitis. Being the only doctor at the polar station, and there was no way to fly to where he could be helped, Rogozov decided to operate on himself. Indeed, he did everything himself: he was assisted only by two polar explorers, one of whom was holding a mirror, and the other was giving the instruments. The operation lasted 1 hour and 45 minutes and ended successfully.

The unnatural thinness of the actor Millyar – the performer of the roles of Baba Yaga, Koschei and other evil spirits from Soviet fairy-tale films – is associated with a disease he suffered: malaria. The actor fell ill in Dushanbe during the Great Patriotic War, in evacuation. Since then, his weight has not exceeded 45 kilograms.

  • Alzheimer’s disease

Author: Bill4iam

Interesting facts about diseases: doktor_killer – LiveJournal

Interesting facts about diseases

In 1806 in an English bar two gentlemen quarreled – Humphrey Howarth and Earl of Barrymore.The next morning a duel was scheduled, where Howarth appeared completely naked, shocking the assembled audience. Previously, he served as an army surgeon and knew that often death does not come from the bullet itself, but from the infection brought along with a piece of clothing. The count did not want to go down in history as a man who killed a naked man in a duel, and the rivals resolved the situation peacefully.

Parkinson’s disease is characterized by impaired motor activity up to the fact that a person makes steps with difficulty and quickly loses balance, falling to the ground.However, some of these patients can easily ride a bicycle, no different from healthy cyclists. This phenomenon is called paradoxical kinesia and is still poorly understood, but in practice, cycling therapy has been successfully used to relieve symptoms of the disease.

Since 1932, in Tuskegee, Alabama, doctors have been conducting a study of syphilis among 600 poor African Americans. At first, patients were treated with means available at that time, which were ineffective.But when penicillin became the standard medicine for syphilis in the United States by 1947, the patients in Tuskegee were not specifically informed about it – moreover, scientists organized the prevention of their treatment in other hospitals. The program was canceled only in 1972, when information about it was published in the press, and by this time many of the study participants had died from syphilis or its complications.

Diseases of syphilis this name was given by the Italian poet and physician Girolamo Fracastoro in 1530. Until that time in Italy it was known as the “French disease”, and in France, on the contrary, as the “Italian disease”.In the Netherlands, syphilis was called “Spanish disease”, in Russia – “Polish disease”, in the Ottoman Empire – “Christian disease”.

Many myths about the harmful effects of chocolate on various aspects of human health are untenable. For example, consumption of chocolate does not raise the level of “bad cholesterol”, and in some people it even lowers it. No unambiguously noticeable effect of chocolate on the occurrence of acne has been revealed, and due to the content of antibacterial substances in cocoa beans, chocolate is not so dangerous for the development of caries in comparison with other sweets.If you can really get fat from a large amount of chocolate, then with the regular consumption of small portions, according to a study by scientists at the University of California, there is a connection with a decrease in body mass index.

In 1885, the Japanese sculptor Masakishi Hananuma, thinking that he was dying of tuberculosis, decided to sculpt an exact copy of himself in memory of his beloved woman. Without a single nail, using only glue and pegs, Hananuma from several thousand wooden planks recreated the surface of his body to the smallest detail – every muscle, vein and wrinkle.He then made pores in the statue and transplanted his hair, beard, eyebrows and eyelashes into it. Without stopping at this, the sculptor gave his copy of nails and teeth. After the completion of the work, Hananuma lived for another 10 years and died in poverty, and the statue was in private collections for a long time and was badly damaged as a result of the 1996 California earthquake. … However, on sale there are purely men’s bras designed for purely utilitarian purposes.They are worn by men with enlarged breasts, which is caused by obesity or gynecomastia – in this case, the bra both supports the breast, and partially hides it, making it flatter. Some athletes, especially runners, prefer to work out in a sports bra, which eliminates irritation of the nipples caused by rubbing against clothes, which may even manifest as bleeding.

An abnormal white flare in the eye is called leukocoria. It manifests itself more often in children and can indicate many diseases, incl.including such serious ones as cataracts, toxocariasis and retinoblastoma – a malignant tumor of the retina. One of the methods for the early diagnosis of leukocoria can be an ordinary photo. If the child in the photo has one eye red due to the usual red-eye effect, but the other glows white, this is a reason to see a doctor for more serious tests.

Many Africans, with the exception of North Africans, practice dry sex frequently. To do this, before intercourse, they specially dry the woman’s vaginal lubrication using herbs, detergents or other methods.It is widely believed among men that increased friction in the absence of lubrication makes the process more enjoyable, and some believe that a woman’s “wetness” is a sign of lack of chastity. Dry sex is one of the reasons for the high prevalence of sexual diseases on the continent, including AIDS, as it greatly increases the likelihood of vaginal sores and condom rupture, as well as suppresses the natural vaginal antiseptic.

In 1977, American Billy Milligan, previously convicted of rape and armed robbery, was again arrested on suspicion of raping 3 women.During the trial, it was revealed that Milligan suffers from multiple personality disorder. Psychologists working with him identified 24 personalities in the patient, among whom were 3-year-old Englishwoman Christina, 23-year-old Yugoslav communist Ragen, pushing Billy to robbery, and 19-year-old lesbian Adalana – she was the one who initiated the rape. Milligan was sent to a mental hospital and released 10 years later. Since the 1990s, acquaintances have lost contact with him, and nothing is known about his current whereabouts.

Van Gogh did not cut off his whole ear, but only a piece of his lobe, which practically does not hurt. However, the legend is still widespread that the artist amputated his entire ear. This legend was even reflected in the characteristics of the behavior of a patient who operates on himself or insists on a certain operation – he was called Van Gogh’s syndrome.

There is a psychic phenomenon, the opposite of déja vu, called jamevu. It consists in the sudden feeling that you are facing a situation or a person for the first time, although in fact they are familiar to you.But if almost every one of us has experienced deja vu at least once, jamevu is much less common and can be a sign of a serious mental disorder. On a par with them, you can put the phenomenon of preskevue – a well-known state to many, when you cannot remember a familiar word that “spins on the tongue.”

Tourists visiting Paris, mostly Japanese, are sometimes diagnosed with Paris Syndrome, a mental disorder that manifests itself in dizziness, hallucinations, depersonalization and other symptoms.The cause of the syndrome is most often a strong discrepancy between the ideal image of Paris and its inhabitants, depicted in Japanese magazines, and the real state of affairs. The effect also reinforces the cultural barrier, which consists primarily in the large difference between the manners of behavior and communication between the Japanese and the French.

After a visit to Florence in 1817, the French writer Stendhal wrote: “When I was leaving the Church of the Holy Cross, my heart began to beat, it seemed to me that the source of life had dried up, I walked, fearing to collapse to the ground… “. The masterpieces of art that excited the writer can have a similar effect on other people, causing rapid heartbeat and dizziness – such a psychosomatic disorder is called Stendhal’s syndrome. The person who has picked it up experiences extremely heightened emotions from contemplating pictures, as if being transferred into the space of the image. Often the emotions are so strong that people try to destroy works of art.In a broader sense, any observed beauty can cause Stendhal syndrome – for example, nature or women.

Some pilgrims arriving in Jerusalem, under the influence of mental illness, begin to behave like saints or prophets, as if they are endowed with divine powers. There is even a special term for such behavior – the Jerusalem syndrome, and it manifests itself in people of various faiths – Christians, Jews, Muslims. According to statistics, the Jerusalem syndrome is observed on average in 100 pilgrims per year, of which 40 are admitted to the local psychiatric hospital.

Southeast Asians, primarily Chinese, often experience Koro syndrome – a mental pathology when a man thinks that his penis is shrinking or being pulled into the stomach.At the same time, the “patient” is seriously afraid of the impending death. This is a cultural feature of the Asians, since cases of Koro syndrome in Africans or Europeans are usually not accompanied by the fear of death. Often, as part of self-medication, men suspend some kind of weight from the penis in order to stop retraction.

With the onset of transient global amnesia, a person can completely forget the events that happened some time before the attack, and also loses the ability to absorb new information and can constantly repeat the same questions.Such amnesia affects primarily people over 50 years old, and the cause can be a strong physical activity, including sex, although usually memory in such cases is restored rather quickly. In 1964, a case was described of a man who lost his memory at the moment of orgasm and exclaimed: “Where am I? What happened?”

South Korean geneticists have experimentally proven the possibility of controlled “reprogramming” of complex organisms. They developed a line of cloned dogs that glow under the influence of ultraviolet light if a special substance is present in their body.The eGFP gene, which is responsible for the synthesis of an improved green fluorescent protein, was inserted into the dog’s DNA, and it only worked if a drug that included it was added to the animal’s food. This ability was passed on from the female to some of her puppies without any intervention of geneticists. These studies hold great promise for combating human diseases such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s, because dogs also have many of them, and the glow gene can be replaced by any other gene.

Vietnamese Thai Ngoc, born in 1942, has not slept for over 40 years. He lost his cravings for sleep in 1973 after suffering a bout of fever. The press has repeatedly reported that Thai Ngoc does not experience any discomfort or illness due to lack of sleep, but a few years ago he admitted that he “feels like a plant without water.”

Born in 1993, American girl Brooke Greenberg is physically and mentally still a baby.Her height – 76 cm, weight – 7 kg, teeth – milk. Analyzes by doctors have shown that there are no mutations in her genes responsible for aging. However, scientists do not lose hope with the help of new studies of this girl to get closer to understanding the cause of aging in humans.

Austrian Adam Rainer is the only man known to history who was both a dwarf and a giant. At the age of 21, his height was 118 cm, but then, for unknown reasons, he began to grow strongly and by the age of 32 he reached 218 cm.Because of these violations, he lived bedridden and died in 1950 at the age of 51 with a height of 234 cm.

In Russia in the 18th century. scurvy was considered a “noble disease”. She was more common among nobles and wealthy merchants than among ordinary people. The reason was the diet – the lower classes had a lot of vegetables in it: onions, carrots, cabbage, and the richer people disdained such simple food.

In medicine, there is a term hypoparathyroidism – a disease in which the body does not produce enough hormone from the parathyroid glands. If this hormone is normal, but the body reacts poorly to it, a diagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism is made.This syndrome is caused by a genetic defect and manifests itself in mental retardation and growth disorders. Finally, there are cases where both the hormone and the body’s response are normal, but the person has all the symptoms of pseudohypoparathyroidism. This condition is called pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism.

The Spanish flu epidemic began in the United States. As for the number of cases and deaths, Spain was also not a leader in this indicator. It’s just that Spain was a neutral side in World War I, and there was no wartime censorship.Newspapers wrote openly about the spread of the epidemic, while residents of other countries had the impression that it was Spain that was most affected by this flu.

In the First World War, 14 million people died, and during the same period at least 20 million died from the Spanish flu epidemic.

Georgy Millyar played almost all the evil spirits in Soviet fairy-tale films, and every time he was put on a complex make-up. Milliar almost did not need it only for the role of Kashchei the Immortal. The actor was naturally thin, in addition to this, during the Second World War, he contracted malaria during the evacuation in Dushanbe, turning into a living skeleton weighing 45 kg.

J. Iglesias was a football goalkeeper in his youth and played for Real Madrid. However, his football career was cut short at the age of 20 when he was in a car accident and was in the hospital for 3 years. He was paralyzed, only his hands worked freely. Iglesias learned to play the guitar and later became a famous musician.

In 1927, a fluoroscope for shoe stores was patented, which entered American and European salons. The buyer took an X-ray of the legs, which made it very convenient to select shoes.However, after numerous complaints about the damage to health from the shock dose of radiation (one woman even had her legs amputated), all the devices were recalled and destroyed.

At the time of writing his famous 9th Symphony, Beethoven was completely deaf.

Dogs can diagnose various forms of cancer at an early stage. This was proved by Japanese scientists by training a female Labrador retriever for this purpose. Despite the fact that the task was complicated by the presence of benign tumors or intestinal diseases in some of the patients tested, the dog was 95% successful in detecting cancer by breath samples and 98% by stool samples.This confirmed the medical hypothesis that cancer changes the body’s odor, although it is not yet clear which chemical compounds are responsible for this. Having defined them, it will be possible to create an “electronic nose” for diagnosing this disease, since the use of dogs, although effective, is ultimately very expensive.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer at the UN, having analyzed the studies of various scientists over a long period of time, decided to classify tanning salons as the highest category of cancer risk.In addition to tanning salons, this category contains, for example, arsenic and mustard gas. A group of people under 30 stands out especially – by visiting a solarium, they increase the risk of acquiring melanoma by almost 2 times.

90,000 Interesting facts about diseases: the rarest and most complex diseases in the world

Fortunately, doctors often have to deal with something simple and familiar. Or any chronic disease can be brought to the stage of compensation, and then this condition can be consolidated.But with some, alas, this will not work. It is precisely about them, as well as a number of other rather interesting, albeit dangerous, diseases that Joinfo.com will tell you now.


In the Middle Ages, it was a real nightmare and “scourge of God” for all mankind. They did not know how to beam, they knew little about prevention, but at least they guessed to take the lepers to one place so that the disease would not spread further. But the sight of people literally falling apart alive, while not experiencing physical pain, is a rather unpleasant sight.Fortunately, in our time, all this is already being treated, especially in the early stages.


Or, in simple terms, premature aging. Congenital genetic anomaly, extremely rare, but it does happen periodically. There is no cure, no prevention, it just happens – that’s all. And a person at the age of 18 dies a very old man due to the physiological failure of internal organs. Moreover, 18 years are “long-livers”. Tellingly, it does not affect the development of the brain – it proceeds at the same pace.But the physical condition is not.


This name covers a number of diseases caused by various causes, but manifesting themselves in almost the same way. Against the background of deterioration of lymph outflow, connective tissue and subcutaneous tissue begin to grow. The organ increases in size, partially loses its functionality, concomitant diseases join. Developed countries struggle with this very effectively, while developing countries do not. It can be scary to look at the sick.Oh yes, there is also congenital elephantiasis, caused by abnormalities in the development of the lymphatic system. You can’t do anything with him at all.

Allergy to electric fields

Observed, for example, in the American Debbie Bird. She not only senses fluctuations in electromagnetic radiation, but also reacts to it as an allergy. Starting from simple skin manifestations, ending with Quincke’s edema and even more severe forms. Why this happened – no one knows. So you have to settle in places where there is almost no electricity.The Joinfo.com team and journalist Artyom Kostin remind that a person in the principality can feel electromagnetic radiation. And this is quite normal.

Allergy to water

Yeah, there is such a disease. Fortunately, very rare. But how many problems it brings to the patient … You can neither eat normally, nor drink any liquid without the body reacting to it. Moreover, even a drop of one’s own sweat produces a similar reaction. Fortunately, it doesn’t go beyond severe urticaria.As the patients themselves admit, this is incredibly unpleasant, but you can tolerate it.

We also believe that it would be useful for you to know exactly how you can strengthen your own body. Still, most diseases are much easier to prevent than to cure.

90,000 HEALTH FACTS | Brest State University named after A.S. Pushkin

Jn Interesting facts about health.Health is wealth! It is imperative to be healthy. Everything in this world is replaceable except health. The well-known aphorism “prevention is better than cure” is popular with everyone, and everyone agrees with it. Maintaining health requires a healthy diet, exercise and a good lifestyle, hence it is not a difficult task to be healthy. Let’s take a look at some health facts.

Health Facts

  • Exercising when you are young will improve your brain function as you get older.
  • Earwax protects the inner ear from fungi, bacteria, insects and dirt. It also cleans and lubricates the ear canal.
  • Insulin, which is responsible for converting excess sugar into fat, is produced by the body at its peak in the evening.
  • Poor nutrition of pregnant mothers can cause premature aging of the baby’s heart.
  • When your body is sedentary, the brain slows down because of the reduced availability of fresh oxygen to the blood.
  • When you feel a pulse in your wrist or neck, it means that the blood starts moving and stops in the artery.
  • Neck pain can come from stress and anxiety.
  • Ginger can reduce muscle pain induced by up to 25%.
  • Eating too much meat can accelerate biological aging of the body.
  • The human head loses heat at the same rate as any other part of the body.
  • There are more bacterial cells in your body than human cells.
  • Depressed people get colds more often. Energetic, happy and relaxed people are immune to colds and flu.
  • Laughter increases the activity of antibodies in the body by 20%, helping to destroy viruses and cancer cells.
  • Blackberries help the brain to store new information.
  • Every time you eat or drink, you either feed or fight the disease.
  • Your weight can vary from 0.1 to 1.5 kg throughout the day.
  • A diet rich in vegetables and fruits can reduce the risk of heart disease, including stroke and heart attack.
  • 30-40% of UV – still penetrates the cloud cover in cloudy weather.

Interesting facts about health

  • Women who use hormonal form of birth control are more prone to depression than those who do not.
  • Just 1 day of inactivity and excessive sitting position affects the body’s ability to process insulin, thereby increasing the risk of diabetes.
  • 5% of adults have diabetes. This is almost double what it was in 1980.
  • Drinking water can help someone with weight loss. The rate at which our body breaks down our fat increases.
  • A cup of coffee a day can help you reduce your risk of depression by 20%.
  • Sleeping less than 7 hours a day can shorten life expectancy.

Various health facts

  • Lack of exercise causes as many deaths as smoking (controversial… Ed. Note).
  • Eating regularly in restaurants doubles the risk of obesity.
  • More than 30% of cancer cases can be prevented by avoiding alcohol, tobacco, and having a healthy diet and physical activity.
  • Walking can reduce your risk of breast cancer by 25%.
  • The diet of the father before conception plays a decisive role in the health of the child.
  • Severe depression can lead us to a decrease in biological age by increasing the aging process in cells.
  • Marijuana smokers are at risk of frequent bronchitis and other respiratory diseases, just like cigarette smokers.
  • In healthcare, $ 6.9 billion a year is spent on combating constipation, this is only in the United States.
  • People who complain live longer because tension is released, resulting in increased immunity and increased health.
  • The first dead heart transplant was performed by surgeons in Australia in October 2014.
  • People who read books live on average 2 years longer than those who do not read at all.
  • Nearly 150,000 people die in the UK every year because very few people can give first aid.
  • The first country in the world to officially eradicate measles was America.
  • Nightmares are early signs of brain diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and dementia.

Strange health facts

  • More than 13 million work days are lost annually due to stress-related illnesses.
  • Right-handers have better oral health and a lower incidence of tooth decay because they have better dexterity and more efficiency.
  • Right-handers live on average 9 years longer than left-handers.
  • Diabetes is the number one cause of blindness in the United States.
  • Sunburn causes more skin cancer than lung cancer due to smoking.
  • The human brain stops growing at the age of 18.
  • Walking at a fast pace for a distance of 5 km burns almost as many calories as running the same distance.
  • Today chickens are fattened so much that they weigh 266% more than 40 years ago.
  • Chocolate beautifies your skin.

Health. Fact of the day 90 180 90 191

  • An hour of daily exercise is not enough to combat the harmful effects of sitting out all day.
  • People who sit for more than 23 hours a week are at risk for cardiovascular disease.
  • An average office desk contains 400 times more bacteria than a toilet.
  • Every half hour of physical activity, 6 days a week, can reduce the risk of premature death by 40%.
  • Yogurt contains probiotic bacteria that are beneficial for the digestive system.
  • Eating tomatoes helps prevent sunburn.
  • If you dissolve DNA from all the cells of your body, then this thread will stretch over a distance of 10 billion km. This is, for example, the distance from Earth to Pluto and back.

90,000 5 things to know about gum disease

What is gingivitis?

This is an early stage of gum disease that is widespread among people around the world.

What are the signs of gingivitis?

It is difficult to recognize the signs of gingivitis on your own. According to one of the professional associations of dentists, only 10% of adults with gingivitis know about it. If your gums are swollen, red, and can easily bleed when you brush them, then you probably have gingivitis.The development of gingivitis is not accompanied by pain, so its symptoms can be overlooked.

What are the causes of gingivitis?

The most common cause is poor oral hygiene. If you neglect daily brushing, flossing, and mouthwash, food particles remain on and between your teeth and a sticky bacterial film known as plaque forms. It can lead to the formation of tartar and, over time, contribute to the destruction of tooth enamel.

Can the development of gingivitis be prevented?

The habit of regularly brushing your teeth using a toothbrush and mouthwash twice a day and flossing once a day can prevent the early stages of gum disease known as gingivitis. Regular visits to the dentist (at least once every six months) are also necessary to maintain the cleanliness and health of your teeth, since tartar can only be removed with the help of professional dentist tools.

How is gingivitis treated?

The most important thing in treating gingivitis is not to ignore symptoms that may seem minor, such as bleeding, redness and swelling of the gums. If you notice these symptoms, make an appointment with your dentist to determine their cause and assess the condition of your teeth and gums. Your dentist may recommend additional dental care products, including an antiseptic mouthwash. If large clumps of bacteria have formed between your teeth and gums and the gums have begun to move away from your teeth, you may need to thoroughly clean with your dentist.The good news is that early gum disease is reversible. However, if left untreated and ignored, gingivitis can develop into a more serious form of gum disease (stomatitis and then periodontitis), which is the main cause of tooth loss in adults.

90,000 30 facts about human health compromised by the pandemic: Articles of Society ➕1, 04/07/2021

1. In 2015, all UN member states agreed to work towards universal health coverage by 2030.The third Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) is dedicated to this target.

2. Back in 2019, UN experts came to the conclusion that, despite some progress, it will not be possible to fully implement SDG 3 by 2030. In 2020, it became obvious that the situation had only worsened – progress in achieving many goals was slowed down by the pandemic.

3. The rapid spread of COVID-19 has placed an unbearable burden on healthcare systems around the world. There were disruptions in the provision of basic medical services, many people were unable to go to medical facilities, even for emergency help.The pandemic threatens to undo achievements that have taken decades to conquer.

4. At least half of the 7.67 billion people living on Earth still lack access to basic health services, the essence of which is to create a system of care and concern for a person, and not just treat one or another illness or disorder.

5. In 2017, the number of people who had access to basic health services ranged from 2.5 billion to 3.7 billion people – from one third to half of the world’s population.In low-income countries, 12% to 27% of residents receive full health care services. If the trend continues, by 2030 such services will cover from 39% to 63% of the world’s population.

6. The COVID-19 pandemic has identified an acute shortage of health workers in most countries of the world. In more than 40% of countries, there are less than 10 doctors for every 10 thousand people, in more than 55% of countries there are less than 40 nurses and midwives for 10 thousand people. The global health worker deficit is estimated at 18 million.

7. About 100 million earthlings live in extreme poverty ($ 1.9 or less per day) due to the fact that they have to pay for treatment out of their own pockets.

8. More than 930 million people (almost 12% of the world’s population) spend at least 10% of the family budget on health services.

9. Only eight of the 30 countries for which data are available spend at least $ 40 per person per year on basic health services.

10. According to WHO estimates, almost 141 million children are born in the world every year: 73 million boys and 68 million girls. According to global mortality risk statistics, the average projected life expectancy for boys at birth is 69.8 years and for girls 74.2 years.

11. Life expectancy for women at all ages is higher than for men: at 20 years old by 7.6%, and at 80 years old – by 14%.

12 . Causes of death that reduce life expectancy are different for men and women.In men, it is ischemic heart disease (reduces life expectancy by an average of 0.84 years), road traffic injuries (0.47), lung cancer (0.4), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.36), stroke ( 0.32), cirrhosis of the liver (0.27), tuberculosis (0.23), prostate cancer (0.22), and interpersonal violence (0.21). In women – breast cancer (by 0.3 years), complications during pregnancy, childbirth and in the early period of motherhood (0.23), as well as cervical cancer (0.15).

13 .90,460 From 2000 to 2017, the infant mortality rate under the age of five almost halved, from 9.8 million deaths to 5.4 million. Half of all these cases in 2017 occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, and more about a third – to South Asia.

14 . 90,460 Almost half of child deaths under five years of age occur in the first month of life (2.5 million cases in 2017). In general, the level of such neonatal mortality in the world from 2000 to 2017 decreased by 41%.During this time, it was possible to reduce the death rate among children to less than 25 cases per 1,000 births in 118 countries.

15 . 90,460 In 2017, nearly 300,000 women died from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. 90% of them lived in low and middle income countries. At the same time, since 2010, the maternal mortality rate has decreased by about a third – from 342 to 211 cases per 100 thousand successful births.

16. Complications during pregnancy and childbirth are one of the most common causes of death for girls under 15 years of age in developing countries.Globally, adolescent girls’ fertility rates (a measure of the prevalence of early pregnancies) were 44 per thousand in 2018, compared with 101 per thousand in sub-Saharan Africa.

17. The COVID-19 pandemic could undo many years of progress in reducing maternal and child mortality. WHO and UN experts predict that if health services are disrupted and access to food is reduced in 118 low- and middle-income countries, in just six months, under-five mortality could increase by 9.8-44.8%, and maternal mortality mortality by 8.3-38.6%.Within a year, we can talk about hundreds of thousands of additional cases of child death and tens of thousands of cases of maternal mortality.

18. Coronacrisis has disrupted immunization (the process by which a person acquires immunity or becomes immune to an infectious disease, usually through the administration of a vaccine) of children around the world. Since March 2020, disruption to routine immunization activities has reached a scale not seen since the 1970s. More than half (53%) of the 129 countries for which data are available reported widespread interruptions in vaccination or a complete halt to vaccinations when a pandemic began.

19. Measles vaccination campaigns were suspended in 27 countries, and polio vaccination in 38 states. In 26 low- and middle-income countries, border closures resulting from COVID-19 outbreaks have led to potential vaccine shortages. At least 24 million people in 21 lower-middle-income countries are at risk of being vaccinated against polio, measles, typhoid fever, yellow fever, cholera, rotavirus, human papillomavirus, meningitis A and rubella.

20. Before the pandemic, the global risk of dying from infectious diseases had declined markedly over the years, but remained rather high in less developed regions. These are primarily HIV, tuberculosis, malaria and hepatitis B. Regions with a particularly high risk of dying from these diseases include sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and low- and middle-income countries.

21. The risk of dying from infectious diseases varies greatly by country, age and gender.For example, malaria has the highest risk of death in children under five. For every woman who dies from tuberculosis or hepatitis, there are two men who die for the same reasons.

22. Men have an average 40% higher risk of death from HIV than women, but this ratio varies around the world. The mortality rate ranges from 1.1 in Africa to 3.5 in the West Pacific and from 1.1 in low-income countries to 3 in high-income countries. The lower the number, the higher the likelihood of men dying from HIV.

23. Disruptions to health care services caused by the spread of COVID-19 could result in hundreds of thousands of additional deaths from AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Such predictions were made by the WHO and the UN in 2020, after the first wave of coronavirus. Whether they came true, it will become known in a year or two.

24. Amid a pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa in 2020-2021, the number of people dying from AIDS-related illnesses could rise by more than 500,000.human.

25. The number of new cases of malaria in this region could increase by 23%, and deaths from malaria – by 100% from 2018 levels. The death toll in sub-Saharan Africa is 769,000, exceeding the world’s peak malaria deaths in 2000.

26. A possible drop in tuberculosis detections by 25%, expected against the background of a pandemic, by only three months, may lead to an increase in mortality from this disease by 13% (about 180 thous.additional deaths). This would set the progress against it five years back.

27. 41 million people die from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) each year. This is 71% of all deaths in the world. 15 million people die from NCDs between the ages of 30 and 69. More than 85% of deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.

28. Helping critically ill patients with NCDs in a coronavirus crisis has gained particular importance – such patients are at greater risk of contracting severe COVID-19.The pandemic has virtually disrupted efforts to prevent and treat NCDs, with low-income countries hit hardest.

29. 80% of all deaths from NCDs are attributed to four groups of diseases: cardiovascular, cancer, respiratory (diseases of the respiratory tract, including the nasal passages, bronchi and lungs) and diabetes. Tobacco use, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse and unhealthy diets increase the risk of death.

30. 1.6 million deaths per year can be attributed to insufficient physical activity.More than 7.2 million people die each year from the effects of tobacco use. Overconsumption of salt / sodium kills 4.1 million people. Of the 3.3 million deaths from alcohol use, NCDs account for more than 50%.

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Ilya Arzumanov

Christina Butyrina

Christina Butyrina, Yulia Dorofeeva

The first drug for Alzheimer’s disease in 20 years. United States Approves Aducanumab

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved aducanumab to combat Alzheimer’s disease.This happened for the first time in 20 years.

The product developed by Biogen will be marketed under the trade name Aduhelm.

The drug acts on the underlying causes, and not on the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type of senile dementia.

Aducanumab destroys amyloid, a protein that forms clots in the human brain, damaging cells and causing problems with memory, thinking and communication.

More than 30 million people in the world, the vast majority of whom are over 65, are believed to have Alzheimer’s disease.

Aducanumab is suitable for patients under 80 years of age and with an early stage of the disease. You will also need to make an accurate diagnosis using a detailed MRI scan.

Over a hundred treatments for Alzheimer’s have been considered in the past 10 years, but none has proven successful.

Aducanumab is not a panacea, and many doctors question its merits. But its registration in the United States will give a strong impetus to research in the fight against dementia, traditionally underfunded in comparison with oncology or cardiology.

In March 2019, an international trials of aducanumab involving three thousand people were interrupted at the final stage when it turned out that the drug, received in the form of a monthly injection, did not give a positive result compared to placebo.