Fever chills cough body aches: Are your symptoms flu or COVID-19?
Are your symptoms flu or COVID-19?
Both COVID-19 and influenza are contagious respiratory illnesses, but they are caused by different viruses. Many symptoms of the two are similar, which can cause confusion about which one you may be suffering from.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says COVID-19 seems to spread more easily and can cause more serious illnesses in some people. Ultimately, testing may need to be done to determine which, if any, virus you have.
Here’s how the two illnesses compare.
Symptoms shared by COVID-19 and influenza
The severity of both COVID-19 and flu can range from no symptoms (asymptomatic) to severe symptoms.
Shared symptoms include:
- Fever or chills.
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
- Sore throat.
- Congestion or running nose.
- Muscle or body aches.
- Vomiting or diarrhea (more common in children).
Differences in COVID-19 and influenza symptoms
So far, research indicates there may only be one significant difference in symptoms between COVID-19 and the flu:
- The change in or loss of taste and smell.
Because of this, you may need to see a doctor for testing to determine which virus, if any, you have.
There are a few other notable similarities and differences between influenza and COVID-19.
- Similarities: The CDC says both viruses can spread for at least one day before a person shows symptoms.
- Differences: A person with the flu may be contagious for up to seven days, compared with COVID-19, which could spread for up to 10 days after someone shows symptoms or tests positive.
How the viruses spread:
- Similarities: Both COVID-19 and the flu can spread from person-to-person when they’re within about 6 feet of each other. Both are spread mainly by respiratory droplets exerted when someone coughs, sneezes or talks. Both may be spread by people before they begin showing symptoms, by people with very mild symptoms, and by people who never develop symptoms (asymptomatic).
- Differences: COVID-19 is more contagious among certain groups of people than the flu. It can also spread quickly and easily, leading to more “superspreading” events – situations in which one person infects a lot of other people who then spread it to more people.
People at high risk:
- Similarities: Both viruses can cause severe illness for older adults, people with certain underlying medical conditions and pregnant women.
- Differences: The risk for complications for healthy children is higher with the flu. However, infants and children with underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for both flu and COVID-19. Additionally, school-aged children with COVID-19 are at higher risk for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a rare but severe complication of COVID-19.
- Similarities: Both COVID-19 and flu can cause these complications:
- Respiratory failure
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome (fluid in the lungs)
- Cardiac injury (heart attacks and stroke)
- Multiple-organ failure (respiratory failure, kidney failure, shock)
- Worsening of chronic conditions (involving the lungs, heart, or nervous system or diabetes)
- Inflammation of the heart, brain or muscle tissues
- Secondary bacterial infections (infections in people who have already had the flu or COVID-19)
- Differences: COVID-19 can also cause blood clots in the lungs, heart, legs or brain, and cause Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C).
- Similarities: People can protect themselves and others against both illnesses by:
- Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
- Self-quarantining when they’re symptomatic.
- Wearing a mask.
- Washing hands often.
- Cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and objects.
- Getting vaccinated.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Do you have a cold, flu or pneumonia?
Our ability to breathe is often taken for granted until it’s compromised. When wintertime illnesses take the air out of your lungs, it helps to know what you have so you can treat it accordingly. While your healthcare provider is the best source of information for your specific disease, here is a cheat sheet from The Lung Association to help you sort through the symptoms and get back to breathing.
Common cold. This is the most common respiratory illness and the least severe one. The common cold is contagious and since it’s caused by a virus, no antibiotic will treat it. Symptoms include sore throat, cough that can last up to two weeks, runny nose, congestion, feeling tired and run-down, sneezing, mild headache, mild soreness and achy muscles. Treat the symptoms with over-the-counter medication. If you have a lung disease, do not take cough or cold medicine unless approved by your doctor.
Influenza (flu). Caused by the influenza virus, the flu is more serious than the common cold and infects the lungs, throat and nose. Symptoms include sudden fever or feeling feverish, chills, cough, sore throat, loss of appetite, muscle aches, fatigue, runny nose, sneezing and watery eyes. Talk to your doctor about medication to treat the flu. If you have asthma or COPD, follow the advice in your action plan. You may have to take extra medicine to control your symptoms.
Pneumonia. Unlike the common cold and flu, pneumonia settles in your lungs where the germs, bacteria or virus cause inflammation. This makes breathing a struggle. Of the three diseases, this is the most serious one and should be treated as such. Symptoms include fever, cough, phlegm, shortness of breath, feeling very tired and unwell and chest pain. Antibiotics are the best solution for pneumonia caused by bacteria. Seek medical treatment if you experience difficulty breathing.
All three sicknesses have some similarities in terms of prevention, such as avoiding contact with sick people, washing your hands and quitting smoking. Flu vaccine is also great way to prevent the flu. Two treatments that work for all are plenty of fluids and rest. Not only will rest and staying home from work speed up your recovery, you will avoid spreading your germs further and your co-workers will thank you.
Is It A Cold, Flu, Allergies or COVID-19?
We’ve all been there. You wake up with a sore throat, then come the aches and the congestion that feels like it may cause your head to explode.
Is it a cold or allergies? Or something worse, like the flu — or even COVID-19? Should you see your healthcare provider, or just stay home and get rest?
“While a cold and the flu have similar symptoms, the flu is much more severe and can result in serious health problems,” says Dr. Richard Martin, a family medicine physician at Geisinger Mt. Pleasant in Scranton. “Add allergies and COVID-19, and it can be even more complex to know whether you should call your doctor or get a COVID test.”
Let’s take a look at how to spot the difference and get you on the road to recovery ASAP.
What are the symptoms of a cold?
Cold symptoms come on gradually and are milder than symptoms of the flu. Symptoms commonly include:
- Mild fever (more common in children)
- Runny nose
- Sore throat
- Stuffy nose
Cold symptoms typically last for about a week. However, you’re contagious during the first few days, so stay home, get plenty of fluids and be sure to rest.
“Most colds are caused by a virus, which antibiotics won’t treat. It’s best to get plenty of rest, fluids and use over-the-counter medicines to help manage symptoms,” says Dr. Martin.
If your symptoms last longer than a week, check with your healthcare provider to rule out an allergy or bacterial infection.
What are the symptoms of flu?
Flu symptoms are often severe and come on quickly. If you have a fever and body or muscle aches right away, you may have the flu virus. Symptoms commonly include:
- Chest discomfort, cough
- Extreme tiredness/fatigue
- High fever
- Sometimes nausea and diarrhea
Most symptoms improve over the course of a few days, but you’ll likely feel run down for a week or two. The flu is caused by the influenza virus, which leaves you contagious for a few days, so it’s important to stay home and rest.
If you suspect you or a loved one have the flu, be aware of your risk of developing serious health issues. “The flu can lead to serious health problems like pneumonia, especially in people who are young, elderly or have heart or lung problems,” says Dr. Martin.
As with the common cold, antibiotics won’t help your flu symptoms, but getting rest, fluids and using over-the-counter medicines can help ease your symptoms.
Your healthcare provider may prescribe an antiviral medication, which can help you feel better sooner and may prevent complications like pneumonia.
What are the symptoms of allergies?
Allergy symptoms range in severity from person to person, can be stronger at certain times of the year and aren’t contagious.
“For example, someone who suffers from allergies may have their worst symptoms during the summer months, when it’s hotter and plants and grasses pollinate,” says Dr. Martin. They can also be caused by normal things in your environment — think pollen, dust, pet dander and mold.
Allergy symptoms can include:
- Itchy or watery eyes
- Itchy nose, ears or throat
- Cough or a tickle in the throat
- Stuffy or runny nose
While allergies can be treated at home with over-the-counter or prescription antihistamines, decongestants and nasal steroid sprays, some allergies may require special treatment from your doctor.
If you think you may be suffering from allergies, talk with your doctor about your symptoms and the best treatments to help you manage them.
What are the symptoms of COVID-19?
Like the flu, COVID-19 is a respiratory illness, but it’s caused by a different virus. Symptoms of COVID-19 can range from mild to severe, and may include:
- Fever or chills
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
- Muscle or body aches
- New loss of taste or smell
- Sore throat
- Congestion or runny nose
- Nausea or vomiting
Like most respiratory viruses, COVID-19 can be spread person-to-person through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
“That’s why it’s important to take the recommended measures to protect yourself and others by getting vaccinated, washing your hands, avoiding touching your face and staying home if you’re sick,” says Dr. Martin.
If you have respiratory symptoms, screen yourself. Based on your results, you can schedule a COVID test (if you have a myGeisinger account, you can self-schedule your test here). If you test positive, call your doctor.
“It’s important to identify positive cases of COVID, so that we can take proactive measures in protecting our communities,” says Dr. Martin.
How to prevent a cold, flu and COVID-19
For most people, having a cold, the flu or COVID doesn’t require a trip to the emergency room. Most symptoms resolve after some much-needed rest, but that isn’t always the case.
To decrease your chances of catching a cold, flu or COVID, remember to wash your hands frequently. Washing with warm, soapy water for at least 20 seconds (sing the “happy birthday” song twice) can help get rid of the germs on your skin.
Avoid contact with people who are sick. And if you become sick, stay home to keep from infecting others.“Remember, the best way to prevent the flu and COVID-19 is by getting vaccinated,” says
Dr. Martin. The symptoms may be similar and having both viruses at one is possible. This is something you’ll want to avoid, especially older adults, young children and those with certain medical conditions.
Is the COVID vaccine safe?
Got the flu? Here’s what to do.
Think your child has an ear infection?
What Are the Symptoms of the Flu? Aches, Chills, Coughing and More
- The most common flu symptoms are body aches, chills, cough, fatigue, fever, and headache; less common symptoms of the flu include sore throat, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- The only way to know for sure that you have the flu is to get tested at the doctor’s office with a nasal or throat swab.
- If you think you have the flu and work with high-risk people, like children or the elderly, make sure you take precautions to prevent the spread of infection.
This article was reviewed by Rod Oskouian, MD, at the Swedish Neuroscience Institute.
- Visit Insider’s homepage for more stories.
The human influenza virus — aka the flu — is highly contagious and is spread through the respiratory system, nose, and throat. This can lead to classic flu symptoms like a cough, stuffy nose, and sore throat.
But many flu-like symptoms can overlap with other conditions like the
, allergies, and COVID-19. Here’s some helpful tips to determine if you have the flu, or something else.
Symptoms of the flu
The most common symptoms of the flu include:
Less common symptoms of the flu include:
It’s important to note that symptoms can vary slightly from person to person.
“One person may tell you they had the worst chills of their life, and another may say they coughed for four weeks,” says Emily Landon, an epidemiologist at the University of Chicago Medicine.
But if it’s the flu, everyone experiences those hallmark symptoms “whether you’re 2 or 200.”
How do I know if I have the flu?
Your symptoms are a good start to figuring out if you have the flu or something else. Here’s a chart comparing the flu with other common illnesses, including the novel coronavirus:
Shayanne Gal/Business Insider
However, the only way to know for sure whether it’s the flu is a nasal or throat swab test at the doctor’s office.
If you’ve recently been vaccinated against the flu and are experiencing flu-like symptoms, it’s still possible that you have it. Because you can still get the flu after a flu shot, though your chances are lower.
Other times, Landon says that people think they have the flu, but they’re sick with something else entirely — a fungal infection, bacterial pneumonia, or even a heart attack.
And if you’ve got a 24-hour case of vomiting or diarrhea: “That’s not the flu,” she says. “That’s probably norovirus or some other winter virus.” If that’s the case, check out our article on what you can eat to help relieve those symptoms.
People at high risk from the flu
The flu can infect anybody but there are certain populations at higher risk of developing complications from the infection. These demographics include:
- Seniors over the age of 65
- People with diabetes
- People with heart disease or hypertension
- Anyone with a chronic medical condition that leaves them immunocompromised
- Pregnant women
Pregnant women are considered a high-risk flu group, which is why they should get a flu shot. Flu in the third trimester increases the risk of early labor and makes women more likely to spread the virus to the newborn baby.
“That can be avoided by getting the
, washing your hands, and not being around other people who are sick,” Landon says. And don’t worry about confusing flu symptoms with general pregnancy discomfort.
“Pregnant misery is one thing. Early on in pregnancy, you may be tired, have nausea, not feel great,” Landon says. “You should not have chills, sweats, or fever.” If you get the flu or fever when you’re pregnant, see your doctor as soon as possible. Physicians can prescribe antiviral medications, which cut down on symptoms, help prevent complications, and take the edge off.
What to do if you feel the flu coming on
If you think you have the flu stay home and avoid contact with others as the flu is highly contagious.
Most people, who are otherwise healthy, do not need to seek medical care for their symptoms.
Instead, take it easy, get rest, reschedule plans, and call in sick from work or school. You should start to feel better in one to two weeks.
When to see a doctor
If you are around high-risk individuals like newborns or grandparents, it may be beneficial to get tested. Since the flu is highly contagious, knowing whether or not you have it can help prevent its spread
Finally, testing is especially important for individuals who may be unable to communicate their symptoms effectively like children or those with dementia.
Cold or flu: Which do I have?
Cold and flu symptoms
Colds and flus both infect organs in the respiratory tract, including the nose and throat. Both come with unpleasant symptoms like fever, cough and blocked nose. But the common cold and influenza differ in their severity and in the pattern of symptoms they produce.
The common cold tends to be less severe and is typically associated with runny nose, sneezing and sore throat. These symptoms are less common with influenza, a more serious infection which usually produces a dry cough, body ache and headaches.
|Severity||Less severe||More severe|
|Duration||7-10 days||10-14 days|
|Fever||Uncommon or mild||Common and moderate to severe|
|Body ache||Uncommon and mild||Common and severe|
|Cough||Mild and may not begin until 4-5 days after other cold symptoms||Dry and commonly severe|
|Runny or stuffy nose||Common||Uncommon|
|Sore throat||Common||Less common|
|Diarrhoea and/or vomiting||Uncommon||Common in children|
|Appetite||Reduced appetite||Loss of appetite|
Colds typically begin slowly with a feeling of tiredness, a runny nose and sneezing. The ears are often affected and feel blocked or as though they are popping. Muscle aches, sore throat, headaches and a mild fever may also be experienced. The severity of symptoms peaks 2-3 days after infection and lasts 7-10 days. However, some symptoms may persist for several weeks.
The most common way for people to become infected with cold viruses is by touching the eyes and nose with contaminated hands. Rhinoviruses can survive on hands and surfaces for several hours. The other route of infection is by inhaling aerosols containing infected virus particles released after an infected individual has sneezed or coughed.
A flu is a more severe infection. It develops suddenly and is associated with:
- Chills and sweats;
- Dry cough;
- Loss of appetite;
- Body aches;
- General feeling of weakness.
Congestion, sore throat and eye pain may also be experienced. Diarrhoea and vomiting are more common in children. The flu lasts much longer than a cold. In some cases, it may lead to serious complications such as pneumonia.
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Cold or flu: How to tell the difference
Because colds and flus have many common symptoms, distinguishing between them can be difficult. The most accurate way is through diagnostic testing in the first few days of illness. However, the severity and type of symptoms are good indicators which can differentiate between colds and flus. Flus are generally more severe and typically involve systemic symptoms like body ache and fever.
Symptoms of the common cold generally improve without treatment. Influenza usually resolves with simple medicines like painkillers to treat symptoms, and does not generally require prescription medicines.
However, sometimes influenza symptoms persist and the infection causes serious complications which require treatment, including pneumonia. So it is important to be able to identify whether you have the common cold or influenza.
When is a cold or flu contagious?
Symptoms are the first sign of cold or flu infection and they typically begin 24 hours after the cold or flu germs have entered a person’s respiratory tract. But you are contagious and can pass the virus onto someone else as soon as you are infected. That means every time somebody gets the flu or a cold, they are contagious for about a day before they start to feel sick. That’s why it’s important to pay attention to cold and flu prevention measures like washing hands at all times, not just when someone in the house or office is sick.
Colds and flus remain contagious for about a week after infection occurs. The potential to transmit a cold to someone reduces after the second or third day of infection, but it is still possible to infect another person up to seven days later. If you have the flu, the risk of infecting someone else reduces after the fifth day.
Common cold and flu: What causes these infections?
The common cold and flu are widespread infections of the upper respiratory tract caused by viruses. There are over 200 viruses that can cause colds. The most common one is the rhinovirus, followed by the corona virus and the respiratory syncytial virus. The large number of viruses capable of causing colds explains why we repeatedly catch colds.
Influenza or the flu is caused by the influenza virus, of which there are three major types – A, B and C. This virus is able to mutate and change its structure, giving rise to different strains every year. The body does not have any immunity to the new strain, so can be repeatedly infected. This is why you need to get a new flu vaccine every year.
Colds and flus are highly contagious. They can be passed from person to person by inhaling infected air droplets created from sneezing or coughing, or by hand contact or contact with surfaces that may have been touched by an infected individual (e.g. door knobs, pens and phones).
Colds and flus are usually not serious unless you develop complications. Some complications that may develop in high risk individuals include ear infections, pneumococcal pneumonia, sinusitis and bronchitis. Pneumonia is the most common and serious complication. It can be fatal for older people, or people with chronic illnesses. A generally healthy person is less likely to catch a cold or flu and if they do catch one, they will be better able to fight it.
For more information on the common cold and influenza, types of influenza and treatments and tips for preventing influenza, see Cold and Flu.
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- Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Everyday preventive actions that can help fight germs, like flu. 2013. [cited 17 May 2013]. Available from: [URL Link]
- Eccles R. Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases.2005; 5: 718-25. [Abstract]
- Mayo Clinic. Influenza (Flu) [online]. 21 September 2007 [cited 13 April 2013]. Available from: [URL Link]
- Meadows M. Beat the winter bugs: How to hold your own against colds and flu. FDA Consumer. 2001; 35(6):11-18. [Citation]
- Covington TR, Henkin R, Miller S, Sassetti M, Wright W. Treating the common cold: An expert panel consensus recommendation for primary care clinicians. [Full Text]
- Centers for Disease Prevention and Control. Cold versus Flu. 2011. [cited 13 April 2013]. Available from: [URL Link]
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Key facts about Influenza (flu) and flu vaccine. 2013. [cited 25/5/2013] Available from: [URL Link]
- Brown University Health Education- Colds. 2013 [no date]. [Cited 31 May 2013]. Available from: [URL Link]
- Brown University Health Education- Flu (influenza). 2013 [no date]. [Cited 31 May 2013]. Available from: [URL Link]
- NSW Health. Guidelines for minimising transmission of influenza in healthcare facilities. 2010. [cited 22 April 2013]. Available from: [URL Link]
- Medline Plus. Common Cold. 2012. [cited 22 April 2013]. Available from: [URL Link]
Influenza – Seasonal
Is this your child’s symptom?
- Your child has symptoms of influenza (Flu) and it’s in your community
- Main symptoms: fever AND one or more respiratory symptoms (cough, sore throat, very runny nose)
- Influenza (Flu) is a viral infection
- You think your child has influenza because other family members have it
- You think your child has influenza because close friends have it
Symptoms of Influenza
- Main symptoms are a fever with a runny nose, sore throat, and bad cough.
- More muscle pain, headache, fever, and chills than with usual colds.
- If there is no fever, your child probably doesn’t have flu. More likely he has a cold.
Cause of Influenza
- Influenza viruses that change yearly
Diagnosis: How to Know Your Child Has Influenza
- Influenza occurs every year in the fall and winter months. During this time, if flu symptoms occur, your child probably has the flu.
- Your child doesn’t need any special tests.
- Call your doctor if your child is High-Risk for complications of the flu. See the list below. These are the children who may need prescription anti-viral drugs.
- For Low-Risk children, usually you don’t need to see your child’s doctor. If your child develops a possible complication of the flu, then call your doctor. See the “What to Do” section.
High-Risk Children for Complications From Influenza (AAP)
Children are considered High-Risk for complications if they have any of the following:
- Lung disease (such as asthma)
- Heart disease (such as a congenital heart disease)
- Cancer or weak immune system conditions
- Neuromuscular disease (such as muscular dystrophy)
- Diabetes, sickle cell disease, kidney disease or liver disease
- Diseases needing long-term aspirin therapy
- Pregnancy or severe obesity
- Healthy children under 2 years old are also considered High-Risk (CDC)
- Note: All other children are referred to as Low-Risk
Prescription Antiviral Drugs for Influenza
- Antiviral drugs (such as Tamiflu) are sometimes used to treat influenza. They must be started within 48 hours when the flu symptoms start. After 48 hours of fever, starting the drug is not helpful.
- The AAP recommends they be used for any patient with severe symptoms.
- The AAP recommends the drugs for most High-Risk children with underlying health problems. See that list.
- The AAP doesn’t recommend antiviral drugs for Low-Risk children with mild flu symptoms.
- Their benefits are limited. They usually reduce the time your child is sick by 1 to 1.5 days. They reduce the symptoms, but do not make them go away.
- Side effects: Vomiting in 10% of children on Tamiflu.
- Most healthy children with flu do not need an antiviral drug.
When to Call for Influenza – Seasonal
Call 911 Now
- Severe trouble breathing (struggling for each breath, can barely speak or cry)
- Lips or face are bluish when not coughing
- You think your child has a life-threatening emergency
Call Doctor or Seek Care Now
- Trouble breathing, but not severe
- Breathing is much faster than normal
- Lips or face have turned bluish during coughing
- Wheezing (high-pitched purring or whistling sound when breathing out)
- Stridor (harsh sound with breathing in) is heard now
- Chest pain and can’t take a deep breath
- Dehydration suspected. No urine in more than 8 hours, dark urine, very dry mouth and no tears.
- Weak immune system. Examples are: sickle cell disease, HIV, cancer, organ transplant, taking oral steroids.
- Severe High-Risk child (see that list in Causes). This includes lung disease, heart disease, and bedridden.
- Fever in baby less than 12 weeks old. Caution: do NOT give your baby any fever medicine before being seen.
- Fever over 104° F (40° C)
- Your child looks or acts very sick
- You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent
Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours
- High-Risk child for complications of flu. Includes children with other chronic diseases. (See that list in Causes). Also, includes healthy children less than 2 years old.
- Nonstop coughing spells
- Age less than 3 months old with any cough
- Earache or ear drainage
- Sinus pain (not just congestion)
- Fever lasts more than 3 days
- Fever returns after being gone more than 24 hours
- You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent
Contact Doctor During Office Hours
- Age more than 6 months and needs a flu shot
- Coughing causes vomiting 3 or more times
- Coughing has kept home from school for 3 or more days
- Nasal discharge lasts more than 2 weeks
- Cough lasts more than 3 weeks
- Flu symptoms lasts more than 3 weeks
- You have other questions or concerns
Self Care at Home
- Influenza with no complications and your child is Low-Risk
Seattle Children’s Urgent Care Locations
If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.
Care Advice for Influenza
- What You Should Know About Influenza:
- Flu symptoms include cough, sore throat, runny nose, and fever. During influenza season, if your child has these symptoms, he probably has the flu.
- Most parents know if their child has flu. They have it too or it’s in the school. It’s also in the news. You don’t need any special tests when you think your child has flu.
- If your child develops a complication of the flu, then call your child’s doctor. Examples are an earache or trouble breathing. These problems are included in the “What to Do” section.
- For healthy people, the symptoms of influenza are like those of a bad cold.
- With flu, however, the onset is more abrupt. The symptoms are more severe. Feeling very sick for the first 3 days is common.
- The treatment of influenza depends on your child’s main symptoms. It is no different from treatment used for other viral colds and coughs.
- Bed rest is not needed.
- Most children with flu don’t need to see their doctor.
- Here is some care advice that should help.
- Runny Nose with Lots of Discharge: Blow or Suction the Nose
- The nasal mucus and discharge is washing germs out of the nose and sinuses.
- Blowing the nose is all that’s needed. Teach your child how to blow the nose at age 2 or 3.
- For younger children, gently suction the nose with a suction bulb.
- Put petroleum jelly on the skin under the nose. Wash the skin first with warm water. This will help to protect the nostrils from any redness.
- Nasal Saline To Open a Blocked Nose:
- Use saline (salt water) nose spray to loosen up the dried mucus. If you don’t have saline, you can use a few drops of water. Use distilled water, bottled water or boiled tap water.
- Step 1. Put 3 drops in each nostril. If under 1 year old, use 1 drop.
- Step 2. Blow (or suction) each nostril out while closing off the other nostril. Then, do the other side.
- Step 3. Repeat nose drops and blowing (or suctioning) until the discharge is clear.
- How Often. Do nasal saline rinses when your child can’t breathe through the nose.
- Limit. If under 1 year old, no more than 4 times per day or before every feeding.
- Saline nose drops or spray can be bought in any drugstore. No prescription is needed.
- Saline nose drops can also be made at home. Use ½ teaspoon (2 mL) of table salt. Stir the salt into 1 cup (8 ounces or 240 mL) of warm water. Use bottled water or boiled water to make saline nose drops.
- Reason for nose drops: Suction or blowing alone can’t remove dried or sticky mucus. Also, babies can’t nurse or drink from a bottle unless the nose is open.
- Other option: use a warm shower to loosen mucus. Breathe in the moist air, then blow each nostril.
- For young children, can also use a wet cotton swab to remove sticky mucus.
- Medicines for Flu:
- Cold Medicines. Don’t give any drugstore cold or cough medicines to young children. They are not approved by the FDA under 6 years. Reasons: not safe and can cause serious side effects. Also, they are not helpful. They can’t remove dried mucus from the nose. Nasal saline works best.
- Allergy Medicines. They are not helpful, unless your child also has nasal allergies. They can also help an allergic cough.
- No Antibiotics. Antibiotics are not helpful for flu. Antibiotics may be used if your child gets an ear or sinus infection.
- Homemade Cough Medicine:
- Goal: Decrease the irritation or tickle in the throat that causes a dry cough.
- Age 3 months to 1 year: give warm clear fluids to treat the cough. Examples are apple juice and lemonade. Amount: use a dose of 1-3 teaspoons (5-15 mL). Give 4 times per day when coughing. Caution: do not use honey until 1 year old.
- Age 1 year and older: use Honey ½ to 1 teaspoon (2-5 mL) as needed. It works as a homemade cough medicine. It can thin the secretions and loosen the cough. If you don’t have any honey, you can use corn syrup.
- Age 6 years and older: use Cough Drops to decrease the tickle in the throat. If you don’t have any, you can use hard candy. Avoid cough drops before 6 years. Reason: risk of choking.
- Sore Throat Pain Relief:
- Age over 1 year. Can sip warm fluids such as chicken broth or apple juice. Some children prefer cold foods such as popsicles or ice cream.
- Age over 6 years. Can also suck on hard candy or lollipops. Butterscotch seems to help.
- Age over 8 years. Can also gargle. Use warm water with a little table salt added. A liquid antacid can be added instead of salt. Use Mylanta or the store brand. No prescription is needed.
- Medicated throat sprays or lozenges are generally not helpful.
- Fluids – Offer More:
- Try to get your child to drink lots of fluids.
- Goal: Keep your child well hydrated.
- It also will thin out the mucus discharge from the nose.
- It also loosens up any phlegm in the lungs. Then it’s easier to cough up.
- Fever Medicine:
- For fevers above 102° F (39° C), give an acetaminophen product (such as Tylenol).
- Another choice is an ibuprofen product (such as Advil).
- Avoid Aspirin because of the strong link with Reye syndrome.
- Note: Fevers less than 102° F (39° C) are important for fighting infections.
- For all fevers: Keep your child well hydrated. Give lots of cold fluids.
- Pain Medicine:
- For muscle aches or headaches, give an acetaminophen product (such as Tylenol).
- Another choice is an ibuprofen product (such as Advil).
- Use as needed.
- Prescription Antiviral Drugs for Influenza:
- Antiviral drugs (such as Tamiflu) are sometimes used to treat influenza. They must be started within 48 hours of when flu symptoms start. After 48 hours of fever, starting the drug is not helpful.
- The AAP recommends they be used for any patient with severe symptoms. They also recommend the drugs for most High-Risk children. See that list in Causes.
- If your child has a chronic disease and gets the flu, call your doctor. The doctor will decide if your child needs a prescription.
- The AAP doesn’t recommend antiviral drugs for Low-Risk children with normal flu symptoms.
- Their benefits are limited. They reduce the time your child is sick by 1 to 1 ½ days. They reduce the symptoms, but do not make them go away.
- Side effects: Vomiting in 10% of children on Tamiflu.
- Most healthy children with flu do not need an antiviral drug.
- Also, it is not used to prevent flu. Reason: You would need to take the medicine every day for months.
- Return to School:
- Spread is rapid, and the virus is easily passed to others.
- The time it takes to get the flu after contact is about 2 days.
- Your child can return to school after the fever is gone for 24 hours.
- Your child should feel well enough to join in normal activities.
- What to Expect:
- Influenza causes a cough that lasts 2 to 3 weeks.
- Sometimes your child will cough up lots of phlegm (mucus). The mucus can be gray, yellow or green. This is normal.
- Coughing up mucus is very important. It helps protect the lungs from pneumonia.
- We want to help a productive cough, not turn it off.
- The fever lasts 2 to 3 days.
- The runny nose lasts 7 to 14 days.
- Prevention: How to Protect Yourself from Getting Sick:
- Wash hands often with soap and water.
- Alcohol-based hand cleaners also work well.
- Avoid touching the eyes, nose or mouth. Germs on the hands can spread this way.
- Try to avoid close contact with sick people.
- Avoid ERs and urgent care clinics if you don’t need to go. These are places where you are more likely to be exposed to flu.
- Prevention: How to Protect Others – Stay Home When Sick:
- Cover the nose and mouth with a tissue when coughing or sneezing.
- Wash hands often with soap and water. After coughing or sneezing are important times.
- Limit contact with others to keep from infecting them.
- Stay home from school for at least 24 hours after the fever is gone. (CDC).
- Flu Shot and Prevention:
- Getting a flu shot is the best way to protect your family from flu.
- Influenza vaccines are strongly advised for all children over 6 months of age. (AAP)
- Adults should also get the shot.
- The shot most often prevents the disease.
- Even if your child gets the flu, the shot helps to reduce the symptoms.
- A new flu shot is needed every year. Reason: Flu viruses keep changing.
- After the flu shot, it takes 2 weeks to fully protect from flu. But then, the protection lasts for the full flu season. An antiviral medicine only protects from flu while taking it.
- Call Your Doctor If:
- Trouble breathing occurs
- Retractions (pulling in between the ribs) occur
- Dehydration occurs
- Earache or sinus pain occurs
- Fever lasts more than 3 days or goes above 104° F (40° C)
- Nasal discharge lasts more than 14 days
- Cough lasts more than 3 weeks
- You think your child needs to be seen
- Your child becomes worse
And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.
Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.
Last Reviewed: 04/27/2021
Last Revised: 03/11/2021
Copyright 2000-2021. Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.
You’re sick. Are your symptoms COVID-19, the flu or a common cold?
Megan Henry, Columbus Dispatch, Ohio
Published 4:37 p.m. ET Nov. 2, 2020
You spike a fever, start coughing and develop shortness of breath.
Is it COVID-19, the flu or the common cold?
“This is a difficult distinction to make,” said Dr. Iahn Gonsenhauser, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center’s chief quality and patient safety officer.
Cold and flu season generally starts in October and can go as late as May, with flu activity peaking between December and February.
All three illnesses are caused by respiratory viruses and share some of the same symptoms, but they can have very different outcomes.
You’ve got a cough and a fever. Is it COVID-19, the flu, or a common cold? (Photo: Dreamstime, TNS)
Typical symptoms of a cold include cough, sore throat, nasal congestion, and sneezing, which often come on gradually.
Influenza can cause these symptoms as well, but usually also includes fever or chills, fatigue and headache. The most unique symptom is head-to-toe body aches, Gonsenhauser said.
Some people, especially children, also have gastrointestinal issue such as nausea or diarrhea, said Dr. Joseph Gastaldo, OhioHealth’s medical director for infectious diseases. Flu symptoms tend to come on more suddenly and are typically more severe than those for colds.
COVID-19 symptoms commonly include a dry cough, fever or chills, and shortness of breath. But people report a wide range of other symptoms, including headaches just like with the flu but which are rarely seen with a cold, Gastaldo said.
One of the things that sets COVID-19 apart from the other two illnesses is loss of taste or smell, Gonsenhauser said. People may also get rashes or lesions on their fingers or toes. And many people have no symptoms at all, he said.
Common colds usually resolve on their own in about a week without treatment. Most people with influenza or COVID-19 recover within a couple of weeks, but these illnesses can lead to more serious health conditions and can be fatal, especially for people who are older or immunocompromised, said Gonsenhauser, which is why he recommends seeing a doctor if your symptoms are severe.
“There are potentially very serious repercussions if we are self-diagnosing and misdiagnosing,” he added, suggesting that people let a health care professional make a diagnosis.
Young children are more likely to have severe flu symptoms but are at lower risk for severe COVID-19, said Dr. Dane Snyder, section chief of Nationwide Children’s division of primary care pediatrics.
But because there are no real signature symptoms of COVID-19 for children like loss of smell or taste as there are for adults, Dane recommends parents talk to their pediatrician about possibly getting a COVID test if their children are showing symptoms.
That’s especially true if they’ve been near someone with coronavirus or have been in an area where lots of people have reported to have gotten coronavirus, he said.
FLU SHOT CAN HELP YOU TELL
There are a lot of questions swirling around about this year’s flu season including how contagious and dangerous this year’s flu strain will be, how will it interact with COVID-19 and what might happen if a person gets both the flu and COVID-19.
But one thing is for certain:
It has never been more important to get your flu shot, Gonsenhauser said.
“I want everybody to get the flu shot because if you do have symptoms of influenza and COVID-19 and if you have the flu shot, statistically there’s a lower likelihood that it’s going to be the flu and a potentially higher likelihood that it’s going to be COVID-19,” Gastaldo said.
Read or Share this story: https://www.detroitnews.com/story/life/wellness/2020/11/02/symptoms-coronavirus-cold-flu/114607410/
90,000 How to distinguish colds, flu and novel coronavirus pneumonia?
What is a cold?
Nasal congestion, runny nose and sneezing, no apparent elevated body temperature, no obvious effect on physical condition and appetite, no severe headache, joint pain and general discomfort. In people with colds, the upper respiratory tract is affected, there is no threat to human life.
What is flu?
Acute respiratory viral infection caused by influenza viruses not only affects the upper respiratory tract, but also infects the lower respiratory tract, which leads to pneumonia.Influenza often spreads in winter and spring, there is influenza A and B.
People with the flu have severe symptoms and fever, and the body temperature can rise to 39 degrees or more for one to two days. A person sick with the flu feels a headache, weakness, loss of appetite. For the elderly, children, obese people, pregnant women, and people with other medical conditions, influenza can cause severe pneumonia and even death.
What are the symptoms of pneumonia caused by a new type of coronavirus?
Patients with a mild form of the disease have only a low body temperature, cough, chills and malaise.
In patients with a severe form of the disease, in the first three to five days, fever, cough and increasing weakness are observed, the situation gradually worsens and turns into pneumonia and even severe pneumonia. In people with a severe form of the disease, breathing becomes more frequent, respiratory failure occurs, and some organs are damaged.If the situation deteriorates further, health support with a respirator or life support system may be required. The severe form of the disease is deadly. In cases of infection with a typical new type of coronavirus, a gradual progression of the disease is observed. In the second week, the patient’s condition worsens seriously.
How to determine an elevated temperature?
At rest, the body temperature exceeds 37.3 ℃
Subfebrile temperature – 37.3 – 38 ℃
Cardiothoracic temperature – 38.1 – 39 ℃
High temperature – 39.1 – 41 ℃
Ultra-high temperature – above 41 ℃
What to do in case of headache, runny nose, cough and sore throat?
At temperatures below 38 ℃, you should be in home quarantine, notify the necessary structures in accordance with local regulations, observe the changes. You can take ibuprofen or other medicines as directed.If the condition worsens, first of all it is necessary to contact the medical center in the microdistrict. If the temperature exceeds 38 ℃, then you need to go to the clinic.
What to do if there are no obvious signs of fever, but the body aches, abdominal pain and diarrhea are present?
Currently, among the first signs of infection with a new type of coronavirus, an upset of the gastrointestinal tract should be noted. With diarrhea, you need to be under home quarantine, pay attention to food, drink more saline sugar solution.If the situation worsens, you must go to the hospital.
Should you continue to monitor the patient at home in case of fever and chest tightness?
If a high temperature is accompanied by a feeling of tightness in the chest, you should be extremely vigilant, go to the hospital as soon as possible. It is best to walk to the nearest medical center (wearing a mask, avoiding the elevator), take blood tests, do a CT scan of the chest, etc.
What to do if there was contact with patients with suspected coronavirus, but there are no signs of discomfort?
It is recommended to stay in self-isolation for 14 days, mainly to monitor changes in body temperature. It is necessary to measure the temperature during the day and in the evening. In case of fever and coughing within 14 days, you must contact the nearest medical center.
Source: Beijing Qingnian Newspaper, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology
90 000 How to distinguish acute respiratory infections, acute respiratory infections, allergies and the coronavirus COVID-19: POSITIVE MED
What is hidden behind the acronym ARI
ARI in everyday life means a condition in which there is a runny nose, cough, sore throat and fever.ARI stands for acute respiratory disease .
Acute – means, arising suddenly or in a short period of time.
Respiratory – meaning the place of localization of inflammation, the respiratory tract.
Disease – means the presence of a disease in a particular person.
But it should be borne in mind that there are tens and hundreds of diseases with similar symptoms as in acute respiratory infections. Accordingly, there will be the same number of diagnoses.And therefore ARI is a term that combines numerous diseases with similar symptoms. But requiring a different approach to the treatment of each of them.
The most common causes of ARI are:
- Viruses – then ARVI is diagnosed
- hypothermia / cold
Let me tell you in more detail how to distinguish one from the other.
ARI and ARVI – what is the difference
99% of all ARI is ARVI.99% of ARVI does not require treatment in hospitals and does not require the use of any specific drugs that affect the virus. ARVI treatment is almost always symptomatic, because there are no cheap and effective antiviral agents . And those that are known have their own indications and contraindications. And there is no particular need for them, since the human body, when certain conditions and a little help are created, successfully cope with respiratory viruses.
More than 200 types of viruses are known to cause ARVI symptoms.The most common viruses are influenza (A, B, C, avian, swine), parainfluenza, adenoviruses, coronaviruses, rhinoviruses, RS viruses, enteroviruses, EBV, etc. These pathogens cause more or less similar symptoms. Therefore, they are combined into ARVI, i.e. the source of infection is a sick person.
- Increased body temperature
- General malaise
- Loss of appetite
- Damage to the respiratory tract mucosa: rhinitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngotracheitis, bronchitis, conjunctivitis
- Bacterial complications such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia may also occur
A few words about how long the temperature lasts with ARVI.Usually ARVI symptoms persist for 3-7 days . Incubation period 1-10 days . The period of contagion 3-5-7 days . As mentioned above, in most cases, ARVI treatment is symptomatic and is carried out at home. But the lack of improvement on the 4th day, as well as if the temperature with ARVI remains above normal on the 7th day – this is an unambiguous reason to see a doctor.
About bacterial acute respiratory infections and about antibiotics
Often patients formulate a question about “bacterial ARVI”.But given the above, it is more correct to say not bacterial ARVI, but bacterial ARI. Since we have already found out that ARVI is a viral ARI and has nothing to do with bacteria.
What are the symptoms of bacterial ARI:
- Decreased appetite
- Inconsistency of the severity of specific symptoms to the real severity of the condition . Those. it seems that the body temperature is low, the runny nose is not strong and the cough is infrequent, but lies in a layer.
- Thirst. With ARVI, it is rarely observed, but thirst in combination with pallor of the skin is a sign of a bacterial infection
- Pain . In principle, it is not typical for ARVI, therefore, if the ear, throat, nose, forehead suddenly become very ill, and this worries the child very much, then this is always a reason to think about a bacterial infection. For example, with angina, there are symptoms of tonsillitis, but there are no signs of ARVI.
- Pus . Purulent sputum, purulent nasal discharge, purulent deposits on the tonsils are a sign of a bacterial infection.
- Cough . Frequent, usually dry, not relieving, aggravated by exertion and crying, with shortness of breath.
- Fever . With bacterial acute respiratory infections, it is characteristic that with an increase in body temperature, antipyretic drugs practically do not help or very briefly help.
- Lymphadenopathy . Enlargement and soreness of the submandibular and anterior cervical lymph nodes.
In the case of bacterial acute respiratory infections, the treatment is prescribed by a doctor.Usually, these are antibiotics. In no case should you self-medicate. Since the wrong medication can only aggravate the situation.
ARI with hypothermia or colds
The upper respiratory tract is the source of life for a huge number of different microorganisms (peaceful, pathogenic and opportunistic), primarily bacteria. Their existence and reproduction is restrained and regulated by the forces of local immunity. As a result of sudden hypothermia, a sharp vasospasm occurs and the blood supply to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract is disrupted, which leads to a decrease in the activity of local immunity, due to which the pathogenic and opportunistic flora is activated, etc.because there are no restraining forces.
How much or not the symptoms of a cold will be expressed at all depends on the individual characteristics of each individual person. For example:
- on the number and species diversity of pathogenic and opportunistic flora
- how much vasospasm occurred and blood supply was disturbed
- state of local immunity before hypothermia
- duration and intensity of the cold factor.
T.That is, the signs of a cold in different people can be of different degrees of severity.
The principal feature of colds is their non-infectiousness . After all, bacteria began to multiply only because the local immunity was weakened. Those. when you and your child were sitting at home, and suddenly he had a runny nose and cough, and at the same time no one came to visit you, you can, after analyzing the situation, understand that it is a cold. You can catch a cold while sitting at home in different ways: the windows were open everywhere, after bathing they were not wrapped up enough, the child could drink / eat cold from the refrigerator, etc.d.
Treatment for colds is usually symptomatic. Those. is prescribed by a doctor depending on the symptoms manifested.
How to distinguish allergies from acute respiratory infections
Traditionally, an allergic reaction occurs like this. A certain substance from the outside – allergen – when it enters the body is perceived by our immunity as a foreign agent antigen . In defense of the antigen, antibodies are produced . When the same antigen re-enters the body and its interaction with the antibodies already developed, an allergic reaction occurs.
Depending on the method of contact with the allergen, different types of allergies are distinguished:
- Allergen can be eaten, which provokes food allergic reaction
- the allergen can come into contact with the skin, then contact allergy occurs
- allergen can be contained in the inhaled air, which provokes an allergic reaction in the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract – respiratory allergy, allergic rhinitis, allergic rhinosinusitis, etc.d.
It is the third variant of allergy that is often confused with acute respiratory infections. How to distinguish allergies from acute respiratory infections? The principal diagnostic feature of respiratory allergy is pronounced symptoms of respiratory tract damage, when there is a runny nose and / or cough, which appear very quickly, but there are no signs of general infectious toxicosis (general well-being is not disturbed, activity is preserved, appetite is preserved, normal body temperature).
Treatment for allergic rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, allergosis, etc.the doctor prescribes. The doctor will select the appropriate anti-allergic drugs and give the necessary recommendations. If possible, try to get rid of the source of the allergen.
How to distinguish SARS from coronavirus
About how to distinguish acute respiratory infections and acute respiratory viral infections, I told above. But how to distinguish SARS from coronavirus? COVID-19 – an attack that, like a tsunami, unexpectedly hit the population of our country this spring, made even the most indifferent inhabitants of this planet look on the Internet and ask what the symptoms of coronavirus are and how to distinguish it from the usual acute respiratory infections.I am glad that, according to statistics, children are less likely to get coronavirus.
Covid-19 is most often manifested by a high 9003 fever, dry cough and shortness of breath . Today, all doctors are advised to see a doctor if there is at least one of these symptoms.
Fever and cough, except for COVID-19, are also the main signs of bacterial acute respiratory infections or influenza. But difficulty breathing with these diseases is less common. T.That is, the most important difference that is observed with coronavirus and less common with other acute respiratory infections is difficulty in breathing .
I will give you a wonderful sign that I came across on the Internet
When to seek medical attention
For any condition that does not fit into the usual picture of acute respiratory infections, it is recommended to consult a doctor. If a patient has acute respiratory infections, symptoms suddenly appear:
- loss of consciousness,
- signs of respiratory failure (shortness of breath, shortness of breath)
- intense pain anywhere, clearly disturbing a child or adult
- even just mild sore throat in the absence of a runny nose
- moderate headache combined with vomiting
- swelling of the neck
- rash – any
- body temperature above 39 degrees, which does not decrease 30 minutes after the use of antipyretic drugs
- any increase in body temperature in combination with chills and pallor of the skin
- dehydration – dry tongue, crying without tears, lack of urine for more than 6 hours, vomiting, refusal to drink.
See a doctor immediately!
Let me remind you that in the Positivemed clinic in St. Petersburg you can take an analysis for antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus
Measures of prevention of ARI
Prevention of ARI helps to significantly reduce morbidity among children and adults. One of the most effective measures is the creation of specific immunity through vaccination, taking into account the individual characteristics of the organism.
Try to maintain optimal humidity and temperature in your home.Frequent wet cleaning of the premises helps to maintain local immunity. Be sure to ventilate your home regularly.
In general, following the recommendations for the prevention of acute respiratory infections will also prevent many other diseases. Temper within reason, play sports, follow a diet, walk more often, lead a healthy lifestyle and illness will recede for a long time, if not forever.
Health to you and your kids! And in case of ailments or questions – I am waiting for you at my appointment at POSITIVEMED.
90,000 vindictive disease – Russian newspaper
Moderate flu Home immediately. Warm blanket and a thermometer under the arm. The temperature, you will see, immediately rushes to around 39-40. You look in the mirror – you will not be happy: the eyes are like those of a rabbit, the face is glowing. What? Not up to the mirror? Has a nosebleed? Classic flu of moderate severity. It is necessary to have a doctor. Plus, you will swim for four days in your own sweat – the fever will subside. And everything will slowly begin to return to normal.True, the temperature will jump for another week, but already around 37. For a couple of weeks after that, you will quickly get tired. But then – surely everything!
Severe flu You say you don’t have enough time to get sick? Do you think the flu is interesting? Not interested. He is also touchy. He takes offense when he is mistaken for some sort of ARI. And takes revenge. How? Add to all the “joys” of your this morning, aches and pains all over your body, rapid heartbeat and shortness of breath. It can be worse: insomnia, vomiting, convulsions, hallucinations.But there is also swelling of the brain. Or lungs.
Note: The flu does everything quickly. So what you have in front of you is a severe course with a fatal outcome. Don’t believe me? Flu can do it! But much more often he still leaves you to live.
Do not forget: when the flu is hard, all the most important organs and systems of a person are under attack. And the effects of the flu can be felt for the rest of your life.
Mild flu But if you prepared your body for the winter in advance, or at least dived under a blanket at the first sign of a cold, you would get off with a slight fright.After all, the flu can go mildly, almost asymptomatic. Although, of course, it is for this reason that you can notice it too late.
Parainfluenza Compromise option. It also starts and flows gently. The temperature rarely rises above 38 degrees. And it lasts no more than one or two days. But many get sick even without a fever. However, both of them are plagued by a sore throat and a “barking” cough. The voice becomes hoarse, sometimes disappears completely.
Adenovirus infection It begins, like the flu, acutely.Temperature 38-39. It can hold on for a week, or even two. A severe runny nose and a noticeable sore throat also appear in the first hours of the illness. If you ask what it hurts there, you can see large red tonsils. On the third or fourth day, pain in the eyes may appear. After a couple of days, in the corners of the eyes (under the eyelids), as well as in the throat, on the tonsils, you will notice white or grayish films. Body temperature at this time can fluctuate around 37. Lymph nodes are enlarged and painful throughout the body.Abdominal pain and stool disorder are not excluded. Complications may develop in people who are very weak. One of the most serious is pneumonia.
The doctor knows what to do
We asked Elena Smolnaya, the district therapist of the Shatkovskaya central district hospital of the Nizhny Novgorod region, about what to do, firstly, secondly, and thirdly.
– If there are no signs of a complicated course of the disease, you must first of all help the body get rid of toxins.
The most affordable, natural way is to drink abundantly: tea, fruit drink (cranberry or lingonberry). Herbs are good for this. You can gargle and rinse your nose with chamomile and calendula infusions. If the temperature is not too high, the same infusions or similar pharmacy tinctures can be used for inhalation.
It is equally important to support the defenses of the organism itself. Rosehip, black currant are good.
Today, immunostimulating agents, in particular interferons, are widely used.To suppress the activity of the virus, there are special antiviral drugs. The earlier you start taking them, the easier the course of the disease and the less the risk of complications.
All this, of course, does not exclude the use, if necessary, of conventional symptomatic agents such as paracetamol, cough mixtures, drops from the common cold.
For those who remember aspirin in the first place with a cold, I want to remind you that it is very dangerous for children. But for those who are almost used to treating antibiotics as a panacea, I will disappoint: antibiotics do not work against viruses.We prescribe antibiotics when we see that a bacterial infection joins the flu.
Remember, there are no safe medicines. A remedy that turns out to be salutary for one, the other, can plunge into a series of troubles.
How to tell the flu from a cold yourself?
- Onset of the disease
ARVI (SPECIALLY – COLD) – more often smooth
FLU – always spicy
- Body temperature
ARVI – rarely rises above 38 C
FLU – 39 C and above reaches in 2-3 hours, lasts 3-4 days
- Intoxication of the body
ARVI – weak, general condition is satisfactory
FLU – chills, sweat, severe headache (in the temples and in the eye area), fear of light, dizziness, aches.All this manifests itself sharply and grows rapidly.
- Cough, chest discomfort
ARVI – dry, abrupt, moderately pronounced, appears immediately
FLU – excruciating, with pain, appears on the 2nd day
- Runny nose and nasal congestion
ARVI – often the main symptom
FLU – do not appear immediately, not so pronounced
- Throat: redness and pain
ARVI – one of the main symptoms
FLU – in the first days of the disease does not always appear
- Eye redness
ARVI – if a bacterial infection is attached
FLU is a common symptom
No need for treatment: rest and drink some water…
there is an opinion of
People who are convinced that nature heals itself, that medications are unnecessary, believe that colds and flu are not a disease, but … an act of self-healing invented by nature. This is how the body gets rid of the consequences of a wrong life. What is this wrong?
Excess starches and sweets in food. Lack of fresh, natural products. Tobacco, alcohol. Sedentary lifestyle. Inability to rest – there is not a single disease without prior fatigue.
Hence their recommendations. We need to lie down for a couple of days in warmth and comfort. Food – minimum. Water – room temperature, drink literally a sip, but often. For fever, warm wraps. Medicines are only harmful, because they knock down the “fine tuning” of the immune system. And we, according to these people, it turns out, is “imprisoned” during a “cold”, along with all kinds of rhinos, adenoviruses and influenza viruses to destroy cancer cells. But there is no answer to the question of how people who lead a healthy lifestyle, who do not drink or smoke, who know how to rest, still catch a cold.
Where do mutant viruses come from?
guests from the future
Nature has not provided its own life support systems for viruses. But she gave a “weapon” to seize other people’s vital resources. We can say that this weapon of the future is genetic (programming). However, the virus itself is all “genetic” – all of the pieces of molecules designed to carry genetic information. The virus inserts one of these pieces into the nucleus of the victim cell.
This is actually the end of the struggle.The reprogrammed cell now sees its main task as … the production of viral proteins. The process is proceeding rapidly: the offspring of only one viral particle that has entered the body in a day is already 1023 “individuals”. Hence the record-breaking short incubation period of infection – one to two days.
It is estimated that each of us is exposed to a “virus attack” at least twice a year. In total, viruses penetrate into the human body at least 200 times during a lifetime. But not all of these penetrations end in disease.Once we have stood at a meeting with the pathogen, we acquire the skill of dealing with it for a long time. And we also pass on the memory of some meetings to our descendants. But viruses have their own “knight’s move” in this regard. They mutate. Sometimes so much so that our immune system does not immediately respond to the invasion. This is how epidemics arise.
There is a lot of talk about the mutant virus now. Was the bird – became human. Overcame the species barrier. Scientists believe they are far from the first. It is believed that the sadly memorable “Spaniard” of 1918-1919 was caused by just such a mutant.
“Spanish flu” walked the planet, leaving hundreds of thousands of victims. Less devastating, but no less serious, were the pandemics of 1957 (“Asian flu”) and 1968 (“Hong Kong flu”). More recently, in 1997 and 2003, also in Hong Kong, there were limited outbreaks of a new subtype of influenza. Today it has already been proven: people were infected with it from birds. Last year’s outbreaks confirmed the mutation of the bird flu virus.
Cough and runny nose attack humanity
Every year on Earth there are 3 to 5 million cases of severe flu.250-500 thousand of them end in death. In industrialized countries, these statistics are replenished mainly by the elderly, low-income people who do not have the opportunity to see a doctor. This year, the infection on the planet is marked only by outbreaks. Our country is no exception. One can speak about an epidemic only in Chelyabinsk – the epidemic threshold there has been exceeded by more than a quarter. There are a little more than 50 thousand “colds” in Moscow now. Less than one percent of them are diagnosed with influenza.
Cold.What is important to know about her? – In the vast majority of cases, the common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, which leads to inflammation of the mucous membrane lining this part of the respiratory tract. – Articles about health
Common symptoms are rhinorrhea (runny nose), sneezing, pharyngitis (sore throat).
A viral infection that we call the “common cold,” can often be treated without medication by resting, drinking plenty of fluids, and some over-the-counter medications to relieve certain symptoms.So far, there are no drugs that are effective against causative agents of colds.
Smoking “helps” the development of colds, including in the presence of children, as it paralyzes the ciliated cells (ciliated epithelium), which ensure the purity of the respiratory tract. Colds can spread through the hands, not just through the air. To prevent the spread of viruses, do not touch your eyes, mouth and nose, and often wash your hands when you are sick or in contact with a sick person.
Some other diseases are similar in symptomatology to colds, but require immediate medical attention and special medications. If you have a high fever (temperature over 38.0 ° C), accompanied by chills and a cough with thick mucus, or if coughing and deep breathing cause severe chest pain, you may have pneumonia. An urgent need to consult a doctor to establish a diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment.
The safest, best, and cheapest way to treat a cold is to do almost nothing at all and let the illness go away on its own.Take medications to relieve individual symptoms as needed.
How to treat colds
The best way to treat colds without medication is to drink plenty of fluids, at least 8 to 10 glasses of soft drinks (preferably warm or hot), rest, and stop smoking. The only means that can in any way try to resist viruses are interferons (effective when used in the first – second day of illness, then useless) and KIP (Complex immunoglobulin drug) – effective when taken simultaneously with food during the first 3 to 5 days of illness …
In case of rhinorrhea (if a stream flows from the nose), it is not necessary to use medications, but it is better to be patient, since with rhinorrhea there is a drainage of mucus that expels the infection from the body, therefore, no drugs should be taken. However, if rhinorrhea lasts more than a week, see your doctor.
For the same reason, it is not necessary to treat a productive cough (when when coughing something is taken out).
If the symptoms cannot be stopped by these measures, and these symptoms interfere with normal functioning, then the following safest and most effective remedies are recommended.
If your nose is blocked, especially if you cannot breathe freely, use nasal drops or spray containing oxymetazoline hydrochloride (for example, AFRIN), xylometazoline hydrochloride (for example, Nasal Nasal Spray) or phenylephrine hydrochloride (for example, drops or spray for the nose NEO-SYNEPHRINE). But do not use them for more than three days.
In case of “nasal congestion”, do not use any oral decongestants (tablets, syrups).These medicines can raise your heart rate and blood pressure. In addition, they act as a stimulant and worsen the process of falling asleep. When using a spray or nasal drops for 1 – 3 days (no more), 25 times less of the drug enters your body and, moreover, enters the nose, that is, where it is needed, and is not distributed throughout the body as is the case with oral medication.
For fever, headaches and body aches, use aspirin or paracetamol if necessary (paracetamol is preferred in children).
Cough is a necessary evil
The lungs are constantly self-cleaning to ensure effective breathing. Normally, mucus lines the walls of the lungs and protects them from foreign particles (smoke, dust, viruses). The cilia of the ciliated epithelium push mucus with adhering particles out of the lungs. Coughing helps to remove unwanted substances from the lungs more quickly.
Cough is beneficial as long as it removes unwanted substances such as phlegm (mucus) from the airways and lungs.This cough is called a productive cough and often occurs with colds, bronchitis and pneumonia. On the other hand, a dry, hacking (unproductive) cough can be annoying and interfere with sleep. A cough can also be one of the symptoms of a chronic illness such as asthma, or it can be caused by cigarette smoke.
A productive cough is part of the recovery process from colds and flu. Every effort should be made to remove unwanted material from the lungs by “releasing” phlegm.This is the purpose of the expectorant, which liquefies the secretions so much that they are cleared more easily by coughing (expectoration). The best expectorant is water, especially in warm liquids such as soup, which looses phlegm and helps moisturize the airways. A humid environment also contributes to this. Drink plenty of fluids and, if possible, humidify the air in your home with a humidifier or by evaporating water using an evaporator. In winter, you can simply put a tray of water on the radiator.Doctors of the old school recommend, for the same purpose, the use of enzymes (mezim, panzinorm, festal) because of the pepsin they contain. Even if this is something wrong from a modern scientific point of view, regarding a cough, then taking enzymes for a cold is still useful, since it accelerates the recovery of the body, or rather the pancreas, which suffers with any cold (the so-called reactive pancreatitis).
An unproductive cough, a dry cough that does not expel phlegm, can be treated with antitussive drugs.If you have a cough that interferes with your sleep or severely weakens your body, you can also use one of these remedies. One-component antitussive drugs should be used. Rest and plenty of fluids are also recommended when treating coughs.
Codeine, which is present in many prescription antitussives, is not recommended for coughing. Codeine is addictive and can contribute to constipation.
When coughing, if the phlegm (mucus) becomes greenish, yellow, or takes on a foul smell, if the cough is accompanied by intense fever lasting several days, or if the cough or deep breathing causes severe chest pain or shortness of breath develops, consult a doctor.Any of these symptoms could indicate pneumonia. If you cough up blood, see a doctor immediately.
Fever, headache and muscle aches The common cold is sometimes accompanied by fever, headache and muscle aches. These symptoms are best managed without medication, with rest and fluid intake, or with aspirin or paracetamol.
It is not recommended to give aspirin for fever to a patient younger than 40: he may have the flu, not a cold.People who take aspirin for the flu (or chickenpox) are at an increased risk of developing Reye’s syndrome. This is a rather rare, but fatal disease, the victims of which, if they survive, remain disabled for life.
Consult a doctor if your body temperature rises above 39.4 ° C, or if a fever with a temperature above 38 ° C lasts more than four days. In these cases, the patient apparently does not have a cold.
Seek medical attention if:
- Fever with a temperature above 38.3 ° C, accompanied by chills and cough with expectoration of thick mucus (especially greenish or foul-smelling)
- Acute chest pain on deep inhalation
- Symptoms, that do not improve within seven days
- Fever with a temperature above 39.4 0 C
- Sore throat with one of the following:
- Pus (yellowish white spots) on the tonsils or in the throat
- Fever with a temperature above 38.3 0 C
- Enlarged or tender lymph nodes on the front of the neck
- Contact with a patient who has a documented case of tonsillitis or diphtheria
- Rash, which appears in the process of pharyngitis or after it
- A history of rheumatic fever, rheumatism, cardiovascular – vascular system, kidney disease, chronic lung disease such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis.
Why there is a “lingering” cough
Sometimes the above recipes “fail” – cough, malaise continues after 2 or more weeks from the onset of acute respiratory infections (colds). If this happens, you need to do tests and call a doctor.
In the overwhelming majority of cases, this is an “attack” of a new infection on an organism weakened by a cold. These infections have different names and fight them in different ways. Most often, mycoplasma “attacks”, in the second place are cases of “aggression” of pneumocystis.Sometimes mycoplasma and pneumocystis combine and bring the patient to a constant temperature of 37-38 degrees, severe sweating, poor sleep (cough does not allow sleep, wakes up), weakness (asthenia).
Less often, a lingering cough is caused by fungi (candida) or chlamydia (usually pulmonary). Another cause of this cough can be tuberculosis. In infants, similar phenomena can occur due to cytomegalovirus.
Any of these infections, if incorrectly diagnosed and treated, can severely impair quality of life.Bronchitis is most common, but pneumonia can also develop. In the United States, 40% of bronchitis in children is mycoplasma. The main alarming symptom is a long-term (more than 2 weeks) persistent cough. Sometimes mycoplasma, pneumocystis, chlamydia and cytomegalovirus “stick” to children with bronchial asthma, asthmatic bronchitis – attacks become more frequent. After diagnosing and treating these infections, children forget about bronchial asthma for a long time.
The resistance of these microorganisms in the external environment is low – they quickly die, therefore, the main method of infection is close household contact.People can become infected with mycoplasmosis or pneumocystosis (less often chlamydia) in any “close” group – at work, at the institute, in kindergarten, at school, in the yard, in regular guests, from constantly coughing relatives.
“Candidal” cough usually occurs as a consequence of excessive or improper intake of antibacterial drugs, such as biseptol, bactrim, septrim, ampicillin, ampiox, etc.
In the current economic and, therefore, social environment, tuberculosis, as a “disease of the poor,” can overtake you in public transport, and in a shop, and at a train station.The only thing that calms down is that although there are many “infectious” people, it is quite difficult to get infected with a short contact. It is better to start the diagnosis of tuberculosis at a polyclinic phthisiatrician or in a tuberculosis dispensary at the place of residence. In difficult cases, or if you do not want to go to the dispensary, you can use the possibilities of paid diagnostics – the determination of bacteria by PCR or the detection of the level of antibodies to mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Diagnosis of mycoplasmosis, pneumocystosis, chlamydia, candidiasis and cytomegalovirus is quite complicated – there are no signs characteristic of only one disease, and the microbes themselves are so small that they cannot be detected by conventional microscopy.Mycoplasmosis, pneumocystosis, chlamydia, candidiasis and cytomegalovirus infection (CMVi) are detected either by smears examined by DNA diagnostics methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or by immunofluorescence (which is less reliable), or by examining blood from a vein to the presence of antibodies to these pathogens.
There are no “home” remedies for these diseases, but modern antibacterial drugs are highly effective – the cure rate reaches 95%.
Preventive measures.Without studying the immune status in the cold season, you can drink 2-3 courses of herbal adaptogens – ginseng, eleutherococcus. The drugs are taken in the morning and afternoon, and in the evening to relieve daytime stress and improve sleep, you need soothing herbal decoctions – valerian, motherwort.
In order not to get sick during an epidemic of viral diseases, in addition to vitamins and adaptogens, it is good to take homeopathic medicines Griphel, Antigrippin, Influcid. The flu shot, which is given every year, will protect you from this illness.Vaccination with the influenza vaccine must be done before the onset of the influenza epidemic, so that immunity can be developed. It makes no sense to get a flu shot in the midst of an epidemic, or when a person is already sick, since the vaccine will not protect against the disease.
For people who often suffer from otitis media, tonsillitis, bronchitis, there are drugs that protect against staphylococci, streptococci, hemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella. This is Ribomunil, Bronchomunal. It is better to entrust the selection of a prevention scheme to a doctor.
If someone in the family is sick, the rest should take preventive measures.It would be nice to arrange finely chopped or crushed garlic on saucers in the apartment. You can also put it in a pre-scalded teapot and breathe through the spout. Drink Tonsilgon or Antiseptin.
Inhalation of anti-inflammatory herbs – St. John’s wort, sage, eucalyptus or propolis inhalation – can also increase the body’s defenses. As an inhaler, you can use a regular teapot – brew the herb with boiling water and inhale through a spout. You can use ready-made preparations – oils, solutions and tinctures – eucalyptus, propolis, fir oil, “Eucabal”, “Doctor MOM”, “Bronchicum”.The most convenient inhaler is the Russian ultrasonic “Monsoon”.
Multivitamins (Mul-Titabs, Unicap, Centrum and others) can be used as a prophylaxis for weakening the immune system. Yeast preparations (yeast extract “Favorite”, pangamin, etc.) have a good general strengthening effect. Multivitamin and yeast preparations are especially needed in autumn and spring, when there is a natural weakening of the immune system.
90,000 What if it’s the flu?
Every year people with low immunity are overcome by the influenza virus, which is prone to frequent mutations.This means that every 10-20 years the epidemiological situation is somewhat complicated by the fact that the virus can change. However, this does not mean at all that the symptoms of the disease are changing dramatically – the flu, which is well known to all of us, has several signs that remain constant, regardless of the mutations that have occurred.
Influenza begins with a sharp feverish state (up to 39-40 ° C). Following this, general intoxication of the body rapidly develops, literally in a few hours the patient’s condition deteriorates significantly.Further, the following types of characteristic features are appended:
- Chills, most often with a high degree of intensity. Wrapping or other insulation procedures do not bring relief. Chills recede with a decrease in body temperature.
- Headaches are one of the first signs of intoxication. However, do not forget that it may also indicate a complication of the process, for example, with aggravation of sinusitis, which has arisen against the background of influenza, or sinusitis. The nature of the pain is pressing or dull, it is felt strongly when the eyes move in different directions or in a circle.
- Cough, an inflammation caused by the influenza virus, is often located in the bronchi, which triggers this symptom, expressed mainly by a dry, hacking cough reflex.
- Muscle pain, body aches are a clear sign of flu intoxication (especially on the first day).
- Drowsiness, malaise – a natural reaction of the body to the action of the virus, is the result of a weakening of the barrier functions.
- General weakness – occurs against the background of prolonged fever and intoxication symptoms.
- Decreased appetite – due to the same intoxication factor.
- Vomiting, diarrhea – these symptoms are typical of patients – children, they are much less common in adults. May indicate an intestinal form of flu.
To the listed symptoms, you can add an additional clinic, expressed in periodic dizziness, tinnitus, mucous membranes of the oral cavity become dry. Another feature is a decrease in the sense of smell, but at the same time the reaction to sound and light, on the contrary, becomes sharper, especially when the light is turned on or when knocking, clapping, etc.p.
The duration of the fever lasts up to five days, and during the entire period there are periodic drops, and then again an increase in temperature.
Many working people are used to carrying illness on their feet. However, it should be remembered that the flu can be complicated by otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, and sometimes even meningitis or encephalitis can occur. Both diseases affect the brain. Also, the flu makes all the hidden sores come out. For example, problems with blood pressure, heart or kidneys may begin.
Due to the risk of complications, as well as the possible rapid transition of a mild form of the course of influenza to a more severe one, at the first signs of influenza, you should not self-medicate. Timely referral to a specialist guarantees a speedy recovery and elimination of the risk of complications.
But it is always easier to prevent a disease, or to stop it at the initial stage, than it is then to be treated with expensive drugs for a long time.
The main means of preventing influenza is vaccination, but the period of vaccination of the population has already ended, so whoever did not have time is late.During the “rampant” of the virus vaccination should not be carried out. Therefore, it remains as much as possible to limit contact with patients. Wearing a medical mask in crowded places will reduce the risk of getting the virus on the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth. Wash your hands thoroughly after walking down the street or using public transport. Antiviral or homeopathic remedies can be taken prophylactically.
If, nevertheless, you get sick, then at the first symptoms you should consult a doctor. Of course, with the flu, which proceeds with a temperature, you should stay in bed for 3-5 days, drink a lot of fluids and take antiviral medications.Tea with lemon, cranberries, sea buckthorn, raspberries or currants is indicated not only at the first signs of the disease, but also during its height. Raspberries and currants contain phytoncides and a number of vitamins that increase immunity, fight germs, relieve fever and promote sweating. By the way, it is with sweat that most of the toxins come out. But lemon, sea buckthorn and cranberry contain not only vitamin C, but also organic acids, which partially kill viruses. Warm milk with honey relieves pain and partly inflammation with a sore throat.The use of chicken broth is also justified. Some men, at the first symptoms of a respiratory viral infection, prefer to drink 50-100 grams of vodka with pepper. Surely, of course, but the stronger sex firmly believes that in the morning the sore will be removed as if by hand. However, such a “medicine” will only temporarily ease the symptoms of the disease, relieve pain and warm, nothing more. People who believe that you need to soar your feet for recovery are also mistaken. This procedure does not cause recovery, it simply helps to warm the body.In addition, you should be aware that when the temperature rises, you cannot soar your legs, and this procedure is also contraindicated for persons with arterial hypertension.
The basis of drugs that alleviate the condition is paracetamol, which lowers the temperature, relieves pain and improves the general condition. But you should be aware that an overdose of paracetamol can cause weakness, nausea or vomiting, lead to headaches, respiratory depression, arrhythmias, and disruption of the digestive system. With pain in the throat in the first days of the disease, the use of drugs aimed at relieving pain and perspiration is justified.These can be lozenges, tablets, or sprays with antiseptic, antibacterial and analgesic properties. The drug should not contain alcohol – it injures the mucous membrane. A doctor should be responsible for prescribing cough medications. Lollipops based on herbal extracts or warm drinks: tea, warm mineral water will help alleviate the condition on their own. In the fight against rhinitis from vasoconstrictor drugs, choose those that have a longer effect (8-12 hours: containing oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) – this will save you from frequent use of the drug and, as a result, the development of dependence on it and drug rhinitis.Strictly follow the instructions and take them no more than 5-7 days.
Ventilate the room more often! Follow the rules of hygiene, try not to infect others.
Take care of yourself, be healthy! Let the flu pass you by!
City Geriatric Center.
Head of the center Tokareva I.V.
Season of colds and flus Tells the pediatrician
Cold and Flu Season: 5 Questions Parents Should Know
Winter is a season of high morbidity.Every year, with the onset of the cold season, we are attacked by ARVI and influenza. What should parents of babies know and do? We deal with simple but very important questions together with pediatrician Anastasia Batrakova.
How to distinguish influenza from SARS?
Colds – as we used to call acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI). SARS is easier to tolerate, usually passes quickly, is easier to treat and rarely causes complications, while the flu is more severe and can lead to serious complications.They are often confused, mistakenly mistaking one for the other. Sometimes it is difficult for doctors to distinguish between these two diseases based on symptoms.
A cold begins with a runny nose and sore throat, then a cough appears, which can be phlegm or dry.A stuffy nose, a sore throat, a slight fever, a headache and weakness. Unlike SARS, influenza manifests itself suddenly and immediately with a full list of symptoms. A common cold weakens after a few days and goes away completely in about a week. Influenza usually lasts longer and may take several weeks to fully recover.
Neither ARVI nor influenza can be treated with antibiotics! Take your time with medications. It is dangerous to prescribe drugs yourself. They are used only as directed by a doctor if the disease causes complications.
When and how to bring down the temperature of a child? Should I shoot her down at all?
High temperature (fever or hyperthermia) is a protective reaction of the body, useful and necessary. But it so happens that it acquires a pathological character or is very difficult for a child to tolerate.
At an elevated body temperature in a child, all indicators must be taken into account. There are two types of fever: red and white. With red hyperthermia, the palms and feet are warm, the child’s skin is pink, the behavior is normal.The temperature gets off easily. With white fever, the internal body temperature can reach very high values, but the peripheral vessels are spasmodic, so the skin is pale, the palms and feet are cold, the child is lethargic or, on the contrary, is very agitated. The temperature gets off badly. This condition is very life-threatening and often causes seizures. Therefore, with white fever, you can bring down the temperature, starting from 38 ° C.
Accordingly, the temperature must be brought down:
– when it reaches 38.5 ° C;
– when the child does not tolerate her well;
– when there are aggravating factors: severe diseases of the central nervous system, organs and systems, for example, heart defects, etc.etc.
It is important to correctly determine which antipyretic to use. Up to 3 months of a child’s life, paracetamol is recommended as a safe antipyretic drug (in the form of rectal suppositories or suspension). Ibuprofen is used from 3 months of age. It is important to give the correct dose of antipyretic medicine for your age and weight.
In addition to antipyretics, physical methods of cooling should be actively used with red hyperthermia. Wipe your baby’s tummy, back, arms and legs with a towel dipped in warm water.It is impossible to use alcohol and vinegar for rubdowns, as they have a toxic effect – they easily penetrate the skin.
With white hyperthermia, you need to act a little differently. It is impossible to wipe the child with water so that there is no spasm of the blood vessels. First, warm the baby (rub the surface of the body with your hands), physical methods of cooling can only be used after the skin has turned pink and warm.
If the temperature rises rapidly, call an ambulance.The doctor will examine the child, assess his condition and decide whether he needs hospitalization, whether it is necessary to inject a lytic mixture.
With what symptoms do you need to go to the hospital immediately?
We often face the fact that parents do not always adequately assess the condition of their child and the danger of the situation. It is strange to see messages sent to the site at night with the question: “What to do? The child has a temperature of 39.5 and does not go astray for a day.Certainly not spontaneously asking questions on the Internet, but calling an ambulance!
Temperature (high, which can be brought down by antipyretics for a short time or not) is not the only reason to immediately contact a doctor.
Urgent medical attention is needed in cases when:
– acute abdominal pain, which may be accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting. It can be spasm or colic. But acute appendicitis and other serious problems cannot be ruled out;
– severe open vomiting;
– high body temperature, which does not decrease for three days;
– black chair;
– hemorrhagic rash (bloody rash on the skin) – they can be a sign of meningococcal infection.And the sooner the child is admitted to the hospital for treatment, the faster and easier it will be to recover. It is better to discuss any other rashes with your doctor, but not so urgently;
– the child refuses to eat and drink, severe lethargy.
Is it possible to walk outside with a temperature?
Walking on the street with a toddler who feels very bad and will never enter anyone’s head. Parents of only those children who are already recovering come to think about walking.
There is no definite answer to the question about walking with a temperature. Doctors advise to take into account all the factors influencing this problem at the moment: climatic conditions, accurate readings of the child’s temperature, the current state of the patient. A snowstorm, strong wind, dampness or rain are contraindicated for walks, as they can make the disease lingering. If the child feels good, the weather is good for walking, then the fresh air will certainly not hurt.
How to support a child’s immunity?
Immunity is a way of protecting the body, it can be congenital (aka nonspecific) and acquired (aka adaptive, or specific).
The reactions of specific immunity in different people differ and depend on what infectious agents the person has encountered earlier. Specific immunity takes time to study the infection that has entered the body and remember it. When the body re-meets the same infection, the immune system destroys it even before the first symptoms of the disease appear. It is important to understand that when a child grows up, he loses the protective factors transmitted to him by his mother at birth and breastfeeding, so his body must learn to cope with viruses on its own.Immunity must train, it is impossible without disease.
Strengthening the immune system is a daily effort of parents. Prepare for the season of illness before it begins. It is necessary to be vaccinated on time against pathogens of respiratory infections (influenza, pneumococcus, hemophilic infection type B, etc.). Systematic hardening of the child has a good effect. It is necessary to monitor proper nutrition: the daily diet should contain a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals for the child’s body.It is important to observe the correct daily routine, walk in the fresh air every day and sleep at least 8-13 hours a day, depending on age.
Good personal hygiene is important, especially during the peak season for respiratory infections. Coming home from a walk or from the garden, you need to wash your face, wash your hands thoroughly, hold a toilet in the nasal passages, and rinse your mouth. When visiting crowded places, use a disposable face shield. If the child does get sick, even in a mild form, it is better to leave him at home until he recovers, this will help to avoid complications.
Read completely: https://health.tut.by/news/disease/714952.html?c
90,000 Influenza – Articles for the population – Khislavichi district hospital
Influenza is an acute highly contagious disease characterized by severe toxicosis, moderate catarrhal symptoms with the most intense damage to the trachea and large bronchi. The clinical symptoms of influenza can vary significantly depending on the state of the body’s defenses and on the age of the patient, on the infectiousness of the virus and on its type.Influenza can be uncomplicated and complicated.
According to the severity of the course, influenza is subdivided:
• mild form
• medium form
• severe form
• hypertoxic form
• fulminant form of the course.
The incubation period for influenza usually lasts from a few hours to 1–2 days, but can last as long as 5 days.
Then the period of acute clinical manifestations of influenza begins. The severity of uncomplicated influenza is determined by the severity and duration of intoxication.
The intoxication syndrome is the leading one in influenza and is expressed from the very first hours of the illness. The first sign of the flu is a rise in temperature. Influenza always begins acutely with an increase in body temperature – from subfebrile numbers to hyperthermia (from 37.2 to 40 ° Celsius). Usually within a few hours the temperature reaches high numbers and is accompanied by chills. With a mild course of the disease, body temperature does not exceed subfebrile numbers. The level of fever reflects the severity of intoxication, but these concepts cannot be completely identified.Sometimes, at a very high body temperature, the signs of intoxication are not pronounced sharply, which is often observed in young people who get sick with influenza caused by the type A (h2N1) virus! Their temperature rise is short-term, and then the disease has a moderate course.
The temperature reaction in influenza is characterized by its severity and relatively short duration. The febrile period lasts 2-6 days, rarely longer, and then the temperature drops rapidly. The presence of a prolonged elevated temperature may indicate the occurrence of any complication.
The leading sign of intoxication and one of the first signs and symptoms of influenza is headache. The pain is noted in the frontal region, especially in the region of the eyebrows, in the supraorbital region, sometimes behind the orbits of the eyes and increases with the movement of the eyeball. In older people, headache is often common. The severity of the headache can vary, but in most cases it is mild. Severe headache in combination with sleep disturbance, repeated vomiting, hallucinations is observed in patients with a severe course of the disease and is often accompanied by a syndrome of lesions of the central nervous system.In adults, in contrast to children, convulsive syndrome develops sharply.
General weakness, feeling unwell, fatigue, increased sweating are common symptoms of flu. There is an increased sensitivity to bright light, harsh sounds, and cold. Consciousness is often preserved, but delusional states are possible. A common symptom of influenza is muscle and joint pain, aches throughout the body, mainly in the lumbosacral region.
The patient’s appearance is characteristic: the face is reddened, puffy.Conjunctivitis is noted, which is accompanied by photophobia and lacrimation. Due to impaired capillary circulation and hypoxia, the patient’s face has a bluish tint.
Catarrhal syndrome is also one of the leading in influenza infection, but it recedes into the background and in some cases is weak or absent. The duration of the catarrhal syndrome is 7-10 days. The cough persists for the longest time.
In the first days, changes in the oropharynx are observed: pronounced redness of the soft palate with a clear demarcation from the hard palate.By 3-4 days from the onset of the disease, redness is replaced by the injection of vessels that form a plexus – “mesh”. In addition, with a severe course of the disease, small hemorrhages appear on the soft palate. Against the background of vascular disorders, there is granularity, represented by enlarged lymphatic follicles. In severe flu, in addition to swelling of the soft palate, cyanosis is noted. The posterior pharyngeal wall in patients with influenza is dry, shiny, reddened, often with granularity. Patients note tickling and dryness in the throat.By 7-8 days from the onset of the disease, the mucous membrane of the soft palate in most patients takes on a normal appearance.
There are changes in the nasopharynx: the nasal mucosa is reddened, edematous, dry. Swelling of the turbinates makes it difficult to breathe through the nose. These changes on days 2-3 from the onset of the disease are replaced by nasal discharge. Rhinitis is observed in approximately 80% of patients, its duration is 4-7 days. Due to toxic damage to the walls of blood vessels and intense sneezing with influenza, nosebleeds are often observed.
The most typical syndrome is tracheobronchitis, which is manifested by soreness or pain in the chest, behind the breastbone, as well as an excruciating dry cough.
Cough occurs in about 90% of patients. The duration of the cough in uncomplicated flu is 5-6 days. Increased breathing is possible, but the nature of breathing does not change.
Laryngitis (sore throat, hoarseness) with influenza is combined with tracheitis, and tracheitis prevails in the clinical picture. In children, influenza laryngotracheitis can lead to croup.
Changes in the lungs correlate with the age of the patient, as well as with the presence of concomitant cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases.When listening to the lungs, hard breathing and short-term dry wheezing can be determined.
Changes in the cardiovascular system in influenza are caused by toxic damage to the heart muscle. When listening to the heart, muffled tones are determined, sometimes a systolic murmur at the apex of the heart and a rhythm disturbance of the type of extrasystole. At the onset of the disease, with an increase in body temperature, there is an increase in heart rate, which is accompanied by blanching of the skin. On days 2-3, along with lethargy and weakness in the body, there is a decrease in the pulse rate, which is accompanied by reddening of the skin.
Changes on the part of the digestive system are not pronounced. Often, there is a decrease in appetite, bowel motility worsens and constipation is added. The tongue is thickly coated with a white bloom, not thickened. The abdomen is painless. What is known as stomach flu is not caused by the flu virus at all. Short-term bowel distress is associated with an exacerbation of chronic gastrointestinal disease.
Changes in the urinary system. The viruses excreted through the kidneys damage the kidney tissue.These violations may be accompanied by the appearance of protein and blood elements in urine tests. In the uncomplicated course of influenza, violations of the kidneys and bladder are not observed.
Changes in the central nervous system. Toxic reactions from the nervous system can manifest itself in the form of a sharp headache, aggravated by other external irritating factors. There may be excitement or, conversely, drowsiness. Vomiting, delusional states, convulsions, loss of consciousness, fainting are possible.Meningeal symptoms are observed in 3% of patients.
Changes in peripheral blood – hemoglobin and red blood cell count do not change. The number of leukocytes increases and the ESR rises.
The clinical picture of influenza, taking into account the severity of the disease
In the case of mild (including erased and subclinical) forms of influenza, the body temperature may remain normal or rise no more than 38 ° Celsius, symptoms of toxicosis are mild or absent.
With a moderate (manifest) form of influenza, the body temperature rises to 38.5-39.5 ° and the classic symptoms of the disease are noted.
Intoxication: profuse sweating, general weakness, photophobia, headache, joint and muscle pain.
Catarrhal symptoms of influenza: redness of the soft palate and back of the throat, respiratory symptoms, redness of the conjunctiva, damage to the larynx and trachea, dry cough, voice disturbance, rhinitis, chest pain, redness or cyanosis and dryness of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and oropharynx.
In severe and extremely severe forms of influenza, a large number of painful symptoms are noted – from the usual severe course with severe symptoms of intoxication and catarrhal phenomena to the predominance of the highest degree of intoxication in the clinical picture, leading to the development of toxicosis syndrome of the central nervous system and cerebral edema, cardiovascular disease. the vascular system and the development of infectious-toxic shock of varying severity.
With the development of a severe form of influenza, the body temperature rises to 40-40.5 °. Signs of encephalopathy (convulsions, hallucinations), vascular disorders (nosebleeds) and vomiting appear.
Possible development of respiratory failure leading to pulmonary edema and other complications.
With the fulminant form of influenza, there is a serious danger of death, especially for weakened patients and patients with various concomitant diseases. This form includes pulmonary and cerebral edema, bleeding, the development of varying degrees of respiratory failure and other serious complications.
If the flu proceeds without complications, the febrile period lasts 2-4 days and the illness ends within 5-10 days. Repeated rises in body temperature are possible, however, they are usually caused by the accumulation of any bacterial flora or other viral respiratory infection. After the flu, the phenomena of post-infectious asthenia may persist for 2-3 weeks: fatigue, general weakness, headache, irritability, sleep disturbance, etc.