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Fever sneezing: How to Take Your Child’s Temperature (for Parents)


How to Take Your Child’s Temperature (for Parents)

All kids get a fever from time to time. A fever itself usually causes no harm and can actually be a good thing — it’s often a sign that the body is fighting an infection. But a high fever sometimes is a sign of a problem that needs your doctor’s attention.

Here’s how to take your child’s temperature, safely and accurately.

What Types of Thermometers Are Available?

Digital Thermometers

Digital thermometers give the quickest, most accurate readings, and are the only kind that doctors currently recommend. Available in a variety of sizes and shapes, they’re sold at most supermarkets and drugstores.

Read the manufacturer’s instructions to see what the thermometer is designed for and how it signals that the reading is complete.

Digital thermometers are used for these temperature-taking methods:

  • rectal (in the bottom) — most accurate method for children under 3 years old
  • oral (in the mouth) — best for kids 4–5 years or older who can cooperate
  • axillary (under the arm) — the least accurate digital thermometer, but good for a first check
Other Types of Thermometers
  • temporal artery thermometers — these measure heat waves on side of forehead and can be used in infants 3 months and older
  • electronic ear (tympanic) thermometers — these measure heat waves from the eardrum and can be used in infants 6 months and older
Types Not Recommended

These types of thermometers aren’t recommended because they’re less accurate:

  • plastic strip thermometers
  • pacifier thermometers
  • smartphone temperature apps

Glass mercury thermometers were once common, but should not be used because of possible exposure to mercury, an environmental toxin.

Tips for Taking Temperatures by Age

As any parent knows, taking a squirming child’s temperature can be a challenge. The best method will depend on a child’s age and temperament.

Turn on the digital thermometer and clear the screen of any old readings. Digital thermometers usually have a plastic, flexible probe with a temperature sensor at the tip and an easy-to-read digital display on the other end. If your thermometer uses disposable plastic sleeves or covers, put one on according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Throw away the sleeve afterward and clean the thermometer according to the manufacturer’s instructions before putting it back in its case.

For babies younger than 3 months, you’ll get the most reliable reading by using a digital thermometer to take a rectal temperature. Call the doctor if your infant is younger than 3 months old and has a temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher.

For babies between 3 months and 6 months old, a digital rectal thermometer is still the best choice. A temporal artery thermometer also can be used.

For kids between 6 months and 4 years old, you can use a digital thermometer to take a rectal temperature. You also can use an tympanic (ear) thermometer or a digital thermometer to take an axillary (armpit) temperature, but they’re less accurate.

For kids 4 years or older, you can usually use a digital thermometer to take an oral temperature if your child will cooperate. But kids who are coughing a lot or breathing through their mouths because of stuffy noses might not be able to keep their mouths closed long enough for an accurate oral reading. In these cases, you can use the temporal, tympanic, rectal, or axillary method (with a digital thermometer).


How Do I Take a Rectal Temperature?

Before becoming parents, most people cringe at the thought of taking a rectal temperature. But don’t worry — it’s a simple and safe process.


  • Wash the end of the thermometer with soap and water and rinse with water.
  • Moisten the tip of the thermometer with a lubricant, such as petroleum jelly.
  • belly-down across your lap or on a firm, flat surface and keep your palm along the lower back
  • face-up with legs bent toward the chest with your hand against the back of the thighs

With your other hand:

  1. Insert the lubricated thermometer into the anal opening about ½ inch to 1 inch (about 1.25 to 2.5 centimeters), or until the tip of the thermometer is fully in the rectum. Stop if you feel any resistance.
  2. Steady the thermometer between your second and third fingers as you cup your hand against your child’s bottom. Soothe your child and speak quietly as you hold the thermometer in place.
  3. Wait until you hear the appropriate number of beeps or other signal that the temperature is ready to be read. Write down the number on the screen, noting the time of day that you took the reading.

How Do I Take an Oral Temperature?

Taking an oral temperature is easy in an older, cooperative child.

  1. Wait 20 to 30 minutes after your child finishes eating or drinking to take an oral temperature, and make sure there’s no gum or candy in your child’s mouth.
  2. Place the tip of the thermometer under the tongue and ask your child to close his or her lips around it. Remind your child not to bite down or talk, and to relax and breathe normally through the nose.
  3. Wait until you hear the appropriate number of beeps or other signal that the temperature is ready to be read. Write down the number on the screen, noting the time of day that you took the reading.

How Do I Take an Axillary Temperature?

This is a convenient way to take a child’s temperature. Although not as accurate as a rectal or oral temperature in a cooperative child, some parents prefer to take an axillary temperature, especially for kids who can’t hold a thermometer in their mouths.

  1. Remove your child’s shirt and undershirt, and place the thermometer under an armpit (it must be touching skin only, not clothing).
  2. Fold your child’s arm across the chest to hold the thermometer in place.
  3. Wait until you hear the appropriate number of beeps or other signal that the temperature is ready to be read. Write down the number on the screen, noting the time of day that you took the reading.

Whatever method you choose, keep these tips in mind:

  • Never take your child’s temperature right after a bath or if he or she has been bundled tightly for a while — this can affect the temperature reading.
  • Never leave your child unattended while taking a temperature.

Strep Throat (for Parents) – Nemours Kidshealth

What Is Strep Throat?

Strep throat is an infection caused by a type of bacteria (group A streptococcus). Strep bacteria cause almost a third of all sore throats.

Strep throat usually needs treatment with antibiotics. With the proper medical care — and plenty of rest and fluids — most kids get back to school and play within a few days.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Strep Throat?

Symptoms of strep throat include:

  • sore throat
  • fever
  • red and swollen tonsils
  • painful or swollen neck glands

Not all sore throats are strep throats. Often, kids have a sore throat because of a

virus, which will usually clear up without medical treatment.

Kids who do have strep throat might get other symptoms within about 3 days, such as:

  • red and white patches in the throat
  • trouble swallowing
  • a headache
  • lower stomach pain
  • general discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea
  • rash

Is Strep Throat Contagious?

Strep throat is very contagious. Anybody can get it, but most cases are in school-age kids and teens. Infections are common during the school year when big groups of kids and teens are in close quarters.

How Do People Get Strep Throat?

The bacteria that cause strep throat tend to hang out in the nose and throat. So normal activities like sneezing, coughing, or shaking hands can easily spread an infection from one person to another.

Kids with untreated strep throat are more likely to spread the infection when their symptoms are most severe, but can still infect others for up to 3 weeks.

That’s why it’s so important to teach kids the importance of hand washing. Good hygiene can lessen their chances of getting contagious diseases like strep throat.

How Is Strep Throat Diagnosed?

If your child has a sore throat and other strep throat symptoms, call your doctor. The doctor will likely do a rapid strep test in the office, using a cotton swab to take a sample of the fluids at the back of the throat. The test only takes about 5 minutes.

If it’s positive, your child has strep throat. If it’s negative, the doctor will send a sample to a lab for a throat culture. The results are usually available within a few days.

How Is Strep Throat Treated?

Doctors usually prescribe about 10 days of antibiotic medicine to treat strep throat. Within about 24 hours after starting on antibiotics, your child probably won’t have a fever and won’t be contagious. By the second or third day, other symptoms should start to go away.

Even when kids feel better, they should take the antibiotics as prescribed. This is the best way to kill the harmful bacteria. Otherwise, bacteria can remain in the throat and symptoms can return. Completing all the antibiotics also prevents other health problems that a strep infection can cause, such as rheumatic fever (which can cause heart damage), scarlet fever, blood infections, or kidney disease.

To prevent spreading strep throat to others in your home:

  • Keep your child’s eating utensils, dishes, and drinking glasses separate and wash them in hot, soapy water after each use.
  • Make sure your child doesn’t share food, drinks, napkins, handkerchiefs, or towels with other family members.
  • Teach your child to cover all sneezes or coughs. If a tissue isn’t handy, kids should sneeze or cough into a shirtsleeve, not their hands.
  • Remind everyone to wash their hands well and often.
  • Give your child a new toothbrush after the antibiotic treatment starts and he or she is no longer contagious.

How Can I Help My Child Feel Better?

Home care can help your child feel better while battling strep throat. Give plenty of liquids to prevent dehydration, such as water or ginger ale, especially if he or she has had a fever. Avoid orange juice, grapefruit juice, lemonade, or other acidic beverages, which can irritate a sore throat. Warm liquids like soups, sweetened tea, or hot chocolate can be soothing.

Talk to your doctor about when your child can return to normal activities. Most kids can go back to school when they’ve taken antibiotics for at least 24 hours and no longer have a fever.

Pneumonia (for Parents) – Nemours Kidshealth

What Is Pneumonia?

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. Normally, the small sacs in the lungs are filled with air. In someone who has pneumonia, the air sacs fill up with pus and other fluid.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Pneumonia?

The signs and symptoms of pneumonia may include:

  • fever
  • cough
  • chills
  • fast breathing 
  • breathing with grunting or wheezing sounds
  • working hard to breathe
  • vomiting
  • chest pain
  • belly pain 
  • being less active 
  • loss of appetite (in older kids) or poor feeding (in babies)

What Causes Pneumonia?

Viruses, like the flu or RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), cause most cases of pneumonia. Kids with pneumonia caused by a virus usually have symptoms that happen over time and tend to be mild.  

Less often, bacteria can cause pneumonia. When that happens, kids usually will become sick more quickly, starting with a sudden high fever, cough, and sometimes fast breathing. Types of bacterial pneumonia include pneumococcal pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia (walking pneumonia), and pertussis (whooping cough).

How Is Pneumonia Diagnosed?

Doctors will do an exam to look for pneumonia. They’ll check the person’s appearance, breathing pattern, and vital signs. They’ll listen to the lungs and might order a chest X-ray.

How Is Pneumonia Treated?

People who have viral pneumonia do not need antibiotics. Antibiotics only work against bacteria, not viruses. Someone with viral pneumonia from the flu virus might get an antiviral medicine if it’s early in the illness.

Doctors treat bacterial pneumonia with an antibiotic taken by mouth. Usually, this can be done at home. The antibiotic they use depends on the type of bacteria thought to have caused the pneumonia.

Some children might need treatment in a hospital if the pneumonia causes a lasting high fever or breathing problems, or if they need oxygen, are vomiting and can’t take the medicine, or have a lung infection that may have spread to the bloodstream.

Hospital treatment can include IV (given into a vein) antibiotics and fluids and breathing treatments. More serious cases might be treated in the intensive care unit (ICU).

How Can Parents Help?

Kids with pneumonia need to get plenty of rest and drink lots of liquids while the body works to fight the infection.

If your child has bacterial pneumonia and the doctor prescribed antibiotics, give the medicine on schedule for as long as directed. Keeping up with the medicine doses will help your child recover faster and help prevent the infection from spreading to others in the family. If your child is wheezing, the doctor might recommend using breathing treatments.

Ask the doctor before you use a medicine to treat your child’s cough. Over-the-counter cough and cold medicines are not recommended for any kids under 6 years old. If your child doesn’t seem to be feeling better in a few days, call your doctor for advice.

How Long Does Pneumonia Last?

With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia are cured in 1–2 weeks. Walking pneumonia and viral pneumonia may take 4–6 weeks to go away completely.

Is Pneumonia Contagious?

In general, pneumonia is not contagious, but the upper respiratory viruses and bacteria that lead to it are. When these germs are in someone’s mouth or nose, that person can spread the illness through coughs and sneezes.

Sharing drinking glasses and eating utensils, and touching used tissues or handkerchiefs of an infected person also can spread pneumonia. If someone in your home has a respiratory infection or throat infection, keep their drinking glasses and eating utensils separate from those of other family members, and wash your hands well and often, especially if you’re handling used tissues or dirty handkerchiefs.

Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

Some types of pneumonia can be prevented by vaccines. Kids usually get routine vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and whooping cough beginning at 2 months of age.

The flu vaccine is recommended for all kids ages 6 months through 19 years. It’s extra important for kids who have a chronic illness such as a heart or lung disorder or asthma.

When possible, keep kids away from anyone with symptoms (stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, cough) of a respiratory infection.

Common cold in babies – Symptoms and causes


A common cold is a viral infection of your baby’s nose and throat. Nasal congestion and a runny nose are the main signs of a cold.

Babies are especially likely to get the common cold, in part because they’re often around older children. Also, they have not yet developed immunity to many common infections. Within the first year of life, most babies have six to eight colds. They may have even more if they’re in child care centers.

Treatment for the common cold in babies involves easing their symptoms, such as by providing fluids, keeping the air moist and helping them keep their nasal passages open. Very young infants must see a doctor at the first sign of the common cold to make sure croup, pneumonia or other more serious illnesses aren’t present.

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The first signs of the common cold in a baby are often:

  • A congested or runny nose
  • Nasal discharge that may be clear at first but might thicken and turn yellow or green

Other signs and symptoms of a common cold in a baby may include:

  • Fever
  • Sneezing
  • Coughing
  • Decreased appetite
  • Irritability
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Trouble nursing or taking a bottle due to nasal congestion

When to see a doctor

Your baby’s immune system will need time to mature. If your baby has a cold with no complications, it should resolve within 10 to 14 days. Most colds are simply a nuisance. But it’s important to take your baby’s signs and symptoms seriously. If symptoms don’t improve or if they worsen, it’s time to talk to your doctor.

If your baby is younger than 3 months of age, call the doctor early in the illness. In newborns, it’s especially important to make sure that a more serious illness isn’t present, especially if your baby has a fever.

If your baby is 3 months old or older, call the doctor if your baby:

  • Isn’t wetting as many diapers as usual
  • Has a temperature higher than 100.4 F (38 C)
  • Seems to have ear pain or is unusually irritable
  • Has red eyes or develops yellow or greenish eye discharge
  • Has trouble breathing or wheezing
  • Has a persistent cough
  • Has thick, green nasal discharge for several days
  • Has other signs or symptoms that worry you, such as an unusual or alarming cry or not waking up to eat

Seek medical help immediately if your baby:

  • Refuses to nurse or accept fluids
  • Coughs hard enough to cause vomiting or changes in skin color
  • Coughs up blood-tinged mucus
  • Has difficulty breathing or is bluish around the lips
  • Has unusually low energy or sleepiness


The common cold is an infection of the nose and throat (upper respiratory tract infection) that can be caused by one of more than 200 viruses. Rhinoviruses are the most common.

A cold virus enters your baby’s body through his or her mouth, eyes or nose.

Once infected by a virus, your baby generally becomes immune to that virus. But because so many viruses cause colds, your baby may have several colds a year and many throughout his or her lifetime. Also, some viruses don’t produce lasting immunity.

Your baby can be infected with a virus by:

  • Air. When someone who is sick coughs, sneezes or talks, he or she might directly spread the virus to your baby.
  • Direct contact. Someone with a cold who touches your baby’s hand can spread the cold virus to your baby, who can become infected after touching his or her eyes, nose or mouth.
  • Contaminated surfaces. Some viruses live on surfaces for two hours or longer. Your baby may catch a virus by touching a contaminated surface, such as a toy.

Risk factors

A few factors put babies at higher risk of a common cold.

  • Immature immune systems. Babies are, by nature, at risk of common colds because they haven’t yet been exposed to or developed resistance to most of the viruses that cause them.
  • Exposure to other children. Spending time with other children, who don’t always wash their hands or cover their coughs and sneezes, can increase your baby’s risk of catching a cold. Exposure to anyone with a cold can increase the risk of getting a cold.
  • Time of year. Colds are more common from fall to late spring, but your baby can get a cold at any time.


These conditions can occur along with a common cold:

  • Acute ear infection (otitis media). This is the most common complication of the common cold. Ear infections occur when bacteria or viruses enter the space behind the eardrum.
  • Wheezing. A cold can trigger wheezing, even if your child doesn’t have asthma. If your child does have asthma, a cold can make it worse.
  • Acute sinusitis. A common cold that doesn’t resolve may lead to an infection within the sinuses (sinusitis).
  • Other infections. A common cold can lead to other infections, including pneumonia, bronchiolitis and croup. Such infections need to be treated by a doctor.


There’s no vaccine for the common cold. The best defense against the common cold is commonsense precautions and frequent hand-washing.

  • Keep your baby away from anyone who’s sick. If you have a newborn, don’t allow visits from anyone who’s sick. If possible, avoid public transportation and public gatherings with your newborn.
  • Wash your hands before feeding or touching your baby. Wash your hands thoroughly and often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water aren’t available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Teach your older children the importance of hand-washing. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Clean your baby’s toys and pacifiers often. Clean frequently touched surfaces. This is especially important if someone in your family or your baby’s playmate has a cold.
  • Teach everyone in the household to cough or sneeze into a tissue. Throw away used tissues right away and then wash your hands thoroughly. If you can’t reach a tissue in time, cough or sneeze into your elbow. Then wash your hands.
  • Review your child care center’s policies. Look for a child care setting with good hygiene practices and clear policies about keeping sick children at home.

Simple preventive measures can help keep the common cold at bay.

Common Cold | Antibiotic Use

Risk Factors

Many factors can increase your risk for catching a cold, including:

  • Close contact with someone who has a cold
  • Season (colds are more common during the fall and winter, but it is possible to get a cold any time of the year)
  • Age (infants and young children have more colds per year than adults)


Symptoms of a cold usually peak within 2 to 3 days and can include:

  • Sneezing
  • Stuffy nose
  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Coughing
  • Mucus dripping down your throat (post-nasal drip)
  • Watery eyes
  • Fever (although most people with colds do not have fever)

When viruses that cause colds first infect the nose and air-filled pockets in the face (sinuses), the nose makes clear mucus. This helps wash the viruses from the nose and sinuses. After 2 or 3 days, mucus may change to a white, yellow, or green color. This is normal and does not mean you need an antibiotic.

Some symptoms, particularly runny nose, stuffy nose, and cough, can last for up to 10 to 14 days, but those symptoms should be improving during that time.

When to Seek Medical Care

See a doctor if you have:

  • Difficulty breathing or fast breathing
  • Dehydration
  • Fever that lasts longer than 4 days
  • Symptoms that last more than 10 days without improvement
  • Symptoms, such as fever or cough, that improve but then return or worsen
  • Worsening of chronic medical conditions

This list is not all-inclusive. Please see a doctor for any symptom that is severe or concerning.

Because colds can have similar symptoms to flu, it can be difficult to tell the difference between the two illnesses based on symptoms alone. Flu and the common cold are both respiratory illnesses, but they are caused by different viruses.

In general, flu is worse than a cold, and symptoms are more intense. People with colds are more likely to have a runny or stuffy nose. Colds generally do not result in serious health problems, such as pneumonia, bacterial infections, or hospitalizations. Flu can have very serious associated complications.

Are your symptoms flu or COVID-19?

The facts

Both COVID-19 and influenza are contagious respiratory illnesses, but they are caused by different viruses. Many symptoms of the two are similar, which can cause confusion about which one you may be suffering from.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says COVID-19 seems to spread more easily and can cause more serious illnesses in some people. Ultimately, testing may need to be done to determine which, if any, virus you have.

Here’s how the two illnesses compare.

Symptoms shared by COVID-19 and influenza

The severity of both COVID-19 and flu can range from no symptoms (asymptomatic) to severe symptoms.

Shared symptoms include: 

  • Fever or chills. 
  • Cough.
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
  • Fatigue.
  • Sore throat.
  • Congestion or running nose. 
  • Muscle or body aches.
  • Headache.
  • Vomiting or diarrhea (more common in children).

Differences in COVID-19 and influenza symptoms

So far, research indicates there may only be one significant difference in symptoms between COVID-19 and the flu:

  • The change in or loss of taste and smell.

Because of this, you may need to see a doctor for testing to determine which virus, if any, you have.

Other comparisons

There are a few other notable similarities and differences between influenza and COVID-19.

Contagious period:

  • Similarities: The CDC says both viruses can spread for at least one day before a person shows symptoms.
  • Differences: A person with the flu may be contagious for up to seven days, compared with COVID-19, which could spread for up to 10 days after someone shows symptoms or tests positive. 

How the viruses spread:

  • Similarities: Both COVID-19 and the flu can spread from person-to-person when they’re within about 6 feet of each other. Both are spread mainly by respiratory droplets exerted when someone coughs, sneezes or talks. Both may be spread by people before they begin showing symptoms, by people with very mild symptoms, and by people who never develop symptoms (asymptomatic).  
  • Differences: COVID-19 is more contagious among certain groups of people than the flu. It can also spread quickly and easily, leading to more “superspreading” events – situations in which one person infects a lot of other people who then spread it to more people.

People at high risk:

  • Similarities: Both viruses can cause severe illness for older adults, people with certain underlying medical conditions and pregnant women.
  • Differences: The risk for complications for healthy children is higher with the flu. However, infants and children with underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for both flu and COVID-19. Additionally, school-aged children with COVID-19 are at higher risk for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a rare but severe complication of COVID-19.


  • Similarities: Both COVID-19 and flu can cause these complications:
    • Pneumonia
    • Respiratory failure
    • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (fluid in the lungs)
    • Sepsis
    • Cardiac injury (heart attacks and stroke)
    • Multiple-organ failure (respiratory failure, kidney failure, shock)
    • Worsening of chronic conditions (involving the lungs, heart, or nervous system or diabetes)
    • Inflammation of the heart, brain or muscle tissues
    • Secondary bacterial infections (infections in people who have already had the flu or COVID-19)
  • Differences: COVID-19 can also cause blood clots in the lungs, heart, legs or brain, and cause Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). 


  • Similarities: People can protect themselves and others against both illnesses by:
    • Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
    • Self-quarantining when they’re symptomatic.
    • Wearing a mask.
    • Washing hands often.
    • Cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and objects.
    • Getting vaccinated.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Common infections and your child

  Symptoms How it spreads What parents can do
Respiratory Infections (infections of the airway or lungs)
  • Usually in babies under 1 year old
  • Coughing and trouble breathing
  • Wheezing
  • Fever
  • Direct contact
  • Indirect contact 
  • Droplets transmission 
  •  Airborne (influenza only)
  • Offer extra fluids (especially water or milk) and encourage plenty of rest.
  • Your child can still eat solids if they are willing.
  • Give acetaminophen or ibuprofen* for fever if the fever is making your child uncomfortable.
  • Gently try to clear nasal congestion with a rubber suction bulb and saline (saltwater) nose drops.
  • Get medical advice if  your child is not drinking well, has a high fever, has trouble breathing, or if symptoms continue or worsen.
Common cold
  • Runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, coughing and a mild sore throat
  • Decreased appetite, headache and tiredness, in some children
  • Sometimes fever 
  • Cold symptoms and fever
  • Hoarse voice, barking cough
  • Rapid noisy breathing, difficult breathing
  • Croup can be treated at home by taking children into cool night air. Dress your child in warm clothing and go outside for 10 minutes. If your child’s symptoms don’t improve after 30 minutes, call your child’s doctor.
  • Because attacks often happen in the middle of the night, you may have to go to the emergency department.
  • Fever, chills, cough with or without headache, muscle aches, extreme tiredness, and sore throat
  • Loss of appetite is common
  • Influenza can be prevented by vaccine. An antiviral medication may be prescribed for healthy people with severe influenza or very young children. They should be taken within 48 hours of the first symptoms to be most effective.
Strep throat and scarlet fever
  • Fever, sore throat, swollen tender neck glands
  • With scarlet fever, red dry rash (like sandpaper) covering the body
  • Direct contact
  • Droplets transmission
  • Most sore throats are not strep throat and do not require an antibiotic. If you think your child has strep throat, see your doctor.
  • A throat swab is needed to diagnose strep throat.
Ear infection
  • Earache
  • Crankiness or fussiness
  • Sometimes tugging at ears
  • Rarely, fluid draining from the ear
  • Child may have fever or cold symptoms
  • Almost always starts as a cold, but the ear infection itself is not contagious
  • See your doctor, an antibiotic may be needed.

Fifth disease


  • Red rash on the cheeks spreads over the rest of the body after a couple of days
  • Child not very ill
  • Not contagious once the rash appears
  • Direct contact
  • Indirect contact with germs in saliva, on hands, tissues
  • Goes away on its own.
  • If you are pregnant and your child has fifth disease, see your doctor as it can harm the fetus.
  • Fluid-filled blisters usually around the mouth or nose, but may occur elsewhere
  • Blisters break, ooze, and form a honey-coloured crust
  • Direct contact with skin of infected person
  • Indirect contact with germs on clothing, towels, etc.
  • Gently wash the infected skin with clean gauze and soap.
  • This is a bacterial infection so you must see your doctor for treatment.
Molluscum contagiosum
  • Tiny “pinpoints” on the skin 1 to 6 months after exposure to the virus
  • Pinpoints turn into pinkish-white bumps that are smooth and shiny, have a dip in the middle and have a milky-white cheesy material inside
  • Bumps can appear anywhere on your child’s body
  • Most children get 1 to 20 bumps, but some can have hundreds
  • Not very contagious
  • Direct contact with bumps, or indirect contact (e.g., bedding contaminated with material from the bumps).
  • Scratching can spread the infection from one part of the body to another.
  • See doctor to confirm that it is molluscum contagiosum.
  • ​Wash hands often. 
  • Make sure your child doesn’t share towels with others.
  • Your child can continue to attend child care and/or school.
  • Usually in babies under 1 year old, but can in seen in children up to 2 years old
  • High fever and crankiness for 3 to 5 days
  • After fever, a rash of small red spots appears on the face and body, lasting a few hours to 2 days
  • Direct contact with saliva of infected person
  • Not very contagious
  • Give acetaminophen or ibuprofen* for fever if the child is uncomfortable.
  • Offer extra fluids (especially milk or water) and encourage plenty of rest.
  • Will clear up on its own.
Other infections
Pinkeye (conjunctivitis)
  • Scratchy, painful or itchy red eyes
  • Watery or pus discharge from the eyes
  • Light sensitivity
  • Very contagious
  • Direct contact
  • Indirect contact with germs on hands, tissues, washcloths, or other objects
  • Keep eyes clean, wipe from inside out. Use a clean cloth each time.
  • See your doctor for treatment.
Stomach flu (“gastro”)
  • Diarrhea and/or vomiting
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Stomach cramps
  • Direct contact
  • Indirect contact with germs on hands, toys or other objects
  • If vomiting, give clear fluids only until your child has gone 6 hours without vomiting. An oral rehydration solution is the best clear fluid if your child will take it. You can also try diluted apple juice.
  • If your child is having diarrhea only or once vomiting stops, try milk and frequent small feeds with foods your child enjoys.
  • Seek medical help if there is blood in your child’s stool, your child is vomiting for more than 4  to 6 hours, is not drinking well or shows any signs of dehydration.
  • Give acetaminophen or ibuprofen for fever if your child is uncomfortable.*

Hay fever or hay fever | World of Health

The complex of allergic reactions to pollen of trees, flowers and grasses is called hay fever. Another name for this disease is hay fever. From April to May, allergy sufferers are annoyed by the pollen of alder, birch, hazel. In June, the body actively reacts to the flowering of cereals, and late summer and early autumn are the time of blooming of wormwood, which is also quite difficult to tolerate.

Symptoms of pollinosis

occur annually at a specific time, most often in spring and summer:

  • tickling and itching in the nose, sore throat;
  • choking, runny nose, cough, sneezing;
  • depression, irritability, fatigue;
  • swelling of the mucous membrane of the visual organs and nose;
  • migraine attacks, loss of appetite;
  • skin rashes;
  • nasal congestion, impaired sense of smell;
  • reddened itchy eyes, lacrimation.
  • These symptoms may be accompanied by attacks of bronchial asthma.

Who is at risk

Most often, hay fever develops in children and young people. Mental stress is often the cause of hay fever. The impetus in this case gives a weakening and congestion of the immune system. Therefore, it was noticed: there are fewer patients suffering from pollen allergy in rural areas than in cities.
Heredity is the most important factor.If one parent suffers from allergies, the likelihood of a similar disease in a child is 25%. If both the mother and father are allergic, the risk doubles – up to 50%. If the parents have no problems in this regard, the probability of hay fever in a son or daughter is only 10%. The risk of getting hay fever in a child increases if at an early age he is constantly in an environment contaminated with allergens. Viral diseases and unhealthy diet are at risk.

The level of this disease is also formed by climatic, ecological and geographical factors. In some regions of the Russian Federation, every third young woman suffers from hay fever.

There is another concept – “cross” allergy. During the period of seasonal exacerbations, it manifests itself in an impressive number of patients. For example: if during hay fever there is a reaction to birch pollen, there will be a “cross” allergy to peaches, hazelnuts, apples, carrots. This period lasts from April to the very end of May.If the reaction to the pollen of cereals, “cross” – to sorrel, food cereals. The patient will have the same type of allergy to honey, citrus fruits, sunflower seeds, if initially the body cannot normally tolerate the influence of wormwood.

Pollinosis treatment

The most effective way to deal with seasonal allergies is to avoid contact with the allergen. If signs of hay fever show up, you need to take the necessary measures in time.

It is difficult to miss the onset of the disease – a few minutes after going out into the street you start sneezing, and after a few hours you have a stuffy nose.A little later, the eyes begin to itch. At this stage, you need to see a doctor.

You will be offered a blood test for allergens and immune status, which can be taken all year round, as well as provocative tests, during which scratches are applied to the skin, on which minimal amounts of potential allergens are placed in order to track the response to what the body will show the most vivid reaction. It makes sense to carry out provocative tests outside the period of exacerbation, that is, after the “season” of your allergy is over.The tests are carried out independently of the administration of the vaccine.

Specific immunotherapy is the most effective remedy in the fight against hay fever. The treatment regimen provides for the introduction of increasing doses of the allergen into the patient’s body. As a result of treatment, the sensitivity of the patient’s body to the allergen decreases. Specific immunotherapy can be administered concurrently with medication.

Prevention of pollinosis

If the disease has worsened, the rules are as follows:

  • daily intake of calcium gluconate and antihistamines;
  • daily wet cleaning and shower;
  • refraining from walking in very dry weather, closed doors and windows during the day;
  • after rain or at night – airing the room;
  • rest – near water bodies where the content of the allergen in the air is minimal;
  • during the period of remission, you should strengthen the immune system: go in for sports, temper, eat properly and balanced, and give up bad habits.And of course, visit an allergist every year.

The specialists of our Center will help you and your children to identify the allergen, prevent the development of cross-allergy and the transition of the disease to a more severe stage of the course, and will select an individual treatment plan not only with traditional medicines, but homeopathically.

Homeopathy allows you to define an individual approach to the treatment of a patient. With the help of homeopathy, we not only solve a specific problem, but also raise the level of the patient’s health as a whole, that is, we carry out a comprehensive improvement of the body.Our specialist in homeopathy will give an assessment and detailed consultation in several medical areas, determine the cause of the disease and direct efforts to eliminate the cause, not the symptoms.

90,000 Headache and runny nose: how the Delta variant differs from the “classic” covid

Photo author, Getty Images

Doctors advise people to be extremely careful: a new variant of the coronavirus, which is especially widespread in Britain, differs in other symptoms.

List of classic symptoms of coronavirus, including:

  • cough
  • high fever
  • loss of smell or taste

new ones were added:

  • headache
  • sore throat
  • severe runny nose

that all these new symptoms should be considered in conjunction with other signs characteristic of covid disease, since each of them individually may have a completely different cause.

So, people suffering from hay fever, as a rule, are well aware of a sore throat, they may have a severe runny nose and headache, but the reason for this is most likely an allergy caused by seasonal flowering, mainly of grasses, which is exactly observed in June. (However, if you feel that hay fever or other, at first glance, usual ailment is not proceeding as usual, it always makes sense to consult a specialist).

As for the above symptoms in relation to covid, then, according to the researchers, it’s all about the new version, which is called Delta.

As noted by the author of the Zoe Covid Symptom study, Professor Tim Spector, young people who catch the Delta variant may feel that they just have a severe flu.

At the same time, although the sick themselves may not feel much discomfort, they can be highly infectious and endanger the health of others. So experts advise everyone who has the above symptoms to do an analysis for covid.

Based on data collected by his team from thousands of people registering their symptoms in special mobile applications, Professor Spector concludes that the classic symptoms of coronavirus are now becoming less and less common.

“Since the beginning of May, we have been tracking the most common symptoms in mobile applications, and they differ from the previous ones,” the professor emphasizes and associates such changes with the increase in the incidence of the Delta variant, which was originally registered in India, and now accounts for up to 90% of all cases In Great Britain.

And if the disease is still, as a rule, accompanied by a high fever, then the loss of smell is no longer included even in the ten most characteristic symptoms.

Mild malaise

“The new strain seems to work a little differently,” says Tim Spector.- People may think that they have some kind of seasonal flu, so they continue to communicate with other people and can infect them. In our opinion, this creates a big problem. “

” Our message is this, – continues the professor. “If you’re young, then most likely you will have mild symptoms, it may seem to you that it’s just the flu or a slight discomfort, but please do not leave your house and order yourself a coronavirus test.”

Is it necessary or not Need a test?

Professor Spector’s research is far from the only one of its kind.For example, a React study conducted by Imperial College London, which covered more than a million people in England at a time when the country was still dominated by the “British” variant, or Alpha, revealed many additional symptoms associated with the coronavirus.

In addition to the classic symptoms, chills, loss of appetite and muscle pain have been identified as clear signs of covid disease.

At the same time, in the official recommendations, the most important signs of covid are still called:

  • new persistent cough
  • high temperature
  • loss or change in taste and / or smell

“There are other symptoms associated with Covid-19 , – says in the memo issued by the British Ministry of Health.- But these symptoms may have a different cause and in themselves do not serve as a reason for seeking analysis. If you are concerned about these symptoms, seek professional help from your healthcare professional. ”
Sneezing can be one of the signs of COVID-19 infection in people who have already been vaccinated against the coronavirus. This is the conclusion reached by the research team of the ZOE COVID Symptom Study application. At the same time, sneezing is often not a symptom, but the vaccinated should pay attention to it.Popular and unusual symptoms of the disease – in the material “Gazeta.Ru”.

The ZOE COVID Symptom Study application, which specializes in the study of COVID-19, told about a new symptom characteristic of those vaccinated against coronavirus.

As shown by the study, the data of which leads the British tabloid The Express, the very fact of vaccination has already proven its effectiveness. However, it is no secret that vaccinated people can be re-infected, while with a high degree of probability, due to the vaccine, they will transfer the disease more easily.The specialists of the research group, in turn, managed to establish one symptom that will help those vaccinated to understand that they have contracted the coronavirus.

So, vaccinated people infected with COVID-19 have frequent sneezing, which may be a sure sign of infection. It explains that in most cases sneezing is not a symptom of coronavirus and is more relevant for colds and allergies.

But people who have been vaccinated and sneeze without a logical explanation of the reasons should pay special attention to this.

“While many people with COVID-19 can sneeze, this is not a straightforward symptom because sneezing is very common. Especially during the warmer months, when people may experience hay fever, ”the researchers concluded.

Nevertheless, scientists urge not to forget that in the overwhelming majority of cases it is worth paying attention to other symptoms that speak of COVID-19.

The most common classic types of infection remain: anosmia and dysgeusia (that is, a change or loss of smell and taste, respectively), fever, dry cough, unusual fatigue, headache, as well as pain in the chest, throat or muscles, shortness of breath, lack of appetite , runny nose, red and painful fingers and toes, and gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).

The Russian Ministry of Health on its official resources emphasizes that the course of COVID-19 is most often similar to ARVI or influenza.

Scientists from other countries have repeatedly noted rare symptoms experienced by patients with coronavirus.

Spanish specialists from a field hospital in Madrid found that sometimes patients complain of swelling and inflammation of the tongue, as well as tubercles and spots on it. In some patients, a burning sensation was observed in the palms and feet.At the same time, the Spaniards do not recommend using these symptoms as an unambiguous indicator of COVID-19, since they were found only in a certain category of patients – these are adults with pneumonia.

Natalie Lambert, associate professor at the American School of Medicine at Indiana University, talking about the atypical clinical manifestations of COVID-19, called sudden blackouts, insomnia, unexplained skin rashes, numbness of the face and bodies, and hair loss. And scientists from the University of Liverpool suggested that an atypical lesion of the pancreas could also be associated with coronavirus, but this applies mainly to those infected who are obese.

At the same time, Sergei Osminin, associate professor of the Department of Faculty Surgery No. 1 of the Sklifosov Sechenov University Institute of Clinical Medicine, said in a conversation with the Moscow agency that diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are becoming common in patients who have already undergone coronavirus who have not previously encountered such problems. …

It is also important that this year the so-called “Indian” strain is becoming the dominant variety of COVID-19. Delta, which has spread widely across Russia in the last month, has significant differences in symptoms.In comparison with the Wuhan variant, those infected with Delta often do not lose their sense of smell, and the course of the infection resembles gastric poisoning: they encounter abdominal pain, diarrhea, and diarrhea.

There are options in which patients develop blood clots leading to gangrene and hearing impairment.

Directly in India, against the background of the outbreak, the “Delta” also faced an epidemic of “black mold”, the rate of infection of which increased by 150%. This fungal disease is called mucormycosis and most often affects patients with COVID-19 due to the fact that the immune system of patients with coronavirus is weakened, thereby being more susceptible to fungal diseases.It must be understood that this is not an unambiguous sign of COVID-19, but rather its consequence.

Black mold causes symptoms such as blackening of the facial skin, difficulty breathing, weight loss, bleeding. The consequences of mucormycosis are dangerous: the infection can lead to blindness, removal of the nose, eyes and part of the jaw. Deaths are also frequent. In addition to the “black mold”, three more “colored” post-like fungi were found on the territory of India – “green”, “white” and “yellow”. These are potentially fatal and more dangerous forms of the disease and, moreover, can coexist simultaneously in the human body.

However, according to doctors, Russia is not threatened by “mold”, since the appearance of fungal epidemics is typical for countries with unsanitary living conditions and hot climates.

90,000 Calcivirosis in cats: symptoms, causes, treatment •

Contagious diseases are common in cats. One of the most common viral diseases is calcivirosis. It is important for pet cat owners to know the symptoms of calcivirosis, its causes and treatment options.

General information about calcivirosis

Calcivirosis is an infectious disease of the oral cavity. The disease can proceed in different ways, since calcivirosis has more than 40 pathogens.

The disease has an incubation period that lasts from 2 to 6 days.

This disease is rare. But all representatives of cats are susceptible to infection, regardless of whether the cat walks outside or not. According to veterinary statistics, in 67% of cases, the disease ends in death.

Symptoms of calcivirosis

The main symptoms of calcivirosis are:

  • nasal congestion in a cat;
  • sneezing;
  • purulent or clear discharge from the eyes and nose;
  • sores on the palate, gums, tongue, lips;
  • increased salivation.

In rare cases, calicivirus is accompanied by symptoms such as:

  • conjunctivitis;
  • fever;
  • lethargy;
  • increased body temperature;
  • depression;
  • decreased appetite;
  • decrease or absence of smell;
  • squinting eyes;
  • swelling of the paws and muzzle;
  • enlarged lymph nodes;
  • jaundice.

The symptoms of the disease can be very different in each clinical case, since the calcivirosis virus has many strains. Sometimes mouth ulcers are the only sign of illness. In other cases, with calcivirosis, the cat begins to limp. Calcivirosis virus lesions of the joints are more common in young cats.

Calcivirosis infection

A cat with calcivirosis can infect its relatives through saliva. The virus is also found in secretions from the eyes and nose of the animal.Since sneezing is one of the signs of the disease, the virus can get to a healthy cat, which will be several meters away from the sick animal.

In addition, the calcivirosis virus is found in the feces and urine of an infected animal.

In hot dry weather, the virus lives in the environment for 7 days. In wet and cold seasons, the virus lives longer.

Thus, healthy cats and cats can become infected with calcivirosis not only from a sick animal, but also through environmental objects.A person can also be a carrier of the virus. Kittens carry the disease more severely than adults.

The following categories of cats are more susceptible to infection with calcivirosis:

  • animals that have a weak immunity to infectious diseases;
  • cats not vaccinated against calcivirosis;
  • cats with chronic diseases;
  • kittens.

Diagnosis of calcivirosis

The veterinarian makes a diagnosis on the basis of information obtained during the examination of the animal, as well as on the basis of laboratory tests of secretions from the eyes and nose.The main diagnostic methods are PCR and immunohistochemical staining.

In the presence of lameness, the veterinarian takes x-rays to rule out injury to the limbs.

If the owner of the cat tells the veterinarian that the animal has a chronic runny nose, the doctor may order a blood and urine test to determine the cause of the nasal congestion in the animal. Sometimes an x-ray of the chest and skull is prescribed.

Calcivirosis treatment

Mild forms of the disease disappear without special treatment in 2-3 weeks.Moreover, the animal is contagious at this time. Even after the obvious signs of the disease disappear, for several months the virus still lives in the animal’s body, so the cat can infect its relatives. In addition, some feral cats carry calcivirosis throughout their lives. In these animals, kittens are born sick.

For domestic cats, veterinarians prescribe anti-inflammatory tablets, antibacterial eye drops. These remedies relieve the symptoms of calcivirosis.Also, the owner should wipe the cat’s eyes with a clean damp cloth several times a day and clean the nose with a thin cotton swab.

In case of severe nasal congestion, it is recommended to place the animal in a room with high humidity daily for 10-15 minutes. At home, you can draw hot water into the tub and bring the cat to the bathroom.

During the treatment period, it is recommended to feed the cat with expensive food, as he may refuse regular food.This behavior should not be regarded as a whim. The reason for refusing to eat is that due to nasal congestion, the cat does not smell food.

In especially severe clinical cases, accompanied by a depressive state of the animal and dehydration, it is advisable to place a sick cat in a hospital. In a hospital environment, the animal will be given droppers, and auxiliary procedures will accelerate recovery.

Prevention of infection with calcivirosis

It is very difficult to prevent a cat from contracting calcivirosis, because many cats do not show signs of the disease, but they are carriers of this virus.

The main measures for the prevention of infection are:

  • refusal to attend cat shows;
  • rejection of the idea to take a kitten from a shelter;
  • exclusion of contact of a domestic cat with other cats;
  • systematic disinfection of trays, bowls and bedding using bleach;
  • in veterinary clinics offer vaccination against calcivirosis. The vaccination is done twice with an interval of 1 year. However, you need to understand that after vaccination, the animal can still become infected with calcivirosis.But a prepared body will carry the infection easier.

Thus, calcivirosis is an infectious disease. Only cats can become infected with it. Other animals and humans are immune to this virus.

The material was prepared by specialists of the veterinary clinic of Daria Sukhova.

If you notice a change in the state of your pet, call +7 (3452) 66-21-29 or come to our veterinary clinic immediately. The sooner the veterinarian makes a diagnosis, the faster the pet will recover.

90,000 Scientists have identified 7 groups of symptoms of COVID-19 | World Events – Estimates and Forecasts from Germany and Europe | DW

Fever, dry cough, headache, loss of taste and smell – the list of symptoms of coronavirus infection is constantly growing. Researchers at the Medical University of Vienna decided to streamline this list and identified seven forms that COVID-19 disease can take. In a paper published in the scientific journal Allergy, researchers led by immunologist Winfried Pickle and allergist Rudolph Walente write that the disease leaves a significant mark on the human immune system, even ten weeks after infection.This discovery could play an important role in the treatment of patients and in the further development of potential vaccines.

Seven forms of COVID-19

As part of the study, scientists interviewed 109 recovering and 98 healthy people from the control group and examined their blood. According to the data obtained, some of the symptoms of COVID-19 are interconnected and form several groups:

  1. Flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, weakness and cough)
  2. Symptoms similar to the common cold (runny nose, sneezing, sore throat and nasal congestion )
  3. Joint and muscle pain
  4. Inflammation of the eyes and mucous membranes
  5. Lung problems, including pneumonia and shortness of breath
  6. Gastrointestinal problems, including diarrhea, nausea and headache
  7. Loss of smell and taste, and others Symptoms

“For the latter group, we found that loss of smell and taste is mainly manifested in people with a“ young immune system, ”said research lead immunologist Winfried Pickle in an interview with DW.He added that the term “young immune system” does not refer to the age of the patient, but to the number of special protective cells – T-lymphocytes, which have recently emigrated from the thymus gland.

“This means that we were able to clearly distinguish between systemic forms of primary COVID-19 disease, such as groups 1 and 3, from organ-specific forms, such as groups 6 and 7,” Pickl said. At the same time, according to him, different groups of symptoms can overlap.However, the study made it possible to establish the relationship between individual groups of symptoms and specific parameters of the immune system. For example, the course of COVID-19 disease with a high temperature correlates with the body’s immunological memory, for which T- and B-lymphocytes are responsible, and may indicate a relatively long period of immunity. Loss of taste and smell, in turn, is associated with higher T-lymphocyte counts.

COVID-19 “fingerprint” in blood

Using blood tests, researchers have identified several important markers for COVID-19.They found that the disease leaves behind significant changes in the human immune system – a kind of “fingerprint”. The study showed that the number of granulocytes, which are usually responsible in the immune system for fighting bacterial pathogens, were significantly reduced in those infected with COVID-19. “It was amazing and totally new,” Pickle shared with DW.

According to him, T-lymphocytes, which are responsible for enhancing the immune response and killing infected cells, remain active even after patients recover.”This indicates that the immune system is still intensely fighting the disease, even weeks after the first infection,” the scientist said. He added that this may be one of the reasons why many COVID-19 patients may feel weak for a long time after recovery.

At the same time, researchers have found that the number of regulatory T-lymphocytes – the cells that control the strength and duration of the immune response – are sharply reduced in convalescents.According to Pickl, this is a dangerous combination that can lead to autoimmune diseases.

The higher the temperature, the stronger the immunity

In addition, an increased number of immune cells producing antibodies may be observed in the blood of convalescents. According to Pickl, the higher the temperature of the patient with a mild course of the disease, the stronger the immunity developed against the virus.

According to scientists, the study showed that when protecting the body from COVID-19, the human immune system “doubles” due to the combined action of immune cells and antibodies.Cells can also “remember” certain “movements” of the virus and respond to them. The next step, according to scientists, should be the practical application of these discoveries in the treatment of those infected and the development of potential vaccines against COVID-19.

See also :

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    Electric train cleaner

    Bianka Remter from Berlin is engaged in cleaning train carriages – he washes floors and handles, disinfects handrails and handles.She is proud of her work and is very happy when passengers express their gratitude for her work. Bianca does not hide the fact that this is very important to her.

  • Stealthy heroes of the pandemic

    Police Commissioner

    A unit of Senior Police Commissioner Jörn Iffländer is usually responsible for problem areas in Berlin where drug trafficking is concerned, but it is now not crowded. Therefore, during a pandemic, they monitor more compliance with quarantine rules, conduct explanatory work, trying to do this delicately and without conflicts.

  • Invisible heroes of the pandemic

    Supermarket employee

    Ariane John from Berlin works in a supermarket. She has to constantly remind customers that now, due to the pandemic, the store needs to be at a safe distance from each other. According to Ariane, she is never tired of being amazed at how underestimated the situation is by young people: unlike older people, young people often lightly ignore the current rules.

  • Invisible heroes of the pandemic


    Berliner Anna Fredrich is a pharmacist. She is not afraid of getting infected with the coronavirus. In the pharmacy, at the beginning of the quarantine, Plexiglas protective screens were installed at the cash desks, and special markings were made on the floor for those in line.

  • Invisible heroes of the pandemic


    The elementary school, where Karin Bitter, a resident of Oranienburg, teaches, was closed during quarantine, but she came to her class every day.From here I communicated with my third-grade students via videoconference to talk about the situation and discuss events. On 11 May, Berlin schools gradually began to resume work.

  • Invisible heroes of the pandemic


    Janine Dachwitz from Brandenburg Cottbus – always in close contact with people. She works as a nurse at the Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland (Union of Samaritan Workers in Germany), an independent charity organization that provides assistance to people in need of social protection.

  • Invisible heroes of the pandemic


    Jutta Lehmann lives in the town of Storow in the federal state of Brandenburg. She has been working as a postman for almost 30 years. In the area where she delivers mail, everyone knows her. According to Jutta, people treat her warmly, are always interested in how she is doing, and share news from their lives.

  • Invisible heroes of the pandemic

    Clothes warehouse employee

    Celine Iffli-Naumann volunteers at a clothing warehouse in Berlin.Many homeless people come here. She is not afraid of getting infected with the coronavirus, but now she has to work faster and more than usual. Many of the local helpers are retirees, that is, they themselves are at risk, so they are now forced to stay at home.

  • Invisible heroes of the pandemic

    Bus driver

    Berliner Marcel Kolschmidt is a city bus driver. Previously, passengers entered through the front door so that tickets could be checked.Because of the pandemic, everything has changed. The driver’s seat is now isolated from the passenger compartment and the front door is locked. The risk of infection has decreased, but the number of “hares” among the passengers has increased, laughs Marcel.

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    Hospital clown

    The task of Ute von Koerber from the charity “Laughter helps” in Potsdam is to support sick children. She is a clown named Vitamin. Now, however, Ute communicates with young patients of hospitals virtually – in the format of videoconferences.But Vitamin hopes that soon she will again be able to come to the children in the wards.

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    Information manager

    Berlin resident Simone Lehmann works as an information manager for the passenger company BVG – responsible for announcements on loudspeakers and on digital displays. Information about delays or changes in movement has now been supplemented with reminders of keeping the distance.

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    Fire department

    Dennis Passlak is a communication officer at the Berlin Fire Department. One of its tasks is to organize the staffing of the service in the event of illness of a large number of employees, which is not excluded during a pandemic. He also makes sure that the staff is provided with protective masks and antiseptics.

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    Nadine Dubois from Berlin is a member of a team of volunteers who provide assistance in conflict resolution free of charge.Sometimes opponents – especially spouses in the divorce stage – lose their temper and cannot come to an agreement. During the pandemic, there are more such situations. And the only way out is often to involve a third party – an intermediary.

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    Author: Nataliya Koroleva

Clinics Chaika – Chaika.com

The common cold is not a specific disease caused by a specific pathogen, but a group of diseases with similar symptoms. There are more than a hundred strains (subspecies) of rhinoviruses that cause the common cold. Individual strains of viruses develop immunity, but the viruses themselves are very changeable, so a cold can recur even with a short interval between episodes of the disease.

Colds are transmitted primarily from person to person through touch, airborne droplets (when sneezing, coughing, talking) or through direct contact of mucous membranes (for example, when kissing).Somewhat less often, it can be transmitted through touching common household items.

The virus can remain alive on the skin for at least two hours. Thus, if you touch your eyes, nose or mouth after shaking hands with a sick person, the chance of catching a cold is very high. So on surfaces – for example, countertops, doorknobs, telephones and other common objects – the virus can also persist for several hours, and upon contact with them there is a high risk of infection.


Discharge from the nose of a mucous nature in the first days, nasal congestion, itching in the nose, sneezing. Sore throat may also be present, but usually stops within 2–3 days. A dry cough may appear, which occurs, as a rule, on the 4-5th day from the onset of the disease. There are signs of general malaise, weakness, diffuse headache.

Acute rhinitis, as a rule, does not cause serious complications, lasts from 3 to 7 days. Although some patients continue to experience symptoms of the disease for up to two weeks.

Some viruses that cause the common cold can suppress the immune system and cause swelling of the nasal mucosa and other respiratory tract, which in turn can lead to new viral or bacterial infections. Including the development of diseases such as sinusitis, otitis media, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis.

What to do if your dog is constantly coughing

Like humans, dogs have many reasons for coughing. Some of them are harmless, and some are quite serious.If your dog coughs once a month and the cough goes away quickly, there is no cause for concern. But if she coughs often or the dog has severe coughing fits, then you should make an appointment with your veterinarian. A persistent cough is a sign that your dog probably has an underlying problem that needs to be addressed.

Below are some of the most common causes of canine cough and what you should know about them.

The six most common causes of cough in dogs

1.A foreign object stuck in the throat – a cough that suddenly becomes violent or sounds more like vomiting, especially when accompanied by licking lips or attempts to “swallow”, may be a sign that your dog has a sore throat or something stuck in his throat …
If the dog started coughing on the street or just after coming from the street, it may have swallowed or inhaled a blade of grass or other foreign object, and it got stuck in its throat. If she is unable to clear her throat, then an appointment with a veterinarian should be made to prevent the potential development of a secondary infection.

2. Reverse sneezing is a common condition in small breed dogs as well as in brachycephalic (flat-faced) breeds. While a reverse sneeze is not a cough, the sound is often mistaken for a cough. Reverse sneezing is caused by a spasm of the throat and soft palate caused by an irritant. Irritation can be simple excitement, exercise, a collar that is too tight, pollen, or even a sudden change in temperature.
In a normal sneeze, air is pushed out through the nose.When sneezing backwards, air is drawn in quickly and noisily through the nose. The sound of reverse sneezing can be intimidating to owners. Often they wonder if their pet is choking or has an asthma attack? Some dogs with reverse sneezing also tend to stand with their elbows apart, their heads extended, and their eyes bulging.
Most cases of reverse sneezing do not require treatment. However, it is best to record when episodes occur. This will help you identify the irritant of back sneezing and try to avoid it.If sneezing becomes chronic or the episodes become more frequent and prolonged, you should make an appointment with your veterinarian to rule out other potential health problems.

3. Captive cough is a sudden persistent cough in a healthy dog, often found in kennels, caused by a viral or bacterial infection. These infections typically cause a deep, dry cough, sneezing, snorting, belching, and, in some cases, vomiting.
There may also be coughing fits or cramping if the dog becomes agitated.It can also manifest itself during physical exertion. If your dog has been in contact with other dogs recently, it may have an infection. Symptoms usually appear 2-14 days after interaction, last 10 to 20 days, and may recur during periods of stress.
Most infections are mild and will resolve without medical intervention.
A full cough recovery in a kennel can take up to three weeks in healthy dogs and twice as long in older pets and immunosuppressed animals.Puppies may also take a little longer to recover.
Since a serious episode of kennel cough can lead to pneumonia, it is best to see a veterinarian if the cough and well-being worsens to keep your animal safe.

4. Pneumonia – If your dog’s cough is wet or productive, it may be the result of fluid buildup in the lungs. Fluid and sputum in the lungs is one of the signs of pneumonia, which can be of various etiologies.Other symptoms include loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, lethargy, and shortness of breath.
Bacterial pneumonia is caused by a pathogen and there are several organisms that can lead to infection. Typically, your dog will need antimicrobial medication, rest, and specific supportive care. Fungal pneumonia is the result of a deep fungal infection of the lungs and is more difficult to treat. Since many dogs do not respond to antifungal medications, the exact treatment for fungal pneumonia will depend on which type of fungus is causing the infection.Another type of pneumonia is aspiration pneumonia. This is a condition in which the lungs become inflamed as a result of a foreign object, such as vomiting, belching stomach acid, or food.
Aspiration pneumonia is life-threatening, and most dogs with this condition have a poor prognosis, so prevention should always be the goal. If you suspect that your dog has aspirated something, it is important to get it to your veterinarian immediately.

5.Tracheal collapse – A recurring, intermittent cough that sounds like a goose whistle can be a sign of tracheal collapse, especially if your dog is a small breed. Tracheal collapse is a chronic progressive disease that can be congenital or acquired. Dogs with this diagnosis also tend to cough during exercise. Choke while eating or drinking.
Treatment is possible with medication, which helps approximately 70% of dogs with mild tracheal collapse.More serious cases require highly specialized surgery.

6. Heart disease – Cough is unfortunately also a symptom of heart disease in dogs. Other signs include bluish discoloration of the tongue, loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness, decreased stamina, heartbeats that are too fast or too slow, and difficulty breathing. If your dog has been diagnosed with heart disease and is coughing mostly while resting, lying down or at night, this could be a sign that the disease is progressing.Treatment for cardiovascular disease in dogs depends on a number of factors, including the severity of the problem, the age and health of the animal. A visit to your veterinary cardiologist can provide more information about the severity of your dog’s condition.
There are many treatments available, so check with your veterinarian for the best options for your individual situation.

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