Fifths disease pics rash: Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum) Condition, Treatments, and Pictures for Parents – Overview
Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum) Condition, Treatments, and Pictures for Parents – Overview
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Images of Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease)
Fifth disease (erythema infectiosum), also called slapped-cheek disease, is a common illness in young children due to infection with parvovirus B19. Fifth disease is spread by contact with others who are infected, specifically by exposure to fluid from the nose (respiratory secretions). The illness lasts approximately 5 days, but the rash may keep coming back for a few weeks, particularly with exercise, heat, fever, or stress. If a pregnant woman becomes infected, the infection can be harmful to the unborn baby. Fifth disease can also cause arthritis, although this is more commonly seen in infected adults.
Who’s at risk?
Fifth disease occurs all over the world. Lab studies show that about half of adults have been infected, although they may never remember being ill. The disease is common in pre-school and school-age children.
Signs and Symptoms
Bright redness of the cheeks is the classic initial sign, without affecting the areas around the mouth. About a day later, the rash shows up as a faint red, “lacy” rash on the trunk, arms, and legs. There may also be a fever or joint pain.
If your child has fifth disease, it is not necessary to keep him or her away from other people because the infection is contagious before the rash appears, not after.
Notify any pregnant women who have been around your child that they have been exposed so they can notify their doctor.
You may give your child acetaminophen (Tylenol®) or ibuprofen for fever or joint pain as needed.
When to Seek Medical Care
If your child has a weak immune system (from leukemia, a blood disease, or HIV/AIDS), notify the doctor if you suspect your child has fifth disease.
Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe
There is usually no need for testing, as the disease is easily recognized.
No treatment is required, as this illness will go away on its own.
MedlinePlus: Fifth DiseaseClinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease)
Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.1260-1261. New York: Mosby, 2003.
Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed. pp.2054, 2057-2058. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Fifth Disease (Parvovirus B19) – HealthyChildren.org
By: S. Elizabeth Williams, MD, MPH, FAAP
If your child has bright red cheeks but has not been playing outdoors in the cold, it might be fifth disease. This common childhood illness got its name because it was the fifth disease on a historical list of six common
skin rash illnesses in children. It is caused by a virus called parvovirus B19, which is also known as
The illness usually is not serious. Symptoms of fifth disease may include a mild rash,
fever, runny nose, muscle aches, and a headache. Outbreaks in school-aged children are common in late winter and early spring.
How do I know if my child has fifth disease?
Fifth disease starts off like many other viral infections, so it can be hard to know for sure if your child has it. Your doctor will look at the rash and may do blood tests to check for antibodies to the virus.
The rash is the best clue. A bright red rash that first appears is what is known as the “slapped cheek” rash. Sometimes another rash that looks lacy appears a few days later. The second rash often starts on the trunk and spreads to the arms, legs, and even the soles of the feet. It may be itchy but usually goes away after about a week. Even after a child is better, the rash can reappear weeks or months later when your child is hot (during exercise, bathing, etc. ).
How does fifth disease spread?
Fifth disease spreads from person to person through respiratory droplets. Symptoms usually show up 4 to 14 days after being exposed to the virus, with the slapped-cheek rash showing up about 4 to 21 days after your child gets infected.
A child is most contagious before the rash appears and is not contagious after the rash appears. Once a person has fifth disease, they usually cannot get it again.
hand hygiene is the best way to prevent the spread of fifth disease in
school, child care, and at home. Remind children to throw away used tissues and make sure that surfaces and objects that children touch are cleaned and sanitized regularly.
When can my child go back to school or child care?
When you see a rash, your child is no longer contagious. Fifth disease is often mild and goes away with some rest and recovery at home. Your doctor may suggest acetaminophen for fever, aches, or pain.
Does the virus ever cause serious problems?
Yes. The virus can affect the way the body makes red blood cells, the cells that carry oxygen through the body. This puts children who have a blood disorder or weak immune system at serious risk if they catch the virus.
The virus can also cause red blood cell counts to drop so low that a blood transfusion is needed. Children with
cancer such as leukemia, HIV infection, and certain types of anemia (low red blood cell counts) such as from
sickle cell disease, often must go to the hospital if they catch fifth disease. If your child has any of these conditions, check with your doctor at the first sign of the rash.
What if I get fifth disease when I am pregnant?
Most times, fifth disease does not cause problems for pregnant women and their babies. Rarely, serious problems can occur if the virus gets passed on and makes it hard for the fetus to make red blood cells. This can lead to severe anemia that causes
hydrops fetalis, a buildup of fluid that can lead to heart failure or death.
Pregnant women with fifth disease may need to have the following
Ultrasound to see if the baby is having problems.
Amniocentesis, a procedure to take amniotic fluid from the womb.
Cordocentesis, a procedure to check umbilical cord blood and find out how severe your baby’s anemia is. Usually, the anemia is not severe.
If you or your child is diagnosed with fifth disease, you should let any pregnant women know who may have been exposed.
Can fifth disease be confused with another rash?
There are many other skin rash illnesses, but not all of them look the same. Some–like
measles, rubella (German measles), and chicken pox (varicella)–are
easy to prevent if your child is up to date on immunizations.
Viruses also are to blame for common childhood skin rashes like
hand, foot, and mouth disease,
roseola, and even
When should I call my child’s doctor?
If you think your child may have fifth disease, it’s okay to
call your pediatrician with questions. Call right away if your child’s symptoms seem to be getting worse instead of better, you notice joint swelling, your child has chronic anemia, or your child looks very pale.
About Dr. Williams
S. Elizabeth Williams, MD, MPH, FAAP, a board-certified pediatrician, is an assistant professor of general pediatrics at Monroe Carrell Jr. Children’s Hospital in Nashville, Tenn. Within the American Academy of Pediatrics, Dr. Williams sits on the Education Committee on for the Society for Pediatrics Infectious Diseases. Her research interests include vaccine hesitancy, vaccine safety, and medical education. Dr. Williams is married to a pediatric hospitalist and has three active sons.
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Erythema infectiosum | DermNet NZ
Author: Hon A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, 1998. Updated September 2015.
What is erythema infectiosum?
Erythema infectiosum is a common childhood infection causing a slapped cheek appearance and a rash. It is also known as fifth disease and human erythrovirus infection.
What is the cause of erythema infectiosum?
Erythema infectiosum is caused by an erythrovirus, EVB19 or Parvovirus B19. It is a single-stranded DNA virus that targets red cells in the bone marrow. It spreads via respiratory droplets, and has an incubation period of 7–10 days.
Who gets erythema infectiosum?
Erythema infectiosum most commonly affects young children and often occurs in several members of the family or school class. Thirty percent of infected individuals have no symptoms. It can also affect adults that have not been previously exposed to the virus.
See more images of erythema infectiosum …
What are the symptoms of erythema infectiosum?
Parvovirus B19 infection causes nonspecific viral symptoms such as mild fever and headache at first. The rash, erythema infectiosum, appears a few days later with firm red cheeks, which feel burning hot. This lasts 2 to 4 days, and is followed by a pink rash on the limbs and sometimes the trunk. This develops a lace-like or network pattern.
Although most prominent in the first few days, the rash can persist for up to six weeks at least intermittently, and is most obvious when warm.
Complications of erythema infectiosum
Although usually a mild childhood condition, erythrovirus B19 infection can result in complications. These include:
- Polyarthropathy in infected adults (painful, swollen joints)
- Aplastic crisis or potentially dangerous low blood cell count in patients with haemolytic blood disorders such as autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell disease
- Spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death (9%) or hydrops fetalis in 3% of the offspring of infected pregnant women. This can occur if erythema infectiosum occurs in the first half of pregnancy. Parvovirus B19 does not cause congenital malformations. As the risk of an adverse outcome is low, the infection is not routinely screened for in pregnancy
- Chronic parvovirus infection in immunodeficient patients, such as organ transplant recipients, causing erythropoietin-resistant anaemia, proteinuria, and glomerulosclerosis in a renal allograft
- Rarely, encephalitis, hepatitis, non-occlusive bowel infarction, amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, myositis and heart disease
How is the diagnosis of erythema infectiosum made?
In most cases, erythema infectiosum is a clinical diagnosis in a child with characteristic slapped cheek and lacy rash. Parvovirus can cause other rashes such as a papular purpuric gloves and socks syndrome. The diagnosis can be confirmed by blood tests.
- Parvovirus serology: IgG, IgM. This test is reported in about 7 days.
- Parvovirus PCR is more sensitive. This test is reported in about 3 days.
- In situ hybridisation or immunohistochemistry on biopsy specimens
If the child is unwell, or has haemolytic anaemia, a full blood count should be performed. Ultrasound examination and Doppler examination of at-risk pregancies can detect hydrops fetalis.
Treatment of erythema infectiosum
Erythema infectiosum is not generally a serious condition. There is no specific treatment. Affected children may remain at school, as the infectious stage or viraemia occurs before the rash is evident.
- The application of an ice-cold flannel can relieve the discomfort of burning hot cheeks.
- Red blood cell transfusions and immunoglobulin therapy can be successful in chronic parvovirus infection or during an aplastic crisis.
- Hydrops fetalis due to parvovirus infection is treated by intrauterine transfusion.
A child with a reticulated erythematous rash
A 10-year-old girl presents with an asymptomatic, reticulated, erythematous rash on the medial aspects of her thighs and lower legs of one-week duration (Figure 1). Her parents report that the rash appears worse when she has been outside or running around. The girl is otherwise well and does not have a history of any skin diseases.
On questioning, the parents say that the girl had mild coryzal symptoms approximately two weeks earlier and they recall transient facial erythema. She was not febrile at any stage.
Conditions to consider among the differential diagnoses for a child of this age include the following.
- Scarlet fever. This infection with group A streptococcus, most commonly seen in children, results in a generalised rash. It typically follows streptococcal pharyngitis or impetigo. A characteristic sandpaper-textured, erythematous rash develops over the neck, ears and trunk 12 to 48 hours after the acute onset of fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and anorexia. The patient is initially unwell but fever starts to resolve one to two days after the commencement of appropriate antibiotics. The timing of the rash and the mild preceding illness in the case patient described above indicate that this is not the correct diagnosis.
- Enterovirus infection. Non-polio enteroviruses are responsible for a wide range of viral exanthemata. Infection is most common in children and is spread by faecal–oral or respiratory routes. It is more prevalent in summer and autumn. The most common and most recognisable enterovirus exanthem is hand, foot and mouth disease; however, exanthemata can assume many and varying morphologies (Figure 2). Enteroviruses are important in the differential diagnosis of viral rashes and can also cause meningitis and encephalitis. The clinical picture in the case patient indicates a different aetiology.
- Rubella. The incidence of this RNA virus infection has decreased markedly since initiation of the measles–mumps–rubella vaccine. Similar to this case, an erythematous rash appears on the face spreading to the rest of the body about five days after a viral prodrome. However, the exanthem does not appear lacy or reticulated and the eruption typically fades after two to three days.
- Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also known as Still’s disease, this is an autoinflammatory condition typically associated with polyarthritis. It is estimated that 90% of children with acute febrile onset of Still’s disease have an exanthem.1 This eruption is erythematous, transient and coincides with the fevers. Although the rash is typically associated with arthralgias, it can precede joint pain by up to several years.
- Erythema infectiosum secondary to parvovirus B19 infection. This is the correct diagnosis, and is also known as fifth disease or ‘slapped cheek disease’. Parvovirus B19 is the only parvovirus known to affect humans. It was found to cause the typical features of erythema infectiosum in 1983.2 The virus most commonly affects children aged 4 to 10 years. Patients initially have mild prodromal flu-like symptoms (myalgia, headache and low-grade fever). The classic ‘slapped cheek’ appearance occurs seven to 10 days after the flu-like symptoms, with bright red erythema of the cheeks, sparing the nasal bridge. After this, a rash with a reticulated lacy pattern occurs on the extremities. It can remit and exacerbate for several weeks. The rash can worsen on exposure to sunlight or heat. Associated arthralgia, most commonly of the fingers, wrists and ankles, occurs more commonly in adults and can be prolonged.
The diagnosis of erythema infectiosum secondary to parvovirus B19 infection is usually clinical, based on the progression of the rash from the ‘slapped cheek’ appearance to the reticulated exanthem. As well as the typical rash there are several established clinical associations with parvovirus B19, which may necessitate confirmation of the virus. These include polyarthropathy, papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome, transient aplastic crises in at-risk individuals (decreased red cell production) and hydrops fetalis. The risk of hydrops fetalis is greatest in the first 20 weeks of gestation. The overall risk of hydrops fetalis and stillbirth is low (3.9% and 0.6%, respectively) and pregnant women are not routinely screened for parvovirus B19 infection unless they have been exposed.3 If confirmation of infection is required – for example, in anaemic or immunocompromised children – serological testing for parvovirus IgG and IgM or parvovirus PCR will indicate the presence of infection. It should be remembered that the potential for virus transmission is early in the disease course, between the prodrome and onset of the rash.
There is no specific treatment for erythema infectiosum secondary to parvovirus B19 infection. Affected children may remain at school as once the rash develops the virus is no longer contagious and they are typically not symptomatic. Red cell or intrauterine transfusion may be required for aplastic crisis or hydrops fetalis, respectively.
1. Calabro JJ, Marchesano JM. Rash associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatr 1968; 72: 611-619.
2. Heegaard ED, Brown KE. Human parvovirus B19. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002; 15: 485-505.
3. Enders M, Weidner A, Zoellner I, Searle K, Enders G. Fetal morbidity and mortality after acute human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy: prospective evaluation of 1018 cases. Prenat Diagn 2004; 24: 513-518.
Fifth disease and pregnancy
What is fifth disease?
Fifth disease (also called erythema infectiosum) is a common childhood illness. In children, it starts with cold-like symptoms followed by a rash. It’s called fifth disease because many years ago, it appeared fifth in a list of common skin rashes in children. If you have fifth disease as a child, you can’t get it again.
If you get infected with fifth disease during pregnancy, it usually doesn’t cause problems. You can pass it to your baby during pregnancy, which can cause miscarriage and stillbirth. But this is rare. About half of all pregnant women are immune to fifth disease because they had it in the past.
What causes fifth disease?
A virus called parvovirus B19 causes fifth disease. Fifth disease spreads easily, like a cold. You can get it through hand-to-hand contact with an infected person or through fluids from the nose, mouth and throat that spread through an infected person’s cough or sneeze. Fifth disease also can spread through blood, which is why you can pass it to your baby during pregnancy. Fifth disease outbreaks are most common during the winter and spring among children, but anyone can get infected at any time of the year.
What problems can fifth disease cause in pregnancy?
Fifth disease usually doesn’t cause problems for pregnant women and their babies, but it can affect the way the body makes red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body. You may have complications from fifth disease if you have:
- Sickle cell anemia. Sickle cell anemia is the most common form of sickle cell disease (also called SCD). SCD is a condition in which the red blood cells in your body are shaped like a sickle (like the letter C). In a healthy person, red blood cells are round and flexible. They flow easily in the blood. A person with SCD has red blood cells that are stiff and can block blood flow. This can cause pain, infections, organ damage and stroke.
- A weak immune system due to cancer (like leukemia blood cancer) or HIV infection. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It’s a virus that attacks the body’s immune system. Over time, HIV can destroy the cells in the immune system so that it can’t protect the body. When this happens, HIV can lead to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
If you get infected with fifth disease during pregnancy, the virus can make it hard for your baby to make red blood cells. Rarely, this can lead to a severe anemia that can cause:
- Hydrops fetalis. This is -a buildup of fluid in your baby’s body. Hydrops can cause heart failure and death.
- Miscarriage. This is when a baby dies in the womb before 20 weeks of pregnancy.
- Stillbirth. This is when is when a baby dies in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
These kinds of serious problems happen in less than 1 in 20 (5 percent) of women who become infected during pregnancy. They usually happen during the first half of pregnancy.
Who is at risk of getting fifth disease?
Fifth disease is common in children 5 to 15 years old. People with young children and those who work with children (like child care providers and teachers) are most likely to get infected with fifth disease. If a child in your home has fifth disease, there is a 1 in 2 chance (50 percent) that another family member who hasn’t had the infection will get it. Remember that once you’ve had fifth disease, you can’t get infected again.
What are the signs and symptoms of fifth disease?
Signs of a condition are things someone else can see or know about you, like you have a rash or you’re coughing. Symptoms are things you feel yourself that others can’t see, like having a sore throat or feeling dizzy. Signs and symptoms of fifth disease usually appear between 4 and 14 days after infection.
Signs and symptoms of fifth disease are usually mild and may include:
- Rash on the face, sometimes called a slapped-cheek rash. A rash is most common in children younger than 10. The rash often spreads to the arms, legs and torso. It can last from 1 to 3 weeks. A child with fifth disease is most contagious before the rash appears and isn’t contagious after the rash appears.
- Runny nose, sore throat and swollen glands
- Joint pain or swollen joints, especially in older teens and adults. Fifth disease most often affects the hands, wrists, knees and ankles.
- Red eyes
About 1 in 5 people (20 percent) who gets infected with fifth disease doesn’t have any signs or symptoms.
If you think you’ve come in contact with fifth disease or you have signs or symptoms, tell your health care provider right away. If you have a rash, your provider may be able to diagnose fifth disease during a physical exam. If you don’t have a rash, your provider can test your blood for the infection.
How is fifth disease treated?
Fifth disease is usually mild and goes away on its own. If you’re pregnant and have fifth disease, your health care provider monitors your pregnancy closely to check for problems with your baby. If your baby has fifth disease, chances are the infection will go away on its own. Your provider checks your baby’s health during routine prenatal care checkups.
Your provider may recommend that you have ultrasounds to check your baby’s health. An ultrasound is a prenatal test that uses sound waves and a computer screen to show a picture of your baby inside the womb. If an ultrasound shows that your baby is having problems, your provider may recommend amniocentesis (also called amnio) to confirm the infection. Amniocentesis is a prenatal test that takes amniotic fluid from around your baby in the uterus (also called womb). The fluid is tested to see if your baby has certain health conditions.
If an ultrasound shows that your baby has hydrops fetalis, your provider may use a procedure called cordocentesis to find out how severe your baby’s anemia is. For this test, your provider inserts a thin needle into an umbilical cord vein to take a small sample of your baby’s blood. If your baby has severe anemia, your provider may be able to treat it by giving her a blood transfusion (new blood) through the umbilical cord. In most cases, the anemia isn’t severe.
If your baby has hydrops fetalis during the third trimester, you may need to have your labor induced to give birth early for your baby’s health. Inducing labor (also called labor induction) is when your health care provider gives you medicines or uses other methods to start your labor.
How can you protect yourself from fifth disease during pregnancy?
To protect yourself from fifth disease:
- Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after being around children.
- Carefully throw away tissues used by children and wash your hands right away.
- Don’t share food and drinks with other people.
- Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
Last reviewed: December, 2018
What’s My Rash? Pictures And Descriptions Of 21 Rash Types
Common Rashes Pictures and Descriptions
There are many different kinds of rashes out there. Some are mild and some are potentially life threatening. Here, we’ll take a look at a variety of rashes and use photos to help you identify the difference between them.
Only a doctor can diagnose your rash so if you have one, it’s crucial you seek medical attention as it may be a sign of an underlying condition. You can see a doctor about your rash without leaving home by booking an online appointment with PlushCare. Our doctors are all graduates from the top 50 U.S. medical schools and are highly trained to treat rashes online.
Our primary care physicians are an affordable alternative to dermatologists and can help get you the treatment you need.
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97% of conditions are successfully treated on the first visit.
In order to receive the best treatment, it is recommended that you send your doctor pictures of your rash prior to your appointment so they can make a diagnosis and provide you with a treatment plan. This can easily be done via the PlushCare app or even via email after you book your appointment.
Here are pictures and descriptions of 21 types of rashes.[caption: Attribution: Courtesy Colm Anderson via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 2.5]
Cellulitis is an infection caused by a bacteria, typically streptococcus or staphylococcus, entering through a crack or break in your skin. It may also enter through areas of dry, flaky, or swollen skin.
Cellulitis causes red, painful, tender, hot, swollen skin and may or may not be accompanied by oozing, blisters, red spots, or skin dimpling. It may spread quickly. While it typically presents as a rash on the lower legs, it can also occur as a rash on the arms, face, and other areas.
A severe infection may cause fever, chills, and red streaks. The infection can spread to the lymph nodes and bloodstream, so cellulitis requires immediate medical attention because it can become life-threatening.
If you have symptoms of cellulitis with a fever or a rash that is changing rapidly, seek medical attention immediately.
Chickenpox is a virus that causes itchy, red, fluid-filled blisters all over the body accompanied by a fever, body aches, a sore throat, and loss of appetite 10 to 21 days after exposure to the virus. It is extremely contagious until every blister has crusted over and it usually lasts for five to 10 days.
Children afflicted with chickenpox should be kept out of school to avoid spreading it to other children.
Contact your doctor if the rash spreads to one or both eyes; the rash gets very red, warm or tender; the rash is accompanied by dizziness, confusion, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, tremors, loss of muscle coordination, worsening cough, vomiting, stiff neck, or a fever higher than 102° F; or if anyone in the household is immune deficient or younger than 6 months old.
Today, there is a safe, effective vaccine that can prevent chickenpox.
Contact dermatitis is a rash that appears within a few hours to a few days after your skin comes into contact with an allergen or irritant. The rash has a visible border where your skin came into contact with the offending substance. Your skin will be itchy, red, raw, or scaly and may have blisters that weep, ooze, or become crusty. While it isn’t contagious or life-threatening, it can make you pretty miserable.
You should try to identify what caused your reaction and avoid it in the future to prevent future occurrences of contact dermatitis. It may take two to four weeks after getting rid of the item that caused the contact dermatitis for the rash to clear up. Cool, wet compresses and anti-itch creams can help relieve symptoms in the meantime.
A diaper rash is a common form of inflamed skin that occurs on areas of the body which are in contact with a diaper. The skin may look wet, red, or irritated and may feel warm to the touch. Afflicted babies will often fuss during a diaper change.
This itchy rash on the buttocks is a common rash for infants and toddlers to suffer from, although it can afflict anybody who wears a diaper, and is usually caused by spending too much time in a dirty diaper. although it can also be caused by chafing and skin sensitivity.
Diaper rash can usually be treated at home by air drying, changing diapers more frequently, and using ointments. Take your baby to the doctor if the rash:
- Is severe or unusual
- Gets worse
- Bleeds, itches, or oozes
- Is accompanied by a fever
A drug allergy causes a rash that may occur several days or even weeks after taking a medication. It causes a mild, itchy, red rash and may be accompanied by a fever, an upset stomach, and small red or purple spots on the skin.
Potentially life-threatening symptoms may include hives, a racing heart, swelling, itching, and trouble breathing.
If you have symptoms of a drug allergic reaction, you should seek immediate medical attention.
Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, looks like white or yellow scaly patches of skin that might flake off. Hair loss may occur within the rash, and the area may be itchy, red, oily, or greasy. Eczema typically affects people who suffer from asthma or allergies. While it is more common in children, it can happen to people of any age.
There is no cure for eczema however, self-care measures such as avoiding harsh soaps, moisturizing regularly, and applying medicated creams or ointments can relieve itching and prevent new outbreaks.
Fifth disease, also known as “slapped cheek disease,” is a viral infection that causes a bright red round rash on the cheeks, upper arms, and legs as well as a headache, fatigue, low fever, sore throat, runny nose, diarrhea, or nausea.
Children are more likely to develop this lacy-patterned rash, which may be easier to see after a hot bath or shower. While typically mild in children, fifth disease can be more severe for pregnant women or anyone with a compromised immune system. Fifth disease in pregnant women, for example, can cause life-threatening anemia for the unborn baby.
[Caption: Attribution: Maslesha via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0]
Symptoms of flea bites appear immediately after being bitten by a flea. The itchy red bump is typically surrounded by a halo and often appears in clusters on the lower legs and feet.
Fleas reproduce quickly, especially in homes with pets, and they can be difficult to get rid of, occasionally requiring the assistance of a professional exterminator. Flea bites will get better without treatment, but only eliminating fleas from your home can prevent future bites. Fleas can’t fly, but if they were human, they could jump over skyscrapers in one leap
[Caption: Attribution: KlatschmohnAcker via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0]
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a mild, contagious viral infection which typically affects children under the age of five. It may cause red spots that are either flat or raised on the palms of the hands, soles of the feet and possibly the butt or genital area, along with painful, red blisters in the mouth and on the tongue and gums.
A fever is often the first symptom of hand, foot, and mouth disease, appearing three to six days after contact with the virus. Sores in the mouth appear a day or two later, followed by a rash on the hands and feet a day or two after that.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is typically mild. Your child should see a doctor if sores in the mouth prevent drinking or if symptoms worsen after a few days.
[Caption: Attribution: James Heilman, MD via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0]
Impetigo is a contagious bacterial infection that is common in babies and children. An irritating rash with fluid-filled blisters that pop easily and form a honey-colored crust is often located around the nose, mouth, and chin.
Antibiotics are typically recommended to help prevent the spread of impetigo to others. Children should be kept home from school until no longer contagious, which is typically about 24 hours after starting the antibiotic.
[Caption: Attribution :Dong Soo Kim, derivative work: Natr (talk) via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 2.0]
Kawasaki disease typically affects children under the age of five. It can cause a red, swollen “strawberry” tongue; a high fever; swollen, red palms and soles of the feet; swollen lymph nodes; and bloodshot eyes.
While it typically improves on its own, it can lead to an aneurysm of the coronary artery as a complication, which can be fatal.
If you or a loved one are showing symptoms of Kawasaki Disease, seek urgent medical attention.
Symptoms of measles, a viral respiratory infection, include a fever, sore throat, red or watery eyes, loss of appetite, cough, and a runny nose with a red rash that spreads from the face down the body several days after the rest of the symptoms begin. Tiny red spots with blue-white centers may also appear inside the mouth.
Measles can be very serious and still kills about 100,000 people a year, mostly children under the age of five.
While measles used to be common, it can almost always be prevented by receiving the measles vaccine. According to the CDC, “The best protection against measles is measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. MMR vaccine provides long-lasting protection against all strains of measles. Your child needs two doses of MMR vaccine for best protection: The first dose at 12 through 15 months of age and the second dose at 4 through 6 years of age.
[Caption: Attribution: User:The Wednesday Island (of the English Wikipedia) via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0]
Psoriasis is a process that speeds up the life cycle of skin cells, which causes scaly, silvery, sharply-defined skin patches which are typically located on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. The patches are itchy and may be painful.
There is no cure for psoriasis, and it is a chronic problem that may come and go. Treatment revolves around trying to slow down the life cycle of the skin cells. Lifestyle changes such as moisturizing, quitting smoking, and managing stress can help.
Ringworm gets its name from the distinctive shape of the rash and has nothing to do with worms. It is caused by a fungus and creates itchy circular, scaly rashes with a raised border and healthy skin in the middle of the ring.
The same fungus that causes ringworm also causes jock itch and athlete’s foot. Antifungal creams or medications are required to treat ringworm.
[Caption: Attribution: tomasz przechlewski via Flickr, CC BY 2.0]
Rosacea is a chronic skin problem with no known cause that leads to recurring cycles of fading and relapse, which may be triggered by spicy food, alcohol, sunlight, stress, and the intestinal bacteria Helicobacter pylori. There are four different subtypes, each with its own set of symptoms.
Common symptoms of rosacea include facial flushing or redness; raised, red bumps; dry skin; and skin sensitivity.
[Caption: Attribution: Steschke via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0]
Scabies is a contagious, itchy skin disease caused by an infestation of the microscopic Sarcoptes scabiei mite, which lives in and burrows into your skin, where it lays eggs. It may take four to six weeks for symptoms to appear.
Symptoms include a very itchy rash that may be pimply, scaly, or made up of tiny blisters as well as raised white or flesh-colored lines.
Scarlet fever is an infection due to group A Streptococcus bacteria that involves a bright red rash which covers the entire body (apart from the hands and feet) and shows up during or soon after a bout of strep throat. The red bumps of the rash are so rough that they may feel like sandpaper. Scarlet fever will also cause a bright red tongue.
Scarlet fever is most common in children from five to 15. Antibiotics are usually effective, but left untreated, scarlet fever can result in more-serious conditions that affect the heart, kidneys, and other parts of the body.
[Caption: Attribution:Kein Trinkwasser via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0]
Seborrheic eczema or dermatitis is a type of eczema that commonly affects the scalp, although it can affect the ears, nose or mouth. It appears as white or yellow scaly patches of skin that flake off or cause stubborn dandruff. Affected areas of the skin may be red, itchy, greasy, or oily and may have hair loss. It’s known as a crib cap when it happens to babies.
Seborrheic dermatitis may clear up without treatment, but it may also resist treatment or keep coming back. Cleaning the area daily with a gentle soap or shampoo can reduce oiliness and dead skin buildup.
[Caption: Attribution: melvil via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0]
Shingles causes a rash involving clusters of fluid-filled blisters that break easily and weep fluid. The rash is extremely painful and may burn, tingle, or itch, even if there are no blisters present. The rash occurs in a striped pattern commonly on the torso but occasionally on other parts of the body including the face. The rash may be accompanied by a low fever, chills, a headache, or fatigue.
The varicella-zoster virus causes chickenpox, then lies dormant. It may reactivate as shingles many years later.
[Caption: Attribution: Medicalpal via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0]
SLE is an autoimmune disease which displays various symptoms and affects multiple body systems and organs. SLE is often accompanied by a classic butterfly-shaped face rash that crosses from cheek to cheek over the nose which may appear or get worse in the sun.
Other symptoms may include a wide array of skin and mucous membrane symptoms that range from rashes to ulcers.
A tick bite can cause pain or swelling in the affected area with a rash, burning sensation, blisters, or difficulty breathing. Ticks may stay attached for a long time, and bites typically don’t appear in clusters.
The greater concern with tick bites is that they can cause a wide variety of diseases including Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
If you get bitten by a tick, remove it immediately, being careful to get the entire head out and not just the body, and contact your healthcare provider for assistance.
Don’t See Your Rash?
If you don’t see your rash in the pictures above and are looking for a diagnosis, we recommend booking a video appointment with a PlushCare doctor. The doctor will look at your rash and be able to give you an official diagnosis and treatment plan.
Rashes can have a variety of different causes. Common causes of rashes include:
- Coming into contact with something that causes an allergic or otherwise adverse reaction, such as soap, laundry detergent, beauty products, latex, rubber, elastic, dye in clothing, or poisonous plants
- Bug bites
- Autoimmune diseases
- Fungal infections
- Skin irritation
- Bacterial infections
- Infestation of mites
- Viral infections
Many mild rashes can be treated at home. To help relieve discomfort and promote healing, try the following:
- Use mild, unscented soaps and cleansers
- Wash your skin and hair with lukewarm water instead of hot
- Pat rashes dry instead of rubbing
- Avoid covering rashes when possible. They heal better when they can breathe.
- Stop using new products that may have triggered the rash
- Avoid scratching – it can lead to potentially-serious infections
- Itchy rashes can be soothed by hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion
- Take an oatmeal bath
- Over the counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin) can help relieve minor pain associated with a rash.
- Joint pain
- A sore throat
- A slight fever above 100.4° F
- Red streaks or tenderness
- A recent tick or animal bite
- Increasing pain or discoloration of the rash
- Tightness or itching of the throat
- Trouble breathing
- Swelling of your face or limbs
- A high fever
- Severe head or neck pain
- Vomiting or diarrhea
What you can expect during an appointment exploring the type and cause of a rash
Your doctor will look at the rash, and ask you about:
- When the rash started and how its progressed
- Your medical history
- Your diet
- What products or medications you have recently started using
- Your hygiene
While only a medical professional can diagnose the cause of your rash, hopefully, you now have more information about what’s causing you to itch.
Remember, the top online doctors at PlushCare are available for same day appointments and can treat your rash without you needing to leave home.
Read More About Rashes
How to Identify Common Childhood Rashes
This article was originally published on January 28, 2020.
When my older girl was 18 months old, she became grouchy and listless and had a low-grade fever. A day or two later, she broke out in a bright red rash that inflamed her cheeks. “Fifth disease,” her pediatrician said, milliseconds after she walked into the exam room. I had never heard of it, and at first I thought she said “fist disease,” and I pictured a giant fist kneading my baby’s face, leaving that mass of red.
But it turns out fifth disease — which is caused by parvovirus B19 — is just one of many weird rash-causing illnesses that are common in children under 6. The illness is named after a number because decades ago, doctors didn’t know what caused once-common childhood conditions like measles, mumps and rubella, so they referred to them sequentially, said Dr. Nanette Silverberg, M.D., chief of pediatric dermatology for the Mount Sinai Health System. Fifth disease retained the number.
“One of the really challenging things about raising children is they almost always have a virus, and most of the time you don’t even know,” said Dr. Rebecca Pellett Madan, M.D., a pediatric infectious disease specialist at N.Y.U. Langone’s Hassenfeld Children’s Hospital. “You could be the most conscientious parent, but they’re going to get viruses, and they’re often shedding them without having any symptoms.”
What a magical, germ-strewn adventure we are all on.
Because rash-causing illnesses are omnipresent, we created an illustrated guide to five common ones that occur in young children. If you’re concerned that your child has one of these maladies (or any unexplained rash for that matter), give your pediatrician a call. And always remember to thoroughly wash hands to prevent the spread of, well, most things.
What the rash looks and feels like: Dr. Pellett Madan called the rash that results from scarlet fever her “favorite rash.” The skin “takes on the look and feel of pinkish-red sandpaper,” she said. It may be most prominent in the folds of the underarms and elbows, and in the crease where the stomach meets the thigh. “With children with darker skin, you may not be able to appreciate the skin is turning red, but you can feel the change in texture,” Dr. Pellett Madan said. As the rash resolves, the bumpy skin might peel away. Children may also develop “strawberry tongue,” where their tongue is especially red and bumpy, said Dr. Silverberg. Other symptoms may include stomachache, swollen glands, fever and sore throat.
What causes it: A bacteria called group A strep. “The bacteria sometimes make a poison (toxin), which causes a rash — the ‘scarlet’ of scarlet fever,” per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
What the rash looks and feels like: This illness got the nickname “slapped cheek” disease because a bright red rash, which may be itchy, typically appears on a child’s cheeks. After a few days, the rash may also appear on their chest, back and limbs, and will look like “a piece of red or pink lace” that has been placed on the skin, said Dr. Pellett Madan. Other symptoms can include fever, runny nose and headache.
What causes it: A virus called parvovirus B19.
Treatment: If your child is healthy, the virus should go away on its own, and by the time the rash breaks out, your child (and you, if you have it) should no longer be contagious. If you’re pregnant and think you may have been exposed to fifth disease, let your health care provider know. Rarely, the virus can cause pregnancy complications.
What the rash looks and feels like: It’s bright red and forms flat or raised lesions which typically first appear on the chest, back or abdomen and then spread to the extremities, face and scalp, said Dr. Pellett Madan. The first sign of roseola is a terrifyingly high fever, followed by the rash after the fever has broken (my younger daughter had a fever of 105 when she had roseola). Other symptoms may include loose stools and ear pain.
What causes it: Human herpesvirus 6. Almost everyone has some version of this virus, and it presents as roseola in about 20 percent of people, said Dr. Pellett Madan. It is not the same virus that causes cold sores.
Treatment: In otherwise healthy children, roseola should go away on its own, but your pediatrician may suggest fever or pain management. Rapid temperature spikes with roseola may cause febrile seizures in some children, which typically aren’t dangerous, but can be scary.
What the rash looks and feels like: Apologies for the number of times I’m going to use the word “crust” here; please don’t read this while eating. Impetigo typically presents as raw, red sores around a child’s nose and mouth, which “get covered in this thick, yellowish-brown crust, people call it ‘honey crusting,’” said Dr. Pellett Madan. The sores can also appear in creases like behind the knees. (Bullous impetigo, which is a less common form of impetigo, may feature larger red blisters that pop and drain fluid.) Children with eczema are more prone to getting impetigo.
What causes it: Bacteria, usually group A streptococcus (strep) or Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria.
Treatment: Topical or oral antibiotics, depending on how much of the skin is involved.
What the rash looks and feels like: Red bumps or blisters on the palms, fingers, soles of the feet and occasionally around the butt, which can be painful and itchy. Some children will get “these painful red blister lesions on the tongue, gum line and inside the cheeks,” said Dr. Silverberg. Other symptoms can include fever, diarrhea and sore throat. Eating and drinking may become painful.
What causes it: A virus called coxsackievirus. Your child may still shed the virus in her poop even after her symptoms have cleared, so be sure to wash your hands frequently and vigorously after changing her.
Treatment: Gently clean the affected areas during bath time with soap and water, and pat dry — do not clean or rub too vigorously. Avoid using anything like alcohol or calamine lotion. Dr. Silverberg also recommended keeping an eye on the sores to make sure they don’t get infected. If they do, your child might need further treatment. Finally, because eating and drinking may hurt, make sure your kids stay hydrated.
Jessica Grose is the lead editor of NYT Parenting.
90,000 Rash COVID-19 | A rash can be a symptom of coronavirus
The onset of COVID-19 can be associated with the appearance of various types of skin lesions. They resemble papules, nodules, vesicles, excoriation (abrasions), scales, ulcers, some are in the form of spots, lumps or mesh. The rash can occur in people who are asymptomatic with COVID-19. In 21% of patients, dermatosis was the only symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection. At the same time, 17% of patients reported a skin rash as the first manifestation of the disease.
The incidence of COVID-19 skin symptoms is difficult to determine. The relationship between some skin symptoms and disease severity is also unknown. In addition, it cannot be ruled out that in some patients, skin lesions may be a manifestation of a reaction to numerous treatments for COVID-19.
1 Covid-19 rash – where does it appear?
2. What does a rash look like with COVID-19?
3. Skin lesions and diagnosis of COVID-19
4.Coronavirus rash – when does it occur and how long does it last?
5. Rash as a manifestation of childhood inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) after COVID-19 in children
6. “Coronavirus fingers”
7. COVID-19 and chickenpox – what is the difference between a rash?
8. Treatment of rash in case of COVID-19
Covid-19 rash – where does it appear?
Skin lesions are often the body’s response to viral infections. However, in the case of COVID-19, doctors are surprised by the variety of skin rashes, the time of their appearance and their location.
Skin lesions associated with COVID-19 occur on various parts of the body such as around the mouth, trunk, limbs, legs and arms. They are not always itchy.
What does a COVID-19 rash look like?
The rashes associated with Covid-19 are diverse and similar to the skin lesions found in other viral diseases, according to a study conducted by experts in Spain. They noted that changes in the skin did not correlate with the severity of the infection: some were accompanied by asymptomatic COVID-19, others by severe forms of infection.
Five types of rash were noted:
• Irregular frostbite-like spots on the arms and legs, sometimes accompanied by soreness and itching. They mainly occurred in young patients with a mild course of the disease, appeared in the later stages and lasted for about 12 days. Registered in 19% of cases.
• Focal eruptions in the form of small blisters, which can cause itching, located on the body and upper and lower extremities. They occurred during the onset of any other symptoms and were noted in 9% of cases in middle-aged patients; persisted for 10 days.
• Focal hives-like rashes, white or pink in color, often with itching. They were noted in 19% of cases, mainly on the body, but also on the palms.
• Maculopapular eruptions in the form of small flat or convex blisters, which were observed in 47% of cases. These rashes persisted for about a week and appeared simultaneously with other symptoms, but most often they were accompanied by a severe course of the disease.
• The appearance on the skin of a vascular red-blue network or signs of skin necrosis was observed in 6% of patients, mainly elderly patients with a severe course of the disease.
At the same time, experts note that the rash can have various origins, and it is difficult to classify it without relevant experience and knowledge.
In the event of any skin symptoms, Medicover dermatologists with many years of experience and extensive experience in diagnosing various skin lesions are always ready to help you!
Skin lesions and diagnosis of COVID-19
Diagnosis of dermatological changes caused by COVID-19 is, first of all, in the exclusion of other possible causes of rashes, such as, for example, allergies.
This may require a number of studies to determine if the rash is associated with a SARS-CoV-2 infection, or if it is a reaction of the body to certain medications, or a manifestation of infection with other pathogens.
If pressing the purple-red skin lesions with your finger does not cause them to disappear, this is an alarm signaling the need to seek medical attention in order to rule out infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
In Medicover clinics you can get professional advice from a dermatologist and undergo all the necessary examinations to establish an accurate diagnosis, as well as receive advice on effective treatment in accordance with modern international clinical guidelines.
Coronavirus rash – when does it occur and how long does it last?
The first symptoms of COVID-19 can occur approximately 5-6 days after infection, sometimes this period extends to 14 days. However, a rash can be the first symptom, and the only sign of COVID-19.
Depending on the type of skin lesions and their severity, they last from several days to several weeks.
Skin rash may be accompanied by other systemic symptoms characteristic of COVID-19.These include:
• persistent cough
• shortness of breath, breathing problems,
• loss of smell and taste.
Rash as a manifestation of childhood inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) after COVID-19 in children
Viral diseases are a common cause of skin damage in children. A rash caused by SARS-Cov-2 can appear on a baby’s skin up to 2-4 weeks after infection and indicate the development of childhood inflammatory multisystem syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2.
PIMS with multiforme inflammatory syndrome in children sometimes occurs after infection with COVID-19, sometimes even after its asymptomatic course. PIMS is most common in schoolchildren around the age of 9.
In the case of children, skin lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection may appear as reddish papules, resembling other viral exanthema. Papules can appear on the face and back, and within 3-5 days they disappear spontaneously.
A pediatrician should be consulted for any rash in children.Until an accurate diagnosis is established and a connection with COVID-19 is excluded, children should not come into contact with other people, especially the elderly, who have a tendency to severe coronavirus infection, even to death.
Skin lesions in the form of so-called “coronavirus fingers” are more often diagnosed in young people, adolescents and children. They are in the form of red spots, vesicles and even ulcers, accompanied by swelling of the skin of the fingers and interdigital spaces.
COVID-19 and chickenpox – how is the rash different?
Papulo-vesicular rashes in COVID-19 and chickenpox are very similar to each other. They differ in the age of patients and the localization of skin lesions.
With SARS-CoV-2 infection, skin lesions are more common in adults with an average age of 60 years. However, one of the main clinical features is the localization of lesions in the trunk area, the elements are diffuse in nature, they are characterized by the absence of itching.
The rash appears 3 days after the onset of symptoms of COVID-19 and spontaneously disappears after 8 days without leaving a trace, whereas with chickenpox, the rash can have a two-phase course and last up to 2 weeks.
COVID-19 rash treatment
SARS-CoV-2 infection rash does not require specific medical procedures. Clinical data show that it is sufficient to simply observe its course and apply symptomatic treatment if necessary. Antihistamines are helpful to relieve itching and swelling of the skin.Patients with a mild course can use them at home.
In the case of serious and significant skin lesions, systemic treatment with corticosteroids under the supervision of a physician is recommended.
90,000 Manifestations of coronavirus: what skin rashes should alert :: Health :: RBC Style
Margarita Hecht ,
Leading dermatologist of the Butterfly Children Foundation
Skin symptoms appear in different ways in people with coronavirus.Some point to a milder course of COVID-19, while others serve as a marker for a severe variant of the disease. Knowing the skin manifestations in COVID-19 will help diagnose the infection earlier and correctly assess the risks of each patient.
What is known about the skin symptoms of coronavirus
There is no final summarized data on the dermatological manifestations of COVID-19 from around the world yet, but there is information from China, Spain, England and the United States. In these countries, studies were carried out on the basis of national medical centers that treated patients with coronavirus – in total, doctors described more than 350 cases of COVID-19 with skin symptoms.
Early studies from central China indicated that skin conditions are rare in COVID-19 patients. Among the first 1,099 people infected in Wuhan, only two patients had skin symptoms (0.2%).
The first to notice skin lesions in patients of intensive care units, which is not surprising: they are riveted more close attention of doctors.
A special online register for the dermatology of the new coronavirus has now appeared, where all countries can share recorded cases of COVID-19 skin manifestations.Its main goal is to quickly and efficiently collect medical information that will help in the treatment of the disease.
How to distinguish between different types of rashes
In order to move on to the clinical forms of the cutaneous manifestations of coronavirus, you must first understand the dermatological terminology. Rashes differ from each other, but each of them means a certain morphological element that we see on the skin.
The morphological elements characteristic of COVID-19 include:
- Spots or macules that appear only by discoloration of the skin.Red, purple and bright pink appear when a vessel is injured. Brown ones show localized accumulations of melanin, for example after prolonged sun exposure without a sunscreen.
- Spots on the body and face can resemble a small rash, form outlines in the form of stripes, bruising and bruising, or ecchymosis in medical terms. The smallest spot, up to 15 mm, is called roseola, and more than 20 mm is called erythema. Usually this is not even one element, but a merger of several.
- Papules are an element that rises above the level of the skin and can range in color from normal to bright red.
- Vesicles and vesicles are similar to papules, but they contain fluid inside. Large rashes are called bullae and blisters.
- Blisters (urticaria) are white, pale pink or even light red rashes. Blisters rise above the skin and are often itchy. They can be small, 2-3 cm, or large, 10-15 cm.They are round, oval or irregular in shape, with lace edges.
Frequent skin manifestations in COVID-19
The most common type of cutaneous manifestation of the new coronavirus is erythematous-edematous foci. These are spots of different diameters and all kinds of shades of red. They don’t itch, but the affected skin feels warm or even hot to the touch.
“Pink” rash – oval-shaped scaly patches are most often located on the lateral surfaces of the body and can cause discomfort due to itching.
Skin manifestations do not occur randomly: many of them are characteristic of a certain age group of patients or the severity of the course of the disease.
Acro-ischemia affects the tips of the toes, the balls of the feet, or the skin of the heel. A severe course of COVID-19 can lead to hypercoagulability – excessive blood clotting. It hardly passes through the blood vessels, especially the small ones – capillaries and venules, which leads to their damage, blood stasis and the formation of blood clots – thrombi.
The most severe and difficult patients are those who, in addition to the tips of the phalanges, have a cyanotic color of the skin and mucous membranes (the so-called cyanosis).
A rash like urticaria (urticaria) may appear before the “classic” symptoms of coronavirus in the form of cough and fever. In children, urticaria appeared in 19% of cases of the total number of people infected with coronavirus and was associated with a more severe course of the disease than in other peers. But not every urticarial rash is a manifestation of COVID-19.In this case, the virus may be indicated by an elevated temperature, which is not typical for ordinary urticaria.
Maculopapular or maculopapular rash is most common in patients with the new coronavirus. It lasts about nine days from the time of onset and mainly affects the thighs, forearms and shoulders.
A rash resembling chickenpox, researchers associate with an intermediate severity of the course of the coronavirus. Most often, this symptom manifests itself in middle-aged patients.
As in the case of chickenpox, the rash consists of small, uniform blisters that are strewn across the skin of the trunk. But true chickenpox and similar viral exanthema appear only after contact with someone who is already infected with these infections.
In the case of COVID-19, this rash lasts about ten days and disappears along with the rest of the symptoms, and sometimes even earlier.
Rashes on fingers and toes, similar to frostbite, can appear with a mild course of coronavirus in children or young people.The average age of patients with frostbite-type rashes is 14 years. Doctors found this manifestation in 25 patients in Spain and 11 children in northern Italy. They had neither the symptoms typical of coronavirus, nor objective reasons for frostbite, and the test result for COVID-19 was positive.
With a rash of the type of frostbite, spots of bright red color with a pink-violet tinge appear above the skin surface. The affected areas, as a rule, are located asymmetrically, and after recovery, the symptoms disappear without any treatment, leaving no scars.
The rash with petechiae, small punctate hemorrhages, as well as with a purple rash, did not affect the skin of the palms and feet, and there was no manifestation on the oral mucosa. This symptom does not always indicate a coronavirus; it can also be caused by other infectious diseases or a reaction to medications. Biochemical blood tests and virological research will help to distinguish them.
Of 27 children with mild disease, two developed a targetoid (target or annular) lesion resembling erythema multiforme.In this case, the rounded spots have a red center with a vesicle, resembling a target. These rashes can be grouped together. This symptomatology is typical for herpes simplex, but none of the patients suffered from it.
Targetoid lesions have three color zones: a dark center with a blister or crust, a pale pink raised surface due to edema, and a bright red outer ring. Targetoid lesions appear anywhere on the body, including mucous membranes such as the lips.
Skin manifestations during the COVID-19 pandemic are gaining increasing attention as they may be useful for early diagnosis, especially in children and the elderly.
If you notice a rash in yourself or your child, remember if you have come into contact with people who have chickenpox or other infections with a characteristic rash. Could this be a manifestation of an allergy to food, cosmetics or cleaning products? If not, immediately contact a dermatologist who will accurately diagnose and prescribe treatment.
90,000 COVID on the skin: seven types of rash can be symptoms of coronavirus | Articles
The coronavirus pandemic is a major challenge for specialists in skin infections, according to scientists from many countries. COVID-19 causes various external manifestations that require detailed study. Russian doctors told Izvestia about seven types of rashes that may be associated with the pathogen. In some cases, this is the first signal of SARS-CoV-2 infection, so dermatologists need to be especially careful with their patients during a pandemic.In addition, more serious skin manifestations are noted in the severe course of the disease, that is, they can be used to diagnose the stage of the disease.
Scientists at the Department of Dermatology and Allergology at the State Clinic of Dresden published an article in which they said that the coronavirus pandemic is a serious challenge for specialists. As stated in the publication, there is a lot of data in the literature on skin symptoms, although their specificity for COVID-19 has not yet been proven.The researchers also draw attention to the fact that due to the epidemic, it has become extremely difficult to treat patients with inflammatory diseases – for example, psoriasis.
“Although COVID-19 is not a skin disease, it has a huge impact on dermatology,” the article says.
Indeed, the literature describes various external manifestations in patients with coronavirus infection, told Izvestia and. about. Director of the Institute of Biomedical Systems and Biotechnology, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) Andrey Vasin.
Photo: Izvestia / Zurab Javakhadze
– In the case of coronavirus infection, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (low molecular information soluble proteins that provide signal transmission between cells – Izvestia) may be observed, which leads to an imbalance in the inflammatory response , the expert noted. – And this, in turn, can provoke the development of certain skin manifestations.
However, this is only one of the possible mechanisms for the development of skin symptoms, there can be many reasons, and they need to be studied in more depth.
Seven types of pathologies
Previously, specialists from the Moscow Scientific and Practical Center for Dermatology and Cosmetology, Russian National Research Medical University named after V.I. Pirogova and RUDN University studied skin pathologies associated with coronavirus infection. In general, they can be divided into seven categories, Olga Zhukova, associate professor of the Department of Skin and Venereal Diseases of the Faculty of Advanced Training of Medical Workers of the RUDN University, told Izvestia.
– The first group is angiitis of the skin (inflammation of the walls of blood vessels, which appear as blisters, hemorrhagic spots of various sizes, inflammatory nodules and plaques – Izvestia), the specialist said.- They are directly caused by coronavirus infection, against the background of which the walls of small vessels of the dermis are damaged by the immune complexes circulating in the blood.
Photo: Izvestia / Zurab Javakhadze
The second group – papulo-vesicular rashes. Such lesions are always characterized by acute clinical symptoms, usually they densely cover the entire body. A striking example of such a rash can be acne with chickenpox. With coronavirus, this is more like prickly heat, which occurs against a background of high fever with multi-day increased sweating in patients.
Specialists refer to the third category of skin manifestations as lichen rosacea and papulo-squamous rashes (inflammatory skin diseases characterized by red or pink papules and plaques covered with scales (this group includes psoriasis. – Izvestia).
– They are infectious and allergic skin lesions associated with COVID-19 infection, – Olga Zhukova explained. – The clinical feature of pink lichen in coronavirus infection is the absence of a “maternal plaque” – the largest element that appears first in the classical course of dermatosis.
Photo: Izvestia / Zurab Javakhadze
To the fourth category, experts attributed measles-like rashes, to the fifth – toxidermia. These rashes are not directly related to coronavirus infection. They arise due to the individual intolerance of patients to certain medications. In the sixth group of cutaneous manifestations of coronavirus, scientists include urticaria – in some cases, it can be a harbinger of the onset of COVID-19.
The last, seventh category includes trophic changes in facial tissues that occur in patients on mechanical ventilation due to prolonged lying on their stomach.
Diagnosis on fingers
Despite such a variety of clinical manifestations, it is still impossible to say that they are caused by the pathogen Sars-CoV-2, and not concomitant diseases. Further research is needed. Skin manifestations can also be associated with the use of drugs for the treatment of coronavirus. In such cases, it is necessary to determine which drug the given reaction has arisen and to cancel it, the assistant of the center for postgraduate medical education of the Institute of Medicine and Psychology V.Zelmana NSU, dermatovenerologist-oncologist Natalia Shepilova.
– With these skin manifestations, the dermatologist must carefully take an anamnesis and suspect that the patient has a coronavirus infection, especially if there are or were symptoms of ARVI. Also, in case of an atypical clinical picture of other skin diseases, such as, for example, Zhyber pink lichen with the absence of a typical maternal plaque, it is also necessary to exclude COVID-19 infection, the expert explained.
Photo: Izvestia / Pavel Bednyakov
According to Natalia Shepilova, skin symptoms can be used to diagnose the stage of the disease. Some scientists have already suggested assessing the viral load and correlating this with the appearance of dermatological symptoms, since they note more serious skin manifestations in severe cases of coronavirus infection.
Previously, Spanish specialists described such a specific skin symptom as “covid fingers”.As Russian dermatologists said, outwardly this pathology may resemble mechanical injury or frostbite. At the same time, patients deny the possibility of such damage. As Natalya Shepilova explained, this is most likely a special form of skin angiitis, which most often has an infectious-allergic origin and is one of the signs of COVID-19 infection.
Covid patients talk about unusual symptoms November 5, 2020 – Society – News of St. Petersburg
photo by Sergey Mikhailichenko / “Fontanka.ru »/ archiveShare
Those who have had covid talk about a variety of symptoms that they experienced during the illness: a strange hoarseness in the voice, up to its complete loss, edema and cramps, hair loss, profuse sweating. The Rospotrebnadzor recently named another new unusual symptom – ear congestion.
Read the full material on the website Dr. Peter.
Silent, silent or, as it is also called, “happy” hypoxia.A person lives as if nothing had happened – no shortness of breath, no high temperature, only a feeling of slight malaise, and saturation is already 70, cases have been recorded when it dropped to 50. A person can live in this state without feeling a lack of oxygen, 3– 4 days. Then resuscitation, intubation, high risk of death.
Scientists explain the phenomenon of silent hypoxia by the fact that some people may not accumulate the same amount of carbon dioxide as those who experience breathing problems.Namely, by the level of carbon dioxide in the blood, the brain understands that there is difficulty in breathing.
“Covid spots”, rash and itching
Back in April, doctors noted that patients with confirmed COVID-19 develop rashes on the arms and abdomen. “We see skin manifestations in most of the patients admitted to us, about which not much has been written. The rashes are quite varied, ”said Denis Protsenko, head physician of the Kommunarka hospital at the time.
Usually these are red spots or dots on different parts of the body, similar to hives.Often, the rash is accompanied by itching.
“This is exactly how my covid flowed – in the form of red spots. Pneumonia was only 10% of the lesion, but it hit the skin, ”says one of the patients.
“I was tormented, smeared, thundered into the hospital,” another patient shares her experience. – The rash and itching were not removed even in the hospital. The doctor said: just live and wait, they will pass when the virus finishes attacking. And so it happened: one day the rash disappeared and the itching disappeared, the skin cleared up pretty quickly. “
Until recently, it was believed that bluish “cobbled fingers” are more typical of children and adolescents and are quite rare. But with the onset of autumn, it became clear that this problem is common. Patients with COVID-19 experience inflammation of the toes similar to frostbite. The fingers turn purple. This condition can last for months and usually goes away on its own. At the 29th Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, a separate study was devoted to this topic, it turned out that such a manifestation of the virus occurs both in critically ill patients and in young patients with asymptomatic course of the disease.It is probably associated with a local inflammatory response to infection or with the manifestation of vascular occlusion.
The first evidence that the coronavirus can manifest itself as paralysis appeared in March. Someone paralyzes the facial muscles or the respiratory system, someone paralysis reaches the lower extremities. Doctors explain the loss of motor reactions by the fact that in some patients antibodies to coronavirus begin to fight against their own tissue in the nerve sheaths.This leads to inflammation of the peripheral nerves and subsequent paralysis.
And this is what people write, describing the “paralyzing symptoms” of covid:
“Legs do not walk, the left side of the body is numb.”
“Oh, this is my husband passing through. He could not hold a cup for a month. The hand went numb. ”
“Tightens the muscles of the face. There are heaviness in the legs, stiffness in the knees. But from day to day – in different ways. The weakness is strong now in the hands – it is difficult to lift pans and pots.Moderate exercise (yoga), walking, B vitamins in injections, pain relievers help.
“Paralyzed completely, including the face. Time helped. But it was scary, my arms and legs were taken away, like a clay mask on my face, I was completely paralyzed at night, it was impossible to sleep. The muscles were cramping, the fingers were twisted. The neurologist said the inflammation of the central nervous system. ”
“ A neurologist told me that she had many such patients (this is in France).Especially the first wave in March-April caused such a side effect, and then the virus mutated a little. ”
Covid smells bad
Researchers have found that coronavirus interferes with the central nervous system and affects the neurons of the olfactory bulbs. As a result, incorrect information enters the brain when a person begins to feel tastes and smells in a perverse form. Typically, normal perception returns within a few weeks. People describe a whole palette of the most exotic scents.Some even call it “the smell of covid.”
“My sense of smell has returned, but there is a persistent smell of pus in my nose, as in sinusitis.”
“And my sense of smell did not disappear, but this disgusting, either taste, or smell in my throat periodically appeared. Either chemical, or rotten. When the condition worsens, usually. ”
“My husband periodically has olfactory hallucinations. There is a musty smell in the room. Or, as he says, “the smell of grandfather.” This is 3 months after the illness.And during his illness, for 2 days in a row, he simply suffocated from the smell of supposedly dead rats. ”
“My sense of smell did not disappear either, on the contrary, I acutely felt all the smells, from 5 in the morning I felt everything that came from the street and woke up. And nausea. Therefore, until recently I thought that it was not a covid. But he turned out to be. ”
See also: The Ministry of Health explained how to distinguish COVID-19 from other infections, and a covid rash from urticaria
A sharp deterioration in vision, conjunctivitis
“Covid is a continuous special effect” , in whom the virus caused a sharp deterioration in vision.“The focus became blurred, and black villi appeared in the eyes, before that there were no problems with the eyes and vision,” eyewitnesses describe their feelings.
“My husband had been ill for about half a year, very hard. So, after a month, he was almost completely blind. One eye completely, the other half. After a long search, he ended up in neurology, and only there they found that he had lost vitamin B12. Not at all. They began to inject B12 and cortisone. One eye recovered completely, the other 30%. ”
In addition, people often complain of bright flashes in their eyes.“At first, the left eye began to ‘sparkle’, especially in the dark, just like the laser point slips when turning the head to the left, and at the same time flies appeared, running in front of the eye, and the right eye is normal. The sparkle went away after a couple of days, the flies went out. Almost a month later, the same thing suddenly appeared on the right eye and began to disappear, as on the left. All this did not affect the vision: no pain, no cramps, nothing. Now there are weak flies in both eyes, you don’t pay attention – they don’t interfere with looking, I think they are gradually weakening.
Stomatitis and enlarged lymph nodes
During an exacerbation of almost any viral disease, lymph nodes enlarge. But the enlargement of the jaw and cervical nodes is one of the frequent complaints of patients with covid. Although this symptom is not mentioned in the description of the disease.
Here is what those who have been ill themselves tell about this symptom:
“During the first week of the illness, it was painful to touch the neck and throat, as with pharyngitis. Was on IVs for 21 days.At the end of the 4th week, everything was repeated: lymph nodes + throat. ”
“At the beginning of the disease, one of the symptoms is stomatitis and enlarged cervical lymph nodes.”
“Everything happened instantly: today it is wonderful, but tomorrow I can’t turn my neck, swallow – because of the pain of a star in my eyes! In a day – there are not even any traces. Today is just the second day after the next phase of inflammation – everything is clean! ”
“Fire” in the lungs
Burning sensations all over the body – in some in the hands, in others in the lungs, in the region of the solar plexus, noted by the majority of postcovids.For some, this was the only symptom at the onset of the disease. People compare their feelings with a “rush of boiling water”, saying that it is as if “hot wax is flowing through the arteries.” There is no clear explanation for this symptom. Patients are left to share their experience with each other, wondering about the causes of the strange burning sensation.
“I had a feeling that I was breathing very hot air, it was in the acute period, in March-April”.
“There was a very strong burning sensation, I could not sleep at night. The therapist said to drink heartburn medicine, but it wasn’t heartburn.Two days ago I was at the pulmonologist and said that it is inflammation of the alveoli in the bronchi. ”
“In March my husband and I had these symptoms (my husband had confirmed covid, I have not), burning sensation and pressure in the chest, like a bruise, – we were explained that this is inflammation in the muscle tissues of the chest. But this is a hypothesis, of course. ”
Acute abdominal pain, diarrhea
Coronavirus is often accompanied by indigestion. It happens that abdominal pain, diarrhea, or, conversely, constipation for some time remain the only symptoms, misleading a person who thinks that something has been poisoned or a stomach ulcer has played out.
People who have had covid themselves tell about this:
“My covid started with the abdomen and diarrhea. The temperature went up in a week. ”
“It all started with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, some kind of horror, lay for a day, afraid to move, everything swam and whirled. The doctor came, did not understand anything, covid is not covid, said: two more days, and you need a CT scan if the temperature does not subside. It turned out that 36% of the lungs were damaged. ”
Stool disturbance is thought to be due to the virus affecting the intestinal microflora.Researchers talk about the virus damage to intestinal epithelial cells. Covid enters with the help of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), which is almost 100 times more in the cells of the gastrointestinal tract than in the lungs or nasopharynx. According to Chinese doctors from the Binzhou Medical University Hospital, the bodies of people with initially weak immunity and intestines cope worse with infection, and people with diarrhea and nausea take longer to recover.
© Dr. Peter
photo by Sergey Mikhailichenko / “Fontanka.ru “/ archive
Urticaria in children – causes, symptoms, types, methods of diagnosis and treatment of urticaria in a child in Moscow in the clinic” SM-Doctor “
Symptoms of urticaria in children
Causes of urticaria in children
Mechanism of urticaria (pathogenesis)
Classification of urticaria in children
First aid for urticaria in children
Treatment of urticaria in children
Possible complications Prognosis and their consequences and prevention of urticaria
Urticaria is an allergic disease characterized by the appearance of a characteristic rash on the skin of a child or adult.It occurs against the background of an overreaction of the immune system to contact with conventional substances. The condition requires medical supervision and timely assistance when symptoms appear.
The name of the disease is due to the fact that outwardly it looks like a nettle burn – the skin turns pink and swells, while small blisters can merge into large local spots (angioedemas) of irregular shape. Papules cause itching and discomfort, when scratching, the wound surface can be infected, and then dermatitis and other complications join the underlying disease.
The disease is very common; every third inhabitant of the planet has had some form of urticaria.
Symptoms of urticaria in children
The main symptom of urticaria in a child is a rash. Its prevalence and severity may vary, but in most cases the disease follows a single pattern.
- Bulging rashes of pink and red appear, which turn pale when the skin is pressed or stretched. When the blisters merge, the edges of the spots are colored more intensely.
- The appearance of blisters, their disappearance or merging into vast formless foci occurs chaotically, unpredictably, and their migration over the surface of the body.
- The rash is accompanied by severe itching.
- Temperature may rise, both slightly and high.
- Often – weakness, malaise, joint pain and headache.
- In complicated form, shortness of breath or swallowing, nausea and vomiting, stool disorders.
- An even more severe manifestation is Quincke’s edema on the lips, oral mucosa, eyelids, cheeks or genitals.
Localization of the appearance of the rash can be any, including on the mucous membranes – lips, in the nasopharynx, auricles on the genitals. Most often, the upper body and arms are affected, while the symmetry of the rashes is not always present, the spots take on the most bizarre coral-like outlines.
In most cases, allergy in the form of urticaria in children is accompanied only by the appearance of an itchy rash, which lasts for a short time, from several hours to several days.Often, other pathologies give similar symptoms, in this case, urticaria is not considered as an independent disease.
Information for parents! If the rash in the form of hives is accompanied by the appearance of even a slight swelling in the child, especially in the face and neck area, you must immediately call emergency help!
Causes of urticaria in children
There can be many reasons for the appearance of urticaria in a child. In addition, different factors can cause it in the same person at different ages.Among the most common pathogens in children, the following groups can be distinguished:
- Food products (citrus fruits, nuts, eggs, seafood, strawberries, tomatoes, etc.).
- Food additives, primarily sulfides, salicylates and various chemical dyes.
- Household allergens (dust, fluff, cigarette smoke, pollen, cosmetics and detergents, synthetic clothing, fumes from furniture varnishes, paints, etc.).
- Medicines and contrast agents for radiography.
- Blood (donor) and preparations based on it.
- Insect bites, helminthic infestations.
- Physical, including thermal phenomena (overheating and sweating, cold, physical activity, direct sunlight).
- Psychogenic factors.
- Various infections.
All of the above factors can cause both primary urticaria and the impetus for its exacerbation in the chronic course of the disease.In children under the age of two, the vast majority of cases of urticaria are caused by a food allergen.
The mechanism of urticaria (pathogenesis)
The human body contains mast cells or mast cells, which are specific elements of connective tissues. They are the central element in the onset of urticaria, inflammation activators. When the allergen enters the body for the first time and in small doses, the child does not experience any external manifestations and reactions, but sensitization occurs, which can be presented as the first acquaintance with the allergen, as a result of which histamine is produced.It is this substance that causes redness, swelling and other factors of inflammation. Gradually, it accumulates in mast cells, and when its amount reaches a critical threshold, the cell membrane is destroyed with the release of histamine into the bloodstream and the subsequent cascade of pathological changes in the body.
Classification of urticaria in children
According to the nature of the course, an acute and chronic form is distinguished. In the first case, the disease manifests itself sharply, the symptoms of urticaria continue to bother the child from several hours (usually 6-12) to 1-2 weeks.The rash is accompanied by severe itching, the surface of the skin at the site of the rash becomes hot to the touch. If the outbreak is caused by an allergen, then when contact with it is eliminated, the symptoms disappear quickly and without a trace.
With an exacerbation of chronic urticaria, itching and rashes are less intense, but in this case they can persist for a long period – several weeks, and sometimes months. The condition is accompanied by weakness, nausea, loss of appetite, headaches, less often – upset stools.Sometimes, against the background of sluggish urticaria, neurotic disorders develop, and since the child is constantly scratching the itchy papules, a secondary infection joins and dermatitis develops.
According to the severity of the disease, the following types of urticaria in children are distinguished.
- Mild form – external manifestations are almost invisible, the child feels good, itching and intoxication of the body are absent. A minor rash disappears within a maximum of a day.
- Medium – characteristic rashes are clearly visible, accompanied by fever and itching, intoxication of the body in the form of nausea and headache may be present.Papules merge, swelling appears, there is a risk of the first signs of Quincke’s edema.
- Severe – pronounced symptoms. Severely itchy rash, general intoxication of the body with a reaction of the gastrointestinal tract, the development of Quincke’s edema. Requires urgent medical attention.
Depending on the provoking factor, the child may experience the following types of urticaria:
- Contact – has an allergic origin, in the first place among the reasons – pharmacological and biological factors.When contact with them is eliminated, it passes without a trace.
- Idiopathic – occurs for unknown reasons. Poorly responds to standard treatment, retains symptoms for a long time.
- Vibrating – occurs against the background of strong mechanical vibrations.
- Dermatographic – provoked by mechanical irritation of the skin (tight or synthetic clothing, skin folds, etc.). After removal of the irritant, it passes very quickly, usually within half an hour.
- Cholinergic – due to high physical activity, characterized by the appearance of small rashes.
- Thermal – provoked by uncomfortable (high or low) ambient temperature. Is accompanied by particularly severe itching, is the most common cause of edema
- Aquagenic – reaction to contact with water. The rash is usually mild or absent, but is accompanied by severe itching.
First aid for urticaria in a child
The primary task is to establish and eliminate the provoking factor.The main problem during this period is not rashes, but itchy skin. When providing first aid, it is important to eliminate it as much as possible – to cut your nails gently, put on protective gloves for babies, apply a non-hormonal anti-allergic cream (from sunburn, mosquito bites, etc.) to the rash site. If no cream is available, a cool compress can be used.
All this is done before medical assistance, which should be provided immediately. In case of development of edema and severe symptoms, it is necessary to call the emergency team.
Treatment of urticaria in children
The choice of tactics for treating urticaria in children depends on its cause, the main symptoms, the age of the child, and the stage at which the disease is caught.
A full-fledged therapy can only be prescribed by a doctor after an accurate diagnosis. The main tasks include eliminating provoking factors, prescribing drugs to eliminate symptoms, and treating comorbidities. The doctor makes the choice of antihistamines and other drugs on the basis of an individual clinical picture.Modern medicine offers new generation drugs that minimize the risk of side effects, have a high level of safety and ease of use for young children. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required.
Can I bathe a child with urticaria?
If the disease is not aquagenic in nature, it is possible and necessary to bathe the child, but it is important to follow the recommendations:
- do not heat water above + 37C;
- do not use washcloths and hygiene products with dyes and perfumes;
- maximum bathing time – 10 minutes;
- the use of decoctions of herbs and potassium permanganate should be agreed with the doctor;
- Do not rub the inflamed skin with a towel.
Possible complications and their consequences
Urticaria, with all its external harmlessness, can lead to serious consequences, primarily to Quincke’s edema. Its characteristic initial symptoms, in addition to the edema itself, are shortness of breath and a paroxysmal wheezing cough (bronchospasm). Edema of the internal mucous membranes is dangerous by disruption of the housing and communal services, the first signs of which are a gag reflex and a violation of the stool. On the part of the nervous system, severe cases of urticaria are dangerous with damage to the meninges, which can be fatal in the absence of medical care.
Treatment of urticaria in children
It is impossible to predict the body’s reaction to one or another allergen, however, each parent can protect his child as much as possible from contact with the most active widely known allergens, do not wrap or overcool, do not use cosmetics and detergents with dyes and strong fragrances. If possible, avoid the presence of children in rooms with a strong smell of paints and varnishes, avoid stress, infections and excessive physical exertion.It is recommended to examine the child’s endocrine system and not ignore the signs of weak immunity.
Unfortunately, urticaria is often not taken seriously, however, it is a disease that, if unfavorable, can threaten the life of a child.
Pediatricians “CM-Doctor” are always ready to help your child, their experience and attentive attitude to each little patient are the key to a quick and correct diagnosis and a well-chosen treatment tactics.
Children’s Clinic Metro Maryina Roscha
Children’s Clinic Metro Voykovskaya
Children’s clinic m.Novye Cheryomushki
Ponomareva Maria Valerievna
Pediatric dermatologist, pediatric mycologist, pediatric trichologist
Ruchkina Yulia Vladimirovna
Pediatric dermatologist, pediatric mycologist, pediatric trichologist
Khalif Aigul Yulaevna
Children’s dermatologist, children’s mycologist, children’s trichologist, doctor of the highest category, Ph.M.Sc.
Oleinikova Yulia Vitalievna
Pediatric dermatologist, pediatric mycologist
Khlyamina Maya Arturovna
Pediatric dermatologist, pediatric mycologist, pediatric trichologist
Children’s clinic m.Timiryazevskaya
Children’s Clinic Metro Tekstilshchiki
Bozunov Alexey Viktorovich
Pediatric dermatologist, pediatric mycologist
Smoleva Maria Borisovna
Pediatric dermatologist of the highest category, pediatric mycologist, pediatric trichologist, pediatric cosmetologist
Korolkova (Simonovich) Polina Askoldovna
Pediatric dermatologist, pediatric trichologist, pediatric mycologist
Chekrygina Marina Vyacheslavovna
Children’s dermatologist, children’s mycologist, doctor of the highest category.Deputy Chief Physician for Medical Affairs in the Children’s Department at Volgogradsky Prospect
Zueva Ksenia Mikhailovna
Pediatric dermatologist II category, pediatric mycologist, pediatric trichologist
Children’s clinic m.Youth
Children’s Clinic M. Chertanovskaya
Children’s clinic m.VDNKh
Children’s clinic in Solnechnogorsk, st. Red
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Memo for parents on viral diseases
Instruction for parents.
Measles – viral infection, which is characterized by a very high susceptibility. If a person did not have measles or was not vaccinated against this infection, then after contact with a sick person, infection occurs in almost 100% of cases. The measles virus is very volatile.The virus can spread through ventilation pipes and elevator shafts – at the same time, children living on different floors of the house get sick.
The period from contact with a patient with measles until the first signs of the disease appear, lasts from 7 to 14 days.
The disease begins with severe headache, weakness, fever up to 40 degrees C. A little later, a runny nose, cough and an almost complete lack of appetite join these symptoms.
The appearance of conjunctivitis is very characteristic of measles – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes, which is manifested by photophobia, lacrimation, sharp redness of the eyes, and subsequently – the appearance of purulent discharge.These symptoms last 2 to 4 days.
On the 4th day of illness, rash appears, which looks like small red spots of various sizes (from 1 to 3 mm in diameter), with a tendency to merge. The rash occurs on the face and head (it is especially characteristic of its appearance behind the ears) and spreads throughout the body for 3 to 4 days. It is very characteristic of measles that the rash leaves behind pigmentation (dark spots that persist for several days), which disappears in the same sequence as the rash appears.
Rather serious complications can occur with measles . These include pneumonia (pneumonia), otitis media (otitis media), and sometimes such a formidable complication as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).
It must be remembered that after measles for a sufficiently long period of time (up to 2 months), suppression of immunity is noted, so the child can get sick with any cold or viral disease, so you need to protect him from excessive stress, if possible – from contact with sick children.
After measles, stable lifelong immunity develops. All those who have had measles become immune to this infection.
The only reliable protection against the disease is measles vaccination, which is included in the National Immunization Schedule.
Instruction for parents.
Rubella is a viral infection spread by airborne droplets. As a rule, children who stay in a water room for a long time with a child who is a source of infection get sick.Rubella in its manifestations is very similar to measles, but it is much easier.
The period from contact to the appearance of the first signs of illness lasts from 14 to 21 days.
Rubella begins with an increase in the occipital lymph nodes and an increase in body temperature to 38 degrees C. A little later, a runny nose, sometimes a cough, joins. After 2 to 3 days after the onset of the disease, a rash appears. Rubella is characterized by a small-dotted pink rash that begins with a rash on the face and spreads throughout the body.A rubella rash, unlike measles, never drains, there may be a slight itching. The period of rashes can be from several hours, during which there is no trace of the rash, up to 2 days.
Rubella treatment consists in relieving the main symptoms – fighting fever, if any, treating the common cold, expectorants.
Complications after rubella are rare.
After rubella, immunity also develops, re-infection is extremely rare, but can occur.
Therefore, it is very important to get the rubella vaccine, which, like the measles vaccine, is included in the National Vaccination Schedule.
Instruction for parents.
Mumps (mumps) – a viral infection of children characterized by acute inflammation in the salivary glands.
Infection occurs by airborne droplets. Susceptibility to this disease is about 50-60% (that is, 50-60% of those in contact and not sick and not vaccinated get sick).
From the moment of contact with a sick mumps to the onset of the disease, 11 – 23 days can pass.
Mumps begins with an increase in body temperature to 39 degrees C and severe pain in the ear area or under it, aggravated by swallowing or chewing. At the same time, salivation increases. Swelling in the area of the upper neck and cheek grows rather quickly, touching this place causes severe pain in the child. Unpleasant symptoms disappear within three to four days: body temperature decreases, swelling decreases, pain disappears.
However, mumps often ends with inflammation in the glandular organs , such as the pancreas (pancreatitis), gonads. The transferred pancreatitis in some cases leads to diabetes mellitus . Inflammation of the gonads (testicles) is more common in boys. This significantly complicates the course of the disease, and in some cases it can result in 90,025 infertility. In particularly severe cases, mumps can be complicated by viral meningitis (inflammation of the meninges), which is severe.
After a disease, stable immunity is formed, but complications can lead to disability.
The only reliable protection against disease is mumps vaccination, which is included in the National Immunization Schedule.
Instruction for parents.
Chickenpox (chickenpox) is a typical childhood infection. Mostly young children or preschoolers are ill.Susceptibility to the pathogen of chickenpox (the virus that causes chickenpox belongs to herpes viruses) is also quite high. About 80% of contact persons who have not been sick before develop chickenpox.
From the moment of contact with a patient with chickenpox until the first signs of the disease appear, it takes from 14 to 21 days.
The disease begins with the appearance of a rash . Usually it is one or two reddish specks that look like a mosquito bite. These elements of the rash can be located on any part of the body, but most often they first appear on the stomach or face.The rash usually spreads very quickly – new elements appear every few minutes or hours. The reddish spots, which at first look like mosquito bites, take on the appearance of bubbles filled with transparent contents the next day. These bubbles are very itchy. The rash spreads all over the body, on the limbs, on the scalp. In severe cases, there are elements of a rash on the mucous membranes – in the mouth, nose, on the conjunctiva of the sclera, genitals, intestines. By the end of the first day of the disease, the general state of health worsens, the body temperature rises (up to 40 degrees C and above).The severity of the condition depends on the number of rashes. If there are elements of a rash on the mucous membranes of the pharynx, nose and on the conjunctiva of the sclera, then pharyngitis, rhinitis and conjunctivitis develop due to the addition of a bacterial infection. The bubbles open in a day or two with the formation of ulcers, which are covered with crusts. Headache, feeling unwell, fever persist until new rashes appear. This usually takes 3 to 5 days. Within 5-7 days after the last pouring, the rash goes away.
Treatment of chickenpox consists in reducing itching, intoxication and preventing bacterial complications. The elements of the rash must be lubricated with antiseptic solutions (as a rule, this is an aqueous solution of brilliant green or manganese). Treatment with coloring antiseptics prevents bacterial infection of rashes, allows you to track the dynamics of the appearance of rashes. It is necessary to monitor the hygiene of the oral cavity and nose, eyes – you can rinse your mouth with a solution of calendula, the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth should also be treated with antiseptic solutions.
The complications of chickenpox include myocarditis – inflammation of the heart muscle, meningitis and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the meninges, brain matter), inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis). Fortunately, these complications are rare. After chickenpox, as well as after all childhood infections, immunity develops. Re-infection occurs, but very rarely.
Instruction for parents.
Scarlet fever is the only childhood infection caused not by viruses, but by bacteria (group A streptococcus).It is an acute airborne disease. Infection is also possible through household items (toys, dishes). Children of early and preschool age are ill. The most dangerous in relation to infection are patients in the first two to three days of the disease.
Scarlet fever starts very acutely with an increase in body temperature to 39 degrees C, vomiting, headache. The most characteristic symptom of scarlet fever is angina , in which the mucous membrane of the pharynx has a bright red color, swelling is expressed.The patient notes a sharp pain when swallowing. There may be a whitish coating on the tongue and tonsils. The tongue subsequently takes on a very characteristic appearance ( “raspberry ”) – bright pink and coarsely grained.
By the end of the first beginning of the second day of illness, appears the second a characteristic symptom of scarlet fever – a rash. It appears on several parts of the body at once, most densely located in the folds (elbow, inguinal). Its distinctive feature is that a bright red small-point scarlet fever rash is located on a red background, which gives the impression of a general drainage redness.When pressed against the skin, white stripe remains. The rash can be spread all over the body, but there is always a clean (white) area of skin between the upper lip and nose, as well as the chin. Itching is much less pronounced than with chickenpox.
The rash lasts up to 2 to 5 days. The manifestations of angina persist somewhat longer (up to 7 – 9 days).
Treatment of scarlet fever is usually carried out with the use of antibiotics , since the causative agent of scarlet fever is a microbe that can be removed with antibiotics and strict adherence to bed rest .It is also very important to treat sore throat locally and conduct detoxification (removing toxins from the body that are formed during the life of microorganisms – for this they give plenty of drink). Shows vitamins, antipyretics. Scarlet fever also has enough serious complications . Before the use of antibiotics, scarlet fever often ended in the development of rheumatism with the formation of acquired heart defects or kidney disease. Currently, subject to competently prescribed treatment and careful adherence to recommendations, such complications are rare.
Scarlet fever almost exclusively affects children because with age a person acquires resistance to streptococci. Those who have been ill also acquire strong immunity.
Instruction for parents.
Whooping cough is an acute infectious disease characterized by a long course. A hallmark of the disease is a spasmodic cough.
The mechanism of transmission of infection is airborne. A feature of whooping cough is the high susceptibility of children to it, starting from the first days of life.
From the moment of contact with a sick whooping cough until the first signs of the disease appear, from 3 to 15 days pass. A feature of pertussis is a gradual increase in coughing within 2 to 3 weeks after its onset.
Typical signs of whooping cough:
- · persistent, intensifying cough, gradually turning into attacks of spasmodic cough (a series of cough jerks, quickly following each other on one exhalation) with a convulsive inhalation, accompanied by a wheezing draw-out sound.In infants, this cough can stop breathing. Coughing attacks intensify at night and end in a small amount of viscous sputum, sometimes vomiting;
- · puffiness of the face, hemorrhages in the sclera;
- · sore on the frenum of the tongue (due to its injury to the edges of the teeth, since during a coughing attack the tongue protrudes outward to the limit, its tip is bent upward).
Whooping cough is often complicated by bronchitis, otitis media, pneumonia, rectal prolapse, umbilical and inguinal hernias.
After suffering pertussis for a long time (several months), coughing fits may return, especially if the child catches a cold or during physical exertion.
The only reliable prophylaxis against pertussis is vaccination with AKDS, a vaccine that is included in the National Immunization Schedule. Parents’ fears of the potential harmful effects of the vaccine are unfounded. The quality of DPT – vaccine in its properties is not inferior to vaccines produced in other countries.
Instruction for parents.
Acute intestinal infections is a large group of diseases that occur with more or less similar symptoms, but can be caused by a huge number of pathogens: bacteria, viruses, protozoa.
In summer, the number of intestinal infections in children is inevitably growing. There are several reasons for this.
First of all, , in the summer, a large number of raw vegetables, fruits and berries are eaten, on the unwashed surface of which a huge number of microbes live, incl.including potentially dangerous.
Secondly , in summer children spend a lot of time on the street, and even their parents do not always remember that eating with clean hands is a mandatory rule .
The third reason : in the summer, getting into food (dairy products, meat, fish, broths), some pathogens multiply at a tremendous rate and quickly reach the number that successfully breaks through the protective barriers of the gastrointestinal tract.
From the moment of introduction of the causative agent into the gastrointestinal tract to the onset of the disease, it can take from several hours to 7 days.
The disease begins with an increase in body temperature, malaise, weakness, lethargy. Appetite is sharply reduced, nausea and vomiting quickly join. The stool is loose, frequent with impurities. The consequence of fluid loss is dryness of the mucous membranes and skin, facial features sharpen, the child loses mass, urinates a little. The expression on the face is suffering.If your child has any of the above signs of illness, call the doctor immediately. Self-medication is not allowed .
Prevention of intestinal infections requires strict adherence to general hygienic measures at home, while cooking and while eating.
In the summertime, all food should be protected from flies. Prepared food should be stored in the refrigerator: at low temperatures, even if microbes enter the food, they will not be able to multiply.Indiscriminate purchase of products eaten without heat treatment – from hands, outside markets where they do not undergo sanitary control – can also lead to illness. When swimming in open water, water should never be swallowed. If eating on the beach, wipe your hands with at least special wet wipes.
And remember that a parent’s example is the best way to teach a child.
Memo for parents .
Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by mycobacteria of human tuberculosis, affecting mainly the respiratory system, as well as all organs and systems of the body.
The source of infection is people with tuberculosis. The most common route of infection is air. Transmission factors are nasopharyngeal mucus, phlegm and dust containing bacteria.
Reproduction of tuberculosis bacteria in a child’s body leads to significant functional disorders with symptoms of intoxication: irritability appears or, conversely, lethargy, fatigue, headache, sweating.The body temperature rises to 37.2 – 37.3 about , sleep and appetite are disturbed. With a prolonged course of the disease, the child loses weight, the skin becomes pale, there is a tendency to inflammatory diseases. For children, a typical reaction from the lymph nodes: they increase in size, become dense. In the absence of treatment, the disease may turn into more severe forms.
For the diagnosis of tuberculous intoxication, it is important to determine the infection using tuberculin tests , and for children from 12 years old – also using fluorography.
For the prevention of tuberculosis, it is very important : to lead a healthy lifestyle, strictly observe sanitary and hygienic rules: wash hands before eating, do not eat unwashed vegetables and fruits, as well as dairy products that have not passed sanitary control, eat well, play sports , pay attention to changes in health status.
An important point for the prevention of tuberculosis is the annual setting of the Mantoux test, which gives a positive result when pathogenic bacteria enter the child’s body.
Plaques on the skin – causes of appearance, under what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and treatment methods
The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For a diagnosis and correct treatment, you should contact your doctor.
Plaques on the skin: causes of appearance, in what diseases occur, diagnostics and methods of treatment.
A plaque is a pathological element with clear edges that rises above the surface of the skin or merges with it, more than 5 mm in size.
In dermatology, many types of plaques are distinguished – about 70 diseases occur with the formation of these elements, which makes plaque one of the most common rashes.
The plaques are round, oval and irregular in shape.The shape, surface and appearance of this element may change over time.
Due to the occurrence of plaques, it can be both a manifestation of skin diseases and a symptom of diseases of internal organs and systems (autoimmune reactions, liver diseases, oncological processes, allergic reactions).
Plaques are dry, smooth, red, brown, gray-white, etc.
Possible causes of the appearance of plaques
Dry plaques on the skin in adults can be a manifestation of the following diseases:
- Fungal skin lesions accompanied by with severe itching.
- Allergic reactions are characterized by the appearance on the skin of smooth dry plaques, pink spots, blisters, which are very itchy and cause severe discomfort. They can develop both when the skin comes into contact with an allergen, and when it gets on mucous membranes (for example, with urticaria, hay fever, food and contact allergies).
- Psoriasis is a chronic non-infectious skin disease in which scaly dry plaques form on the elbows, knees, scalp, prone to fusion and accompanied by mild itching.
- Dry plaques form on the skin if it is exposed to stress for a long time with the loss of its protective functions.
- Diseases of the digestive tract, accompanied by malabsorption syndrome (impaired absorption of vitamins and trace elements in the small intestine), chronic diseases of the liver and other organs, in which substances that are not normally present in the dermis accumulate in the dermis, also lead to the appearance of dry plaques.
- Solar keratoma is a precancerous condition characterized by the presence of many light grayish plaques on the skin.
The appearance of red plaques on the skin indicates their good blood supply. Possible reasons for this condition may be the following nosologies:
- Medicinal toxidermia is an allergic reaction accompanied by the appearance of elements in the form of plaques on the skin. In severe cases, Lyell’s syndrome or Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, may develop.
- Dühring’s dermatitis (herpetiformis) is a chronic skin disease without an established etiology, which is characterized by a recurrent appearance on the skin of a rash of various morphologies, accompanied by severe itching and burning.
- Fungal mycosis – primary T-cell lymphoma of the skin, malignant lymphoid lesion, primarily of the skin. Itchy, red, eczema-like plaques appear on the skin. In the initial stages, they respond well to treatment with hormonal ointments, but the disease itself requires more complex therapy.
- In children, the appearance of red spots and plaques on the skin is most often associated with an allergic reaction to food.
Brown plaques occur when melanin is deposited in the affected area of the dermis, which causes a brown (dark) color.Possible causes include the following diseases:
- Becker’s nevus is an abnormality in the development of the dermis, when dark plaques with an uneven surface appear on the skin, on which hair can begin to grow over time.
- Pigmented nevus – “birthmark”, can rise above the skin, has a brown or dark color.
- Melanoma is the most malignant skin tumor characterized by rapid metastasis. It develops mainly from nevi and moles.When the nature of the surface, the boundaries of the mole changes, its size increases, bleeding occurs, you must immediately contact a dermatologist or oncologist to exclude the development of melanoma.
- Basal cell skin cancer is more often localized on the head, face, neck, does not metastasize, and is characterized by slow growth.
- Senile keratoma occurs in elderly people, develops, most likely, due to a lack of vitamins, an abundance of consumed animal fats, sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet light due to a violation of its protective functions.Typical localization – face, neck, open areas of the body.
- Seborrheic keratoma is a yellowish plaque on the skin that eventually develops into a dark brown growth that tends to flake off, itch, crack, bleed, and can act as an entryway for infection.
Which doctors should I contact
If plaques form on the skin, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist to determine the causes of the appearance of this element of the rash.
Diagnostics and examinations with the appearance of plaques
To diagnose fungal skin lesions, scraping from the affected area is used for subsequent microscopic examination.
The development of an allergic reaction requires seeking medical help to identify the allergen, prescribe antihistamines, and sometimes hormonal drugs.