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Food to avoid with bronchitis: 13 Bronchitis Home Remedies to Relieve Symptoms

Food To Avoid When You Have A Chesty Cough

Sitting in a quiet, crowded room and suppressing the urge to cough without much success is a scenario that many of us have experienced at least once in our lives.

Coughs can be frustrating and debilitating – particularly if you’re unable to control the onset of your symptoms. It’s normal to need to cough if something irritates your throat, if your throat is dry or if you feel the need to clear your throat before speaking.

Coughing is your body’s response to an irritant and could be caused by something as simple as some food caught in your airways. But when coughs persist for a week or longer, there’s a good chance that there’s an underlying medical cause such as a cold or flu.

What causes coughs?

Coughs are often caused by respiratory tract infections, but they can also be brought about by diseases and illnesses such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), chronic bronchitis, certain medications and other chronic diseases.

The type of cough you have depends on the underlying cause. Coughs can be acute (lasting up to 3 weeks) or chronic (persisting over 8 weeks). They can be dry or productive (bringing up mucous), and they can be nocturnal – meaning they only occur at night. 

Can your diet help alleviate your cold symptoms?

A healthy diet in general will help you to recover from coughs and colds because you’ll be fuelling your body with the nutrients it needs to perform at its best.

Here’s a list of food to go for when trying to tame a cough: 

  • Honey – honey is a traditional remedy for coughs, and in one study parents rated honey most favourably for symptomatic relief of their child’s nocturnal cough. This is more suitable for older children.
  • Probiotics –there may be some benefits in taking Lactobacillus to reduce the likelihood of a cold or flu.
  • Pineapple – bromelain, a mixture of enzymes naturally found in pineapples, may help suppress coughs and loosen mucus.
  • Chicken soup – some studies have suggested that this old-time remedy may actually be able to assist with, colds – one study suggested this could even help with mucus congestion in the nasal passages. 
  • Liquorice root tea – as well as being a soothing drink that can help you to relax when you’re feeling blocked up and poorly, liquorice is a traditional treatment for cough and sore throat and is thought to soothe airways and thin mucus.

Do certain foods agitate coughs and make symptoms worse?

While eating healthily is important when it comes to fighting off infections, being aware of and avoiding any foods that are likely to exacerbate your cough symptoms is also a key consideration.

  • Dairy products – the jury is still out on whether dairy products definitely worsen coughs and colds, but some research has supported this link. 
  • Food allergies – food allergies can cause coughs as well as other symptoms, so if you suspect you may have an allergic reaction to a food – that is, you’re noticing the same symptoms every time you eat it, then visit your healthcare professional.

Other ways to soothe your cough

  • Gargling – an old-time remedy, gargling has scientific evidence to back up its effectiveness, with one randomised trial finding that it is effective at preventing respiratory tract infections in healthy people1
  • Hand washing – when you’re coughing you will be covering your mouth a lot which means your hands will need to be washed frequently to avoid spreading germs to those around you.

Treating your cough

Most colds are mild and will improve after a few days, but if you’re suffering from a recurring cough, it’s important to see your health professional.

References available on request.

Scientific References:

1.  Satomura, Kazunari et al. Am J Prev Med. 2005 Nov;29(4):302-7.

Nature Cure For Children’s Diseases

Bronchitis means an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the bronchi and bronchial tube. It is a breathing disorder affecting the expiratory function. In most cases , some infection also occurs in the nose and throat.

The bronchi are narrow tubes leading from the windpipe( or trachea) connecting the upper respiratory tract, nose, throat and sinuses, to the lungs. It is usually the spread of an infection downwards from the nose and throat to the bronchi, that causes bronchitis.

Bronchitis is the most common disease of childhood next to indigestion and diarrhoea. It is especially prevalent in children who are just starting to mix with other children at playgroup or nursery school. They have no in-built immunity till then to all the infections they are likely to contact for the first time. And, so, coughs, colds and bronchitis can occur with monotonous regularity in his age group, particularly in allergic children.


Bronchitis may be acurte or chornic. In chronic cases, the disease is of long duration. It is more serious than the acute type, as permanent changes may have occured in the lungs thereby interfering with their normal movements.

In most cases of bronchitis , the larynx, trachea and bronchial tubes are acutely inflammed. The tissues are swollen due to irritation. Large quantity of mucous is secreted and pourted into the windpipe to protect the inflammed mucous membranes. There is usually a high fever, some difficulty in breathing and a deep chest cough. Other symptoms are hoarseness and pain in the chest. The breathing trouble continues till the inflammation subsides and mucous is removed.


The chief causes of bronchitis in children is run-down condition of the system due to wrong feeding habits. The consumption of excessive quantities of starchy foods in their daily diet in the form of refined cereals, white bread, puddings, pies and cakes as well as sugary foods in the form of white sugar, jams and sweets, in particular, leads to weakening of the child’s system. The impurities which arise in the system as a result of the daily excessive ingestion of foods of this nature invariably affects the mucous membranes of the upper part of the body, especially in the bronchial tubes, throat, nose and air passages. This gives rise to bronchitis and other diseases of lungs and throat.


The child-patient should be kept in a room with warm and even temperature. He should not be given any solid foods till the acute symptoms are present. He may be given plenty of fruit juices. Orange juice diluted with water will be especially beneficial. In case of constipation, the child-patient should be given warm- water enema to cleanse the bowels. If he shows reluctance, a glycerine suppository may be applied. Often this simple treatment is all that is needed for a mild attack. Steam inhalations will be valuable, if the wheezing is pronounced and particularly troublesome. A kettle of boiling water kept in the room for a while can moisten the atmosphere sufficiently to give relief.

After the acute symptoms are over, the child may be given milk, other liquid foods and fresh fruits for further one or two days and thereafter he may be allowed to gradually embark upon a well-balanced diet, according to his age. He should avoid meats, sugar, tea, coffee, condiments, pickles, refined and processed foods. He should also avoid soft drinks , candies, ice-cream and all products made from sugar and white flour.

Certain home remedies have been found useful in the treatment of bronchitis. One of the most effective of these is the use of the turmeric powder. A quarter teaspoon of this powder should be administered with 30 ml. of milk two or three times daily. It acts best when taken on an empty stomach.

Another effective remedy for bronchitis is the mixture of dried ginger powder, pepper and long pepper taken in equal quantities of a quarter teaspoon three times a day with honey. The powder of these three ingredients have anti-pyretic qualities and are effective in dealing with fever accompanied with bronchitis. They also tone up the metabolism of the patient.

Onion has been used as a food remedy for centuries in bronchitis. It is said to possess expectorant properties. It liquifies phelgm and prevents its further formation. The intake of half a teaspoon of raw onion juice first thing in the morning will be beneficial in such cases.

A soup prepared from drumstick leaves is also highly beneficial in the treatment of bronchitis. This soup is prepared by adding a handful of leaves to 150 ml. of water which has been heated to a boiling point. The water is allowed to boil further for five minutes. It should then be removed from fire and allowed to cool. A little salt, pepper and lime juice may be added to this soup. This drink should be taken first thing every morning.

Hydrotherapy can be employed beneficially in the treatment of bronchitis. Hot towels wrung out and applied over the chest are helpful. After applying three hot towels in turn for two or three minutes each , one should always finish off with a cold towel. A wet pack or heating compress may also be applied to the upper chest several times daily in case of acute conditions. The procedure for this application has been explained in Appendix . In acute cases, full warm bath for 10 to 15 minutes will be beneficial. In irritable cough with expectoration, sipping very hot water, and gargling with hot water will be useful. In painful cough, hot fomentation should be applied to the chest and throat every two hours, followed by heating compressed. Copious drinknig of hot water will also be beneficial in both acute and chronic cases of bronchitis.

100 Worst Foods for Cold & Flu

If you order a cup of chicken soup the moment you so much as sniffle, you’re not alone. While we are not denying the disease-busting benefits of certain foods, unfortunately eating the right things is only half of the battle when it comes to getting better faster. If you want to make sure you are feeling back to normal in no time, there are also a variety of foods and beverages you should be avoiding.

Even picks that are normally healthy, such as some types of fish and a couple kinds of fresh vegetables, may not be the best choice when your nose is running or you can’t seem to stop coughing. If you really want to make sure you’re doing everything you can to get rid of your cold or flu, keep reading for a list of each meal, drink, and snack you should avoid. (And for when you’re feeling better, be sure to check out these 21 Best Healthy Cooking Hacks of All Time!)


It’s no secret that candy is filled with sugar, which is one of the top things you want to avoid for better health, especially when you are sick. Jeanette Kimszal, RDN, NCL, counts sweet stuff as the number one food category she advises clients to avoid when they are sick. “Sugar causes inflammation and this has been shown to decrease immunity by weakening white blood cells. These cells are responsible for fighting infection,” she explains. Pass on the candy to make sure your disease-fighting cells are working at full capacity.

If you think this superfood is a safe bet when you are sick, think again. As we discussed in 15 Foods That Can Make You Congested, strawberries are histamine releasers that can contribute to congestion. Histamine-powered mucus can create a sense of discomfort in your nose and sinus area, so stick to other fruits until you’re feeling better.


Milk is another food to stay away from when you’re feeling under the weather. Dairy can temporarily thicken mucus, which will cause harmful allergens to stay in your system longer. Whole milk, in particular, has also been shown to stimulate the production of mucus, which is the opposite of what you want when you are sick.


Cheese plays a starring role in many comfort food favorites, but there is nothing comforting about the effects of full-fat dairy on your immune system when you are sick. Julie Upton, MS, RD, emphasizes the importance of avoiding pro-inflammatory foods, as they can reduce your body’s immune system response. Full fat dairy, such as most cheese options, are on her list of foods that spike inflammation after consumption.


Do not turn to ice cream to soothe your sore throat; it may just keep you sick longer. Most ice cream is made with full-fat dairy, meaning it is high in inflammation-triggering saturated fat. Additionally, the sweet stuff has plenty of sugar, another ingredient that has been known to increase inflammation. Think of this as a double don’t when you’re trying to keep your immune system functioning at full capacity.


You might want to hold off on this healthy breakfast staple when you’re fighting off a cold. Maria Zamarripa, MS, RD, CLT, reiterates that avoiding dairy might be the best move while you’re sick. “Dairy products may worsen or thicken the phlegm production in certain individuals. Phlegm is the mucus that lines our tissues and acts as a protective barrier. However, during a sickness, our body’s mucous production goes into overdrive,” Zamarripa explains.


Coffee might seem like a must when you’re already worn down from the flu, but if you want to get better fast you should try to lay off of the Joe. According to Rebecca Lewis, registered dietitian at HelloFresh, coffee dehydrates the body and can make muscle aches worse. “The immune system works most efficiently when the body is well hydrated. Since the caffeine in coffee is a diuretic, it will make you pee a lot. Combined with symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea, the caffeine will only make dehydration worse,” says Lewis.


Pass on the Chinese takeout if your head is throbbing. According to The Journal of Head and Face Pain, there is strong evidence that MSG has the ability to trigger headaches based on several provocation studies. If your head is already throbbing or you’re prone to migraines, be sure to avoid this additive as much as possible.

If you have even a very slight gluten sensitivity, avoid consuming bread when you are under the weather. In 15 Foods That Can Make You Congested, we explain that even those with a minor sensitivity to gluten can experience inflammation after eating wheat. Because inflammation can often lead to an increase in mucus production, it’s best to lay off of the gluten until you recover.


Turn down the spice factor, at least until you are feeling better. Lewis lists spicy foods like chili peppers as something to avoid when you are sick, especially if a runny nose is one of your symptoms. “The capsaicin in chili peppers is an irritant to the nasal passage, causing a greater production of mucus to come out,” she explains.


Vodka sodas might be your weekend go-to, but they have no place in your diet when you’re sick. Kelli Shallal, MPH, RD, urges her clients to avoid alcohol when they’re feeling under the weather. “It puts more stress on the body and makes it more difficult to recover,” she explains.


Fried calamari may be one of your favorite appetizers, but it has no place in your diet when you are trying to recover from the cold or flu. Calamari will increase the amount of histamine that is produced in your body, which is bad news for your sinuses and nasal passages. Adding batter and oil into the equation will increase inflammation, according to Jennifer Mimkha, MPH, RD, LDN, CLC. “Grease/fat can cause inflammation, which in turn suppresses your immune system,” Mimkha explains.


This tropical fruit is another piece of produce with potent histamine-releasing powers. Histamine has the ability to make your nasal passages swell, leading to feelings of congestion and stuffiness. Avoid slicing up papaya until your sinuses are clear and you feel congestion-free.


Bananas have some incredible health benefits, but it’s best to enjoy them when you’re healthy. The oblong fruit can trigger a histamine release, which is what you want to avoid when you are sick. Additionally, bananas have a high sugar content, which can lead to inflammation and decrease the efficiency of your immune system’s response to disease.

Once you feel better, you should definitely re-incorporate bananas into your daily diet. Read 21 Amazing Things That Happen to Your Body When You Eat Bananas to find out why.


Skip out on the steak, especially if you’re dealing with nausea or digestive issues. Rebecca Kerkenbush, MS, RD-AP, CSG, CD, recommends nixing high-fat foods if your stomach is bothering you. Because red meat generally has a higher fat content than other forms of protein, it may not be the best choice for sick days.


Each of pizza’s three main components has the potential to exacerbate cold symptoms, so combining all of them is a nightmare. The high saturated fat content in cheese can trigger inflammation, as can the crust if you have any kind of gluten sensitivity. Tomatoes are known histamine releasers, meaning the sauce can cause you to feel even more congested.


Mercury poisoning is the least of your worries when it comes to consuming tuna while you are sick. The fishy favorite is particularly high in histamines, which can increase inflammation and contribute to sinus congestion. To make sure you breathe easy, wait until your nasal passages are clear before ordering your favorite sushi dish.


Peanuts are one of the most common food allergens and they are also a potential trigger for a major histamine release. Even if you regularly consume these legumes, eating peanuts when you are sick may lead to increased inflammation and nasal congestion.

Refined carbohydrates, such as pasta made with enriched flour, are a major diet don’t, especially when you are sick. Upton lists simple carbohydrates as a food group to avoid when you are ill. Much like sugar, simple carbohydrates have the potential to increase inflammation and weaken your immune system’s response to disease.


In 15 Foods That Can Make You Congested, Rene Ficek, RD, explains that foods that are high in refined sugar, such as chocolate, can increase the production of yeast in your body, which will lead to an overgrowth of bacteria. Additionally, most chocolate bars have high levels of saturated fat, which is known to increase inflammation and exacerbate cold and flu symptoms.


Don’t turn into a cookie monster when you are home battling the flu unless you want to make your symptoms worse. Cookies are filled with sugar, which will lead to inflammation and cause you to become more susceptible to illness. “If you have a poor diet high in excess sugar, you will be prone to get sick more often,” Kimszal warns.


The reasons why you should avoid this spicy sushi accompaniment are two-fold. If your stomach is upset, Kerkenbush advises you steer clear of all hot or pungent foods. Secondly, as Lewis explains, consuming spicy foods can irritate your nasal passages and increase mucus production. No matter what ailment you are dealing with, it’s better to keep it bland until you are feeling more like yourself.

Another reason why it’s best to lay off of the spice until you are feeling up to par? As we explained in 15 Foods That Can Make You Congested, hot foods can create more histamine in your body. This inflammatory compound will cause your nose to itch and may worsen cold symptoms, especially runny noses.

This brunch-time staple should definitely not become a sick food staple. French toast is usually made with white bread or brioche, both of which will quickly be converted into sugar in your body. The batter the bread is dipped in is usually made with dairy, which will thicken the mucus your body produces. Finally, when maple syrup is generously swirled on top, you’re looking at even more sugar and as a result, more inflammation that will further sabotage your immune system.


Opting for sugar-free versions of your favorite sweets may seem like a good way to reduce inflammation, but in reality, you may be making it worse. In 14 Foods That Cause Inflammation, we discussed the damage these fake sweeteners can inflict on your immune system. Artificial sugars decrease the levels of healthy bacteria in our gut, leading to a reduction in the number of anti-inflammatory compounds your body produces.


You might want to rethink those post-work drinks if you’re feeling under the weather. Alcohol can take a huge toll on your immune system. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism states that drinking too much on one single occasion can make you more susceptible to disease for up to 24 hours after imbibing.

Another reason you should avoid drinking gin and other forms of alcohol? It will hinder your hydration efforts, according to Alyssa Rothschild, RDN, CDN. “Alcohol has a dehydrating effect, which is the exact opposite of what you want when you are sick,” she explains. “Extra fluids such as water and tea help replace fluids lost from a fever and help loosen mucus.”

Curious what else you can expect to happen when you quit drinking? Take a glimpse at This is What Happens to Your Body When You Give Up Alcohol to learn more.


It’s not just hard alcohol you need to avoid; beer is also a no-go when you’re sick. Sipping on a brewed beverage or two will dehydrate you, which is exactly what you want to avoid when you’re under the weather.


Save the bubbly celebrations until you’re feeling on your A-game. Even though champagne has a lower alcohol content than liquor, it’s still not an ideal beverage to sip when you are sick. Zach J Cordell, MS, RDN, recommends drinking infused water, coconut water, unsweetened sports drinks like Propel, and tea instead.


Hold off on cracking open that bottle of red until you’re feeling up to par. In 15 Foods That Can Make You Congested, Dr. Huml, a certified clinical nutritionist, cited alcohol as one of the most pro-inflammatory foods we consume. Wine also contains a natural histamine that can cause your nasal tissues to swell, which will exacerbate stuffiness.

Hold off on piña coladas and rum punches until you’re feeling 100 percent. Not only will alcohol like rum dehydrate you and weaken your immune system, but the sugary mixers it is often paired with will not do your body any favors either.

If you’re regularly knocking back whiskey shots, your immune system is going to pay the price. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism explains that, in addition to temporarily compromised immune systems, chronic drinkers have a higher risk of catching pneumonia and tuberculosis than teetotalers.


Stay away from the stinky cheese, especially if you’re dealing with head or sinus problems. According to The National Headache Foundation, blue cheese is rich in tyramine, a compound found primarily in aged foods, that has the potential to trigger headaches and migraines.


There are a couple of reasons why you should avoid this ballpark favorite when you are sick. Zamarripa recommends cutting out all salty foods, which have the potential to make you dehydrated and subsequently worsen cold symptoms. Additionally, a study published in the journal The Lancet shows that nitrites, a compound found in hot dogs, have the potential to trigger headaches in otherwise healthy adults.


It’s best to pass on this breakfast favorite, mostly due to its high sodium content. “Too much salt can lead to dehydration during a sickness. Excess salt causes fluids to be pulled from your cells into your bloodstream, leaving your cells dehydrated, which can worsen or prolong cold and flu symptoms,” says Zamarripa. She specifically mentions eschewing processed meats, such as bacon, as well as fast food and higher salt soups.


Bologna is a form of processed meat, a major dietary don’t when you are sick and trying to stay hydrated. Additionally, bologna contains nitrites, the same compound found in hotdogs that has been shown to trigger headaches. Processed lunch meat is never the healthiest meal choice, but if it’s a favorite, hold off on indulging until you feel better.

The one way to make pizza an even worse sick food? Adding pepperoni to it. The processed meat is high in headache-causing nitrates as well as excess sodium, which may cause dehydration. Additionally, pepperoni is high in saturated fat, which will increase inflammation in the body.

Say goodbye to shellfish while you are sick, especially if you want to avoid irritating your sinuses. Shrimp and most other shellfish contain compounds that trigger the release of histamine, which will exacerbate feelings of congestion and stuffiness.


No matter how much you love indulging in a link or two, you may want to wait until you recover to eat sausage. The combination of saturated fat and sodium is a double-whammy when it comes to inflammatory responses. The addition of nitrites means the potential for a post-feast headache, which will feel much worse if you are already sick.


You need to rest when you are sick, not try to push through with the help of caffeine-laden energy drinks. Eliza Savage, MS, RD, CDN recommends avoiding both alcohol and caffeine when you are under the weather. “Excessive caffeine can dehydrate the system, while you really need a ton of fluids to promote optimal hydration, boost your immune system, and flush out the system,” she says. Many energy drinks are also high in sugar, which can tax the immune system.


Potato chips are never a food you should eat with abandon, but you may want to be extra cautious when you are under the weather. Kerkenbush cautions against eating any kind of crunchy food when you are sick, especially if you are having difficulty swallowing as it can irritate your throat. Potato chips also have a high sodium content which can contribute to dehydration and worsen cold symptoms.


This snack is another item you should consider avoiding, especially if it is your throat that is bothering you. The sharp pieces can be abrasive and uncomfortable, especially if you are already having trouble swallowing. Additionally, many granolas have deceptively high sugar contents, which can lead to inflammation and sinus discomfort.


Walnuts are normally a healthy addition to your diet, but you might want to rethink chomping on them while you are sick. Not only do the crunchy nuts have the potential to irritate a sore throat, they also contain high levels of histamine. In order to avoid irritating your nasal passages, it’s best to skip out on walnuts until your cold symptoms are relieved.

Fermented foods and condiments like vinegar also have high levels of histamine, making them a less than stellar choice when you are sick. Because histamine has the ability to cause your nasal passages to swell and exaggerate feelings of congestion, it’s best to avoid histamine-rich foods until your symptoms clear up.


There’s a reason deli meats can stay “fresh” for so long: preservatives. Not only are these add-ons less than ideal nutritionally, they’re a nightmare if you are already battling a cold or flu. Doctor Adrienne Youdim recommends avoiding processed foods because they make the body more susceptible to viruses and disease.

Hold off on this soft cheese, which is known to release histamine into the body. A build-up of histamine can cause headaches, itchiness, and flushed skin, all of which are less than ideal when you are already under the weather.


That sour quality that gives buttermilk its distinctive taste is also what contributes to its status as a food that is high in histamine. Fermented dairy products tend to have high histamine levels, meaning a potential increase in inflammation and an even runnier nose.


There are several reasons why you should lay off of the deep fried spuds, especially when you are sick. Upton advises her clients to stay away from French fries when they are sick because of their ability to cause inflammation. Additionally, if your stomach is upset, consuming something greasy is not the way to go. “High-fat foods take considerably longer to digest and therefore ask the stomach to work a lot harder when it’s already sensitive – this can lead to acid reflux and vomiting,” according to Lewis.

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You might think sipping a soda is the best way to settle an upset stomach, but it’s hindering your immune system. Dr. Luiza Petre names soda as one of the worst foods to consume when you are sick, mainly because of its high sugar content. “Inflammation soars with sugar-laden foods and beverages. It actually weakens your white blood cells, which are your body’s infection fighters. Since your immune system is down, you will stay sicker longer,” she says.

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Muffins are high in refined carbohydrates and sugar, two things you want to avoid as much as possible when you are sick. Dr. Petre acknowledges that many people crave these kinds of foods when they are ill, but emphasizes that indulging in them may lengthen your recovery time. “These refined carbohydrates rapidly break down into sugar and thus slow down your body trying to fight off the infection. These raise inflammation levels and severely slow down your recovery,” she concludes.

This meat substitute is made almost entirely out of gluten, which can be extremely problematic if you have any kind of sensitivity to this wheat protein. As we addressed in 15 Foods That Can Make You Congested, gluten has the potential to cause inflammation and an increase in mucus production if you have any issues digesting it. Play it safe and steer clear of seitan until you’re no longer congested.

There are a couple of reasons why you should avoid eating this diner staple at all costs. The cheese is high in saturated fat and sodium, which can contribute to inflammation and dehydration. If that was not problematic enough, the white bread it is made with is high in refined carbohydrates which can cause an uptick in blood sugar and even more inflammation. Finally, frying the sandwich adds even more difficult to digest fat, which can be especially rough on an already sensitive stomach.

A creamy shake may sound like the perfect nostalgic indulgence, but it’s a serious ‘don’t,’ especially if your immune system is already battling an infection. “Ice cream is the worst … as it combines fat, sugar, and dairy that generate increased stress and inflammation on the already compromised immune system,” says Dr. Petre. Because ice cream takes center stage in most milkshakes, it’s best to avoid them when you are under the weather.

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Much like vinegar, soy cause is a condiment you should avoid as much as possible when you are under the weather. The popular rice accompaniment contains a substantial amount of histamine due to the fermentation involved in its production. Additionally, soy sauce has high levels of sodium, which will make you more vulnerable to becoming dehydrated, especially when you are already sick.


If you’re craving apricots, stick to the fresh version at least while you are fighting off disease. The dried fruits have much higher levels of histamine, which will irritate your nasal passages and potentially cause headaches. Whole fruit also has a greater water content than dried fruit, which is a serious plus when you are sick and predisposed to dehydration.


Pineapple is another tropical food you’re best off avoiding until you have fully recovered. The yellow fruit has high levels of histamine, a compound that may make some of your most irritating cold symptoms worse. Additionally, pineapple contains ascorbic acid, which may irritate sore or scratchy throats.


Pass on the clams until your sinus-related symptoms have improved. These bite-size shellfish are potent histamine releasers, meaning your body will create more of the congestion-causing compound when you consume clams. And no matter what you do, be sure to say no to fried clams, which are loaded with hard-to-digest fat and inflammation-causing breading.


Another creature of the sea that is best avoided while you are sneezing, coughing, and sniffling. Much like clams, scallops are considered to be histamine releasers, meaning they will cause your body to produce more of the stuff. It’s best to reduce the amount of histamine your body produces when you are sick to avoid inflammation and congestion.


Oysters may be a known aphrodisiac but they have little power when it comes to curing a common cold. In fact, the bite-sized shellfish may make your cold symptoms worse because they contain a compound that stimulates histamine production in the body. Histamine has the potential to make runny noses far worse, so avoid those oyster happy hours until your sinuses are up to par.


A less likely histamine-releasing culprit? Wheat germ. While this part of the wheat plant contains the most nutrients and vitamins, it also has the highest level of histamine. Because this compound can worsen cold symptoms like runny noses and congestion, it’s best to avoid wheat germ while you are feeling under the weather.


These fish might be small but they are powerful histamine releasers, which is bad news when you’re congested and trying to get your nose to stop running. Even worse, one of the most popular ways to eat anchovies is on top of pizza, which is one of the worst foods you can eat when you’re sick. Between the inflammation-causing cheese and histamine-releasing tomato sauce, the last thing you need is another major source of histamine as a topping.

Another small fish with a major dose of histamine, sardines are something you should avoid when you are dealing with sinus congestion and a runny nose. According to the New South Wales Food Authority, sardines have high levels of histidine, which can be converted into histamine in the presence of certain bacteria and throughout fermentation.


Mackerel is another type of fish you need to skip out on when you are sick or trying to cut down on the level of histamine you intake. The American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology singles out mackerel as one of the types of fish most likely to cause histamine toxicity.

Hold off on the fish tacos! Mahi Mahi, which frequently makes an appearance in tacos, is another fish that The American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology names as being particularly high in histamine. Hold off on indulging until you’re feeling better or your sinuses may pay the price.


Don’t even think about choosing smoked herring to top your next bagel. Herring is another fish with the potential to cause histamine toxicity according to The American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Smoked varieties contain higher levels of sodium which is another major negative when you’re sick and at risk of becoming dehydrated.


No guacamole until your sinuses clear! Unfortunately, this fatty fruit is rich in histamines, which means consuming ample amounts of avocado toast could make your runny nose even worse. Additionally, the high-fat content may be difficult to digest if your stomach is unsettled.


Eggplant is a seemingly innocent vegetable that comes with a dirty secret: It has a super high histamine content. As a result, chowing down on eggplant can make your nasal passages swell and exacerbate feelings of congestion. Whatever you do, avoid eating eggplant parmesan when you are sick because the additions of cheese and breading are sure to trigger inflammation.


Spinach is a bonafide superfood, rich in iron, vitamin c, vitamin k… and histamine. Unfortunately for Popeye and all fellow spinach lovers, the leafy green is a no-go when you’re struggling with sinus congestion and a runny nose.


These nuts are normally a great go-to snack, but you might want to ease off on them when you are sick. Cashews have a high level of histamine, which is bad news when you’re dealing with most common cold symptoms. Additionally, Kerkenbush warns clients to avoid eating nuts with a sore throat as the jagged pieces can feel abrasive and irritating.

Mussels are another major don’t when you are battling a cold, flu, or sinus congestion. They are part of the shellfish family and consequently contain a compound that increases the amount of histamine released in your body. In order to avoid irritating your nasal passages, hold off on feasting on mussels until you feel good as new.


Kombucha is a favorite amongst nutritionists and holistic wellness experts, but it’s not something to try when you are sick. Many of kombucha’s health benefits come from its fermentation process, which also causes the level of histamine in the beverage to rise. Unless you want to experience more congestion, hold off on the bubbly drink until you can breathe easy again.


Pass on dates, especially the dried ones, when you are feeling under the weather. Dried dates have higher levels of histamine due to the preservation process. Dates also have one of the highest sugar contents of all fruits, which is a huge issue when your body is battling an infection. According to Mimkha, sugar causes inflammation which weakens your body’s white blood cells and makes you more susceptible to illness.

This Southern favorite is a serious don’t when it comes to eating for maximum immunity. As part of the shellfish family, crawfish are also potent histamine liberators. And while crawfish are generally boiled, the stick to your ribs sides that accompany them are often filled with simple carbohydrates and saturated fat, both of which will trigger inflammation.


Figs are usually a healthy way to add extra vitamins and minerals to your diet, but when you are sick it’s best to avoid them. Dried figs, in particular, contain high levels of histamine, which can worsen some of your most irritating cold symptoms such as a runny nose or a headache.


These dried plums are a known constipation cure, but if you are dealing with any other bodily ailments it’s best to take prunes out of the equation. They have high levels of histamine, which can further irritate your nose and cause more cold-related discomfort.


If you think indulging in some of your favorite fried foods will make you feel better when you are sick, it is time to reconsider. “Fatty foods cause inflammation and thus suppress the immune system,” says Dr. Edison de Mello, MD, Ph.D. Hold off on treating yourself until after you have made a full recovery.

They might be your favorite bar food, but chicken tenders certainly aren’t one of your body’s top choices when it comes to infection-fighting fuel. According to Mimkha, fat takes longer to digest than carbohydrates or protein and can be difficult to break down when you’re suffering from GI issues like an upset stomach. Even if you aren’t feeling nauseous, fatty foods like chicken tenders are known to cause inflammation, which will weaken your immune system.

Fish sticks should stay a distant, childhood memory, at least until you feel all better. Between a batter that is rich in simple carbohydrates and a stint in the deep fryer, fish sticks are a recipe for inflammation and consequently, a longer amount of recovery time.


This popular appetizer takes one inflammation-causing food—mozzarella—coats it in breading that is high simple carbohydrates which further increase inflammation, and tosses it into a vat of oil, a third inflammatory food. The marinara sauce that often comes as a condiment is made with histamine-rich tomatoes which are yet another reason why you should avoid eating saucy mozzarella sticks when you are sick.


Everyone likes a good slice of birthday cake, but you should hold off on the celebrations and the pastry until you feel better. “Hands down one food that I would advise clients to stay away from when they are sick is excess added sugar and refined carbs,” Kimszal says. Cakes are made with lots of white flour and sugar, making it the worst of the worst.

If you’re looking for a way to make cake even more inflammatory and potentially worse for your immune system, look no further. Donuts, especially the frosted ones, are high in sugar and refined carbohydrates. If that wasn’t bad enough, deep frying the dough adds a ton of fat, which further contributes to inflammation.


Step away from the butter stick, especially when you are sick. Butter is high in saturated fat, which will increase inflammation and hinder your immune system. Additionally, according to Dr. de Mello, dairy can thicken the mucus in your upper respiratory system, which is the last thing you want when you are sick.


Hold off on the Fruit Loops, Trix, and Captain Crunch. Breakfast cereals like these are high in sugar and refined carbohydrates, both of which are inflammatory and will lead to you feeling worse for longer. Once you pour milk on top, you’re adding mucus-thickening dairy to the mix which won’t do your sinuses any favors.

Crabs are also a member of the shellfish family and consequently are known histamine liberators. When you are sick, the last thing you want in your system is an influx of histamine, which will cause the tissues in your nose to swell and worsen all of your nose and sinus symptoms.


It’s time to stop the perpetuating myth that drinking fruit juice when you are sick will somehow magically help you recover. Although most juice does contain ample amounts of immune-boosting vitamin C, it’s also chock-full of sugar, which will cause inflammation and weaken your body’s immune system responses. If you’re really craving a glass, try diluting the juice with water to lower the amount of sugar you are consuming.

If you want to know what you should be eating to boost your immunity, check out our list of 17 Immune Boosters Better Than Emergen-C.

Bagels are pretty much just a massive serving of refined carbs, which your body will quickly convert into inflammation-inducing sugar. Spreading cream cheese on your bagel will add even more inflammation into the equation, thanks to the schmear’s high saturated fat content.

Courtesy of Red Lobster

No matter how much you love breaking into this crustacean, it’s best to do it when you’re feeling on your A-game. Lobsters are another example of histamine liberators, which is what you want to avoid when you are sick. If you do to choose to indulge while you are still under the weather, avoid pairing your meal with butter because the high saturated fat content is known to trigger inflammation.

It’s never a good idea to wrap your burrito in one of those oversized flour tortillas, but it is especially problematic when you are sick and trying to feel better. Flour tortillas are filled with unrefined carbohydrates, which will trigger inflammation in your body and weaken your white blood cell’s response to disease.

These festive drinks combine two things that are terrible for your immune system: alcohol and sugar. “Sorry that pre-dinner cocktail will cause additional inflammation that will leave your white blood cells even weaker and slow down your body’s healing process,” explains Dr. Petre. Given margaritas high sugar content, they’re one of the worst cocktails you can pick when you are sick and trying to avoid inflammatory foods

Jason Varney/Galvanized

No matter how small they are, cupcakes are still loaded with way more sugar than you need. While extra sugar is never a do, it’s an even bigger don’t when you are under the weather and trying to avoid foods that trigger inflammation. Hold off on the sweet stuff so that you can feel better faster.


This shouldn’t come as a shock to you. As its name implies, macaroni and cheese combine two foods, both of which are extremely problematic for your immune system. Cheese is high in saturated fat and can cause the mucus in your upper respiratory system to thicken. Macaroni is high in refined carbohydrates, which trigger inflammation as well as gluten, which can also increase inflammation if you have any underlying sensitivity to it.

Like most of its dessert counterparts, pie is far from an ideal sick food. In fact, it’s one of the worst things you can eat when you are ill because it will, without a doubt, lead to inflammation. Between the filling and the crust, pie contains a plentiful amount of sugar and refined carbohydrates, both of which will translate into a major inflammatory response. To make matters worse, most pies are made with ample amounts of butter, which will only add to the inflammation situation.

Another nutritional no-brainer. As we explained in 15 Foods That Can Make You Congested, red meat can worsen congestion by contributing to an excessive mucus build-up. If that was not bad enough, many burgers are pan-fried which ups their inflammation-causing fat content. Finally, by sandwiching the burger between a bun made with white flour, more inflammation is created because the bread will quickly break down into sugar in your body.


While agave may be considered a healthier sweetener than sugar, there’s nothing healthy about consuming lots of the stuff, especially when you are sick. “While you are sick, sugar decreases your immune response, impeding your body’s ability to fight the infection off,” explains Bess Berger, RDN, CDN, CLT. Because agave is basically straight-up sugar, you should avoid it until you’re feeling up to par.


You may be tempted to reach for a box of Saltines the moment you start feeling a bit off, but this is far from the best move. Most crackers are made with refined flour, which means they will quickly turn into sugar when you digest them. “Sugar lowers your immune system’s effectiveness,” Berger says. Consequently, it’s best to hold off on the simple carbohydrates, especially when your immune system is already taxed.


Different snack food, same idea. Most pretzels are made with refined flour, meaning they’re on the fast track to becoming sugar in your body once you finish swallowing them. To add insult to injury, crunchy snacks like pretzels have the potential to irritate the lining of your throat or make it worse if it is already bothering you.


Your favorite pancake topping has got to go, at least while you are trying to recover from the cold or flu. Maple syrup is nearly all sugar, which means it is destined to increase inflammation in your body and weaken your immune system.


Ice cream’s innocent little sister isn’t really so innocent after all. Much like ice cream, frozen yogurt is made with dairy which has the potential to thicken mucus and worsen congestion. In order to compensate for lower fat content, many brands add extra sugar to their frozen yogurts, which is exactly what your immune system does not want. “Added sugars sap your energy and suppress the immune system,” says Savage.


We’re not denying that on an average day, barley is a healthy food choice. It’s high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and because it is an unrefined carbohydrate, it won’t immediately translate into sugar in your body. However, if you have any kind of gluten sensitivity, barley can trigger an inflammatory response, especially when you are sick. Play it safe and wait to eat this wholesome grain until you are totally recovered.

Don’t worry, not everything is off-limits when you’re bedridden. If you want to know what you should be eating, we have a list of 13 Foods to Eat When You’re Sick.

Bronchitis | NHLBI, NIH

When you breathe in, air passes down your airways, called your bronchi and bronchioles, into the air sacs of your lungs. In chronic bronchitis, the lining of the brochioles becomes inflamed.This causes mucus to build up along the airways and makes the airways narrow (bronchoconstriction), which causes you to cough. Medical Animation Copyright © 2020 Nucleus Medical Media, All rights reserved.

Most people with acute bronchitis recover after a few days or weeks. Viral infections, such as the cold or flu, are usually the cause of acute bronchitis. Occasionally, acute bronchitis can be caused by a bacterial infection.

Chronic bronchitis is an ongoing cough that lasts for several months and comes back two or more years in a row. The cough is productive, meaning it brings up mucus. In chronic bronchitis, the lining of the airways is constantly inflamed. This causes the lining to swell and make more mucus, which can make it hard to breathe. Chronic bronchitis is often part of a serious condition called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Your risk for either type of bronchitis is higher if you smoke cigarettes or have asthma or allergies. Chronic bronchitis is most often caused by smoking cigarettes, but it can occur in non-smokers as well. Women who smoke may be more at risk than men. Those who are older, have been exposed to fumes or secondhand smoke, have a family history of lung disease, have a history of childhood respiratory diseases, or have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), are also at higher risk of getting chronic bronchitis.

The most common symptom of bronchitis is coughing associated with mucus production. Other symptoms include wheezing or shortness of breath, chest pain, or a low fever. To diagnose bronchitis, your doctor will do a physical exam and ask about your medical history and symptoms. The doctor may also order a blood test to look for signs of infection or a chest X-ray to see if your lungs and bronchial tubes look normal and rule out pneumonia.

Usually, acute bronchitis goes away on its own, without treatment. Sometimes over-the-counter medicines that loosen mucus or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen can help manage acute bronchitis. Taking a couple of teaspoons of honey or using a humidifier may also reduce the symptoms and help with comfort. Doctors typically prescribe antibiotics only if they find that you have a bacterial infection, which is more common in young children. To prevent acute bronchitis from recurring, your doctor may recommend that you get a seasonal flu vaccine, quit smoking, and avoid being around secondhand smoke.

The goal of treatment for chronic bronchitis is to help you breathe better and control your symptoms. Your doctor may recommend healthy lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking; taking medicines to help clear your airways or to prevent symptoms from getting worse; or, in some cases, getting oxygen therapy to help you breathe better. Pulmonary rehabilitation can teach you breathing techniques such as pursed-lip breathing and help you prevent symptoms from worsening.

Learn more about Acute Bronchitis and Chronic Bronchitis.

Acute Bronchitis | Cigna

Topic Overview

What is bronchitis?

Bronchitis means that the tubes that carry air to the lungs (the bronchial tubes) are inflamed and irritated. When this happens, the bronchial tubes swell and produce mucus. This makes you cough.

There are two types of bronchitis:

  • Acute bronchitis usually comes on quickly and gets better after 2 to 3 weeks.
  • Chronic bronchitis keeps coming back and can last a long time, especially in people who smoke. Chronic bronchitis means that you have a cough with mucus most days of the month for 3 months of the year and for at least 2 years in a row.

This topic focuses on acute bronchitis. Both children and adults can get acute bronchitis.

Most healthy people who get acute bronchitis get better without any problems. But it can be more serious in older adults and children and in people with other health problems, especially lung diseases such as asthma or COPD. Complications can include pneumonia and repeated episodes of severe bronchitis.

What causes acute bronchitis?

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a virus. Often a person gets acute bronchitis a few days after having an upper respiratory tract infection such as a cold or the flu. Sometimes acute bronchitis is caused by bacteria.

Acute bronchitis also can be caused by breathing in things that irritate the bronchial tubes, such as smoke. It also can happen if a person inhales food or vomit into the lungs.

What are the symptoms?

The most common symptom of acute bronchitis is a cough that usually is dry and hacking at first. After a few days, the cough may bring up mucus. You may have a low fever and feel tired.

Most people get better in 2 to 3 weeks. But some people continue to have a cough for more than 4 weeks.

If your symptoms get worse, such as a high fever, shaking chills, chest or shoulder pain, or shortness of breath, you could have pneumonia. Pneumonia can be serious, so it’s important to see a doctor if you feel like you’re getting sicker.

How is acute bronchitis diagnosed?

Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and examine you. This usually gives the doctor enough information to find out if you have acute bronchitis.

In some cases, you may need a chest X-ray or other tests to make sure that you don’t have pneumonia, whooping cough, or another lung problem. This is especially true if you’ve had bronchitis for a few weeks and aren’t getting better. More testing also may be needed for babies, older adults, and people who have lung disease (such as asthma or COPD) or other health problems.

How is it treated?

Most people can treat symptoms of acute bronchitis at home and don’t need antibiotics or other prescription medicines. (Antibiotics don’t help with viral bronchitis. And even bronchitis caused by bacteria will usually go away on its own.)

The following may help you feel better:

  • Don’t smoke.
  • Suck on cough drops or hard candies to soothe a dry or sore throat. Cough drops won’t stop your cough, but they may make your throat feel better.
  • Breathe moist air from a humidifier, a hot shower, or a sink filled with hot water. The heat and moisture can help keep mucus in your airways moist so you can cough it out easily.
  • Ask your doctor if you can take nonprescription medicine, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or aspirin, to relieve fever and body aches. Don’t give aspirin to anyone younger than age 20. Be safe with medicines. Read and follow all instructions on the label.
  • Rest more than usual.
  • Drink plenty of fluids so that you do not become dehydrated.
  • Use an over-the-counter cough medicine if your doctor recommends it. (Cough medicines may not be safe for young children or for people who have certain health problems.) Cough suppressants may help you to stop coughing. Expectorants can help you bring up mucus when you cough.

If you have signs of bronchitis and have heart or lung disease (such as heart failure, asthma, or COPD) or another serious health problem, talk to your doctor right away. You may need treatment with antibiotics or medicines to help with your breathing. Early treatment may prevent complications, such as pneumonia or repeated episodes of acute bronchitis caused by bacteria.

What can you do to avoid getting bronchitis?

There are several things you can do to help prevent bronchitis.

  • Avoid cigarette smoke. If you smoke, stop. People who smoke or are around others who smoke have acute bronchitis more often.
  • Wash your hands often during the cold and flu season.
  • Avoid contact with people who are sick with a cold or the flu, especially if you have other health problems.
  • Get a flu vaccine every year, and talk to your doctor about whether you should get a pneumococcal vaccine.

8 Foods That Are Good For Your Lungs

We are facing a global pandemic since the beginning of this year 2020 and have realized the importance of a healthy lifestyle and immunity power. You might as well be aware of the fact that this coronavirus attacks the lungs and makes it vulnerable. This brings us to the importance of healthy lungs.

Healthy Lungs play a vital role in helping our bodies function well. Lungs are our support system for breathing. As per the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 235 million people are suffering from asthma. We all know the benefits of pranayama and yoga for better functioning of the lungs.

So what more can we do to make our lungs healthier and stronger, making it immune to the virus and other diseases? What are the odds of having a few food items as an answer? We would like to break it to you that certain foods help your lungs grow stronger! These include garlic, turmeric, ginger, fish, walnut, citrus fruits, onion, and apple. There are many more on the list but for now, we will study how exactly do they help in making the lungs function better and make it healthier. Let’s go through them and find out how!

Also, Read Why Is Vitamin D So Important for Your Health?

Raw Food items that are good for healthy lungs –

Garlic –

The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of garlic are beneficial to people with conditions like asthma, bronchitis, and as per few recent studies, garlic has protective effects on even a lung cancer patient to an extent as it might work as a chemopreventive agent. It enhances the elimination of toxins and carcinogens, helping your lungs to function better, as it comprises flavonoids, stimulating the production of glutathione.

Turmeric –

As Indians, we know the use of turmeric as a natural antiseptic with medicinal qualities. It is also a major part of most of the food preparations. The anti-inflammatory property of Curcumin found in turmeric is really important in improving the functioning of lungs and helps in conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and acute lung injury because of its effectiveness in pulmonary conditions with abnormal inflammatory responses. The Curcumin compound helps in relieving the inflammation of the airways and tightness of the chest, which is associated with asthma.

Ginger –

Ginger is a very usual and important part of many food recipes that we eat and drink and it also offers many benefits to the lungs. The anti-inflammatory qualities cause bronchodilation in asthmatic patients. It is also credited for breaking down the mucus and expelling it.

Fish –

The omega 3 fatty acids, extracted from fish are beneficial for patients with chronic lung diseases like a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also has anti-inflammatory properties that decrease the inflammation of the lungs in COPD patients. Apart from fatty acid, the fish oil also protects the lungs from infections by a bacterium called Haemophilus influenza.

Walnut –

For those who are vegetarians and won’t consume omega 3 fatty acids from fish, walnut is for your rescue here. Same as in fish oil, walnuts are well loaded with omega 3 fatty acids, which turns out to be really helpful for COPD patients by controlled inflammation of the lungs.

As little as one handful daily can turn out to help fight asthma and other respiratory ailments.

Also Read, 9 Solid Foods that Enhances the Body Immune System

Water –

Water is the basic form of life. Water itself is life. And there is nothing more beneficial and effective than water. Water is one of the purest ways to detoxify your body. You must drink at least 8 to 10 glasses of water to keep your body hydrated because dry lungs are more susceptible to inflammation and irritation.

Citrus Fruits –

Citrus fruits, especially orange and lemon, are an amazing source of antioxidants and Vitamin C and Vitamin C, in turn, helps in boosting the immunity and fighting against respiratory infections. The fruits that are rich in Vitamin C reduce wheezing in children and optimize lung functions and breathing in COPD patients, as per a few recent studies.

Onion –

Onion, again, is the most commonly used vegetable in every other Indian household due to its taste, micronutrients, and vitamins. Even traditionally, it has been used as an herbal remedy for cold, influenza, and bronchitis. It helps improve the lungs and its functioning with its anti-inflammatory properties.

Flaxseeds – 

Many surveys are showing that flaxseed oil can help in the reduction of lung fibrosis. They help in protecting lung tissues before and after exposure to the radiation and help in the reduction of lung inflammation.

Apple –

We all are aware of the famous adage that says, “an apple a day, keeps the doctor away”. Well, we cannot deny this, can we? This adage has been backed by several recent studies with scientific evidence. As per a few clinical studies, the risk of developing lung cancer is reduced by regular consumption of apples. Apple is also credited for the reduced risk of asthma, as per a study. It helps maintain and improve the functioning of the lungs and the entire respiratory system.

Takeaway –

These were the 8 foods that are amazing for healthy lungs. As the proverb goes, “we are what we eat”. Make sure you add these to your daily diet and ensure better and healthier lungs and respiratory system for your body. These are the basic foods that we consume every day in Indian households, but if you are going through any serious lung-related problem, make sure to visit the doctor right away to ensure the best of your health.

Stay tuned to  Dr. B. Lal Clinical Laboratory for more updates.

Bronchitis Information | Mount Sinai

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90,000 Breastfeeding Diet: What You Can Eat

If your baby is breastfed, you may be concerned about nutrition. In this article, you will learn what is good for a nursing mother to eat so that you and your baby get all the necessary elements, and which foods should be avoided.

Do I need to follow a special diet?

There is no need for a nursing mother to follow any diet. Try to eat a balanced diet and healthy foods to support lactation and feed your baby.

During breastfeeding, as in normal life, a balanced diet including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, foods high in protein, and foods rich in calcium and minerals is important.

A nursing mother may need 300-500 extra calories a day to stay fit and to maintain lactation. Some snacks include a whole grain bread sandwich with a slice of cheese, a banana, an apple, or a glass of yogurt.

What to eat during breastfeeding

A breastfeeding mother needs to get enough of certain nutrients with her food, as they are passed on to the baby with the mother’s milk.Further in the article, you will learn what is beneficial to eat while breastfeeding.

Foods rich in calcium

One of the most important minerals in the diet is calcium, which is responsible for the health of our bones. A mother who is breastfeeding should get 1000 mg per day (1300 mg for adolescent mothers). Studies have shown that women lose about 3-5% of their bone mass during breastfeeding. To compensate for this expense, you need to eat enough calcium-rich foods.

Try to have three servings of dairy in your diet every day, for example: a cup of milk, a few slices of cheese, a glass of yogurt.There are also plant sources of calcium:

  • juices fortified with calcium

  • tofu

  • kale, spinach, broccoli

  • beans

  • calcium-fortified breakfast cereals

If you feel that you are not consuming enough calcium, your doctor may recommend that you take a calcium supplement (oyster shells should not be included as they contain lead).

Foods rich in folic acid

For the healthy development of the baby, a nursing mother needs at least 400 mcg of folic acid per day. Your doctor may recommend a suitable vitamin complex for you.

Try to eat foods rich in folate such as spinach, citrus fruits, meats, chicken liver, and a variety of legumes. You can also buy folic acid-fortified breads, cereals, and cereals.

Foods rich in vitamin D

In addition to calcium, vitamin D is needed to maintain healthy bones.One of the most effective ways to replenish your vitamin D supply is to spend time in the sun. But this is unsafe given the risk of cancer, and not always practical.

Try to include foods rich in vitamin D in your diet:

  • salmon

  • mackerel

  • fortified milk or orange juice

  • yogurt

The daily dose of vitamin D recommended by doctors is 400 to 1000 IU.For example, 100 grams of cooked salmon is 477 IU, a can of canned tuna in water is 154 IU, and a cup of fortified orange juice is 137 IU.

In addition to vitamin D, salmon, tuna and mackerel are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which are needed for the growth and development of a child’s brain and vision.

Adequate intake of vitamin D is also necessary for the absorption of calcium in the digestive tract.

Your pediatrician will be able to recommend a vitamin D supplement for your baby.Vitamin D is extremely important for exclusively breastfed babies, as if it is insufficient in breast milk, there is a risk of rickets – softening and weak bones.

Protein-rich foods

Breastfeeding mothers need to eat 150-200 g of protein per day. Protein is needed for the formation and repair of body tissues. To get the right amount, try to eat two to three servings of lean meat, chicken or fish (one serving is about 100 g) per day.Other sources of protein include eggs (6 g of protein per egg), nuts (15 g of protein in 100 g of walnuts), legumes (8.9 g of protein in 100 g of chickpeas).

If your family has a history of peanut allergy (which is also rich in protein) and you have eaten peanuts, watch out for baby’s reactions after feeding.


Some of the richest foods in iron are lean meats and green leafy vegetables. Iron is also found in fish, iron-fortified breakfast cereals, and poultry (other than white).Iron is best absorbed from animal sources. Your doctor may recommend that you take an iron supplement to ensure that you are getting enough of this mineral during lactation.


When you are breastfeeding, you may feel thirsty. It is important for a nursing mother to drink enough water every day. Here’s an easy way to do it: Drink a glass of water with every feed.

What foods to limit or not eat while breastfeeding

During pregnancy, you were very careful in nutrition and you had to limit yourself in some way.Perhaps you expected that with the birth of a baby all the “prohibitions” are removed, but still there are some foods and drinks that should be limited or avoided when breastfeeding.

Seafood high in mercury

Fish is an important part of a healthy diet as it is rich in protein and omega-3 fatty acids. However, some fish species contain large amounts of mercury, which is harmful to the nervous system of babies and young children. Therefore, you should not eat the following species: shark, swordfish, king mackerel and tile.What kind of fish can you eat? Here are the types of seafood that are safe for a nursing mother’s diet: canned tuna (no more than 150 g albacore tuna per week, since it contains more mercury), shrimp, salmon, pollock and catfish.

If you love fish that comes from where you live, check your local guidelines for safe eating. For more information on mercury levels in different types of fish, read the Rospotrebnadzor guidelines.

Drinking alcohol while breastfeeding

Prolonged and regular drinking can reduce breast milk production and negatively affect your baby’s health. Alcohol also changes the taste of milk, and the baby may refuse to breast and be naughty. Therefore, it is better to refuse to drink alcohol while breastfeeding.

If you want to drink alcohol sometimes, limit yourself to one drink. You can drink it after feeding / pumping milk, and wait at least two hours before the next feeding / pumping – this is how long it takes for the alcohol to break down in the body.

Drinking caffeinated beverages while breastfeeding

Usually, while breastfeeding without harm to your baby, you can drink up to three caffeinated beverages a day. If this amount is exceeded, the baby’s reaction may be anxiety and irritability.

Keep in mind that caffeine isn’t just found in coffee. Caffeine is found in some types of tea, carbonated drinks, chocolate. Keep this in mind when calculating your daily caffeine intake.

Drinking high sugar drinks

Try to limit or eliminate high sugar drinks, including soft drinks, juice and iced tea.Drink plenty of water instead.

About vitamins

Your doctor may recommend that you continue to take the vitamins you took during pregnancy or other supplements until you are finished breastfeeding.

Iodine is another essential mineral during breastfeeding. The daily dose for nursing mothers is 150 mcg, and your doctor will be able to recommend the appropriate supplement for you.

If you are on a vegan or vegetarian diet, your doctor may recommend that you take vitamin B12.This vitamin, essential for baby’s cognitive development, is found in higher amounts in animal protein than vegetables. Your doctor may also recommend an omega-3 supplement if you don’t eat fish.

Food reactions, intolerances and allergies in children

The baby may develop a reaction to breast milk after certain foods and drinks from the mother’s diet. For example:

  • After eating beans, cabbage, broccoli, or cauliflower, your toddler may have gas and anxiety.

  • After eating spicy foods, your baby may not like the taste of breast milk.

  • Your toddler may be restless and naughty if you consume too much caffeine.

  • The baby may also develop an allergic reaction to the following foods in the mother’s diet: cow’s milk, soy, wheat, corn, oats, eggs, tree nuts, peanuts, fish or shellfish.

Signs of an allergic reaction in a child:

  • frequent regurgitation or vomiting

  • abdominal pain

  • bloating

  • baby tightens knees for pain

  • blood or mucus in stool

  • hard chair

  • skin rash or inflammation

If your child has difficulty breathing or a swollen face, call an ambulance right away.If you think your baby is not feeling well after feedings, discuss this with your pediatrician.

Sometimes it can be helpful for a mom to keep a food diary to track her baby’s allergies or intolerances, excessive gas, discomfort, or signs of colic. And then you can share the results of observations with the pediatrician. The doctor may prescribe an elimination diet, which means that the mother will need to eliminate certain foods from her diet and see if the baby’s response to breast milk changes.


  • What foods should not be eaten while breastfeeding?

    During breastfeeding you need:

    • avoid seafood high in mercury
    • try not to drink alcohol
    • Limit caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea and soda
  • Can you eat spicy foods while breastfeeding?

    Yes, you can. But keep in mind that spicy food can change the taste of milk and your baby may not like it.

  • What is beneficial to eat while breastfeeding?

    Breastfeeding mothers need a balanced diet of healthy foods. It should include dairy products, dark green vegetables, fruits, beans, nuts, eggs, fatty fish, lean meats, and poultry. These foods contain the nutrients that mom and baby need. If you have a particular diet and cannot eat any of the foods on this list, talk to your doctor about how you can substitute them.

A balanced and healthy diet for a mother during breastfeeding is one of the first building blocks in the successful development of a baby and a way for a mother to take care of herself.Some foods and drinks should be consumed with caution or excluded altogether, as they can negatively affect milk production and the health of the baby.

It will be easier to take care of your baby if you have a stock of everything you need on hand. Making purchases in advance can be beneficial as well as beneficial – for example, if you buy Pampers diapers at a discount.

Food Allergy | Tervisliku toitumise informatsioon

Although people have suffered from allergic diseases for a very long time, allergies became a serious problem in the second half of the 20th century.Food allergy is an inadequate immune response to food.

Essence and incidence of the disease

Allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction triggered by specific immune mechanisms. Allergy is the clinical manifestation of allergic symptoms.

Allergens are substances that cause an allergic reaction. The most common allergens are proteins. The reaction to an allergen can be of an immediate type, and then it is relatively easy to detect, or a delayed type, and then it can appear hours or days after contact with the allergen.The delayed response is relatively difficult to detect.

Why food allergies occur is still unclear. One theory is that vaccinations in babies are the cause, which boosts immune system activity, but scientific research does not support this theory. Another theory blames early refusal to breastfeed and the proteins in formula for infant formula feeding. There is also a hygienic hypothesis, according to which everything is too clean, and the immune system is “bored” and “looking for something to do.”

Allergy at one age or another takes away about 20% of the population, but about 1-2% are constantly suffering from allergies. There are more allergy sufferers in the city than in the countryside. Although allergies can kill anyone of all ages, food allergies affect primarily 90,199 babies 90,200 and 90,199 preschoolers. The mucous membranes of the alimentary canal and respiratory tract in children under one year of age are not yet fully formed and easily pass foreign proteins.

A hereditary predisposition is very important for the occurrence of food allergies.Families with a child or parent with food allergies are called 90,199 families at risk 90,200.

Cross-allergy – an effect in which allergens with a similar chemical structure reinforce each other’s action. Other food allergens, stress, stomach acidity and other factors can also influence the course of food allergies.

Keeping food allergies under control

The clinical picture of food allergies can be very different.Symptoms can range from very mild to extremely severe, even fatal anaphylactic shock. Clinical manifestations of food allergy occur primarily in the respiratory tract, alimentary canal, and on the skin. Respiratory disorders include sneezing and coughing; the lips, tongue, and base of the tongue may itch and swell. Food allergy can also occur in asthmatic episodes, but is not a common cause of bronchial asthma. Skin manifestations are expressed in dermatitis or urticaria.The main disorders of the alimentary canal are vomiting and diarrhea. In the case of infants, they are primarily caused by cow’s milk allergy.

A pregnant woman should eat a variety of foods to provide her body with all the necessary nutrients. Alcohol, medicines, food additives, preservatives are absorbed into breast milk. Therefore, a nursing mother should be especially careful in her choice of food. The scientific evidence for the link between infant nutrition and allergies is conflicting.In general, it is believed that breast milk may provide some protection. Research shows that early exposure to new foods in high-risk populations reduces the risk of atopic asthma and other allergic diseases. It is not clear, however, whether this is due to the infant’s age or the fact that he was introduced to new products while breastfeeding, which plays the role of protection against celiac disease when introduced to gluten. There has also been found evidence that breastfeeding for at least 4 months versus feeding with cow’s milk formulas can delay or reduce the onset of atopic dermatitis and cow’s milk allergy in early childhood.90,199 babies 90,200 allergies are mainly caused by milk, eggs, wheat, barley, rice, oats, soybeans, beans, peas, bananas, fish and beef. The main allergens for children of preschool and school age are nuts and almonds. Fruits (peaches, kiwi, apples, etc.) and vegetables (paprika, tomatoes, potatoes, celery, etc.) can also cause allergies. In 90 199 adults 90 200 allergies are often caused by nuts and almonds, as well as spices (pepper, cumin, cinnamon, mustard, etc.). If allergic manifestations occur before the age of three, in most cases they disappear later.

Allergy to cow’s milk kills 0.5–4% of children and usually resolves at school age. Cow’s milk contains many proteins, and allergies can be caused by one or more of them. If you are allergic to cow’s milk, you need to find substitutes. Soy protein-based breastfeeding formulas are widely available, but approximately 25% of babies with cow’s milk allergies cannot tolerate soy protein either. By hydrolyzing cow’s milk proteins to peptides and amino acids, cow’s milk substitutes can be obtained.The lower the molar mass of the hydrolysis products, the more unpleasant taste the mixtures acquire. The same applies to mixtures based on synthetic amino acids.

In some cases, it is sufficient to heat the milk before use. This also helps when the allergy is caused by thermolabile proteins. Since the chemical composition of goat’s milk and cow’s milk is different, replacing cow’s milk with goat’s milk may help. If you are allergic to cow’s milk, avoid all foods that contain milk and dairy products, such as butter, cottage cheese, and ice cream.To avoid troubles, you should carefully study the composition of the product indicated on the package.

Allergy to chicken eggs usually begins in early childhood, before the second year of life, and ends by the onset of school age. Most of the allergens in eggs are actually in the protein, but egg yolk and chicken can also cause allergies. Allergy to chicken eggs in different people manifests itself with different strengths. So, some allergy sufferers can eat boiled eggs, while others are even more allergic to being in a room where eggs are beaten.

Fish Allergy can mean food allergies, cleaning, and even the smell of frying. The most common symptoms are skin irritation and alimentary canal disorders (vomiting, pain, diarrhea). Fish allergy can also occur as an allergic reaction of the whole organism, that is, anaphylactic shock. Fish allergies can also be caused by eating poultry or pigs fed with fishmeal. Allergy to fish does not go away at an older age.

Allergies to fruits and vegetables are generally caused by fruits that have not been cooked. Jams, compotes, juices, boiled and frozen vegetables usually do not cause allergies. Of the fruits, apricots, bananas, kiwi, apples, pears, peaches, exotic fruits (mango, papaya, carambola) most often cause allergies. Among vegetables, the most dangerous are paprika, rutabagas, turnips, carrots, beets, and onions. Legumes, especially soy, can also cause allergies. Since soy protein is widely used in the production of sausages and confectionery, people with soy protein allergies should be especially careful.Soybean oil, on the other hand, does not cause allergies.

With the growth of consumption of nuts and almonds , the number of people allergic to them has also increased. Nut butter has even caused many deaths in the United States.

Spice allergy is often cross-linked with pollen and fragrance allergies. Among spices, allergies are caused by curry, ginger, cinnamon, pepper, coriander, cumin, etc.

Since ancient times, allergies to honey have been known . Honey, in addition to allergens, contains pollen.

Pollen allergy forms a cross-allergy with food varieties, especially with allergies to nuts and almonds (80–90%), as well as to fruits and vegetables.

Primary care for adult asthma

This patient guide is based on the Estonian guidelines for the management of asthma in adults at the primary level, approved in 2014, and the topics covered there, together with recommendations. The recommendations for the management were drawn up on the basis of an analysis of the evidence-based medicine literature and taking into account the needs in Estonia and the possibilities of healthcare.

A patient guide helps to cope with the disease, to understand the nature of the anxiety disorder, different risk factors, possible causes of asthma exacerbation, gives recommendations on lifestyle and self-help that will help alleviate the disease, explains the peculiarities of asthma treatment, the effect of different groups of drugs, and the importance of continuous treatment … The aim is also to ensure that the asthma patient is aware of his illness and, if possible, productive cooperation with the attending physician.

The patient guide looks at the nature of asthma, the different risk factors, everyday problems associated with the disease, treatment options and treatments from the patient’s perspective. Both family and pulmonary doctors, who deal with asthma diagnostics, asthma counseling and treatment, and asthma patients who amended the guidelines from the patient’s point of view, contributed to the development of the treatment guidelines.

The physician is advised to give the patient written prescriptions for the treatment of asthma, this will help to better remember the treatment regimen. These guidelines are well-suited to both personalized advice and a written source of patient information.

D Main Recommendations

  • Be physically active, as any movement helps to cope with the disease. Find the type of movement and load that suits you.
  • Keep track of your weight
  • Give up all types of tobacco products, and also avoid secondhand smoke
  • Avoid inhalation of irritants and known allergens as much as possible, both indoors and outdoors.
  • Learn the names of the drugs you are prescribed or carry information about them with you.
  • Follow the recommendations and treatment regimens prescribed by your doctor on a daily basis.The doctor can be asked to write separately on paper the names of medicines and the time of their administration.
  • Monitor inhalation techniques with your FHN / Asthma Nurse. Do this also if you have been using the inhaler for a long time.
  • Do not change the dose or frequency of medication yourself. Always consult your doctor on this topic.
  • Remember to rinse your mouth after each inhalation. Always inform your doctor about any side effects you experience.
  • Inform your doctor about any other medications you use and if you have any side effects.
  • Know the symptoms of an exacerbation of the disease. Ask your doctor for written guidance on flare-up symptoms and home first aid.
  • If you feel uncomfortable, follow your doctor’s recommendations for home first aid. When increasing the dose of medication, be sure to monitor the maximum allowed doses and the maximum allowed frequency of administration.
  • If you feel worse, always contact your doctor to find out the tactics of further treatment. If you feel unwell quickly or if you have trouble breathing, call an ambulance or go to the hospital emergency department.
  • Keep track of the content of the medication in the inhaler so that there is no situation when the inhaler is empty and you do not have a new prescription. Ask your doctor for a new prescription before the inhaler is empty.
  • To assess your asthma at home, use an asthma control test, which you can get, for example, from your family nurse. You can always complete the same test at a visit to your family doctor or nurse. The test is provided in Appendix 1 of this patient guide.

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, the prevalence of which has increased dramatically throughout the world in recent years (Braman 2006), with occasional periods of difficulty breathing due to narrowing of the lower airways.The narrowing of the airways goes away partially or completely, either on its own or with treatment. It is believed that many people do not really know they have asthma and therefore do not receive proper treatment. At the same time, in the majority of patients with asthma, with the help of treatment, complete control over the disease can be achieved, and thus the quality of life and performance can be maintained.

Air movement in the respiratory tract

The movement of air in the body begins through the nose or mouth.If you inhale, air travels to the lungs through the trachea and lung tubes (bronchi). The bronchi end in small bubble-like formations (alveoli), where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. Oxygen is absorbed from the alveoli into the blood, and the carbon dioxide generated in the body passes from the blood to the alveoli. When released, the air is expelled from the lungs together with carbon dioxide. Normally, when breathing, all airways are open and air moves through them freely and unimpeded.

What happens in the airways in asthma?

With asthma, the airways are inflamed, irritated and narrowed, and the movement of air in them is difficult.This is due to asthmatic inflammation, which creates edema in the mucous membrane and an increase in mucus secretion. Inflammation of the mucous membrane and the narrowing of the bronchi caused by it is a protective reaction against various external stimuli. In asthma, the airways are more sensitive than usual and react easily to various stimuli. Airway constriction can be caused, for example, by irritating odors, cold weather, severe stress, and contact with animals or pollen.

The main symptoms of asthma are:

  • choking feeling
  • lack of air (which can also occur at night)
  • wheezing and wheezing, especially on deep exhalation
  • cough that occurs more often during the night and / or early morning
  • tension or heaviness in the chest (Sistek et al, 2006).

Asthma symptoms can be milder or more severe and last several hours to several days if asthma is not diagnosed and the symptoms are not treated. An asthma attack is a condition where all the symptoms of asthma – breathing problems, wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and a feeling of heaviness in the chest – develop very quickly. The manifestation of symptoms (especially the first time) can cause feelings of fear, uncertainty, helplessness. There can be several reasons for triggering an asthma attack: excessive physical activity, various environmental factors, stress, or contact with allergens.

What are the causes of asthma?

In Estonia, 5-8% of the adult population or 70,000-112,000 people suffer from asthma (Merenet al 2005). Both genetic (unmodifiable) and environmental (modifiable) risk factors contribute to the incidence of asthma in adults. Asthma onset in adulthood is most common in women. The following factors influence asthma:

  • genetic predisposition, which is greater in those people whose relatives are already ill / have had asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis.
  • early childhood respiratory tract infections that may contribute to asthma at an older age
  • 90,019 exposure to environmental allergens and chemicals used at home and at work (Tarlo et al 2008).

    90,019 smoking and being overweight (Lim et al 2010).

Important to remember:

  • Genetic predisposition is an important risk factor – if relatives have already had asthma.
  • Give up all types of tobacco products (cigarettes, electronic cigarette, cheek tobacco, hookah, cigarillo, pipe tobacco, cigars), as well as secondhand smoke.
  • If you have decided to quit smoking, ask your family doctor for advice, he will be able to refer you to an appointment with a support for ex-smokers. Drinking alcohol should be moderate.
  • Watch your weight. Talk to your doctor if you change your eating or dietary habits.
  • Don’t forget to move! Every day should include at least some physical activity.

Tell about them to your doctor.Tell about them even if these symptoms have already passed by the time of the visit to the doctor.

To diagnose asthma , your doctor must thoroughly review your health data. The doctor should also clarify what diseases you have suffered and whether you have any allergies. If, based on the history, the diagnosis of asthma still remains in question, additional tests should be done.

There is no single and specific way to diagnose asthma, and it cannot be diagnosed only on the basis of a questionnaire.Usually, the doctor begins by listening to the lungs with a stethoscope, which helps determine if there is inflammation in the airways. In the case of asthma, whistling, wheezing and / or prolonged exhalations are heard in the lungs while listening. If the above symptoms were not found during listening, this does not mean that the diagnosis of asthma has been ruled out.

If your doctor suspects you have asthma, they may order you to have a spirographic examination. If the spirographic examination did not show signs of asthma, but you still have asthma symptoms that occur day or night for an unknown reason, then you will be prescribed a trial treatment or referred to a pulmonologist for a consultation.


Spirography is an examination of the airway, during which the volume and speed of movement of inhaled and exhaled air, as well as the filling of the lungs, are assessed. Thus, we are dealing with the study of pulmonary function.

Spirography is painless and does not cause any significant harm to your well-being. In some cases, frequent, strong inhalation / exhalation can increase the pressure in the chest, abdomen and intraocular pressure and thus cause discomfort.There are contraindications for spirography, which the doctor or nurse will inform you about before the examination. The doctor and nurse will give you precise instructions on what to watch out for before coming for an examination:

  • If you are using an adjuvant with bronchodilators (bronchodilators), or the so-called inhalerpitcher, the doctor will advise you not to use it from 4 to 24 hours before the examination, depending on the duration of the medication.
  • Avoid physical activity
  • Do not smoke
  • Do not come to the examination with a full stomach, but you can have a little snack two hours before the examination.

Conducting spirographic examination

  1. Before the examination you will be weighed and measured, the data will be entered into the computer
  2. During the examination, your nose will be covered with a clothespin to exclude breathing through your nose and a special mouthpiece will be placed in your mouth.The mouthpiece is held in your mouth and you will breathe through it throughout the examination, with your back and neck straight (see Figures 1 and 2).
  3. First, the doctor or nurse will ask you to breathe in and out several times through the mouthpiece at a calm pace.
  4. Next, you will need to inhale as deeply as possible and then exhale as fast as as you can until the lungs are completely clear. This may take a few seconds. The nurse will tell you how long you will need to breathe at this rate.
  5. You may be asked to take as deep as possible and then exhale as long as possible until the lungs clear.
  6. These breathing cycles are usually repeated several times — at least three times, but usually no more than eight times. If your lung function is impaired, you will need to take fast acting bronchodilators and after 15 minutes a new spirographic examination will be performed.

What do spirography results show?

Spirography measures the volume and / or speed of air movement that a person can inhale and exhale.Most often measured:

  1. The amount of air that you can exhale forcefully for one second after maximum inhalation. This is called the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ). If the airways are in order, a person can exhale most of the air in the lungs within one second.
  2. The maximum volume of air that you can exhale forcefully after a maximum inhalation. This volume is called forced vital capacity (FVC).

As a result of calculating the results of spirography, the above two indicators are compared with the control indicators. Your age, height and gender affect your lung capacity and are taken into account when calculating your results. Asthma may be signaled when the FEV 1 / FVC ratio is less than the reference. Low values ​​indicate that your airway is narrowed, which is a typical symptom of asthma. Typically, the spirography is repeated after you take a breath-relaxing medication.If you have asthma, your maximum expiratory volume will be increased during the post-medication examination. If the spirographic examination does not give results that would clearly indicate asthma, then the doctor may prescribe you a trial treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The physician will evaluate the effect of the trial treatment after four weeks: asthma will be indicated by an increase in FEV 1 of at least 200 ml or a significant improvement in clinical symptoms.

It may happen that spirography is contraindicated for you.In this case, PEF-metry or measurement of the peak expiratory (exhaled) air velocity is used exclusively for diagnostics, against the background of trial treatment. Peak expiratory flow is measured using three measurements in a row with a PEF meter, of which the largest is taken (Quanjer et al 1997). During the measurement, the patient can stand or sit and the back and neck must be straight (McCoy et al 2010). The PEF meter is used to determine the maximum expiratory air velocity (see.(See also the chapter “Controlling asthma”).

If your complaints and clinical symptoms make it possible for the doctor to suspect you have asthma, but the results of spirography and trial treatment do not confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will refer you to a pulmonologist.

If your cough lasts longer than eight weeks, an X-ray examination may also be done, although in general cases it is not done to diagnose asthma (Laboratory diagnosis and treatment of the most common community-acquired infectious diseases and diagnostic algorithms for family doctors 2015).

No allergens need to be identified for diagnosis (Primary Health Care for Asthma in Adults, Estonian Treatment Guidelines 2014). If the doctor nevertheless suspects that your asthma symptoms are caused by an allergy, that is, you have allergic asthma, then skin tests or a blood sample should be done to clarify possible allergens.

Important to remember:

  • Establishing a diagnosis of asthma based on symptoms and results of examination and treatment
  • Tell your doctor about the manifestations of breathing problems in different situations, as well as your options for the reasons that may cause them.
  • Asthma symptoms:
  1. wheezing and wheezing in the chest, especially on deep exhalation
  2. occasional breathing difficulties
  3. shortage of air and a feeling of heaviness in the chest
  4. coughing fits, which occur more often at night and / or early in the morning
  • If asthma is suspected, a spirographic examination is carried out, if necessary, together with a test for bronchodilators
  • If asthma cannot be diagnosed on the basis of a spirogram, but asthma remains suspect based on clinical symptoms, your doctor may prescribe you a trial with basic inhaled asthma medications or refer you to a pulmonary specialist.
  • For each patient, the doctor decides separately whether he needs additional examinations. Every patient does not need them.

Various options are used to treat asthma. It is important to know that there is no one best treatment that works for everyone. The disease progresses differently from patient to patient, and for the medication to work, asthma treatment depends on your personal needs.

The goal of treatment is to achieve and maintain good control of asthma and improve the quality of life of an asthma sufferer. It is desirable to achieve this result with the lowest dose of drug / drugs and with the least side effects.

Asthma is well controlled if:

  • Symptoms do not appear during the daytime , or they appear only briefly and no more than two days a week
  • Symptoms do not appear at night , or they appear no more than two episodes per month
  • Asthma does not limit physical activity
  • The patient does not need seizure treatment (fast acting bronchodilators) or uses these drugs no more than twice a week.
  • Indicators of lung functions remain within normal limits (at least 80% of indicators for the last five years).
  • There are no more serious exacerbations , or they appear no more often than once a year.

If asthma is suspected or has already been diagnosed, it is very important that you tell your doctor about your health condition. Together with your doctor, you will find the treatment plan that best suits you.

Before visiting a doctor, track:

  • Your breath
  • Can certain activities trigger an asthma attack or respiratory distress
  • Do you have breathing problems at work while at home
  • You feel better

Record any occurrences noted as your doctor will need your exact descriptions.To track your asthma status, you can complete the asthma control test. This is a simple questionnaire that sums up asthma information (Jia et al 2013) and you can ask your FHN for a printed copy (see Appendix 1 of the Patient Guide).

Your doctor may ask you what symptoms you have, when they start, and how often they occur. You will be asked about other health data and may be asked if any of your relatives have asthma.Information about whether your relatives have had any breathing problems, lung diseases or allergies.

For your doctor, you can make a list of the medicines, supplements and vitamins you are taking.

Non-drug treatment

When treating asthma, lifestyle is important in addition to medication. Try to avoid upper respiratory irritants and known allergens.

The most important respiratory irritant is tobacco smoke.Smoking is one of the most important health risks. Quitting smoking will help you to significantly improve your asthma control.

Physical inactivity is an important risk factor (Lim et al 2012). Exercise that suits you is highly recommended for asthma. Regular exercise promotes better oxygen uptake and can improve quality of life and asthma control (Carson et al 2013; Heikkinen et al 2012).

Influenza vaccination is not contraindicated for patients with asthma (Primary Asthma Treatment in Adults, Estonian Treatment Guidelines 2014).

Important to remember:

  • Lead a healthy lifestyle – you need appropriate physical activity, achieving and maintaining a normal weight, quitting smoking.
  • Avoid upper respiratory irritants and known allergens.
  • Reducing the number of dust mites does not affect the course of asthma.
  • You can get the flu vaccine.
  • It is important for the patient to keep a diary of observation of his health, this is useful for both the patient and the doctor.

Drug treatment

The goal of pharmacological treatment of asthma is not only to relieve symptoms, but also to achieve the necessary asthma control with as few side effects as possible.

Asthma treatment is divided into basic treatment , which is used regularly to keep asthma under control, and attack treatment , which is used as needed to quickly relieve asthma attacks. For patients with mild episodic asthma, doctors recommend treatment of attacks β 2 short-acting agonists, for patients with persistent asthma, doctors prescribe constant baseline treatment and, if necessary, treatment of attacks.

Basic treatment

The baseline treatment for is inhaled or inhaled medications, which aim to both relieve symptoms and prevent asthma exacerbations and preserve pulmonary function. Treatment is usually started with inhaled glucocorticosteroids or hormonal treatment. These medications have anti-inflammatory effects and reduce swelling and irritation in the walls of the lower airways, thus relieving breathing problems.

Basic treatment uses a phased approach, starting with the lowest dose of drugs, if possible with the drugs of the first choice. If your first-line drugs are unable to control your asthma, your doctor will prescribe a dose of the next level of baseline treatment. If asthma can be controlled for at least three months, the doctor may return the dose to the previous level. The doctor regularly monitors the effect of the medication and can change the dose of the medication if necessary.If one medication does not give the desired effect of controlling asthma, then the doctor may additionally recommend another medication. Usually β 2 are used for this – long-acting agonists. You can use two different inhalers, but it is more convenient if the two medicines are combined in one inhaler.

β 2 – Long-acting agonists (bronchodilators) help open the airways, making breathing easier. Bronchial relaxers can help prevent shortness of breath and wheezing.These medications do not help with exacerbations of asthma.

There is also a group of less commonly used medicines that can be taken by mouth in pill form.

If, within one month of using the basic treatment, the desired result has not been achieved, then the doctor must first of all evaluate your inhalation technique and how much you adhere to the treatment plan and the recommended lifestyle. If necessary, the treatment regimen is changed – for example, the dose of the drug, the drugs themselves or the frequency of their administration.If your asthma is properly controlled for at least three months, your doctor may recommend a reduction in baseline treatment. If control is not achieved by a combination of two drugs in increased doses, the family doctor will refer you to a pulmonologist for a consultation.

Seizure treatment

Treating attacks with bronchodilators is effective in relieving pre-existing symptoms of asthma, but these anti-attacks do not help prevent flare-ups of asthma.

β 2 Short-acting agonists, also called rapid-acting bronchodilators , help relieve asthma symptoms. They relax the muscles in the walls of the airways, help open the airways, and make breathing easier. Thus, chest tension associated with asthma, wheezing and coughing is reduced. Their action is short-lived and sometimes, if symptoms worsen, they need to be reused.Ask your doctor to write down for you what is the exact maximum number of doses for how long you can use without danger to health. In case of exacerbation of asthma, glucocorticosteroid tablets are used. The treatment regimen will be prescribed by your doctor. In addition to the pills, you need to continue to take the inhaled drug from the basic treatment.

Before starting treatment for asthma, your doctor should assess the severity of your asthma. The dose of the drug and the frequency of its use depend on this. Next, you need to find a suitable inhaler with your doctor and nurse and learn the inhalation technique.The inhalers are convenient to use, easy to carry and easy to handle.

In the case of pharmacological treatment, the inhalation technique is very important, the attending physician or nurse will introduce you to it. Choosing the right inhaler for you is also very important.

There are several types of inhalers, so it is very important to learn a new technique when receiving the first medication or when changing it. The best way is a visual test, which can be done, for example, during a FHN appointment.

Teaches the correct inhalation technique by a family doctor or nurse

Both powder inhalers and metered dose inhalers are used. Medicines used in both metered dose inhalers and powder inhalers work the same way. Examples of different inhalers are given in Appendix 2 of this patient guide.

NB! Unfortunately, many asthma patients use the inhaler incorrectly. In case of incorrect use of the inhaler, the medication will not be beneficial.

1. Inhalers with dispensers

From these inhalers, the medication is released by pressing the canister and direct inhalation (see Appendix 2 of the patient manual).

Metered dose inhalers are used both for treating seizures and for taking basic medications.

How to use a metered-dose inhaler?

  1. Remove the cap from the inhaler.
  2. Shake the inhaler.
  3. Hold the inhaler upright, your ring finger will help you release the medication from the inhaler.
  4. Hold the mouthpiece of the inhaler near your mouth and exhale deeply.
  5. Place the mouthpiece in your mouth, gripping it firmly with your lips, and lift your chin up slightly. At the same time, when you inhale deeply and evenly, press the canister to release the dose of medication.
  6. Inhale long and deeply so that the medicine goes deep into the lungs.
  7. Remove the mouthpiece from your mouth, close your mouth and hold your breath for 10 seconds.
  8. Breathe out through the nose and repeat the procedure if necessary.
  9. After inhalation of medication, rinse your mouth.
  10. Avoid contact with eyes.

If you have read the technique manual, try using the medicine yourself in front of a doctor or nurse. The first time using the medicine at home, do it in front of a mirror.

If you have any questions about the use of the medication, be sure to ask your doctor or nurse, as taking the medication correctly will help you keep your asthma under control.

If the use of the inhaler is complicated or you cannot use it due to your health condition, then be sure to inform your doctor about this, who will prescribe the type of treatment that suits you.

Cleaning the inhaler

The inhaler should be cleaned at least once a week. This is necessary so that the medicine does not clog the mesh of the inhaler mouthpiece.

Intermediate reservoir for drug use

An intermediate reservoir (or spacer) is a container that collects medicine and allows you to inhale the medicine slowly and deeply once or twice.The intermediate reservoir reduces the likelihood of the drug settling on the tongue or mouth, and helps more of the drug get into the lungs. The intermediate reservoir is suitable for those who find it difficult to inhale and inject at the same time.

Although the remainder of the medication remaining in the intermediate reservoir is harmless, it should still be flushed regularly after every 1 to 2 weeks. The easiest way is to rinse with warm water. After rinsing, the reservoir must be air-dried, never wiping it with a towel.

2. Powder inhalers

Powder inhalers contain doses of the medicine in the form of a fine powder that, when inhaled, enters the lungs. When using a powder inhaler, you do not need to inhale and release the medicine at the same time, but the intake must be more intense. Therefore, a dry powder inhaler may not be suitable for elderly patients or people who have weakened nerves or muscles.

Powder inhalers (see.Appendix 2 of the treatment guidelines) are also used both in the treatment of seizures and as a basic treatment, depending on the medication they contain.

There are mainly 2 types of powder inhalers used:

  1. Multi-dose inhalers that include up to 200 doses.
  2. Single dose inhalers – if used, the medication capsule must be replaced before each use. It must be remembered that the capsules must not be swallowed! The medicine works only if inhaled!

The use of a powder inhaler depends on the specific type and brand of manufacture.The following are general principles for the use of such inhalers. When taking your prescribed medications, it is very important that you read the leaflet and consult with your doctor or nurse about the appointment.

How to use a powder inhaler?

  1. Remove the cap of the inhaler and release the dose of medication.If you have an inhaler to which you need to attach the capsule, follow instructions
  2. Keeping the mouthpiece to one side, exhale deeply (not into the mouthpiece).
  3. Place your front teeth around the mouthpiece and close your lips tightly around it.
  4. Inhale quickly, intensely and deeply through your mouth for 2-3 seconds.
  5. Remove the inhaler mouthpiece from your mouth. Hold your breath for another 2-19 seconds.
  6. Exhale slowly and calmly through your nose.

Be careful when cleaning the powder inhaler. Most powder inhalers cannot be washed with water or soap. The mouthpiece can only be cleaned with a dry cloth.

Treatment of concomitant diseases

Be sure to inform your doctor about your other medical conditions (for example, high blood pressure, diabetes, etc.), as this may depend on your treatment.

In the case of cardiovascular disease, medications are used that are not suitable for asthma patients. Be sure to tell your doctor about all medications you take, including pain relievers.On rare occasions, some patients may be allergic to aspirin. In this case, only paracetomol can be used as a pain reliever.

Important to remember:

  • The goal of asthma treatment is to control it.
  • It is very important to maintain a healthy lifestyle – physical activity, weight management, smoking cessation and avoidance of respiratory irritants and known allergens.
  • Medication uses both basic and anti-seizure medication, both of which are taken by inhalation.In the case of basic treatment, glucocorticosteroids are the first choice, to which long-acting bronchodilators are added. In this case, the doctor will usually write a prescription for the inhaler that contains both fixed-dose drugs.
  • In the event of an asthma attack, use a short-acting bronchodilator, but do not exceed the prescribed dose.
  • Watch for symptoms of worsening asthma.
  • Tell your doctor about any other medicines you are taking and if there have been any side effects.
  • Monitor the dose of the medication in the inhaler so that there is no situation when the inhaler is empty and you do not have a new prescription. Ask for a prescription for you before the inhaler is empty.
  • Information about all prescriptions issued and purchased by you can be checked in the prescription center of the state portal: www.eesti.ee → Services → For a citizen → Health and healthcare → Prescriptions.

With asthma, it is very important to self-monitor your well-being every day.One of the methods is the already mentioned asthma control test, as well as PEF-metry. The PEF meter is a device that measures the maximum expiratory flow rate. It can be used to assess the movement of air in the airways and the strength of the muscles that provide this action. Basically, the meter has a scale of liters / minute (l / min).

PEF is not a substitute for spirographic examinations by a physician. The PEF meter is a small, hand-held device that has the advantage of being fast and easy to interpret.Consult your doctor for information on the correct target values ​​for you.

How to use a PEF meter?

• the test should be performed while standing, while keeping the neck and back straight
• make sure that the device reads zero
• Before starting the test, take a deep breath
• place the mouthpiece of the device in your mouth and close your lips tightly around it
• exhale into the mouthpiece with maximum speed and force.
• write down the obtained reading of the device (liter / per minute)
• repeat the test two more times
• as a result, write down the highest score of the three tests performed
• the highest value means a maximum air speed of
• Save your test results at different times so that you can show them to your doctor if necessary.

Keeping your asthma under control requires adherence to your treatment plan.Main symptoms of asthma not under control :

• You wake up at night due to asthma attacks
• You are using large quantities of bronchodilators
• physical activity decreased

The doctor assesses the state of asthma using a spirographic examination, which is carried out as needed, but in the case of persistent (persistent) asthma of moderate and severe severity at least twice a year.

Ask your doctor for a written treatment plan and discuss with him which treatment regimen is best for you.

Important to remember:

  • Constant monitoring of your well-being is very important. At home, it will be possible to use an asthma control test or a PEF meter. It is recommended that you record the test results and take them with you to your doctor’s appointment.
  • Asthma can only be controlled if you adhere to your treatment plan and doctor’s orders.
  • Learn the symptoms that indicate asthma is no longer under control. The question of the need and frequency of the spirogram is decided by the attending physician.

An asthma attack is a sudden worsening of a condition. The cause of an attack can be several: excessive physical activity, various environmental factors, stress and contact with allergens. During an asthma attack, the airways become inflamed, narrowed, and mucus production increases.All of these can cause breathing problems, wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and a feeling of heaviness in the chest. The manifestation of symptoms can provoke feelings of fear, uncertainty, helplessness.

Symptoms that may appear during an asthma attack:

  • Heavy wheezing during both inspiration and expiration
  • persistent cough
  • rapid breathing
  • feeling of tension and chest pain
  • Contractions of the muscles of the neck and chest
  • speech difficulties
  • the occurrence of a feeling of anxiety or panic
  • pallor, sweating
  • blue lips

Mild asthma attacks occur with high frequency and usually last from several minutes to several hours.

When a severe asthma attack occurs, immediate medical attention is sometimes needed. Therefore, it is important to know which symptoms can be considered mild and which are not – such recognition at the right time will help you keep the situation under control. Ask your doctor for a written list of flare-up symptoms. Also ask him to write down the doses and the number of doses for you. If, despite home treatment of the attack, the situation still worsens, you need to call an ambulance within the next hour.

For advice, you can contact the round-the-clock information service of family doctors on the short telephone number 1220 * or by phone (+372) 6346 630. In case of need for an ambulance, call the emergency number 112. If your condition worsens, go directly to the hospital emergency department.

If you do not immediately take anti-asthma medication when / during an asthma attack, your breathing will become difficult.If you use a PEF meter during an asthma attack to monitor your maximum expiratory flow rate, it is likely to be the lowest of your best results. This will also help confirm worsening of the condition.

If you do not receive sufficient treatment to relieve an asthma attack, it may be difficult or impossible for you to speak. The reason for this is a decrease in the level of oxygen in the blood, which causes discoloration of the skin and lips – they become blue.In such a situation, you must find help as soon as possible.

Important to remember:

  • Learn the symptoms that can occur in the event of an asthma attack.
  • Try to avoid triggering factors for asthma attacks.
  • It is important to recognize in time which symptoms are mild and which are not, in order to take medicine at home at the right time, or go to the hospital.
  • Ask your doctor to write down a description of the flare-up symptoms for you.
  • Keep close at hand phone numbers where you can turn around the clock – these are the family doctor’s advice line 1220 and the emergency phone number 112.
  • If worsening, go to the emergency room.
  • Learn the names of medicines used to treat asthma attacks at home and their safe dosages.
  • Try to remain calm at all times, panic makes breathing even more difficult.The person caring for you should be calm and know how to help.

The life of an asthma patient should not be different from the life of people without this disease. You feel your body better than anyone else, so you can do a lot on your own to improve your well-being. It is important to adhere strictly to your treatment plan and avoid factors that trigger an asthma attack. Each person is different, and the same rule applies to symptoms that manifest themselves differently in different people.The most important thing is to observe the environment. Contact with allergens (allergy pathogens), chemicals, or other pathogens can cause asthma.

In addition, strong odors (such as paints or household chemicals) can irritate the respiratory tract. An asthma attack can also cause strong emotional experiences such as laughter, crying or, conversely, stress, some medications. You need to know what medications you have taken before and how they affected you.Watch what you eat. If some foods cause you allergies, then they should be discarded. The course of asthma can be influenced by other comorbidities. For example, backfilling of stomach contents into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux disease) can cause heartburn and asthma symptoms, especially at night.

It is recommended to keep a diary for observing your well-being, where you need to note information about everyday activities (for example, about the composition of food, how much you moved, whether there were changes in well-being due to a change in the environment, stressful situations, etc.).in order to track, in response to which factor exacerbates an asthma attack, and what helps keep the asthma attack under control.

Below are the main irritants and allergens to avoid. These irritants can cause a change in how you feel and trigger an asthma attack.

Cold air

In case of contact with very cold air, the airways can become irritated, which in turn can trigger an asthma attack.If you are outdoors in winter, cover your mouth and nose with a scarf.


You should not avoid exercising if you are diagnosed with asthma. Discuss with your doctor and find the exercise plan that works best for you. It is important to warm up a little before training and cool down a little after training. Avoid exercising in cold air or during flowering. Also, avoid exercising if your asthma is out of control.

Infectious diseases

Lung infections – such as bronchitis or pneumonia – can be dangerous for someone with asthma. The increased amount of mucus and inflammation in the airways make breathing difficult.

If you have asthma, you can get yourself vaccinated against the flu – discuss this with your doctor.


Most of the pollen is the main allergen that causes both allergic reactions and exacerbation of allergic asthma in many people.

Excess weight

Asthma is most common among overweight people, both adults and children. Children who come into contact with secondhand smoke are at greater risk of developing asthma. Teenagers who smoke also have an increased risk of developing asthma. Adults who have contact with tobacco smoke at work and at home have a 40-60% greater risk of developing asthma than those who do not come into contact with smoke. If you have been diagnosed with asthma, then smoking is contraindicated for you.Also, no one should smoke in the rooms where you are staying. On the street, try to avoid places where smoking is allowed and there may be a smell of tobacco.

Indoor molds

Mold usually occurs in damp rooms. Inhalation of fungal spores can cause allergic reactions. Keep your bathroom, kitchen and basement clean and dry


Cockroaches and their secretions can cause allergic reactions in many people.Cockroaches are attracted to food leftovers, debris, and dry food. Do not keep trash open.

Pet dandruff

Pet dandruff comes from skin, hair, and feathers. Dandruff is excreted by most pets – dogs, cats, birds and rodents. If you have been diagnosed with asthma, it is not recommended to have pets. If you already have a pet, then it should not be kept in the bedroom. The pet needs to be washed regularly.

Important to remember:

  • Know as much as possible about your illness
  • Discuss with your family doctor the possible causes of the exacerbation of the disease and how to manage it
  • Make sure you always have your seizure medication at home and always take it with you when you leave your home.
  • Know which pathogens and allergens are bad for your well-being.
  • Keep track of the doses of medication in the inhaler so that there is no situation when the inhaler is empty and you do not have a new prescription. Ask your doctor for a prescription before the inhaler runs out.
  • Maintain a well-being diary to find situations and factors that contribute to an exacerbation. Try to avoid these situations and aggravating factors.
  • Try to live a fulfilling life. This is possible with the right treatment.

The Asthma Control Test (ACT) will help you assess how you are controlling your disease. Choose the appropriate answer for each question, and write the number (one to five) in the square box to the right.

Add up all the answer values ​​to get the result.

1 question

How often during the last 4 weeks has asthma interfered with your activities at work, school, or at home?

All the time Very often Sometimes Rarely Never Points
1 2 3 4 5

Question 2

How often in the past 4 weeks have you experienced a lack of air?

More than once a day Once a day 3 to 6 times a week Once or twice a week Not once Points
1 2 3 4 5

3 question

In the past 4 weeks, how often have you woken up at night or earlier than usual due to asthma symptoms (wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, chest tightness or chest pain)?

4 or more nights per week 2 or 3 nights per week Once a week Once or twice in the last 4 weeks Not once Points
1 2 3 4 5

4 question

How often in the last 4 weeks have you used your inhaler (eg with salbutamol)?

3 times a day or more often Once or twice a day 2 or 3 times a week Once a week or less often Not once Points
1 2 3 4 5

5 question

How would you rate your asthma control over the past 4 weeks?

Failed to control at all Rarely managed to control We managed to control to some extent Good control Fully controlled Points
1 2 3 4 5



Explanation of results

25 points – Congratulations on your excellent result! from 20 to 24 – Satisfactory result less than 20 – Bad result
You have completely controlled your asthma in the past 4 weeks. You have not had asthma symptoms
and related restrictions.
If your condition worsens,
consult your doctor or nurse.
It is possible that in the last
4 weeks You are good
controlled asthma but
not completely. Your doctor or
a nurse can help you achieve complete asthma control.
It is possible that in the last
4 weeks you failed
control asthma.
Your doctor and nurse can advise you on the action plan
must be taken to achieve better asthma control.

Review the test results with your family doctor or nurse.

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Quanjer, P. H.,. Stanojevitc S, Cole TJ, Baur X, Hall GL, Culver BH, et al Multi-ethnic reference values ​​for spirometry for the 3–95-yr age range: the globaal lung function 2012 equations. Eur Respir J. 2012; 40 (6): 1324–43.

Sagedasemate haiglaväliste infektsioonhaiguste laboratoorse diagnostika ja ravi ja diagnostika algoritmid perearstidele 2005

Sistek, D., Wickens, K., Amstrong, R., D’souza, W., Town, I. & Crane, J. 2006. of respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to diagnose asthma in New Zealand. Respir Med, 100 , 2107-11.

Tarlo, SM, Balmes, J., Balkissoon, R., Beach, J., Beckett, W., Bernstein, D., Blanc, PD, Brooks, SM, Cowl, CT, Daroowalla, F., Harber, P. , Lemiere, C., Liss, GM, Pacheco, KA, Redlich, CA, Rowe, B. & Heitzer, J. 2008. Diagnosis and management of work-related asthma: American College Of Chest Physicians Consensus Statement. Chest, 134 , 1s – 41s.

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Prevention of influenza and ARVI – GBUZ “City polyclinic No. 17 of Krasnodar” MH KK

How not to get sick with influenza and ARVI

It is very easy to get sick during the cold period of the year, it is much more difficult not to get sick. It is impossible to isolate from ARVI sufferers who do not stay at home, no one is immune from hypothermia that provokes the disease.

How to keep the virus out of the body

1.Frozen – stay at home

If you are very cold, go home or to any other warm place with few people. After hypothermia, immunity is weakened, and the body becomes more susceptible to viruses.

2. Get away from people with manifestations of ARVI

If someone sneezes, coughs, or sniffles around you, it is likely that the person has an acute respiratory viral infection. And it is better to move five meters away from it – this is the minimum sanitary zone for the spread of respiratory viruses, there is a hope that it will not “reach” you.In transport, space is limited and insufficiently ventilated, which means that the virus accumulates and spreads in the air faster, so the likelihood of infection increases. But still, if possible, it is better to stay away from the probable source of infection.

3. Don’t forget to change the mask

In order not to get infected, you can use a mask. When you have to stay in the same room with a sick person for a long time, for example, on a train, this option can be life-saving.But the mask must be changed every 4 hours, otherwise its use is pointless.

4. Rinse nose and rinse mouth

When “suspicious” contacts cannot be avoided, the first thing to do is rinse your nose. For washing, experts advise using an isotonic solution. Such a solution can be prepared independently from water and ordinary table salt: 1 gram of salt per 100 milliliters of water. During an epidemic, the nose should be rinsed regularly: in the morning after sleep, in the evening after returning home and at night.If desired, this can be done every four hours during the day.

4. Take vitamins and immunomodulators

Doctors recommend taking vitamin C 1 tablet or pills 3 times a day for a week or immunomodulators according to a preventive scheme (a monthly course of taking such a drug will provide protection against infections for 2-3 months).

5. Get some sleep and eat

On the day you encounter the virus, you need to eat and sleep well – food and sleep strengthen the body’s defenses. Drink plenty of fluids. For example, green tea. It tones up well and gives the necessary energy. Monitor the quality of food. Prefer hot broths, dairy products, fruits and vegetables.

6. Dress for the season

Never go outside lightly dressed. Even if you just need to run to the car. Keep your feet warm. They are very sensitive to temperature.

7. Follow the rules of personal hygiene

Wash your hands thoroughly.People with the flu often blow their nose, leaving the flu virus on their hands. You can get it through the usual handshake or by touching the same objects that the sick have touched. Keep your home clean, dusty regularly, and damp clean. Spend more time exercising.

8. Cheer yourself up

Remember, the forces of resistance in a person in a depressed state are greatly reduced, immunity falls.

Don’t do

1. Do not wash your nose with soap

Rinsing the nose according to the folk method – with soap, experts do not approve. Soap dries the mucous membrane, it becomes more vulnerable and microorganisms penetrate through it faster.

2. Do not drink antibiotics for prevention

Under no circumstances should antibiotics or other antimicrobial agents be taken for prophylactic purposes.Until the first manifestations of the disease, such treatment is not just meaningless, but harmful.


Vaccination is recognized as the most effective measure of influenza prevention. Modern vaccines are not only highly effective, they are safe, low-reactive and are intended for the prevention of influenza in children from six months and adults without age restrictions. The absence of a live virus in them allows you to avoid infection with influenza due to vaccination. Such immunization prevents various complications by 50 – 55%

If, despite your best efforts, you still get sick, see your doctor at the first sign of infection.

SARS in children: typical manifestations, rules for parents

Acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) are the most common infections. They account for up to 90% of all infections. There are about two hundred types of viruses that cause ARVI. They affect children of all ages, including newborns. Most often ARVI is observed in children with weakened immunity, as well as in those who have numerous contacts in preschool institutions and schools.The source of infection is sick and virus carriers. The main transmission route is airborne. However, you can become infected with the general use of household items, for example, towels, handkerchiefs. The first symptoms of the disease appear within 1-7 days from the moment of infection.

One of the typical manifestations of the disease is intoxication (poisoning) caused by the activity of the virus. It can vary in severity: from mild malaise and decreased appetite to significant disturbances in the general condition with severe headache, bone aches, high fever, vomiting, impaired consciousness, convulsions.Nasal congestion, runny nose and cough are not long in coming. Discharge from the nose is at first transparent, and after the addition of a bacterial infection – with a greenish tint. Cough is usually noted from the first days of the disease: at first dry, then wet. The baby’s throat is usually red.

Most patients are treated at home. Children are subject to hospitalization, regardless of age, with severe forms of the disease, with complications and in the absence of an opportunity to provide an appropriate regimen and care at home.

Parental Guidelines

1. Call a doctor at home and, if the diagnosis of ARVI is confirmed, carry out the prescribed treatment.

2. Observe bed rest for all children, regardless of the severity of the disease, until the body temperature returns to normal and the condition improves, but not less than 3-5 days.

3. Offer meals of a dairy-plant diet in the first 2-3 days of illness, then according to age.

4. Do not give antibiotics and sulfonamides – they do not work on the virus and are not needed in case of uncomplicated ARVI.

5. Have in your home first-aid kit antiviral drugs interferon (in ampoules – nose drops), viferon (suppositories), algirem (syrup), remantadine (for school-age children – in tablets). Doses and course of treatment should be agreed with your doctor.

Fever in children is in most cases a defensive reaction. When the body temperature rises, many viruses and bacteria stop multiplying or die, and the body stimulates the production of substances that fight the pathogen. For most children, a fever up to 38.5 degrees does not cause serious discomfort.Therefore, one should not rush to bring down the temperature if the child remains active. The exceptions are cases when the child has chronic diseases of the lungs, heart, nervous system, or previously had convulsions against the background of a rise in temperature, or the child is up to 2 months old. In all these cases, antipyretics are prescribed already at a temperature of 38 degrees.

Parental Guidelines

1. Give plenty of drink in frequent fractional portions to reduce the risk of dehydration – cranberry or lingonberry juice, sweetened water with lemon, rosehip tincture, alkaline mineral water without gas.The daily volume of fluid for young children should be 150 ml per 1 kg of body weight for the period of fever, after a decrease in temperature – 100 ml.

2. Ventilate the room where the child is located several times a day (cover the child or transfer to another room for the duration of the ventilation).

3. Do not give aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) as an antipyretic agent because of the high risk of Reye’s syndrome, a disease characterized by cerebral edema, vomiting and confusion.

4. Do not give analgin to children under the age of 12 due to the high risk of side effects such as blood diseases and impaired renal function.

5. Use paracetamol as an antipyretic agent, which is available in different forms – for small children in the form of syrup, suppositories. Before giving the next dose of the drug, which is calculated by the attending physician, it is necessary to measure the child’s temperature. If it is not increased after the previous dose of the medicine, then there is no need to give the next portion.Do not use paracetamol for more than 3 days in a row. If the drug is ineffective, it is replaced with another.

A runny nose is most often a manifestation of a viral disease. In this way, the body tries to stop the infection at the approaches to the throat and lungs – the nasal mucosa secretes mucus, which contains substances that neutralize the virus. With any diseases of the lungs and upper respiratory tract, the amount of mucus begins to increase in them, the excess of which the body removes through coughing.

Parental Guidelines

1. Do not drip antibiotic solutions into the nose. The use of vasoconstrictor drops for viral rhinitis is not recommended. If the mucus in the nose dries up and the child begins to breathe through the nose, then you can moisturize the nasal passages with drops of saline (it is available in all pharmacies). A runny nose is a protection, if you do not interfere with it, it will most likely go away on its own (the exception is the case when a complication joins).

2.It is not permissible to use antitussives without consulting a doctor. At home, the main thing is to prevent the phlegm from drying out. In this case, cool air and plenty of drink will help.

Beware, flu!

What is flu

Influenza is a massive viral infection, outbreaks of which are more common in winter and early spring. The influenza virus has a pronounced ability to change its antigenic structure, so the diagnosis of “influenza” can be made repeatedly during the life of each person.Influenza differs from many infectious diseases in the ease of transmission from a sick person to a healthy one – by airborne droplets (when talking, coughing, sneezing), causing the disease a day after infection.

First symptoms of influenza

Influenza of any modification is characterized by symptoms: persistent high fever and chills, head and joint pain, photophobia and hemorrhages in the sclera, weakness and nausea, nasal congestion and dry cough. Influenza always suppresses immunity and in severe cases is accompanied by complications, the most frequent of which are bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, toxic myocardial damage, encephalopathy.

Essential drugs for the home first aid kit

Arbidol (for adults and children) and Kagocel (for adults) are among the reliable antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs. They have high antiviral activity and are used for the prevention and treatment of influenza. Prescribed drugs during a flu epidemic, with direct contact with the patient in a dosage regimen detailed in the attached instructions.

Influenza dictates the following conditions:

· seek medical attention or call a doctor;

· do not take antibiotics or sulfonamides – they have no effect on the influenza virus;

· if possible, isolate the patient in a separate room or limit his contact with healthy family members who are recommended to wear gauze bandages;

· follow the recommendations of the attending physician;

· take medications for the prevention of influenza.

Remember! Self-medication is dangerous! When the first symptoms of influenza appear, you must immediately seek qualified medical help!

Material taken from the site: http://www.med-prof.ru/

“Summer” memo from GOBUZ “Children’s Regional Clinical Hospital”

Summer – walks from early morning to late evening, a lot of sun, water and nature, and also the desire of the kid to find out what is there, around the bend and what this plant tastes like… A joyful time, requiring maximum responsibility and attention from parents. Specialists of GOBUZ “DOKB” have prepared information for you, knowledge of which will help keep the wave of summer positive for the year ahead.

We protect those close to you from sun and heat strokes.

Sunstroke is a condition that develops as a result of prolonged exposure to sunlight on the head and upper neck during hot weather. Heatstroke is the result of general overheating of the body, including exposure to sunlight.When overheated, the body protects itself from high temperatures through increased sweating. On the other hand, the loss of salts and fluids occurs with sweat, which leads to an increase in body temperature and even greater overheating. Children and the elderly are more prone to sunstroke and heatstroke. Often, sunstroke occurs in conjunction with heatstroke. The mechanism of occurrence, the processes occurring in the body, and first aid measures for solar and heat stroke are practically the same.
Heatstroke is caused by high ambient temperatures, especially when combined with high humidity and excessive physical activity. If it is exposed to sunlight, it causes sunstroke. Heatstroke can occur not only in the sun, but also in the shade, as well as in a room or car, if they are heated by the sun and poorly ventilated. Also, tight synthetic clothing contributes to overheating of the body.
Symptoms of sun and heatstroke:
Nausea, vomiting, headache, lethargy, yawning, drowsiness, facial flushing, fever, tinnitus, darkening of the eyes, rapid breathing, palpitations, weakness, dizziness ,.Sunstroke can cause skin burns. In severe cases, fainting and seizures are possible.
First aid in case of solar and heatstroke:
Cover the victim from sunlight, remove him from a stuffy, hot room into fresh air. Give the victim a semi-sitting position. Unbutton the victim’s restraining clothing, remove synthetic clothing. Smell a cotton swab moistened with ammonia. Make lotions from a cloth moistened with cool water on the head, chest, neck area.
Give the victim a plentiful drink at room temperature – juice, water, compote. The ideal drink is 1 teaspoon of salt in 1 liter of cool water. As a rule, 1-2 liters of such a solution is sufficient to replenish water and salt losses. It is impossible to give ice liquids to the victim to drink. First, it can lead to the rapid development of tonsillitis, bronchitis, or even pneumonia. And, secondly, the victim’s body does not need an additional load on the thermoregulation center, which is already overexcited.
In case of convulsions, try to make sure that the victim does not get injured (remove protruding and sharp objects), lay him down on a flat surface, turn his head to one side. If the victim’s body temperature is above 39 ° C in adults and above 38 ° C in children, you can take one of the antipyretic drugs (hyperthermia). Observe whether the patient is breathing. If breathing is absent, start artificial respiration. Check your pulse. If the blood circulation stops, start chest compressions.In case of loss of consciousness, but the victim has a pulse and breathing, put him in the correct position, which will allow him to breathe freely and prevent the possibility of suffocation or inhalation of vomit. This position is lying on your stomach, head on your side. It is necessary for the victim only if he has a pulse and breathing is preserved.
In case of respiratory and / or circulatory disturbances, convulsions and persistent impairment of consciousness, you must immediately call an ambulance.
Precautions against sun and heatstroke:
Give the victim alcoholic beverages and drinks containing caffeine.Cool the victim quickly and abruptly (dip into a cold bath).
Doctors generally recommend bed rest for several days after a person has suffered from sunstroke. This time is necessary for the body to restore the activity of the nervous system, blood circulation, and a number of biochemical reactions. This recommendation should not be neglected, otherwise the risk of a repeated shock condition will increase.
Prevention of heat and sunstroke
Heat and sunstroke in children and the elderly occurs most frequently and rapidly.Due to their age, their body has physiological characteristics, in fact, it is enough that their body has an imperfect system of internal thermoregulation. Teenagers are also classified as risk groups due to the hormonal activity of the body. It also includes people who are unusual to the heat, obese, endocrine and cardiovascular diseases, and, of course, people who abuse alcohol.
Referring to one of the risk groups, in particular, you should not wait for the heat and sun to hit your health, and in the truest sense of the word.Preventive measures must be taken in advance:
1. – in sunny hot weather, protect your head with a light, light, easily ventilated headgear (the light one reflects the sunlight better), and protect your eyes with dark glasses;
2. – Avoid staying in open spaces where there is direct sunlight. The sun is most active and dangerous during the period: from 12.00 to 16.00 hours.
3. – avoid exposure to direct rays of the sun on an uncovered body, especially the head – cover yourself with an umbrella, alternate swimming and relaxing on the sand, do not fall asleep in the sun, do not make long excursions in the heat, drink more;
4.- do not stay in the sun for a long time, even if you are on the beach under an umbrella. The duration of sunbathing at first should not be longer than 15-20 minutes, then you can gradually increase the time, but not longer than two hours with the obligatory breaks of being in the shade and coolness;
5. – it is better to sunbathe not lying down, but on the move, sunbathing in the morning and evening. Do not sunbathe immediately after eating, you can go out into the sun only after an hour;
6. ​​- wear light, light, easily ventilated clothing made from natural fabrics that does not prevent perspiration from evaporating;
7.- do not eat too densely in hot weather. Give preference to vegetables and fermented milk products;
8. – Maintain water balance in the body. While on vacation, it is better to drink at least 3 liters a day at sea;
9. – wipe your face from time to time with a wet, cool handkerchief, wash your face more often and take a cool shower;
10. – if you feel unwell, seek urgent help or take any possible measures yourself.
To prevent heat stroke, you can only create normal living and working conditions where you work and live: normal temperature, ventilation and humidity in the premises, seasonal clothing – all this will help you reduce the risk of sun and heat stroke.

We provide first aid for insect bites

The bites of most insects, although not pleasant, in themselves do not pose a particular danger, unless of course the child is not allergic to them. Since all children are different, they react differently to insect bites. Some begin to be capricious if they are bitten by a mosquito, and the place of the bite is constantly itching, while others take the bite of a wasp quite calmly, and this is not only a matter of the body’s reaction, but also of the nature of the child.
As a result of an insect bite, depending on the individual characteristics of the child, various reactions are possible:
Local. At the site of the bite, there is slight redness, swelling, itching and burning pain.
An allergic reaction is of varying severity and can manifest itself as urticaria, and in the form of Quincke’s edema, or provoke an attack of suffocation and bronchial asthma.
General toxic. It is accompanied by chills, nausea, vomiting, headache and joint pain.Usually, it develops as a result of multiple insect bites. Especially dangerous for small children.
To provide the necessary first aid for insect bites, it is advisable, nevertheless, to find out who bit you, in order to be confident in your further actions.
Mosquito bites – first aid.
Mosquitoes, like horseflies, do not have poisonous glands, but they can be a carrier of any disease. For mosquitoes, humans are food. When a mosquito bites, a substance enters the child’s body that prevents blood from clotting, which gives the mosquito the opportunity to eat.At the site of a mosquito bite, slight redness and a blister appear – this is the result of an allergic reaction to a substance that entered your bloodstream at the time of the bite. In the vast majority of cases, this reaction is not harmful to your child’s health. For first aid, you can wipe the bite with baking soda and spread brilliant green. Baking soda will reduce swelling, and “brilliant green” will prevent possible infection.
In order to avoid mosquito bites, you can put mosquito nets on the windows, and while walking, if your child is still very young, be sure to cover the stroller with a piece of tulle, mosquito net or gauze.But pediatricians do not at all welcome the spraying of anti-camarine aerosols and the use of creams, so use them only if you are going to go with your child to pick mushrooms in the forest or go fishing, where you cannot avoid contact with mosquitoes.

Bites of bees, wasps and other stinging insects – first aid.
A bee, like a bumblebee, can only sting once. Unlike them, the sting of a wasp has no jaggedness, and therefore one wasp can sting a person several times. But both wasps and bees attack and sting only when they sense danger.During a bite, poison enters the child’s bloodstream, which may cause an allergic reaction. Therefore, it is very important to be able to provide first aid for the bite of these insects.
1First of all, if the sting remains at the site of the bite, it must be removed. For this, tweezers are best suited, but you can also use improvised means, having previously disinfected them with an alcohol solution.
2 Wash the bite site with soap and water.
3Cold or cotton wool dipped in calendula tincture must be applied to the bite site.
4Take an antihistamine. For example “Zirtek”, “Suprastin”, “Fenistil”, or “Claritin”. For dosage and age restrictions, see the instructions.
At your discretion, you can use folk remedies, and, after removing the sting, attach a piece of raw, halved potatoes. Do not use earth under any circumstances. Despite the prevalence of this method, it does not carry anything good in itself. On the contrary, you are at serious risk, and you can easily introduce an infection into the child’s body.
Seek medical attention if symptoms of a severe allergic reaction occur, namely: shortness of breath with difficulty breathing out, urticaria, headache, loss of consciousness, vomiting, nausea, convulsions, palpitations; at the site of the bite of only one insect, there are signs of infection such as: redness, increasing pain, fever, edema; previous bites were accompanied by the development of allergic reactions; more than ten to twenty bites are noted on the human body, especially when it comes to an elderly person or a child; the sting was launched into the eyeball, throat, or the inside of the mouth.

First aid for poisonous animal bites

What is the danger of a snake bite? How to distinguish a venomous snake from a non-venomous snake? What should you do if you are bitten by a snake?

Snake bites are fraught with great danger to human health. The fact is that today there are numerous types of snakes, which tend to release a very strong poison that can not only harm the general state of human health, but also lead to death.The amount of venom released by a venomous snake bite is much greater than the amount of venom released by the bite of any venomous insect.

Despite the fact that most people believe that snakes are extremely aggressive, in fact, their venomous species tend to attack on their own only in very rare cases. As a rule, in the attack of these poisonous animals, the person himself turns out to be guilty, since it is he who, in most cases, disturbs the snake or, for whatever reason, attacks it.

First aid for a snake bite involves washing the affected area with running water, squeezing the poison out of it, fixing the affected limb. In addition, the wound must be wrapped with a sterile bandage, after which the victim must be taken to a medical facility.
The types of snakes that are most dangerous to humans.
If we consider the list of terrestrial poisonous animals, then among all its diversity we can immediately distinguish snakes, the bites of which can cause human death.A particular danger is represented by such types of these animals as: sandy efa, cobra, viper and gyurza. If a person is bitten by a snake, he should immediately seek help from a specialist doctor, as it is quite possible that it was poisonous.
Specific traits of venomous snakes
All venomous snakes have slit eyes and a head that resembles a triangle in appearance. If we talk about the common viper, then it has a special color, but the main tone still remains brown, while a zigzag pattern is visible on the back.Gyurza has a very large thick body, which has a reddish-brown or grayish-sandy color. Throughout the back of the gyurza, there are transversely elongated spots. Efe is characterized by a golden-sandy color, while fairly large white spots are located along the entire body, and a light zigzag is drawn on the side. The so-called cross is on the head of the epha.
In case of a bite of a non-venomous snake, two stripes of fine small scratches are noted on the victim’s body. If the bite was carried out by a poisonous snake, then there are also two stripes of scratches, however, punctures left by fangs are also noted at their ends.
Signs of a snakebite
One or two punctate wounds or scratches clearly defined. Increasing swelling around the bite and pain at the site of the lesion. Vomiting, cold sweat, fever, drowsiness, severe nausea, muscle weakness. Visual impairment, namely “split” in the eyes. Labored breathing.
First aid for a snakebite
Stay calm and immediately send someone for the help of a specialist doctor, or, if possible, call an ambulance yourself.To prevent the poison from spreading through the body at an accelerated pace, try to move as little as possible. In no case should the victim move independently. He should be laid down immediately and given complete rest. Plus, the affected area should be completely immobile, while fixing it with a bandage. If the bite falls on the upper limb, it is fixed in a bent position.
In case of a snakebite, suck the venom out of the affected area immediately.In this case, it is necessary to squeeze the tissue around the wound with your teeth, while simultaneously sucking and squeezing out the liquid. The resulting liquid should be spit out as quickly as possible. This entire process usually takes fifteen to twenty minutes. During this period of time, approximately twenty to fifty percent of the poison is extracted. Do not worry that the poison will penetrate into your body, this will not happen. First of all, the person who comes to the rescue always spits out poison. In addition, the amount of poison that can still enter the body is very small and cannot cause intoxication.
Next, we disinfect the wound with brilliant green or iodine, after which we apply a tight bandage to the site of the lesion. The more the swelling develops, the weaker the bandage needs to be applied. Thus, it will be possible to avoid damage to soft tissues. The victim should consume a huge amount of liquid, namely water, tea, and so on. This will make it possible to cleanse the body of the existing poison much faster. It is necessary to hospitalize the victim as soon as possible, since only in the hospital will he be able to inject a special polyvalent anti-snake serum.
In the event of a snakebite, it is not recommended to cut the affected area or cut it crosswise. Cuts with objects such as glass, knives, and others can cause infection. Also, you can not do moxibustion in the place of injury with such red-hot objects as gunpowder or coals from a fire. In fact, such moxibustion is not effective, since the length of the teeth of a poisonous snake is one centimeter. As a result, the poison tends to penetrate very deeply into the tissues. Cauterization on the surface of the skin will not have absolutely any healing effect, but it can provoke the development of a scab, under which suppuration develops.Do not apply a tourniquet above the lesion site. This will only worsen the general well-being of the victim, and also increase the risk of his death. Do not drink alcoholic beverages. Alcohol is not an antidote, it does not allow the poison to leave the body, as it only enhances its effect.

We get acquainted with poisonous plants and learn how to protect children from their effects.

Children can be poisoned by berries, plant flowers, stems, fruits, mushrooms. Do not let them taste unfamiliar berries, flowers and leaves of plants, do not pick and cook unknown to you, or simply old mushrooms.Going with a child of any age to the forest, carefully observe him. Poisonous flowers and herbs grow in meadows, forests, on the banks of rivers and lakes. Poisonous plants are often attracted by their appearance, paints. You can only admire unfamiliar plants, their flowers and seeds, forbid the child to touch them, especially to take them in his mouth.

If your baby ate an unfamiliar plant or the fruits and berries of dubious plants while walking, certain actions must be taken. Try to find out what kind of plant the baby ate, ask him to show in confidence what he tried and how many leaves, berries or flowers.If the baby is crying, afraid, or simply cannot name exactly – examine all the plants in a row that he could reach – look for torn leaves, flowers, remnants of stalks, smeared dirt or other signs that the child has put his hand here. If it is not possible to find out if a plant is definitely poisonous, act as if the plant is poisonous – it is better to play it safe, even if the child has eaten only a few leaves.
Symptoms of eating poisonous plants may be local or general.
Local symptoms may include redness or blisters on the hands, eyes or lips.Examine your tongue and mouth for cuts, redness, blistering, or swelling. Many plants are poisonous, but some are more poisonous than others. Some poisonous plants can cause soreness in the mouth, indigestion and vomiting without any negative consequences, while others can even be fatal. Fortunately, the leaves of many toxic plants are so bitter that children are more likely to spit them out rather than swallow them. If the plant is undoubtedly poisonous, immediately give the child plenty of water and induce vomiting.After gastric lavage, take the baby and the plant to the nearest hospital. If you suspect your toddler has tried the plant, take it with you.
Plant Safety Precautions
Keep your houseplants safe for your baby. Buy plants only with a label on which their name is written. Ask if it is poisonous. If you were presented with an unknown plant, be sure to find out what it is called. If it is poisonous or you did not manage to find out its name, immediately part with it, no matter how beautiful it is.When walking in the forest, do not leave your baby unattended by adults. poisonous plants make up only 2% of all others, but the likelihood of meeting them is quite high. They grow not only in forests, fields and meadows, but also near residential buildings, in vegetable gardens, and some of them are grown by gardeners in their summer cottages.
Plants are called poisonous if they contain chemicals that, once ingested, cause poisoning. Distinguish between unconditionally and conventionally poisonous plants (those that are toxic when immature or improperly stored).So, for example, immature potato tubers that have turned green in the light or overwintered in the soil contain the poisonous substance solanine, which can cause poisoning. The seeds of the berries and fruits loved by children are also poisonous – cherries, apricots, plums. They contain a substance called amygdalin. If you swallow 1–2 seeds, nothing will happen, but if you eat 10–20 kernels from the seeds, you can get serious poisoning. From the seeds of cherries and plums, amygdalin can pass into jams, compotes made from these fruits and stored for more than a year.Many of the poisonous plants are used in pharmacology in the manufacture of medicines. The fact is that poisons in minimal doses can be useful for a person if he suffers from one or another disease. But collecting poisonous herbs and self-medicating is not worth it, because even a slight excess of the dose can lead to poisoning. Moreover, it is impossible to treat a child with such plants.
Children and plants
Once in nature, children love to play with plants: they make “salads” from leaves, “porridge” – from flowers, “cook compote” from berries.
While playing, a child can get carried away and taste an unfamiliar plant. If it turns out to be poisonous, the experiment can lead to dire consequences.
Try to protect your child from unwanted contact.
Forbid your child to pick unfamiliar plants and even more so put them in his mouth.
Teach your toddler to always wash his hands with soap and water after exercising and playing with flowers and herbs (for example, buttercup juice can cause sore eyes).
Walk around the garden area and look carefully for any poisonous plants that grow in the area.If there is, uproot them and make sure they don’t grow back.
When purchasing a new ornamental plant for your site, ask in advance if it is poisonous. Even if the shrub or flower you like is very beautiful, but poisonous, it is better to refuse to plant it.
A 5-year-old child can already be introduced to what poisonous plants (their leaves, flowers, fruits) look like – this will require a special excursion. Explain to the children that such plants should be bypassed and should never be torn apart.
Adults need to be especially careful when walking in the woods. Make sure that the baby does not accidentally pick or eat poisonous berries, confusing them with edible ones (for example, a raven’s eye – with blueberries, a wolfberry – with viburnum).
What to do in case of poisoning with poisonous plants
If you see that a child has eaten a poisonous plant or suspect that this may have happened, be sure to give him a drink of water and try to induce him to vomit by pressing on the root of the tongue.
Give the child any enterosorbent (Smecta, Enterosgel, Polyphepan, Filtrum STI, activated carbon) at an age-specific dosage.
Be sure to call an ambulance or go to the hospital – poisoning can be dangerous. Be prepared for the fact that your child may need hospitalization.
If you find in a child such signs as dilated pupils, rapid or, conversely, too rare pulse, speech disorder, excessive excitement, or, conversely, lethargy, lethargy, then we can assume that the child ate a poisonous plant. In this case, you need to act in the same way as in case of poisoning.
It should be borne in mind that the symptoms of poisoning do not always appear immediately after eating a poisonous plant, they can occur several hours after it.
Examples of poisonous plants
Aconite (wrestler)
What it looks like:
This tall plant with blue, blue or purple flowers gathered at the top of the stem is very beautiful. It not only grows in the wild, but also occurs in garden plots. Children can be attracted by flowers or leaves of aconite, so it is better to refuse to grow this plant in your country house.
Our ancestors well knew about the properties of aconite: ancient warriors rubbed the tips of their arrows with the poison of this plant. The use of aconite causes a burning sensation in the mouth, headache, vomiting, convulsions. A rapid pulse appears, the pupils dilate. Paralysis of the respiratory center may occur. There are known cases of fatal poisoning when eating greens and aconite tubers by mistake.

Wolf bast (wolfberry, daphne)
What it looks like:
Shrub with bright red berries located close to the branches (it looks like a sea buckthorn).The fruits ripen by July-August. Grows in forests. Some gardeners grow wolf bast as an ornamental plant.
All parts are poisonous, especially the fruits. The sap of the plant on the skin can cause redness, pain, swelling, blistering and sores on the skin.
When eating berries, there is a burning sensation in the mouth, difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions. Blood appears in the urine and feces. For a child, a dose of 3-5 berries can be lethal.

Lily of the valley
What it looks like:
This wonderful plant with little white flowers that look like tiny bells should not be torn, not only because it is listed in the Red Book, but also because of its toxicity.Lily of the valley blooms in May, and in June-July, fruits appear on it, similar to bright red beads, which can attract a child. Grows in forests. Sometimes gardeners breed lilies of the valley as an ornamental plant.
All parts of the plant are poisonous. Moreover, even the water in which there was a bunch of lilies of the valley can cause poisoning if you drink it (even deaths are known after drinking such water). The plant contains cardiac glycosides, leading to disruption of the cardiovascular system; the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system are also affected.With mild poisoning, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain are observed; in severe cases, the heart rhythm is disturbed, the pulse becomes rare. Death can occur due to cardiac arrest.

Crow’s eye
What it looks like:
A small blue-black berry, similar to blueberries, may well interest the baby. Explain to your child how it differs from blueberries: the raven’s eye has a short stem with four large leaves and one berry in the middle, and blueberries are a low, branched shrub with many small leaves.
All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the berries. If a child eats one berry, it is still not very scary, and if he swallows several, it will lead to sad consequences. Signs of poisoning: vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, drooling, dizziness.

Datura ordinary
What it looks like:
Plant with large white gramophone flowers and large maple-like leaves. The child may be interested in the fruits of Datura – green balls with thorny thorns, as well as its black seeds, a bit like poppy seeds.It grows on wastelands, along roadsides.
The plant is very poisonous, especially its seeds. In case of poisoning, severe agitation, dilated pupils, facial flushing, speech disorder, hallucinations are possible.

Acid buttercup (night blindness)
What it looks like:
Plant with small golden-yellow flowers, grows in forests and meadows. Flowers have an attractive appearance, which is why children may want to use them in their games, collect them in bouquets, which is absolutely impossible to do.
Contains caustic substances that irritate the skin and mucous membranes. If you pick up a bunch of such flowers and smell it, a runny nose will appear, tears will flow, it will become difficult to breathe, and if, holding the plant, rub your eyes with your hands, then there will be a sharp pain in the eyes, a temporary feeling of poor vision. When such symptoms appear, the eyes must be rinsed well with water. When the plant is consumed inside, there is a burning sensation in the mouth and abdomen, vomiting, and diarrhea.

What it looks like:
This tall umbellate plant with large leaves and white inflorescences is very noticeable: it can reach 2-3 meters in height.Grows along roads, in abandoned fields, sometimes found within the city, in parks.
The plant contains photosensitizing substances that increase the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet light. Touching the cow parsnip leads to the appearance of burns of the I – III degree. First, the skin reddens, itching appears, then blisters may develop (as with a thermal burn). Sometimes the general condition worsens: the temperature rises, chills appear. Burns from hogweed take a very long time to heal, sometimes scars and hyperpigmentation (darker areas of the skin) remain after them.

How to deal with plant burns
If a child touches the cow parsnip, dab the remaining plant sap on the skin with a cloth.
Protect the affected area from the sun’s rays – the poisonous properties of the plant are manifested by ultraviolet radiation.
Rinse the burn area with water, blot it with a towel, apply a medicine for burns – “D-Panthenol”, “Pantoderm”, “Psilo-balm” on the skin.
It is advisable to cover the burn site from the sun for the next two days.
In case of severe skin damage, blistering, it is better to consult a doctor.

Burn – what is mandatory and what is strictly prohibited.

Burn – tissue damage caused by high temperature, electric current, acids, alkalis or ionizing radiation. Accordingly, a distinction is made between thermal, electrical, chemical and radiation burns. Thermal burns are the most common, accounting for 90-95% of all burns. The severity of the burn depends on the depth of tissue damage and on the area of ​​its distribution.When 10% of the body area is affected, severe general phenomena occur, called burn shock and burn disease. Painful shock causes changes in the central nervous system, and evaporation from the surface of the burn of the liquid part of the blood (plasma) and poisoning of the body with the decay products of dead tissues disrupt the functions of internal organs.
In case of burns, it is prohibited:
It is forbidden to lubricate the burned surface with oil, fat, even medicinal cream (it delays the release of heat and contributes to the development of infection), sprinkle the wound with soda, starch or flour, rip off the remnants of clothing from the burned surface, treat burns 2-4 with alcohol degree.
For the earliest possible termination of the effect of chemical agents that have fallen on the skin, the affected surface is washed with running water for 10-30 minutes. Then, for burns with acids, wash with solution of sodium bicarbonate, for burns with alkalis – with a weak solution of acetic acid and apply an aseptic bandage. They are transported on a stretcher to the hospital.
It is strictly forbidden to wash the burned area with any kind of liquid or lubricate it with ointments and fats, touch it with your hands, pierce the burn blisters, and also tear off clothes adhering to the burn.
Shock prevention measures should be taken in the case of extensive burns. For this, the victim must be laid down so that he is less bothered by pain, provide him with warmth and plenty of drink. You can give hot tea or coffee. With extensive burns, the patient is best wrapped in a clean, ironed sheet and urgently hospitalized.
Thermal burn occurs from exposure to the skin of boiling water, flame, molten fat, hot metal. To reduce pain and prevent tissue swelling, you must immediately place the burned hand, leg under a stream of cold water and hold until the pain subsides.
The bandage does not need to be applied. It is enough to treat burnt skin several times a day with special aerosols such as “Levian”, “Vinisol”, “Oxycyclosol”, “Panthenol”, which are intended for the treatment of superficial burns and are sold in pharmacies without a prescription.
In case of a second-degree burn (when blisters have formed, some of them burst and the integrity of the skin – the upper layer of the skin is broken), it is not necessary to treat the burn area with alcohol, as this will cause severe pain and burning.In no case should the blisters be punctured: they protect the burned surface from infection. Apply a sterile bandage (sterile bandage or iron-ironed cloth) to the burn area.
Burnt skin should not, as is often done, be lubricated with fat, brilliant green (brilliant green), a strong solution of potassium permanganate. This will not bring relief, and it will be difficult for the doctor to determine the extent of tissue damage.
In case of burns by a flame, a person in burning clothes usually rushes about, thereby fanning the flame.Stop it immediately, rip off or extinguish the ignited clothing by pouring water from a bucket, basin, preferably from a hose, and in winter throwing snow.
If there is no water at hand, throw a blanket, thick cloth over the victim. But keep in mind: the longer and tighter the smoldering clothes are pressed against the skin, the more destructive the heat is on the skin. A person in burning clothes should not be wrapped upside down to avoid respiratory tract damage and poisoning with toxic combustion products.
After extinguishing the flame, quickly remove clothing from the victim by cutting.Pour cold water over the affected areas of the body for 15-20 minutes.
In case of extensive lesions, cover the victim with ironed towels, a sheet, and a tablecloth. Give him 1-2 tablets of analgin or amidopyrine. Call an ambulance or take him to a medical facility.
Chemical burns
Causes concentrated acids, alkalis, salts of some heavy metals on the skin. The chemical must be removed as soon as possible! First, remove any clothing that has come into contact with chemicals from the victim.Try to do this so as not to get burned yourself. Then rinse the affected surface of the body under an abundant stream of water from a tap, shower, hose for 20-30 minutes. Do not use a tampon moistened with water, as in this case any chemical is rubbed into the skin and penetrates into its deep layers.
If the burn is caused by alkali, treat the affected skin areas washed with water with a solution of citric or boric acid (half a teaspoon in a glass of water) or table vinegar, half diluted with water.
Wash areas of the body that have been burned with acid, other than hydrofluoric acid, with an alkaline solution: soapy water or a solution of baking soda (one teaspoon of soda per glass of water). In case of a burn with hydrofluoric acid, which is, in particular, a part of the brake fluid, to remove the fluoride ions it contains, it is necessary to rinse the skin for a very long time, 2-3 hours, under a stream of water, since fluorine penetrates deeply into it.
When the burn is caused by quicklime, do not rinse it off with water! Heat is generated when lime and water interact, which can exacerbate thermal injury.First, very thoroughly remove lime from the surface of the body with a piece of clean cloth, and then rinse the skin with running water or treat with any vegetable oil.
Apply a dry, sterile dressing to the burn area.
In all cases of chemical burns, after first aid, the victim must be taken to a hospital.
There are frequent eye burns with chemical dyes – aniline paint, an ink lead, ink. If the dye gets into the eye, immediately remove the dye with a damp cotton or gauze swab, and then rinse the eye abundantly with boric acid (half a teaspoon in a glass of water), a slightly pink solution manganese-acid potassium or 3% tannin solution.One of these solutions is poured into a special vessel (you can buy it at the pharmacy) or into a cleanly washed teapot for making tea. Parting the victim’s eyelids, irrigate the eye over the sink, pouring the solution out of the kettle. If there are no medicinal solutions at home, you can rinse your eye under running water from the tap or with cooled liquid tea from a teapot. After washing, it is imperative to contact an optometrist who will decide on further treatment.
Acids, alkalis in the eye can also cause severe corneal burns.To avoid this, you must first thoroughly rinse your eyes under running water for 10 minutes. And then, if any acid (nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, oxalic, carbolic) gets into your eyes, rinse them with a weak solution of baking soda – half a teaspoon in a glass of water. In case of contact with the eyes of alkali (caustic soda, ammonia, caustic soda, carbide, lime), it is necessary to carefully treat the eye with a damp swab moistened with a 2% solution of boric acid.

Prevention of injuries

To begin with – the anatomical and physiological features of the musculoskeletal system of the child.
Small children are unstable, they constantly fall. If an adult fell as often as a child, he would constantly be treated for fractures, and the child often gets off with just a slight fright. Why is this happening? In children, the articular ends of the bones are made of cartilage. It provides the baby’s bones with high elasticity – this protects him from fractures in situations in which they would not have been avoided by adults. In addition, the child is protected from fractures by short stature and small body weight, which make falling from his own height relatively safe.But falls from a height are dangerous for a child!
In addition to the abundance of cartilaginous tissue, children have a very thick periosteum, which surrounds the bone, nourishes it and ensures the healing of fractures. A typical childhood trauma is a “green twig fracture,” after which the bone heals rather quickly. If a child’s bone breaks between the joints, it seems as if it just bent at one point. The thick periosteum usually does not allow the bones to move with the overlap of fragments – they are displaced at an angle, which makes it easier for surgeons to reposition – it is enough to align the bones and apply a plaster cast.After that, the bones not only grow well together, but are even able to even out the small curvatures left after the fracture fusion during the growth process – this never happens in adults.
It is important to know that:
– For the formation of normal bones, a child needs dairy and fermented milk products, as well as vitamin D, which is produced by the skin when exposed to sunlight.
– In the Northwest region, where the sun is not enough, the child will be helped by ultraviolet radiation. They can be replaced with vitamin preparations containing vitamin D.
– The motor regime plays an important role. Physical culture and sports develop the musculoskeletal system and allow in modern sedentary urban conditions to correctly form the skeleton and muscles.
– Gymnastic complexes are useful at home. On them, the child can frolic and develop dexterity that will save him in a critical situation.
Prevention of trauma in young children
One can hardly imagine a greater tragedy than the death or injury of a child who was just completely healthy.According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 2,000 children die every day as a result of injuries, and every year tens of millions of children around the world are admitted to hospitals as a result of injury and poisoning. During the first six years of life, more than 45% of injuries and poisoning occur annually among the children’s population of cities. The highest injury rate is among children aged 3 to 6 years, and the proportion of injuries sustained at home reaches 38%. The maximum level of injuries in all countries is noted during the second year of life.Moreover, boys are injured 1.5 times more often than girls at any age. At least 1,000 children’s lives could be saved every day if proven preventive measures are adopted everywhere.
Compliance with the rules for the use of child seats in passenger cars with seat belts.
– Child-proof lids on drug packages, lighters and household food containers.
– Creation of a traumatic environment in the apartment and at playgrounds: reconstruction of children’s furniture, toys and equipment for playgrounds.
– Teaching children by personal example the rules of safe behavior and handling objects and household appliances.
– Compliance with fire safety rules and rules for handling water.
Typical injuries and their prevention

In the spring-summer period – bicycle, roller skates
– You can only ride on a playground or in a park with specially designated traffic lanes.
– It is imperative to use helmets or shields to protect joints in case of falls.
– Training in any sporting activity should be conducted under the guidance of an experienced mentor. An important role is played by the skill of a safe fall.
Street injuries, road accidents
– The child must be on the street accompanied by adults.
– Help children learn the rules of walking, crossing the carriageway, using traffic lights and using public transport.
– Explain to the children that there are playgrounds for play, the street is not a place for play.
The sun’s rays can cause burns and heatstroke, so clothing should cover most of the body.Be sure to need a headdress (panama hat, hat, cap).

It is very harmful for any child to be in the sun for hours without clothes! Train your skin to sun exposure by gradually increasing the duration of your tan (it promotes the production of vitamin D).

A child must know the boundaries within which he can walk without adults, the time (you cannot walk at night), the company (you cannot walk with unfamiliar children and adults) and the dangers with which contact is generally prohibited (animals, strangers, transport, construction site, garbage, neglected items).

Draw the child’s attention to hygiene: you cannot eat or taste anything in the yard.

On the river and at sea
Choose shallow places for swimming with a clean, checked bottom.
Do not allow your child to dive off piers or fallen trees, as colliding with an obstacle can fracture the cervical spine and cause paralysis.
Avoid rifts, whirlpools on the river, and aquatic plants on the lake, in which even an experienced swimmer can get entangled.
At sea, pay attention to waves and surf, as well as to the topography of the shore (too much rocks can lead to injury).
In the forest
Be sure to accompany your child!
Clothing should cover the whole body. Treat it with a tick-repellent before entering the forest. Apply mosquito and fly repellent to exposed skin. A must-have shoe is rubber boots that protect you from snake bites and allow you to walk through puddles. Show your child all the dangers that lie in wait for you and how to avoid them.All suspicious bushes and grasses must first be touched with a stick. Teach your child how to use fire safely. Show him dangerous insects, poisonous plants, berries, mushrooms, contact with which must be avoided.
At the dacha
Heaps of construction waste, rusty nails, and debris that a child cannot see in the grass are especially dangerous. Therefore, before the arrival of the children, remove all hazardous debris on the site, secure objects that can collapse. It is better to cut the lower branches from the trees. Set up a bright, interesting playground, a swing that will help distract your child from climbing trees.Any tools should only be used under adult supervision. It is useful to have a children’s set of toy tools: it will be safe for the child to learn housekeeping skills next to you.

Open injuries
Any mechanical injury can be accompanied by injury. Wounds and abrasions are open lesions. They lead to bleeding and open the “gateway” of infection, which can interfere with their healing process and lead to complications. The greatest danger is a purulent infection and tetanus, which carries a direct threat to the child’s life.
A measure of prevention of purulent infection is the treatment of the wound, which is done by the doctor. Tetanus prophylaxis is provided by routine vaccinations.
When contacting a doctor, you should know whether a routine DPT vaccination has been performed, and be prepared for emergency prophylaxis with tetanus toxoid, and, if necessary, for the administration of serum.
At the age of one to three years, the most common injuries to the hand and fingers, which can fall not only under the obviously dangerous knives and scissors.The greatest danger is the kitchen. Most often, wounds are caused by sharp edges of doors and drawers of dressers and nightstands, fragments of dishes broken by a child, working parts of mechanical kitchen devices (combines, blenders, meat grinders), which arouse a child’s keen interest and desire to touch. In school and adolescence, street injuries, sports and road traffic injuries are most common.
Prevention of wounds and abrasions
When the child begins to walk, carefully examine the area within his reach.Make all dangerous objects inaccessible to the child.
– Fit furniture doors and drawers with locks or tight seals.
– Check the stability of the tables and nightstands, cover the sharp corners of the furniture. Soft carpet, linoleum and rugs are less traumatic than a tiled floor.
– Dishes for children must be plastic, shatterproof.
– Remove broken or disassembled toys with sharp parts.
– While walking, supervise the child and, in the event of a traumatic situation, carefully take him to a safe place.
– When equipping a playground in the country, polish and paint the wood of the product to eliminate possible splinters. Remove debris and glass shards from the site.
– During sports activities, put on the child’s sports uniform and, if necessary, use protective devices (shields, helmets, knee pads, etc.)
– Teach the child to participate in housekeeping, help adults. This will help him master the skills of handling surrounding objects, including dangerous ones.

First aid for a child with wounds and abrasions
– If a child has an abrasion as a result of an injury, it is enough to rinse it, and treat the edges with any antiseptic (iodine, “brilliant green” or hydrogen peroxide) and let dry with the formation of a crust (scab), under which she will heal. Don’t let your child scratch the abrasion.
– Do not pour anything into the wound: the above products are only used to treat the skin around its edges.
– The superficial wound should be washed with soap and a sterile dressing should be applied.
– If the wound is large or deep, you need to go to a doctor – to a children’s trauma center, to a surgeon at a polyclinic or to a feldsher-obstetric center (in rural areas).
– In case of bleeding, the wound should be covered with a sterile napkin and tightly bandaged. With persistent bleeding (arterial bleeding is recognized by a pulsating stream from the wound), tight bandaging is continued a few centimeters above the wound until the bleeding stops completely. It should be remembered that stopping arterial bleeding by bandaging disrupts blood circulation in the limb.It is accompanied by pale skin and numbness, which after an hour and a half begin to threaten the vitality of the limb. In cold weather, such a limb must be protected from frostbite. Therefore, in such a situation, the child must be delivered to a medical institution as soon as possible. After an hour and a half, the bandage should be loosened to restore blood circulation to the limb (fingers will become pink, warm and sensitive), and re-bandaged.
– In the hospital, you should accept the treatment suggested by the doctor, if necessary, agree to surgery (surgical debridement of the wound, in which it will be cleared of infection and possibly stitched up) and hospitalization, if recommended by the doctors.
– Do not try to heal deep or large wounds on your own, as this threatens complications that can be dangerous to the health and life of the child.
– For any open injuries (including abrasions), if the child has not been vaccinated against tetanus, be sure to see a doctor.

Damage to the musculoskeletal system: bone fractures, dislocations, bruises

Contusion is a closed partial injury to soft tissues at the site of the impact.Contusion is manifested by pain, local swelling, short-term dysfunction, and sometimes subcutaneous hemorrhage (bruising).

Fracture – mechanical damage to bone tissue. The mechanism of injury can be direct (a blow to the bone, which broke at the place of application of force) and indirect (for example, the child fell on the buttocks, and at the same time the lumbar vertebra broke, on which there was no blow). It is manifested by pain, increasing local edema, which spreads down the limb. The bruise is very large, extending to everything below the fracture.There is a sharp pain during movement, especially with a load at the site of the fracture. The most accurate sign of a fracture is deformation and mobility at the site of injury, in the gap between the joints, that is, where there should be no movement. In this case, the child cannot stand on his leg or raise his arm. This condition continues for the entire period of fracture healing, usually several months.

Dislocation – rupture of the bursa and all ligaments of the joint, in which there is a complete separation of the articulated bones. For example, if you are trying to keep the baby from falling and pull him strongly by one wrist, then a typical injury for this situation often occurs – rupture of the bag of the elbow joint with dislocation of the radius.

All dislocations are manifested by sharp pain, impaired movement and deformation of the joint area. Recovery is impossible without dislocation reduction.

Contusions are usually minor injuries, and fractures and dislocations are severe. Fractures and dislocations are closed (the skin over the injury site is intact) and open (there is a wound above the fracture or dislocation site, in which the bone can be seen).
Prevention of fractures, bruises and dislocations
– Fractures and dislocations in children usually occur when falls from a height that exceeds the height of the child and falls at speed.
– In a kindergarten group and in an apartment, children need supervision and competent management of games, in which uncontrolled climbing, jumping and falling are excluded.
– The farm must be put in order. Basement hatches should be closed, there should be restraints in the windows and on low vents, and on the balconies there should be good railings and gratings. Access to the places where the mechanisms work should be possible for children only when accompanied by adults who must teach safe behavior.
– During a walk, there should be active communication between an adult and a child, in which the adult shows a stereotype of safe behavior in a playful way, and insures the child in dangerous places.
– On the street, a child should only appear accompanied by an adult who comments on situations of traumatic behavior of others. Particular attention should be paid to training in traffic rules for pedestrians.
– In transport, a preschool child must ride in a sitting position, and in cars, special child seats with seat belts must be used for this.
First aid for fractures, bruises and dislocations
– When detecting “pathological mobility” or crunching of bone fragments, which are accompanied by sharp pain, you should call an ambulance.
– Before the arrival of the doctors, the limb must be fixed. For this, a strip of packaging cardboard is best suited, from which you need to roll a groove to which you should bandage the limb with the capture of two adjacent joints.
– If there is a wound (open fracture) in the area of ​​the fracture, cover it first with a sterile napkin (they are available in first-aid posts and car kits).
– Do not try to eliminate the deformation and “set” anything!
– At the hospital, the child will be given an X-ray, if necessary, a reduction and a plaster cast will be applied. Special severe fractures require hospitalization.
In case of injury:
– Calm the child, find out the circumstances of the injury, inspect the injury, place a cold object (an ice pack or a plastic bottle of water) on it.
– If the pain does not decrease, and especially if the swelling increases, take the child to the doctor for a more detailed examination.
In case of dislocation:
– Assistance should only take place in a hospital.
– When transporting a victim, use the same method as for fractures (the limb must be fixed), in case of dislocation of the shoulder, the arm is bandaged to the body.
– Follow the advice of your doctors. Premature removal of the cast will lead to repeated dislocations with minor injuries.
– After the hip dislocation has been repaired, hospital treatment is required, and after the knee dislocation has been repaired, it is highly likely that an operation to suture the damaged knee ligaments is required.
Injuries to the head
Children, compared to adults, have a rather large head, therefore, when falling, they often land on it. Underdeveloped defensive reactions and muscle weakness lead to the fact that any fall can be accompanied by a blow to the head. A fall, even from a low height, unfortunately, does not always pass the consequences. Concussion in children under 4-5 years of age can occur even if there was no head blow – for example, with strong shaking or jumping from a height to their feet.
Prevention of head injuries

– When the baby grows up and starts walking, special socks with “brakes” (rubberized inserts in the sole of the sock) will help to reduce the number of falls in the apartment.
– Remove chairs and other objects from the windows so that an inquisitive person does not climb onto the windowsill and open the window.
– Place protective barriers in front of the steps of the second or third floor of your house so that the fidget does not fly down the stairs.
– Go down to the “eye level” of your child and think: where he can get, what he can pay attention to, what objects are standing or lying in a dangerous position.
First aid after a headbutt
Calm and lay the child down. Observe its condition carefully.
– If, after crying a little, the child quickly forgot about the injury and behaves as usual, then the visit to the doctor can be postponed. Apply a cold compress to the bruise and schedule a visit to the doctor the next day.
– If after the fall there was a long period of time (from one to several minutes) between the fall and the baby’s cry, then most likely he had a loss of consciousness, and the injury is serious.Call “03”.
– Call an ambulance if there is a large bruise, bruise or wound on the head. If bleeding lasts more than 5 minutes or a headache lasts more than 10 minutes, as well as in case of nausea, vomiting, changes in behavior, drowsiness, impaired consciousness, changes in the size of the pupils, you need to seek help immediately.
Injuries to the eyes
Babies are usually affected by outdoor play when they risk grains of sand, flies or eyelashes in their eyes.It is important to make sure that the baby does not immediately rub them with his hands. Such, in general, not dangerous, foreign bodies are removed using the corner of a clean handkerchief, and in the case when such “unnecessary and unnecessary” things are in the area of ​​the white of the eye, you can get rid of them by rinsing. To do this, use lukewarm water and keep your head under the tap so that the water runs out from the side of your healthy eye. Such washing will be the surest first aid. If adults cannot themselves remove a foreign body from the baby’s eye, and in the event that we are talking about some kind of splinter or sharp object, a specialist should immediately take care of the child.To prevent a foreign object from rubbing the child’s eye, it is necessary to bandage both eyes, this measure will help reduce pain when moving this important organ, which is the eyes. The bandage is applied as follows: put a sterile gauze pad on the injured eye and fix it with a bandage. Remember that it is important to bandage both eyes at once, as the injured eye will move with the healthy one. Of course, this situation is very frightening for the baby. So don’t leave him alone, calm him down and try to distract him.

It is best to cool the bruise under the eye with a compress, but in no case should ice be put directly on the skin, as otherwise frostbite is possible. If the bruise is also accompanied by visual impairment, then in this case, you should immediately go with the child to an ophthalmologist.
It also happens that a purchased new shoe for a baby presses and rubs his leg. In this case, a fluid-filled blister may appear on the surface of the skin. In such a situation, it should be thoroughly rinsed with water and thoroughly blotted with a sterile compress, using it as a tampon.Then you need to stick the patch, but this must be done in such a way that the bactericidal bandage overlaps the blister from all sides. A sterile compress should be applied to a large blister and secured with adhesive tape. But in no case can you open it yourself, because it can become inflamed.
Sudden ear pain
If a baby suddenly has ear pain that is not associated with an inflammation of the middle ear, then it is caused by several reasons, such as a fall, a bruise or a foreign body entering the ear, etc.For example, children often put pebbles or other small objects in their ears while playing, and in the summer an ant or some kind of fly can crawl in there. In the event that a child has thrust a foreign object into his ear, then when providing him with first aid, in no case should you use sharp objects, such as tweezers, trying to remove this object on his own. You only have every chance of pushing it even further. It is better to go to an otolaryngologist immediately or call an ambulance. Try to “wash” the insect that has climbed into the ear with warm water.If you cannot cope with the problem in this way, then you need to get to a specialist as soon as possible. If, after falling from a height, blood or fluid flows from the ear, then this is a sign of a possible fracture of the base of the skull. In this case, you should immediately call an ambulance to take the baby to the hospital, and before its arrival; hold the baby’s head in such a position that the blood can drain smoothly.

Acute intestinal infection

Infection of OCI at home occurs mainly as a result of eating contaminated food, purchased, as a rule, in places of unauthorized street trading from “private traders”.Experts strongly recommend purchasing products in stores, on wholesale and collective farm markets, inquiring about permits for these products, a certificate of conformity with a mark on the presence of a sanitary and epidemiological conclusion confirming its quality and safety, and an expiration date. At the same time, you should pay attention to the conditions in which the products are sold, whether there is refrigeration equipment for storing them and, in case of doubts about the quality of the goods, it is better to refrain from buying.No one can guarantee the quality and safety of products that are offered in unsanitary conditions, without permits. When going out of town, you should make sure that your and your family’s food is safe. On the way, at the roadside, as a rule, private traders offer to buy meat, milk, cottage cheese and other food products, not observing the storage conditions, without having permits confirming the quality and safety of such goods.
Unbranded meat may be a source of trichinosis, an incurable disease.Acute intestinal infections, which tend to increase in summer, can cause any kind of poor quality food. Safer for buyers are products bought in markets (in places of authorized trade), where they undergo sanitary and veterinary control. Food deteriorates much faster in summer. When shopping, you should pay attention not only to the expiration date, but also to what conditions the products are stored in, whether there is refrigeration equipment and what the seller’s appearance is.

Under conditions of elevated air temperature, the so-called “thermostat effect” is created (a relatively constant optimum temperature for the reproduction of microorganisms within 25-30 0 C.), at which there is an active accumulation of biomass of microorganisms. When pathogenic microorganisms get into food, water of open reservoirs, on objects of the environment, they actively multiply and accumulate, which in turn leads to the occurrence of intestinal infections.Infection of raw materials, semi-finished products or finished food products (dishes) can occur during their preparation, transportation, storage, sale, if sanitary rules or personal hygiene are not observed, both at enterprises and at home, by employees of these enterprises.
In order to protect yourself from intestinal infections it is necessary: ​​
• Observe the rules and terms of storage of perishable foods, as well as fruits and vegetables, thoroughly rinse the latter under running water, and rinse with boiling water before use.
• Buy food only in authorized trade places (not from random people)
• Observe the rules of personal hygiene.
• When going out of town use only boiled or bottled water for drinking. Swimming is allowed only in areas permitted for swimming, which provide safety for bathers.

First-aid kit

If you are going on vacation or outdoors and take your child with you, then you just need to take a children’s first-aid kit on the road.
Nowadays, on the territory of Russia, you can buy any medicines not only in large cities, but also in provincial, quite distant from the center, regions. Therefore, wherever you are, it will not be difficult to get the medicines you need. If you have planned a trip abroad, then you just need to take a children’s first aid kit on the road. Since you are unlikely to be able to buy a medicine without a prescription from a doctor, and having bought it after all, it will be extremely difficult to understand the instructions.
Before picking up a first aid kit, you must first assemble it with special care.
What should be in a children’s first aid kit?
Antipyretic drugs.
Paracetamol for children (candles), has several names depending on the brands – Panadol, Eferalgan, Tsifekon, Nurofen (syrup). Analgin suppositories will be very helpful in case the child is very small, due to the ease of use and in case paracetamol does not help.
Antiallergenic products.
Even if the child has never shown signs of allergies, this kind of medicine should be in the first-aid kit.Allergy symptoms can appear when the climate changes, and to new food, and to water and other unusual manifestations from the outside.
Fenistil 0.1% solution (in drops – does not create discomfort for taking with food or liquid). In children under 1 year old.
Fenistil-gel for skin application. very effective against insect bites, quickly relieves swelling and itching.
In older people, fenistil can be replaced with claritin or suprastin at an age-specific dosage.
Important! All of the above medicines should not be given to a child under one year old.The sedative effect of medication can cause respiratory arrest (apnea) at night.
Gastrointestinal preparations
Activated carbon (polyphepan) – indicated for poisoning and intestinal disorders, moreover, polyphepan has a stronger adsorbing effect than activated carbon.
Rehydrating agents
Chamomile (filter bags) – is an anti-inflammatory agent, has a preventive effect against intestinal disorders.
Rehydron – replenishes trace elements lost during diarrhea or vomiting.It does an excellent job of regulating water and electrolyte balance, disturbed by poisoning or intestinal infection.
Gastrolit – has the same effect as Regidron.
Anti-cold remedies
Albucid – eye drops for children.
Tobrax – drops used for purulent conjunctivitis.
Vibrocil – vasoconstrictor nasal drops.
Aquamaris – nasal rinse.
Hexoral spray, Tonsilgon spray – means for irrigating the throat. You can also gargle your throat with calendula tincture.
Hydrogen peroxide, iodine, brilliant green – means used to treat wounds.
Remedies for skin troubles
Anti-sun and anti-mosquito remedies
Lifeguard – remedy for wound healing
Anti-burn products
Panthenol (cream or spray), solcoseryl (ointment).