About all

Glycemic load of foods list: Glycemic index for 60+ foods

Содержание

Glycemic index for 60+ foods

Measuring carbohydrate effects can help glucose management

The glycemic index is a value assigned to foods based on how slowly or how quickly those foods cause increases in blood glucose levels. Foods low on the glycemic index (GI) scale tend to release glucose slowly and steadily. Foods high on the glycemic index release glucose rapidly. Low GI foods tend to foster weight loss, while foods high on the GI scale help with energy recovery after exercise, or to offset hypo- (or insufficient) glycemia. Long-distance runners would tend to favor foods high on the glycemic index, while people with pre- or full-blown diabetes would need to concentrate on low GI foods. Why? People with type 1 diabetes can’t produce sufficient quantities of insulin and those with type 2 diabetes are resistant to insulin. With both types of diabetes, faster glucose release from high GI foods leads to spikes in blood sugar levels. The slow and steady release of glucose in low-glycemic foods helps maintain good glucose control.

To help you understand how the foods you are eating might impact your blood glucose level, here is an abbreviated chart of the glycemic index for more than 60 common foods. A more complete glycemic index chart can be found in the link below.

FOOD Glycemic index (glucose = 100)
HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE FOODS  
White wheat bread* 75 ± 2
Whole wheat/whole meal bread 74 ± 2
Specialty grain bread 53 ± 2
Unleavened wheat bread 70 ± 5
Wheat roti 62 ± 3
Chapatti 52 ± 4
Corn tortilla 46 ± 4
White rice, boiled* 73 ± 4
Brown rice, boiled 68 ± 4
Barley 28 ± 2
Sweet corn 52 ± 5
Spaghetti, white 49 ± 2
Spaghetti, whole meal 48 ± 5
Rice noodles† 53 ± 7
Udon noodles 55 ± 7
Couscous† 65 ± 4
   
BREAKFAST CEREALS  
Cornflakes 81 ± 6
Wheat flake biscuits 69 ± 2
Porridge, rolled oats 55 ± 2
Instant oat porridge 79 ± 3
Rice porridge/congee 78 ± 9
Millet porridge 67 ± 5
Muesli 57 ± 2
   
FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCTS  
Apple, raw† 36 ± 2
Orange, raw† 43 ± 3
Banana, raw† 51 ± 3
Pineapple, raw 59 ± 8
Mango, raw† 51 ± 5
Watermelon, raw 76 ± 4
Dates, raw 42 ± 4
Peaches, canned† 43 ± 5
Strawberry jam/jelly 49 ± 3
Apple juice 41 ± 2
Orange juice 50 ± 2
   
VEGETABLES  
Potato, boiled 78 ± 4
Potato, instant mash 87 ± 3
Potato, french fries 63 ± 5
Carrots, boiled 39 ± 4
Sweet potato, boiled 63 ± 6
Pumpkin, boiled 64 ± 7
Plantain/green banana 55 ± 6
Taro, boiled 53 ± 2
Vegetable soup 48 ± 5
   
DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ALTERNATIVES  
Milk, full fat 39 ± 3
Milk, skim 37 ± 4
Ice cream 51 ± 3
Yogurt, fruit 41 ± 2
Soy milk 34 ± 4
Rice milk 86 ± 7
   
LEGUMES  
Chickpeas 28 ± 9
Kidney beans 24 ± 4
Lentils 32 ± 5
Soya beans 16 ± 1
   
SNACK PRODUCTS  
Chocolate 40 ± 3
Popcorn 65 ± 5
Potato crisps 56 ± 3
Soft drink/soda 59 ± 3
Rice crackers/crisps 87 ± 2
   
SUGARS  
Fructose 15 ± 4
Sucrose 65 ± 4
Glucose 103 ± 3
Honey 61 ± 3

Data are means ± SEM.

* Low-GI varieties were also identified.

† Average of all available data.

The complete list of the glycemic index and glycemic load for more than 1,000 foods can be found in the article “International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008” by Fiona S. Atkinson, Kaye Foster-Powell, and Jennie C. Brand-Miller in the December 2008 issue of Diabetes Care, Vol. 31, number 12, pages 2281-2283.

To get the lowdown on glycemic index and glycemic load, read more about it here.

American Diabetes Association, 2008. Copyright and all rights reserved. This chart has been used with the permission of American Diabetes Association.

image: © Amarosy | Dreamstime.com

As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.
Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date,
should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

Glycemic index diet: What’s behind the claims

A glycemic index diet is an eating plan based on how foods affect your blood sugar level.

The glycemic index is a system of assigning a number to carbohydrate-containing foods according to how much each food increases blood sugar. The glycemic index itself is not a diet plan but one of various tools — such as calorie counting or carbohydrate counting — for guiding food choices.

The term “glycemic index diet” usually refers to a specific diet plan that uses the index as the primary or only guide for meal planning. Unlike some other plans, a glycemic index diet doesn’t necessarily specify portion sizes or the optimal number of calories, carbohydrates, or fats for weight loss or weight maintenance.

Many popular commercial diets, diet books and diet websites are based on the glycemic index, including the Zone Diet, Sugar Busters and the Slow-Carb Diet.

Purpose

The purpose of a glycemic index (GI) diet is to eat carbohydrate-containing foods that are less likely to cause large increases in blood sugar levels. The diet could be a means to lose weight and prevent chronic diseases related to obesity such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Why you might follow the

GI diet

You might choose to follow the GI diet because you:

  • Want to lose weight or maintain a healthy weight
  • Need help planning and eating healthier meals
  • Need help maintaining blood sugar levels as part of a diabetes treatment plan

Studies suggest that a GI diet can help achieve these goals. However, you might be able to achieve the same health benefits by eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight and getting enough exercise.

Check with your doctor or health care provider before starting any weight-loss diet, especially if you have any health conditions, including diabetes.

The glycemic index

The GI principle was first developed as a strategy for guiding food choices for people with diabetes. An international GI database is maintained by Sydney University Glycemic Index Research Services in Sydney, Australia. The database contains the results of studies conducted there and at other research facilities around the world.

A basic overview of carbohydrates, blood sugar and GI values is helpful for understanding glycemic index diets.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates, or carbs, are a type of nutrient in foods. The three basic forms are sugars, starches and fiber. When you eat or drink something with carbs, your body breaks down the sugars and starches into a type of sugar called glucose, the main source of energy for cells in your body. Fiber passes through your body undigested.

Two main hormones from your pancreas help regulate glucose in your bloodstream. The hormone insulin moves glucose from your blood into your cells. The hormone glucagon helps release glucose stored in your liver when your blood sugar (blood glucose) level is low. This process helps keep your body fueled and ensures a natural balance in blood glucose.

Different types of carbohydrate foods have properties that affect how quickly your body digests them and how quickly glucose enters your bloodstream.

Understanding

GI values

There are various research methods for assigning a GI value to food. In general, the number is based on how much a food item raises blood glucose levels compared with how much pure glucose raises blood glucose. GI values are generally divided into three categories:

  • Low GI: 1 to 55
  • Medium GI: 56 to 69
  • High GI: 70 and higher

Comparing these values, therefore, can help guide healthier food choices. For example, an English muffin made with white wheat flour has a GI value of 77. A whole-wheat English muffin has a GI value of 45.

Limitations of

GI values

One limitation of GI values is that they don’t reflect the likely quantity you would eat of a particular food.

For example, watermelon has a GI value of 80, which would put it in the category of food to avoid. But watermelon has relatively few digestible carbohydrates in a typical serving. In other words, you have to eat a lot of watermelon to significantly raise your blood glucose level.

To address this problem, researchers have developed the idea of glycemic load (GL), a numerical value that indicates the change in blood glucose levels when you eat a typical serving of the food. For example, a 4.2-ounce (120-gram, or 3/4-cup) serving of watermelon has a GL value of 5, which would identify it as a healthy food choice. For comparison, a 2.8-ounce (80-gram, or 2/3-cup) serving of raw carrots has a GL value of 2.

Sydney University’s table of GI values also includes GL values. The values are generally grouped in the following manner:

  • Low GL: 1 to 10
  • Medium GL: 11 to 19
  • High GL: 20 or more
Other issues

A GI value tells us nothing about other nutritional information. For example, whole milk has a GI value of 31 and a GL value of 4 for a 1-cup (250-milliliter) serving. But because of its high fat content, whole milk is not the best choice for weight loss or weight control.

The published GI database is not an exhaustive list of foods, but a list of those foods that have been studied. Many healthy foods with low GI values are not in the database.

The GI value of any food item is affected by several factors, including how the food is prepared, how it is processed and what other foods are eaten at the same time.

Also, there can be a range in GI values for the same foods, and some would argue it makes it an unreliable guide to determine food choices.

Diet details

A GI diet prescribes meals primarily of foods that have low values. Examples of foods with low, middle and high GI values include the following:

  • Low GI: Green vegetables, most fruits, raw carrots, kidney beans, chickpeas, lentils and bran breakfast cereals
  • Medium GI: Sweet corn, bananas, raw pineapple, raisins, oat breakfast cereals, and multigrain, oat bran or rye bread
  • High GI: White rice, white bread and potatoes

Commercial GI diets may describe foods as having slow carbs or fast carbs. In general, foods with a low GI value are digested and absorbed relatively slowly, and those with high values are absorbed quickly.

Commercial GI diets have varying recommendations for portion size, as well as protein and fat consumption.

Results

Depending on your health goals, studies of the benefits of GI diets have produced mixed results.

Weight loss

Results of a 16-year study that tracked the diets of 120,000 men and women were published in 2015. Researchers found that diets with a high GL from eating refined grains, starches and sugars were associated with more weight gain.

Other studies show that a low GI diet may also promote weight loss and help maintain weight loss. However, data from another study indicated a substantial range in individual GI values for the same foods. This range of variability in GI values makes for an unreliable guide when determining food choices.

Blood glucose control

Studies show that the total amount of carbohydrate in food is generally a stronger
predictor of blood glucose response than the GI. Based on the research, for most people with diabetes, the best tool for managing blood glucose is carbohydrate counting.

Some clinical studies have shown that a low-GI diet may help people with diabetes control blood glucose levels, although the observed effects may also be attributed to the low-calorie, high-fiber content of the diets prescribed in the study.

Cholesterol

Reviews of trials measuring the impact of low-GI index diets on cholesterol have shown fairly consistent evidence that such diets may help lower total cholesterol, as well as low-density lipoproteins (the “bad” cholesterol) — especially when a low-GI diet is combined with an increase in dietary fiber. Low- to moderate-GI foods such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains are generally good sources of fiber.

Appetite control

One theory about the effect of a low-GI diet is appetite control. The thinking is that high-GI food causes a rapid increase in blood glucose, a rapid insulin response and a subsequent rapid return to feeling hungry. Low-GI foods would, in turn, delay feelings of hunger. Clinical investigations of this theory have produced mixed results.

Also, if a low-GI diet suppresses appetite, the long-term effect should be that such a diet would result over the long term in people choosing to eat less and better manage their weight. The long-term clinical research does not, however, demonstrate this effect.

The bottom line

In order for you to maintain your current weight, you need to burn as many calories as you consume. To lose weight, you need to burn more calories than you consume. Weight loss is best done with a combination of reducing calories in your diet and increasing your physical activity and exercise.

Selecting foods based on a glycemic index or glycemic load value may help you manage your weight because many foods that should be included in a well-balanced, low-fat, healthy diet with minimally processed foods — whole-grain products, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products — have low-GI values.

For some people, a commercial low-GI diet may provide needed direction to help them make better choices for a healthy diet plan. The researchers who maintain the GI database caution, however, that the “glycemic index should not be used in isolation” and that other nutritional factors — calories, fat, fiber, vitamins and other nutrients — should be considered.

Aug. 25, 2020

Show references

  1. Augustin LSA, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load and glycemic response: An International Scientific Consensus Summit from the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC). Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2015;25:795.
  2. Matthan NR, et al. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2016;104:1004.
  3. Bosy-Westphal A, et al. Impact of carbohydrates on weight regain. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 2015;18:389.
  4. Liu S, et al. Dietary carbohydrates. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 27, 2017.
  5. GI foods advanced search. The University of Sydney. http://www.glycemicindex.com/foodSearch.php. Accessed May 27, 2017.
  6. Glycemic index and diabetes. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/understanding-carbohydrates/glycemic-index-and-diabetes. html. Accessed May 27, 2017.
  7. Glycemic load. Glycemic Index Foundation. http://www.gisymbol.com/about/glycemic-load/. Accessed May 27, 2017.
  8. Frequently asked questions. The University of Sydney. http://www.glycemicindex.com/faqsList.php. Accessed May 27, 2017.
  9. Sun FH, et al. Effect of glycemic index of breakfast on energy intake at subsequent meal among healthy people: A meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2016;8:37.
  10. Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2015-2020. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/. Accessed May 28, 2017.
  11. Smith JD, et al. Changes in intake of protein foods, carbohydrate amount and quality, and long-term weight change: Results from 3 prospective cohorts. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015;101:1216.
  12. Zeratsky KA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 9, 2017.
  13. Roder PV, et al. Pancreatic regulation of glucose homeostasis. Experimental and Molecular Medicine. 2016;48:e219.

See more In-depth


.

Glycemic Load – High and Low Glycemic Loads

Glycemic load is a measure that takes into account the amount of carbohydrate in a portion of food together with how quickly it raises blood glucose levels.

Should people with diabetes eat a Glycaemic Index diet?

Whereas the Glycemic Index is a good way of making food choices, Glycemic load helps to work out how different sized portions of different foods compare with each other in terms of their blood glucose raising effect.

How is Glycemic load worked out?

The Glycemic load (GL) isworked out by the following formula:

  • GL  = GI x carbohydrate / 100

To work with this equatio, you will need to know:

Example: What is the Glycemic load of a slice of whole grain bread?

  • Glycemic Index of whole grain bread = 45
  • Carbohydrate content of a slice of bread = 18g

Note these figures are examples.

The GI and carbohydrate values may vary slightly between different types and slice sizes of whole grain bread.

What counts as a high and low Glycemic load?

The University of Sydney defines low, medium and Glycemic loads as follows:

  • Low Glycemic load (low GL): 0 to 10
  • Medium Glycemic load (med GL): 11 to 19
  • High Glycemic load (high GL): 20 and over

How useful is Glycemic load?

Glycemic load can be useful for people with diabetes to assess which quantities of which foods are likely to be suitable for maintaining good blood glucose levels.

Example of calculating Glycemic load

This can be illustrated by another example: Jim is going to have roast chicken for dinner and is thinking of having it either with white rice or couscous.

Jim has enough white rice to make a 130g (when cooked) portion of rice which will provide 40g of carbohydrate. White rice has a Glycemic index value of 85. He also has enough couscous to make a 200g serving of couscous which will also provide 45g of carbohydrate. Couscous has a Glycemic index value of 60.

  • Glycemic load of white rice portion
    = GI x carbohydrate / 100
    = 85 x 40 /100
    = 34
  • Glycemic load of couscous portion
    = GI x carbohydrate / 100
    = 60 x 45 /100
    = 27

So, Jim sees that even though the smaller portion of white rice has less carbohydrate, the portion of couscous actually has a lower Glycemic load. The Glycemic load calculation tells Jim that the portion of couscous, despite being larger and containing slightly more carbohydrate, is less likely to cause as sharp a rise in his blood sugar levels as the portion of white rice.

Making use of Glycemic load

Glycemic load can involve a certain amount of calculation which may not be practical for everyone, however, those with time to get the calculations correct may find Glycemic load to be a helpful extra tool in choosing which foods and which portions are suitable for maintaining good blood glucose levels

Assessing the Glycemic load of foods can be particularly useful if you have a specific meal quite often or if you are thinking of trying a new meal but are not sure how it may impact on your blood glucose levels.

Note that different people with diabetes will have different tolerances to the carbohydrate in food. Some people may be able to comfortable tolerate meals with a medium Glycemic load, whereas other people may find that they can only tolerate low Glycemic load values.

If you have access to blood glucose testing supplies, you may wish to test which Glycemic load values allow you to keep your sugar levels within the recommended guideline blood glucose values A good way to assess the effect of a particular meal is to test your blood glucose before eating, 2 hours after eating and again 4 hours after eating.

Low Glycemic Foods List Guide | Stable Blood Sugar

Your guide to finding low GI foods to keep your blood sugar stable

Harvard Medical School’s Healthbeat explains that the glycemic index (GI) of a food is a measure of how a specific food with carbohydrates causes blood sugar to rise. It is given as a number compared to the effect on your blood sugar of eating either glucose (a type of sugar) or white bread, according to research published in the journal Diabetes Care.

When you eat a food or beverage containing carbohydrates, your body breaks down the carbs into a type of sugar called glucose. The glucose goes into your bloodstream and causes your blood glucose (blood sugar) levels to rise, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

No Cost Health Kit to Lower Your

Risk of Diabetes

You could be eligible for a Diabetes Prevention Program – at no cost to you

Take the 2-minute quiz to see if you qualify for Lark

Start My Quiz

Compared to low-glycemic foods, high-glycemic foods lead to a quicker and greater spike in blood sugar levels. These spikes are considered unhealthy for a few reasons.

  • They raise your average blood glucose levels.
  • They place a higher demand for insulin on your body.
  • They lead to more dramatic dips in blood glucose after the spike, potentially causing hunger, carbohydrate cravings, and weakness.

A low-GI diet and meal plan can help you avoid the blood sugar roller coaster, but the GI is not on the nutrition label of most foods. Instead, you will probably to look at a list of the GI of foods. According to the Linus Pauling Institute, following are several low-glycemic foods.

Glycemic Index and Diabetes

Can a low-GI diet lower blood sugar if you have prediabetes or diabetes?
Probably, if you choose wisely. Low-GI foods are less likely to cause blood sugar spikes, and more likely to keep blood sugar stable in healthier ranges. You can help control prediabetes or diabetes with a diet based on nutritious, low-GI foods such as vegetables, beans, low-fat dairy, and whole grains, along with healthy proteins and fats. However, a diet high in unhealthy fats, fried foods, and processed meat may be low-GI, but is not likely to lower blood sugar.

 

 Low-Glycemic Fruit

  • Apples
  • Dried apricots
  • Under-ripe banana
  • Peaches
  • Strawberries
  • Oranges
  • Cherries
  • Coconut
  • Cranberries
  • Blueberries
  • Pears
  • Plums
  • Grapefruit

     

Low-Glycemic Vegetables

  • Carrots
  • Green peas
  • Onions
  • Lettuce
  • Greens (spinach, kale, collards, beet)
  • Green beans
  • Tomatoes
  • Cucumbers
  • Bok choy
  • Mushrooms
  • Artichokes
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cabbage
  • Broccoli
  • Cauliflower
  • Celery
  • Eggplant
  • Peppers (bell peppers, jalapenos, serrano, etc. )
  • Zucchini and crookneck squash
  • Snow peas
Glycemic Index, Weight Loss, and Health

Can a low-GI diet help you lose weight? Yes, but only if you are careful. Any diet can help you lose weight if you use it to limit calories.
To lose weight on a low-GI diet:

  • Choose healthy, filling low-GI carbs, such as vegetables, beans, low-fat dairy, berries, and whole grains.
  • Include lean proteins, such as tofu, chicken, fish, and eggs, and healthy fats, such as nuts, avocados, and olive oil.
  • Include nutritious “no-GI” foods (lean proteins and healthy fats).
  • Limit low-nutrition high-GI foods such as sweets, sugary beverages, and refined starches. Beware of low-GI foods that are high-calorie and low-nutrition, such as pizza and ice cream.

 

Low-Glycemic Grains

  • Barley
  • Whole wheat kernels
  • All-bran and Fiber One cereals
  • Oat bran and rice bran cereals
  • Whole grain pasta
  • Lasagna with meat and/or cheese, ravioli, tortellini, and other stuffed pasta
  • Whole-grain pumpernickel bread
  • Sourdough bread
  • Wheat tortilla

Low-Glycemic Dairy Products and Dairy-Substitute Products

  • Skim, low-fat, and whole milk
  • Plain yogurt
  • Cheese (cheddar, swiss, mozzarella, brie, feta, blue, goat, etc. )
  • Cottage cheese
  • Ricotta cheese
  • Soy milk and yogurt

Low-Glycemic Legumes

  • Beans (chickpeas, kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, navy beans, etc.)
  • Lima beans
  • Split peas, black-eyed peas
  • Lentils
  • Edamame and roasted soybeans
  • Hummus 
  • Bean dip
  • Tofu and soy-based meat substitutes 

 

Guessing the Glycemic Index

What if you do not know the glycemic index of a food? That could happen if food has not have been measured or if you do not have time to check its GI before you eat it.
You cannot know for sure, but the GI tends to be lower when:

  • It is less processed. Whole grains are often lower-GI than refined, whole fruit is lower-GI than fruit juice, and raw carrots are lower-GI than cooked.
  • It is higher in fiber, protein, and/or fat, and lower in sugar and refined starch.
  • It is raw. For example, raw carrots are lower-GI than cooked, and al dente pasta is lower-GI than well-cooked.
  • Ripeness. A soft, ripe banana has a higher-GI than a firmer, less ripe one.

When you cannot get the GI for a food, going with your gut is usually a smart choice. You cannot go wrong when you eat foods that you know are healthy, limit junk food, and keep portions in check.

 Low-Glycemic Nuts and Seeds

  • Peanuts
  • Nuts (walnuts, macadamias, hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, etc.)
  • Peanut butter
  • Nut butter
  • Seeds (pumpkin, sunflower, chia, flax, etc.)

Other/Mixed Foods

  • Dark chocolate and 100% (unsweetened) chocolate
  • Chili with beans
  • Sandwich on whole-grain bread with meat/tuna/cheese and vegetables
  • Peanut butter sandwich on whole-grain bread
  • Burrito with beans, cheese, guacamole, salsa, and lettuce on whole-wheat tortilla
  • Soups with protein and vegetables
  • Salads with vegetables and beans, cheese, chicken, tuna, dressing, and/or nuts

Low-Glycemic, Less-Nutritious (Limit These)

  • Snickers bar
  • Pizza
  • Tacos
  • Banana bread
  • Muffins
  • Egg rolls

 Medium/High-Glycemic Nutritious Foods (Enjoy in Moderation)

  • Sweet potatoes
  • Whole-grain bread
  • Butternut, acorn, and other winter squash
  • Oatmeal
  • Shredded wheat and many whole-grain breakfast cereals (choose unsweetened)
  • Brown rice (avoid white rice)
  • Melon

No Cost Health Kit to Lower Your

Risk of Diabetes

You could be eligible for a Diabetes Prevention Program – at no cost to you

Take the 2-minute quiz to see if you qualify for Lark

Start My Quiz

Carb-Free and Very Low-Carb Foods (Very Low GI)

  • Chicken, turkey, and other poultry
  • Eggs and egg whites
  • Fish and shellfish
  • Beef, pork, and other meat
  • Olive oil, canola oil, and other oils
  • Butter, shortening, and lard
  • Mayonnaise
  • Olives
  • Avocado
Low-Glycemic May Not Mean Healthy (and Vice Versa)

The GI is only one way to assess a food. Lower-GI often means healthier, but not always. For example:

  • You can lower the GI of a slice of bread by spreading it with butter. That is not healthy!
  • Boiled potatoes are high-GI and French fries are lower, but fries are not healthy!
  • Oatmeal and pumpkin are high-GI, but they are rich in healthy antioxidants and fiber.
Looking for the best prediabetes diet for 2021?

 

What is the glycaemic index (GI)?

The glycaemic index (GI) is a rating system for foods containing carbohydrates. It shows how quickly each food affects your blood sugar (glucose) level when that food is eaten on its own.

High GI foods

Carbohydrate foods that are broken down quickly by your body and cause a rapid increase in blood glucose have a high GI rating. High GI foods include:

  • sugar and sugary foods
  • sugary soft drinks
  • white bread
  • potatoes
  • white rice

Low and medium GI foods

Low or medium GI foods are broken down more slowly and cause a gradual rise in blood sugar levels over time. They include:

  • some fruit and vegetables 
  • pulses
  • wholegrain foods, such as porridge oats

Are low GI foods healthier?

Some low GI foods, such as wholegrain foods, fruit, vegetables, beans and lentils, are foods we should eat as part of a healthy, balanced diet. 

However, using the glycaemic index to decide whether foods or combinations of foods are healthy can be misleading.

Foods with a high GI are not necessarily unhealthy and not all foods with a low GI are healthy. For example, watermelon and parsnips are high GI foods, while chocolate cake has a lower GI value.

Also, foods that contain or are cooked with fat and protein slow down the absorption of carbohydrate, lowering their GI. For example, crisps have a lower GI than potatoes cooked without fat. However, crisps are high in fat and should be eaten in moderation.

If you only eat foods with a low GI, your diet may be unbalanced and high in fat.

Find out more about eating a healthy, balanced diet.

Can low GI foods help me lose weight?

Low GI foods, which cause your blood sugar levels to rise and fall slowly, may help you feel fuller for longer. This could help control your appetite and may be useful if you’re trying to lose weight.

However, as mentioned above, not all foods with a low GI are healthy. Therefore, relying on GI alone is not a reliable way to decide whether foods or combinations of foods are healthy.

Read more information about losing weight.

Can the glycaemic index help people with diabetes?

If you have diabetes, it’s useful to understand the glycaemic index, because eating foods with low GI ratings can help control blood glucose.

However, other factors must also be taken into account. Research has shown that the amount of carbohydrate you eat, rather than its GI rating, has the biggest influence on blood glucose levels after meals.

It’s also important to eat a healthy, balanced diet that is low in fat, sugar and salt, and high in fruit and vegetables. If you’ve been advised to make changes to your diet, or you need advice, a diabetes dietitian can help you work out a diet plan. Speak to your GP about being referred to a dietitian.

See the Diabetes UK website for more information on GI and diabetes.

Read government diet advice in the Eatwell Guide that shows the amounts of different types of foods needed to have a well-balanced and healthy diet. You don’t need to achieve this balance with every meal, but try to get the balance right over a day or even a week.

Read the answers to more questions about food and diet.

Further information

Page last reviewed: 23 July 2018
Next review due: 23 July 2021

Glycemix Index And Load Explained

The glycemic index is one of the most popular tools used in nutrition, especially in weight loss, glycemic control, and sports Nutrition.

When you Google the term “Glycemic Index,” you will return almost 26 million hits, meaning this is one of the most searched topics in nutrition. However, precisely what this index is, whether or not it is useful, or who exactly should use it is not well understood.

This information is a useful complement to the overall NASM-CNC and NASM-WLS courses. See also the Weight Loss Coach course.

What is the Glycemic Index?

The glycemic index, first published in 1981, is essentially a measure of how quickly and how high a food raises an individual’s blood sugar. More specifically, it is an indexed measure of how high blood glucose rises within the first two hours of consuming food. Generally speaking, the more glucose a food has, and the easier that glucose is to digest, the higher the glycemic index score of the food. Conversely, the less glucose a food has, or the more difficult it is to digest, the lower the glycemic index score of the food.

This index has been studied quite heavily in research to better understand the role of dietary carbohydrates on glycemic control and recovery from exercise (Atkinson et al., 2008; Burke et al., 1993; Matthan et al., 2016; Vega-López et al., 2018). Additionally, this is a tool that has been studied extensively in managing diabetes given that postprandial (after eating) glucose spikes are essential to measure among people with diabetes (Bell et al., 2015; Brand-Miller et al., 2003).

Low Glycemic Foods 

As mentioned above, there are properties about food that tend to make it have a low glycemic index. These properties are:

● Low total carbohydrate count (specifically glucose)
● More complex carbohydrates (e.g., starch) over simple carbohydrates (e.g., glucose)
● More dietary fat

This means that foods that are lower on the glycemic index are more likely to be foods with higher fat content and protein content and lower carbohydrate content. Below is a chart of low glycemic index foods, labeled by major macronutrient category.

Category

Food

Reason

Carbohydrate

Oatmeal

High Starch and Fiber Content, Low Glucose Content

Apples

High Fructose* Content, Low Glucose Content

Kidney Beans

High Fiber Content, Low Glucose Content

Zucchini

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Fiber Content

Rye

High Starch and Fiber Content, Low Glucose Content

Blueberries

High Fructose* Content, Low Glucose Content

Broccoli

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Fiber Content

Tomatoes

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Fiber Content

Lentils

High Starch and Fiber Content, Low Glucose Content

Fats

Almonds

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Fat Content

Peanuts

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Fat Content

Olives

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Fat Content

Cheese

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Fat Content

Olive Oil

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Fat Content

Butter

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Fat Content

Eggs

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Protein Content, High Fat Content

Protein

Chicken

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Protein Content

Fish

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Protein Content, Moderate Fat Content

Beef

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Protein Content, Moderate Fat Content

Egg Whites

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Protein Content

Pork

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Protein Content

Whey Protein

Low Carbohydrate Content, High Protein Content

*Fructose does not produce a meaningful glucose response

High Glycemic Foods 

High glycemic foods have the opposite properties of low glycemic foods. These foods are generally:

● High in total carbohydrates
● Contain primarily simple carbohydrates (e.g., glucose)
● Have low fiber content
● They are low in protein and fat.

This means that foods that are higher on the glycemic index are more likely to be foods with higher carbohydrate content, low protein, and fat content, containing a large amount of simple sugars (e.g., monosaccharides or disaccharides). Below is a list of commonly consumed high glycemic index foods.

Food Glycemic Index Score*
White Rice 89
Soda 63
Potato  111
White Bread 71
Cornflakes 93
Rice Cakes 82
Pizza 80
Pasta  40-60
Whole Grain Bread 55

 

Glycemic Index Chart by Foods

While the glycemic index is a single number, there are some rough categories for whether foods are considered low, moderate, or high on the glycemic index. Generally speaking, low glycemic foods are between 20 and 49 on the scale, while moderate glycemic index foods are between 50 and 69 on the scale, with foods 70 or above being labeled as high on the glycemic index.

Here is a list of high, moderate, and low glycemic index foods to highlight the differences between different foods and their glycemic index values.

Category

Food

 

Carbohydrate

Oatmeal

55

Apples

44

Kidney Beans

29

Zucchini

15

Rye

50

Blueberries

52

Broccoli

<15

Tomatoes

<15

Lentils

32

White Rice

89

Soda

63

Potato

111

White Bread

71

Cornflakes

93

Rice Cakes

82

Pizza

80

Pasta

40-60

Whole Grain Bread

55

Fats

Almonds

<15

Peanuts

<15

Olives

<15

Cheese

<15

Olive Oil

<15

Butter

<15

Eggs

<15

Protein

Chicken

<15

Fish

<15

Beef

<15

Egg Whites

<15

Pork

<15

Whey Protein

<15

*A food with a glycemic index of <15 may be between 0 and 15, with there being low resolution on data below scores of 15.

Shortcomings of the Glycemic Index

While the glycemic index has proven to be helpful in some settings, it has two significant drawbacks. First, it does not take the entire glucose load of the food into account, just the first two hours. Second, it does not take interindividual variations in responses to food into account.

Glycemic Index Vs Glycemic Load

The glycemic index measures how much a set amount of carbohydrate raises your blood sugar for a short period. This means that it does not take into consideration the total amount you are consuming. This also means that you might drastically overstate or understate that total glucose load your body is exposed to from a single meal.

For example, foods like watermelon have a high glycemic index but are relatively calorie and carbohydrate sparse for a given serving (The Lowdown on Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load, 2016). As such, the glycemic load provides a more real-world perspective on how much consuming a given serving of food will impact your blood glucose.

Even though the glycemic load provides additional information, there are still shortcomings of glycemic load. For example, glycemic load is often highly reflective of an individual’s fiber content, wherein lower glycemic load diets are higher in fiber. This makes it difficult to discern whether or not the glycemic load as a measure is any more valid than simply tracking fiber intake.

Additionally, While both the glycemic index and glycemic load measures can provide some value, there is one glaring issue with both measures: they fail to take personal variances into account. While it was speculated that there might be slightly different responses between two people to a given food, recent research has shown that these differences are quite substantial (Zeevi et al., 2015).

For example, one study found that when two different people consumed two other foods, a banana (glycemic index: 51) and a cookie (glycemic index: ~60-65), they had two completely different responses to each food (Zeevi et al. , 2015). Furthermore, in the same study, they found that the participants all had very different responses to a single serving of bread. One participant showed virtually no glycemic response, and others showed a very high glycemic response (Zeevi et al., 2015).

Is the Glycemic Index Helpful for Weight Loss?

Low-glycemic diets have been promoted as promising tools for weight loss. There is some evidence to suggest that following a low-glycemic diet may indeed help with weight loss (Juanola-Falgarona et al., 2014).

However, it appears as though it is not necessarily the fact it is low-glycemic, but the other properties of the diet (e.g., higher fiber, lower-calorie, less processed foods) that help drive the weight loss as low-glycemic diets do not appear to be superior to other diets (Raatz et al. 2005). As such, do not lean heavily on the glycemic index as driving when selecting a diet.

Summary

The glycemic index provides a rough estimation of how much an individual food may increase blood glucose after consumption. This index may provide some utility as a rough guideline for individuals to understand how their bodies respond to a given food.

However, it is essential to understand the total amount of carbohydrates consumed as well, which is more reflected in the glycemic load measure. However, both measures are crude estimates and fail to take individual variation into account, which recent evidence has shown to be relatively high.

It is best to think of the glycemic index as a rough tool to help guide some decisions but is not a highly accurate tool that should drive all nutrition decisions.

References

  • Atkinson, F. S., Foster-Powell, K., & Brand-Miller, J. C. (2008). International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care, 31(12), 2281–2283.
  • Bell, K. J., Smart, C. E., Steil, G. M., Brand-Miller, J. C., King, B., & Wolpert, H. A. (2015). Impact of Fat, Protein, and Glycemic Index on Postprandial Glucose Control in Type 1 Diabetes: Implications for Intensive Diabetes Management in the Continuous Glucose Monitoring Era. Diabetes Care, 38(6), 1008–1015.
  • Brand-Miller, J., Hayne, S., Petocz, P., & Colagiuri, S. (2003). Low–Glycemic Index Diets in the Management of Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 26(8), 2261–2267.
  • Burke, L. M., Collier, G. R., & Hargreaves, M. (1993). Muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise: effect of the glycemic index of carbohydrate feedings. Journal of Applied Physiology , 75(2). https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1993.75.2.1019
  • Matthan, N. R., Ausman, L. M., Meng, H., Tighiouart, H., & Lichtenstein, A. H. (2016). Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104(4), 1004–1013.
  • The lowdown on glycemic index and glycemic load. (2016, October 27). https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/the-lowdown-on-glycemic-index-and-glycemic-load
  • Vega-López, S., Venn, B. J., & Slavin, J. L. (2018). Relevance of the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load for Body Weight, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients, 10(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101361
  • Zeevi, D., Korem, T., Zmora, N., Israeli, D., Rothschild, D., Weinberger, A., Ben-Yacov, O., Lador, D., Avnit-Sagi, T., Lotan-Pompan, M., Suez, J., Mahdi, J. A., Matot, E., Malka, G., Kosower, N., Rein, M., Zilberman-Schapira, G., Dohnalová, L., Pevsner-Fischer, M., … Segal, E. (2015). Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses. Cell, 163(5), 1079–1094.

Food Charts: Glycemic Index & Glycemic Load

We have lots of other great content on this site. Please check it out.

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load are used in The Glycemic Index Diet (or Slow-Carb Diet) to help you decide which foods to eat based on which foods will keep you full for the longest time throughout the day. To make this easy, we’ve included a glycemic index food chart as well as well as a list of foods by their glycemic load.

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Ranges

What is the Glycemic Index?

The Glycemic Index ranks carbohydrates based on how they impact your blood sugar level on a scale from 1 to 100. Foods with a glycemic index of 55 or less are low GI foods and foods with a glycemic index of 70 or higher are high GI foods. When we say “impact your blood sugar,” take it to mean “how quickly the foods are digested.” Of course, the longer the better.

Low Glycemic Index Foods vs. High Glycemic Index Foods

Foods with a low glycemic index are digested slowly and have a more steady impact on your blood sugar level (i.e. have a slow glycemic response). These foods provide sustained energy to your body and keep you fuller for longer. Foods with a high glycemic index are digested quickly and cause a more immediate spike in your blood sugar level (i.e. have a fast glycemic response). These foods give you a burst of energy, followed by a plateau or crash which leads to hunger and cravings.

The glycemic response is why some of these foods are referred to as slow carbs – they digest slowly, result in a slow glycemic response, and ultimately they keep you full for longer.

What is Glycemic Load?

The glycemic index on its own is an incomplete measurement. While it tells you how quickly a carbohydrate impacts your blood sugar level, it does not take into account how much of the carbohydrate you’re actually consuming per serving and therefore how much of an impact it makes on your blood sugar level. This is an important consideration because if you consume a high GI food that only has a few grams of carbohydrates in it, you don’t have to worry about impact on blood sugar level.

Glycemic load fixes this problem by using the following calculation: (Grams of carbohydrate in the food x GI of the food) / 100

Low Glycemic Load Foods vs. High Glycemic Load Foods

Foods with a glycemic load of 10 or less are low GL foods and foods with a glycemic load of 20 or more are high GL foods.

Example: Pumpkins have a glycemic index of 72 which makes them a high GI food, however, they only have 6 grams of carbohydrate per 100 gram serving, giving them a low glycemic load. You can eat pumpkin without having to worry about spikes in your blood sugar level. Using the calculation above, we get a glycemic load of (6 x 72) / 100 = 4.32 which is less than 10.

Glycemic Index Chart

Glycemic Index of Common Foods.

Glycemic Load Chart

Glycemic Load of Selected Foods.

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of 750 Foods

Glycemic Index of Sweeteners

As you’ll see very clearly, not all sweeteners are made equal and therefore not all sweets (or soft-drinks, whatever your vice) are made equal.

Glycemic Index of Sweeteners

90,000 Glycemic load – what is it? GN – food tables and norms

Glycemic load (GL) is an indicator that characterizes the increase in blood glucose levels after eating. Unlike the glycemic index (GI), the load indicator takes into account not only the type of carbohydrates in the product, but also their direct amount.

For example, carrot juice has a high GI but contains only a few grams of simple carbohydrates per glass – which means a low glycemic load. Ultimately, GN should be considered in both weight loss diets and type 2 diabetes.

// What is glycemic load?

Glycemic load is an indicator that takes into account both the GI of a particular food, and the amount of carbohydrates in it and the size of the portion eaten. As a reminder, a serving containing 50 g of carbohydrates is always used to calculate the glycemic index.

Basically, the glycemic load takes into account the amount of carbohydrates in a serving – this affects how much glucose gets into the blood.At the same time, GI shows only the rate of increase in glucose levels – foods with a high GI are absorbed quickly, while foods with fiber give up their energy slowly.

Note that both indicators are gradually being replaced by the insulin index. He is looking at not just the rise in glucose levels, but how much insulin is produced by the body to process it. In addition, the insulin index takes into account protein foods – their consumption also affects glucose and insulin levels.

// Read more:

How to count – the formula

The tables of the glycemic load of foods presented at the end of the article contain data obtained by mathematical calculation using the formula.The GN value of a particular product less than 10 is considered low, from 10 to 19 – medium, more than 20 – high.

GN = GI * (number of grams of carbohydrates per serving) / serving size

In this case, not just the glycemic load of individual products is considered, but the total indicator per day. In most cases, the GN of the daily ration should not exceed 100 units.

For weight loss or type 2 diabetes, the glycemic load should be no more than 50-60 units per day.

// Read more:

Differences between GI and GN

The glycemic index is a comparison of the rate of increase in blood glucose after consuming a serving of a product containing 50 g of carbohydrates with 50 g of glucose purity. Importantly, the GI does not take into account the “density” of carbohydrates in the product, nor the serving size, nor the combination with other nutrients – for example, the presence of lactose speeds up the absorption of sugar.

// The glycemic index of foods is divided into three categories:

  • low glycemic index – less than 55
  • medium glycemic index – 56–69
  • high glycemic index – more than 70

// Read more:

Harm of foods with a high GI

A high GI of a product means that when it is consumed, the blood sugar level rises as quickly as possible.This, in turn, triggers the production of insulin, with the help of which the eaten carbohydrates will be processed by the body. First, they will be used for basic metabolism (and will be stored in glycogen), and in excess, in fat reserves.

However, as mentioned above, the GI is only a conditional coefficient – to calculate it, a portion of the product containing 50 g of carbohydrates is used. That is, for buckwheat it is 75 g of dry cereals, and for strawberries – almost 500 g of fresh berries. Obviously, the glycemic index of smaller amounts of strawberries will differ – how exactly, it is better to judge by the indicator of the glycemic load.

// What are ultra-processed foods?

Glycemic load and diabetes

Glycemic load tables are important for diabetics. Because the body needs insulin to process carbohydrates from food, disruptions in the production of this hormone limit the amount of carbohydrates the body can absorb. In this case, the safe daily rate is calculated individually.

Since insulin production is usually impaired in obese people, controlling their glycemic load can help them lose weight and normalize their metabolism.In addition, the calculation of GN is useful for athletes following a weight-based diet – in their case, it is important that carbohydrates are converted into muscle glycogen.

Glycemic Load Tables

The glycemic load of foods containing carbohydrates is divided into three categories:

  • Low – less than 10
  • Medium – 11-19
  • High – more than 20

and the total GN per day. That is why, for more accurate control, it is recommended either to adhere to the portion sizes indicated in the table, or to carry out your own calculations using the formula given at the beginning of the article.

// Norms of daily glycemic load:

  • for regular food – no more than 100
  • food for weight loss – no more than 80
  • diabetic food – no more than 50-60
Product Serving Size Glycemic Index Glycemic Load
Apple 120g 39 6
Banana 120g 62 16
Grapefruit 120 g 25 3
Watermelon 120 g 72 4
Raw carrots 120 g 35 3
3
Boiled carrots

120 g 90 100

85 90 100

5 90 100 90 113 90 096

Baked pumpkin 150 g 75 4
Boiled potatoes 150 g 82 21
Avocado 150 g 15 1
150 g 10 1
Orange 120 g 40 4
Peach 120 g 42 4
Pear 120 g 38 5
Pineapple 120 g 66 6
Dried apricots 60 g 45 28
Raisins 60 g 66 28
Dried apple 90 100

60 g 90 100

29 90 100

11 90 100 90 113 90 096

Apple juice 250 ml 44 30
Tomato juice 250 ml 38 4
Coca-Cola 250 ml 63 16
Fanta 250 ml 68 23
Milk 250 ml 32 4
Spaghetti (white flour) 180 g 46 22
Spaghetti (whole grain) 90 100

180 g 90 100

42-50 90 100

17-22
Rice (white) 150 g 69-77 90 100

43 90 100
Rice (brown) 90 100

150 g 64-72 16
Lentils 150 g 30 7
Beans 150 g 50 8
Couscous 150 g 65 9
White bread 30 g 71 10
Whole grain bread 30 g 71 9
Pearl barley 150 g 22 5
Oatmeal 150 g 48 6
Sweet potato 150 g 25 6
Boiled buckwheat 100 g 50 8
Peanuts 60 g 20 2

// Read more:

***

Glycemic load is an indicator that takes into account not only the rate of processing of carbohydrates contained in food into blood glucose, but also the amount of carbohydrates in a serving of the product. You can use tables to determine GN, but the formula calculation is more accurate, since the size of the portion consumed in food may differ.

Scientific sources:

  1. The lowdown on glycemic index and glycemic load, source
  2. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values, pdf

Continuing topic

Date of the last update of the material – April 1, 2021

Why the glycemic index is not important for weight loss »Sports Murmansk

Several years ago, my blog published a translation about the glycemic index and glycemic load, which were named important for weight control.Recent research not only refutes the effects of GI and GL on weight loss, but also shows that there is no significant difference in performance between high and low glycemic diets. We figure out why this is so.

Firstly, there is nothing permanent in dietetics – you have to work with the latest scientifically proven data. It is normal that today you hear one thing and tomorrow another. Today the issue of GI, GB, AI is better studied than yesterday. It’s just that someone uses up-to-date information, and someone operates with outdated data.

Secondly, pass any information through yourself. In a review of the book “Dietetics” I wrote that your individual characteristics / limitations are more important than anything else. That is, if you have diabetes mellitus or pancreatic diseases, and you need to monitor your blood sugar, then for this you need to take into account the GI of the foods. But for everyone else (healthy and losing weight), it makes no sense to look at the GI, since it does not affect weight loss. More on that later.

What is the glycemic index?

The concept of the glycemic index (IG) was introduced by Jenkins and Woolever in the early 1980s, while the current definition has been in effect since 1998.Since then, the glycemic index is defined as: the ratio of the blood glucose value 2 hours after consuming a particular product containing 50 g of sugar to the value formed after ingestion of 50 g of pure glucose.

In this case, glucose is a special sample, of which IG is 100. It should be remembered that IG does not characterize the caloric content of the product, it is a completely different parameter. People with diabetes, as well as with diseases of the cardiovascular system, must take this parameter into account when preparing food.

Sample menu for the week

Indicative menu for the week for losing weight by 1-2 kg in 7 days:

  • It is better to start the morning with oatmeal in milk.
    Monday:

  • Breakfast: oatmeal (not cereal) with 50 ml of fresh milk.
  • 1 snack: walnuts, 1 apple.

  • Lunch: boiled chicken breast with tomato.
  • 2 snack: 150 ml of kefir.
  • Dinner: 100 g of boiled or steamed buckwheat, half an orange.
  • Tuesday:
      Breakfast: bread with 200 ml of milk.
  • 1 snack: apple or pear.
  • Lunch: boiled fish with cabbage salad with cucumbers without adding oil.
  • 2 snack: plain yoghurt.
  • Dinner: Vegetable stew (broccoli, cauliflower, carrots, peas) and beef.
  • Wednesday
      Breakfast: oatmeal with milk and nuts.
  • 1 snack: croutons, apple.
  • Lunch: 100 g of wild rice, cucumber, steamed fish.
  • 2 snack: kefir.
  • Dinner: boiled chicken fillet with fruit.
  • Thursday:
      Breakfast: milk buckwheat.
  • 1 snack: vegetable salad without oil.
  • Lunch: oatmeal with boiled fish and an apple.
  • 2 snack: yoghurt.
  • Dinner: steamed chicken fillet.
  • You can have a glass of milk for a snack.
    Friday:

  • Lunch: 100 g of boiled buckwheat, baked chicken breast, cucumber.
  • 2 snack: pear, 10 pcs. peanuts.
  • Dinner: boiled beans, lean fish baked in the oven with herbs.
  • Saturday:
      Breakfast: kefir and croutons.
  • 1 snack: walnuts.
  • Lunch: 100 g buckwheat with cucumber salad.
  • 2 snack: yoghurt.
  • Dinner: steamed beef cutlets with boiled vegetables.
  • Sunday:
      Breakfast: oatmeal with fruit salad.
  • 1 snack: yogurt.
  • Lunch: rice porridge, turkey fillet, baked with cauliflower.
  • 2 snack: an apple baked in the oven.
  • Dinner: boiled fish with fresh cucumber and cabbage salad.
  • How is the Glycemic Index related to food?

    The general relationship of GI to food is quite simple – foods with a low glycemic index cause small changes in sugar concentration, whereas after eating foods with a high GI, the increase in blood glucose levels increases significantly.

    This information is especially important for patients with diabetes and those with a history of cardiovascular disease.If we take a closer look at the statistics, we can see that by 2030 the number of people with diabetes worldwide will exceed half a billion. For this reason, preventive measures need to be taken to raise public awareness of the prevention of nutritional diseases.

    In many patients, the severity of the disease can be altered through appropriate lifestyle choices, physical activity, proper nutrition, stress reduction, and withdrawal from stimulants.This is why knowledge of IG and its skillful use is an essential element in formulating a balanced diet that ensures correct carbohydrate metabolism and stable glycemia (glucose) after a meal.

    Diet therapy, including the use of IG, provides some degree of metabolic control and reduces the risk of serious diseases associated with impaired carbohydrate metabolism. It is for this reason that organizations such as WHO (World Health Organization) or FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) recommend placing IG values ​​on food packaging, which is an important preventive factor in society.

    Glycemic load in sports

    How can all this knowledge be used in sports disciplines such as CrossFit? At first glance, the glycemic load has almost no effect on athletic performance and does not change the diet plan in any way. It only shortens the list of foods that you can eat for weight loss, or for gaining high-quality functional muscle mass for the athlete. But in reality, everything is much more complicated.

    So, for example, taking the classic situation with the closure of the carbohydrate window.Traditionally, many foods with a high glycemic index and low glycemic load are used to close the carbohydrate window. This includes:

    • Protein mixed in juice.
    • Gainer on the water.
    • Juices.
    • Bananas.
    • Other fruits.

    But is this correct? Despite the high glycemic index, the gastrointestinal tract spends more time digesting large food .This means that the opposite approach will be a better option. Fast carbohydrate with maximum glycemic load, slightly diluted with water. Why is it so? With a higher glycemic load with a corresponding glycemic index, you will need less of the target product to close the window, therefore, the digestion process will still go faster, which means that the replenishment of glycogen levels will begin in 5-7 minutes, and not in 20-30. On the other hand, foods with a lower glycemic load, albeit taken in greater quantities, reduce the risk of adipose tissue deposition, but reduce the growth of glycogen and sarcoplasmic hypertrophy.

    The next situation would be to consider the glycemic load on an extreme drying diet. Very often, a carbohydrate-free diet is used for drying. Or a more difficult option is carbohydrate alternation. In the first case, we completely deplete our own glycogen stores, and with a sufficiently large intake of protein, we reduce catabolic processes, transferring the body to a fat regime. But still, despite all this, the absence of sugar in the blood has an extremely negative effect on performance, well-being and mood.

    Milder diets usually do not give such overwhelming results, and the body has time to adapt to a calorie deficit, which leads to a slowdown in weight loss. But there is also a third way. This is the pursuit of a tight calorie restriction, no carbohydrate restriction. The only thing that will need to be considered is the GI and the GB.

    If you add to your extreme diet, foods with the lowest GI and GN, you can level the lack of carbohydrates, while not replenishing glycogen stores.The body will be deceived by receiving a certain amount of easily digestible carbohydrates, it will think that there is no hunger strike, which means that there is absolutely no need to optimize the body’s internal resources for new needs. At the same time, low levels of GN and GI (the optimal solution would be foods rich in fiber, i.e. green vegetables that have minimal indicators of both load and index), does not allow calories to be digested to the level of glycogen. On the contrary, all the energy will be spent, and the body in all seriousness will flush adipose tissue, waiting for the next intake of carbohydrates.But the most important thing is a psychological moment associated with the lack of hunger, which occurs in everyone who begins to limit the main energy carrier in their diet – carbohydrates.

    Well, and the classic is the connection of the glycemic load with a set of muscle meat. At first glance, these indicators are not related in any way. But for a successful set of large amounts of muscle meat, you need to not only observe an excess of protein and calories, but also maintain a high rate of metabolic processes. In fact, regardless of whether you are an ectomorph, or an endomorph, or even a gifted mesomorph, you still have to eat 5 to 9 times a day.And it is clear that with the classic proper nutrition, as indicated by the trainer, without the use of gainers or protein, such a result simply cannot be achieved. Why? Because it is physically difficult for the body to digest such an amount of food, it has not yet finished with the previous energy, as it has already been given the next one.

    But this process can be spurred – by eating 200 grams of foods with a high glycemic index and an extremely low glycemic load, you induce an insulin reaction, which not only straightens out high blood sugar, but also helps to seal the energy obtained as a result of the last meal into glycogen . ..This will allow you to maintain the required calorie content without the use of sports nutrition, maintain the correct balance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and most importantly, with a clear calculation of calories, achieve optimal beach form without special dietary efforts.

    What determines the glycemic index of food?

    There are several factors that cause changes in the glycemic index of foods or meals:

    • degree of fragmentation of the product;
    • Product processing and heat treatment;
    • dietary fiber content;
    • degree of ripeness of fruits or vegetables;
    • type of carbohydrates present;
    • Presence of other nutrients
    • A meal prior to consuming a particular food.

    An interesting fact is that the same product can have different IGs, depending on the above factors. This is why boiled carrots have a higher glycemic index (47) than raw vegetables (16), and unripe bananas have a lower glycemic index (59) than their mature counterparts (72). These differences even apply to regular and instant oat flour, the glycemic index of which changes by as much as 12 units. Thus, knowing the factors affecting IG shifts allows us to plan our meals more intelligently, from the choice of the type of flour, the smart purchase of vegetables and fruits, to the duration of cooking or baking.

    General

    The glycemic index separates carbohydrates according to how much they increase the glucose saturation of the human transport mitochondria. The higher the glycemic index, the faster the jump in glucose saturation of the transport mitochondria occurs. The glycemic index is 0-100 points (0 has no effect on glucose saturation of transport mitochondria, 100 of which are the most).

    However, the glycemic index does not tell the whole story.If a food is high in carbohydrate content, it will still produce a high glucose saturation of the transport mitochondria, even if it has a low glycemic index rating. This is where the glycemic load comes in. Gl takes into account the amount and rating of carbohydrates in the glycemic index to provide a more complete picture of the effect of transport mitochondria on glucose saturation.

    What does this mean in simple words? In fact, the glycemic load is the percentage of the amount of net carbohydrate in the blood in relation to the glycemic index.And, from a practical point of view, the glycemic load and not the glycemic index at all determines the fact whether the sugar obtained from the product will be digested into glycogen, whether it will be used as pure energy, or will be converted into adipose tissue molecules.

    An interesting fact: unlike the glycemic index, the level of glycemic load does not depend on the method of cooking, since almost always the amount of carbohydrates, even with a change in calorie content, remains unchanged.

    Where can I find information on the glycemic index of a product?

    The glycemic index of foods is best checked in special tables, for example, in scientific research.

    Foods have been divided into three categories:

    1. low glycemic index foods where IG 55
    2. medium glycemic index foods where IG is 56 – 69
    3. high glycemic index foods where IG 70

    It should be remembered that depending on the source, the glycemic index of individual foods can vary due to many factors that affect this parameter.

    Examples of zero GI products:

    Vegetable oils, butter, eggs, cheese, poultry, pork, veal, beef, salmon, cod

    Examples of low GI products:

    • Gooseberries (15)
    • Wholemeal rye bread (50)
    • Lean curd (30)
    • Bitter chocolate (22)
    • Grapefruit (25)
    • Green peas (48)
    • Pear (38)
    • Apples (38)
    • Apple (38)
    • Natural yogurt (36)
    • White cabbage (15)
    • Red cabbage (15)
    • Chinese cabbage (15)
    • Buckwheat groats (54)
    • Buckwheat groats (54)
    • Corn canned (55)
    • Tangerines (30)
    • Raw carrots (16)
    • Skimmed milk (32)
    • Whole butter milk (27)
    • Cucumber (15)
    • Nuts and almonds (15)
    • Pepper ( 15) 90 044
    • Mushrooms (15)
    • Oranges (42)
    • Tomato (15)
    • Leeks (15)
    • Boiled brown rice (55)
    • Radish (15)
    • Iceberg lettuce (10)
    • Strawberries (40)
    • Cherry (22)
    • Examples of products with medium IG:
    • Pineapple in a tin (65)
    • Fresh pineapple (59)
    • Chocolate bar (44-65)
    • Beetroot (64)
    • Boiled pasta (61)
    • Boiled carrots (47)
    • Muesli (59)
    • Raisins (64)
    • White boiled rice (64)
    • Black grapes (59)
    • Boiled potatoes (69)

    Examples of High GI Products:

    • Watermelon (72)
    • Baguette (99)
    • Potato Chips (90)
    • Wheat Bread (70)
    • Dried Dates (103)
    • Pumpkin (75)
    • Potatoes fries (75)
    • Millet (71)
    • Pearl barley (70)
    • Gluten-free corn noodles (78)
    • Corn flakes (81)
    • Jelly beans (78)

    Frequent misconceptions

    Very often people, especially girls who want to lose weight, go on various kinds of weight loss diets. Fruit mono-diets with one single dominant fruit to be consumed throughout the diet, often in unlimited quantities, are at a high percentage of popularity. Examples of such diets are: watermelon, apple, pineapple, grape, banana, peach, etc. But not everyone realizes the senselessness, and even harm, of such diets. Before going on any diet (or better not at all), it is not enough to look only at the calorie content of the foods consumed.A very important role in weight loss is assigned to the glycemic index of foods , which does not always coincide with the calorie content, and sometimes, on the contrary, has a completely opposite meaning.

    Let’s look at this situation with a specific example.

    Let’s take everyone’s favorite watermelon. The calorie content of watermelon is quite low – only 40 kcal per 100 grams, but its glycemic index is equal to 75 (maximum 100). And, despite its low calorie content, watermelon belongs to foods with a high glycemic index , which means that consuming it in large quantities leads to a sharp release of the hormone insulin, an increase in blood sugar, and then, I think, you you no longer need to explain what happens to simple carbohydrates in your body, and what they turn into. But it’s not hard for me to repeat it again: they turn into FAT, which is deposited in the most inappropriate places, and which is so difficult to get rid of.

    Here is a harmless watermelon for you. I think many have now made a discovery for themselves, as if they flew to the moon, because how many times have they heard about the miraculous result from the watermelon diet. But you heard something, but few tested it on yourself, and those who did it were probably satisfied with the result …

    For more information about the dangers of diets, read my article Why does your diet not lead you to lose weight? The whole truth about diets

    But in order not to scare you away from consuming watermelon, I will calm you down a little.The carbohydrate content in watermelon is less than 5%, and this fact saves it from being blacklisted =). This low carbohydrate content compensates for its high glycemic index, which means drinking watermelon in moderation will not harm your figure. These fruits also include pineapple and melon. Despite their high GI, consuming these fruits wisely is completely harmless and even healthy.

    • Do you know everything about fruits? Top fruits for weight loss and a slim figure

    Below I give tables of products with different GI values.

    * Foods with an asterisk mean that they contain less than 5% carbohydrates, this circumstance compensates for their high GI, and therefore eating these foods in moderation will not harm your figure.

    Index and glycemic load

    Sixteen years after the determination of the glycemic index, the concept of glycemic load (LG) was introduced. This is a parameter that takes into account the ratio of the glycemic index of the product and the carbohydrates contained in it.The glycemic load is best represented by the equation:

    LG = W x IG100

    where: LG is the glycemic load, W is the carbohydrate content of a given serving of food, IG is the glycemic index of the food.

    General classification includes foods with low (LG <10), medium (LG 10-20) and high glycemic load (LG> 20). Although the glycemic load is more accurate in characterizing the properties of a particular food, the glycemic index is still a much more commonly used parameter in the diet.

    Fact 4

    Strongly cooked starchy foods (potatoes, pasta, cereals) increase the glycemic index of foods . This is due to the degree of denaturation of the starch during the cooking process.

    What to do?

    Do not overcook pasta; some cereals (buckwheat, oatmeal) should be steamed rather than boiled; give preference to jacket potatoes over mashed potatoes. This will help the starch to be absorbed slowly by the body and will not cause a sharp jump in insulin and an increase in blood sugar.

    Why Eat Low IG Foods?

    Correct metabolism and stabilization of many biochemical parameters in the blood largely depend on the corresponding transformation of carbohydrates in our body. Therefore, consuming a diet based on foods with low levels of IG and / or GN provides tremendous health benefits, including:

    • Prevention of high glycemia after meals;
    • Correct functioning of pancreatic insulin-producing β-cells;
    • prevention of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia;
    • prevention of overweight and obesity;
    • reducing the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease;
    • reduction of total blood cholesterol;
    • Decrease in LDL lipoproteins (the so-called bad cholesterol) and an increase in HDL (so-called good cholesterol) in plasma;
    • improvement of blood pressure;
    • Reducing oxidative stress in the body.

    Glycemic Index and Cancer Prevention

    Recent scientific research describes an interesting relationship between the use of a diet containing low GI foods and the occurrence of tumors. The debilitating changes that occur during illness cause a number of serious metabolic consequences, such as hyperglycemia or increased blood glucose levels. Unfortunately, this can affect the growth of cancer cells, which, according to numerous chemical studies, are “like sugar.”In addition, high glucose levels contribute to increased oxidative stress and changes in the level of proteins and lipid fractions of cells, which can worsen the effects of radiation or chemotherapy. This is why limiting sugar intake and preventing fluctuations in blood glucose levels is an important factor during therapy.

    As you know, carbohydrate metabolism and the level of oxidative stress are closely related to the glycemic index of food intake. This is why there is a high likelihood that a low IG diet may support cancer treatment and become an important preventative factor in people at increased risk of developing the disease.These dependencies, however, still require more thorough research.

    In conclusion, it is worth noting that the increasing pace of life, accompanying stress and an increase in the consumption of processed foods contribute to the occurrence of diseases such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease. In light of this information, choosing the right diet appears to be an obvious step in preventing disease and improving quality of life. The glycemic index can be an important factor in determining the choice of daily consumed foods, which can be invaluable in formulating a balanced diet and regulating carbohydrate metabolism in our body.

    Glycemic Index Diet

    Kathleen M. Zelman,
    What is it?

    Glycemic Index Diet The Glycemic Diet and Low Glycemic Diet

    are more than just diet books. Diets based on the value of carbohydrates and the effect of foods on blood sugar.

    Originally used exclusively for blood sugar control, the glycemic index has become the basis of many popular diets over time, such as South Coast Diet, Zone Diet,
    Glucose Revolution,
    and
    End of the Fight Against Food
    .

    The Glycemic Index measures how a 50 gram serving of carbohydrates affects blood sugar levels compared to controls. Virtually all carbohydrates are converted to glucose and cause a temporary rise in blood glucose levels, which is the glycemic response. This reaction is caused by many factors, including the amount of food; the amount and type of carbohydrate; cooking method; degree of processing, etc. Each product is assigned an index from 1 to 100, 100 – pure glucose. Typically, foods are categorized as high (over 70), low (less than 55), or moderate (56-69) glycemic.

    The popularity of the glycemic index diet has increased with the theory that low – glycemic foods may help control appetite and weight, and may also be beneficial for people with diabetes or prediabetes. The idea is that low-glycemic foods are absorbed more slowly, thus creating a satiety effect and preventing overeating.

    Dieters are encouraged to choose low-glycemic carbohydrate foods that are generally healthier and rich in nutrients and fiber, such as fruits, vegetables, and beans.

    High-glycemic foods, on the other hand, “cause high blood sugar and many hormonal changes that are accompanied by constant hunger, as they are metabolized more quickly than low-glycemic foods,” explains David Ludwig, MD, author of the Diet End of the Struggle with Food

    .

    The blood sugar action potentials of high glycemic foods are especially problematic for people with diabetes. The theory is that if the glycemic index is able to control blood sugar in diabetics, then it should also control weight.

    Since the glycemic diet is used as an approach to weight loss, guidance on fats, protein, alcohol, portions, and exercise varies depending on the plan. Ludwig and most glycemic diet programs recommend regular exercise and moderate amounts of lean protein and healthy fats.

    What can you eat?

    The idea behind the diet is to feel full with lots of low-glycemic smart carbs – whole grains, fruits, vegetables and beans – along with lean proteins and healthy fats.Avoid high-glycemic foods that include white flour.

    But controversial issues can arise when checking the index of, say, carrots, which can range from 16 to 92, or when it turns out that the index of sugar or candy is lower than that of potatoes!

    The truth is that low glycemic index is not yet a measure of health, but high glycemic foods such as corn, baked potatoes and fruit juices can be part of a healthy weight loss plan.

    Ludwig’s plan does not involve any calorie counting, only a basic understanding of the principles of the glycemic index. “There is a psychological benefit to having unlimited healthy foods,” says Ludwig.

    How does it work?

    The glycemic index diet has become popular thanks to the theory that high-glycemic foods raise blood sugar levels, cause the body to secrete excess insulin, and lead to fat storage.However, there is debate among experts regarding the value of the glycemic index for weight loss.

    One of the reasons for the controversial perception of the glycemic index is the variability of glycemic indicators, which can change in accordance with many factors.

    “The more toasted the banana, the higher the index,” explains Rachel Johnson, Ph.D., professor and dean at the University of Vermont. “Add fructose instead of sucrose or sugar and you get a lower glycemic index.”

    The glycemic response to certain foods also varies widely, depending on the individual.

    “We tested the response of the same person to the same food on three different occasions, the difference in glucose and insulin was huge,” says Alice Lichtenstein, one of the authors of the study.

    A well-known diabetes expert and author, Marion Franz, says that glycemic indices are not very significant, as their difference can be felt even within the same foods.

    “The glycemic index of rice can range from 55 to 100,” she says. But at the same time, there is no difference in the ranking of white and brown rice, despite the fact that brown rice is healthier. ”

    According to a 2005 report by the Diet Committee, the glycemic index is of little importance to provide Americans with dietary guidelines. ”

    Franz also disagrees with actual glycemic index measurements: “The glycemic index does not show how quickly

    glucose levels increase, and studies that compare high and low glycemic diets may show different rates at the same time.

    She explains that high glycemic foods, together with low glycemic foods, produce a moderate response.

    However, other experts point out that low-glycemic foods reduce hunger. In a study published May 16, 2007 in the The
    Journal of the American Medical Association,
    , Ludwig and a colleague showed that foods with lower glycemic levels help reduce hunger among obese adolescent boys.

    “Boys were more hungry after a high glycemic breakfast than after a low glycemic breakfast, despite approximately the same number of calories. In addition, on a low glycemic diet, they lost more weight than other study groups.

    In the same study, Ludwig and colleagues found a low glycemic diet to be more effective in people whose bodies secrete more insulin.

    Ludwig recommends a low glycemic diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and high cholesterol.

    What do the experts say?

    Ludwig, founder of Optimal Weight for Life (OWL) at Boston Children’s Hospital, says many children and families have successfully used his 9-week low glycemic weight loss plan. Many other low-glycemic diets have also reported the program’s effectiveness.

    But Lichtenstein notes that the appetite-reducing effect can also be caused by the high fiber content of the recommended foods.

    “Diet books have embraced the glycemic index because it’s simple, but there are many factors that confuse its use with a weight loss tool,” says Lichtenstein.

    Franz believes that some diet books skew the definition of the glycemic index. “Even though a high glycemic diet increases glucose levels, it doesn’t stimulate insulin or appetite,” she says. While Franz confirms the usefulness of the glycemic index for diabetics, she does not see any real value in it as a weight loss tool.

    Losing weight over the long term is more difficult than choosing carbohydrates, says American Dietetic Association spokesperson Suzanne Farrell.There are portions, calories, and exercise to consider, she says. She says she doesn’t like the glycemic diet “as it is not an effective weight loss tool, according to research.”

    Some experts support the diet, they say if this trick helps people to eat healthier and healthier foods, it may have an effect.

    Lichtenstein says glycemic tracking can help some people manage calories – the essence of any successful weight loss program.

    “As long as you choose healthy foods and exercise regularly, there is no reason not to try a glycemic index diet,” she says.

    Johnson also supports a glycemic diet as she recommends healthy carbohydrates rich in fiber. She recommends “make sure you’re eating enough lean and low-fat protein and healthy fats, and remember to eat because you can even overeat good foods.”

    She advises to consult a dietitian physician for an individualized prescription of the most effective program.

    Food For Thought

    Unfortunately, there is no single, one-size-fits-all approach to weight loss. Any diet that you can stick to over the long term will be right for you.

    If you are able to consciously choose healthy, healthy carbohydrates, lean protein, and healthy fats, a glycemic index diet may be interesting for you, especially if you are overweight and have not succeeded on traditional diets.Keep in mind that you should also control your portions and calories, and exercise regularly.

    While there has been a fair amount of research on the glycemic index diet, the results have been inconsistent. More research is needed to confirm the effectiveness of the diet as a specialized weight loss program.

    can these foods be eaten during the diet?

    Nutritionist Natalia Avdeenko assures that it is possible, but only in moderation and wisely.

    Those who want to lose weight and begin to monitor their diet, usually immediately exclude from their diet potatoes, pasta, bread, bananas and cereals with gluten. According to nutritionist Natalia Avdeenko, this approach is a big mistake. Foods that are usually feared like fire are not so bad. Excessive consumption is more harmful.

    Carbohydrates for humans, like gasoline for cars

    – You’ve probably heard that all carbs fall into two categories.The first is called “fast” – they contain sugar, white bread, honey, polished rice, semolina, sweets, cakes, ice cream, chocolate and so on. Such carbohydrates are absorbed almost instantly: they are absorbed in the small intestine, dramatically increase blood sugar levels and re-stimulate the appetite. Thus, the person reaches for the supplement and ends up exceeding the number of calories allowed. The second category of carbohydrates is “slow”. They are found in durum wheat pasta, potatoes, beans, whole grain breads, bananas, oats and barley dishes.Such carbohydrates are digested slowly, keep a long feeling of fullness and are the basis of a diet for weight loss, – explained the interlocutor.

    According to a nutritionist, the secret of “slow” carbohydrates is that they have a special component – “resistant starch” (from the English word resist – “to resist”). It is he who helps us lose weight, as it stays in the stomach and intestines for a long time, is slowly digested and gives a long-lasting feeling of satiety.

    – Carbohydrates are the cleanest energy source.Such food is easily digested and provides our body with working capacity, as well as reaction speed, thought process and good mood, – assures Natalia. – If we were a car, it would be carbohydrates that would become our gasoline, and protein and fats would become oil and antifreeze.

    According to experts, carbohydrates play an equally important role in the work of the nervous system, in muscle activity, and also help to increase performance (both mental and physical).

    What about the glyce mical index?

    Potatoes, bananas, corn, beets – all of these foods are out of favor with weight-conscious people due to their high glycemic index (GI).Nutritionists reassure: the glycemic index is a very relative indicator.

    – A more accurate indicator is the glycemic load, explains Natalia. – The well-known glycemic index tells us how the level of glucose in the blood will change when eating one or another carbohydrate product. Pure glucose is always taken as a basis, the GI of which is 100. And in order to calculate the glycemic load, you need to multiply the GI by the amount of carbohydrates in 100 grams of the product.

    Potatoes, for example, have a glycemic index of 70, bananas – 65.About the same glycemic index and caramel (80). So potatoes and bananas are equal to caramel?

    Oh no! If we translate the glycemic index into glycemic load, then we see that in potatoes with its high glycemic index, the glycemic load will be 12. A high glycemic index banana also has a low glycemic load (13). It is also full of fiber, which is why it is so satisfying. And caramel has a glycemic load of 64 (high).It also has no fiber, only free sugar.

    Genetics matters

    In the course of numerous studies, scientists have discovered an interesting nuance. It turns out that different people, due to their genetic characteristics, perceive carbohydrate and fatty foods in completely different ways. Some do not recover from carbohydrates at all, but from fatty foods they begin to gain weight immediately. Others, on the other hand, are not sensitive to fats, but react quickly to carbohydrates. Here, in order to lose weight, carbohydrate foods should be reduced.

    – It is necessary to take into account the following detail: how to properly prepare food, – added the nutritionist.

    According to her, boiled or baked potatoes, especially chilled ones, have a lot of healthy “slow” carbohydrates. If you make mashed potatoes from potatoes, then this product will be absorbed very quickly. This means that you will want to eat faster. The same is with pasta: in order not to gain weight from this product, they should not only be made from durum wheat, but also a little undercooked. When it comes to bananas, there is more healthy starch in unripe bananas.When overripe, they become less useful for the figure.

    – In general, neither a banana, nor pasta, nor even a slice of white bread will do harm if they are included in the daily KBZHU (the ratio of calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates that enter the body with food). You can eat everything, but wisely! And sometimes choose a more useful alternative, – summed up Natalia Avdeenko.

    Victoria YAKIMOVA

    90,000 Foods with a high glycemic index

    Carbohydrates today are considered by many to be the cause of excess weight and various diseases.At the same time, nutritionists remind that they are an irreplaceable source of energy for the body. Carbohydrates are indeed necessary and important in the diet, but not all of them are equally useful.

    © DepositPhotos

    Carbohydrates in foods are usually divided into simple, or monosaccharides (“fast”) and complex, or polysaccharides (“slow”). To measure the breakdown rates of foods containing carbohydrates, Professor David Jenkins of the University of Toronto coined the glycemic index (GI).

    © DepositPhotos

    Low GI complex carbohydrates, considered to be the most beneficial, release their energy to the body gradually, thus providing a stable and long-term feeling of fullness.

    © DepositPhotos

    Simple carbohydrates (high GI) rapidly increase blood sugar and promote the release of large amounts of insulin. As a result, energy is not stored in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscles, but is mostly converted into body fat.

    © DepositPhotos

    It is clear that it is better to eat more foods with a low glycemic index. This not only allows you to stay in great shape, but also reduces the risk of developing diabetes or “planting” the pancreas.

    Foods with a high glycemic index

    GI of pure glucose is taken as a basis and is equal to 100. High GI (more than 70), as a rule, in flour, starchy and sweet foods. Low (less than 50) in most vegetables and fruits.

    © DepositPhotos

    However, there are exceptions. High GI foods are found in some foods that even healthy lifestyle aficionados find useful and healthy. For example, pumpkin, muesli with nuts and raisins, carrots and watermelon.

    © DepositPhotos

    The GI of many foods can vary greatly depending on how they are prepared. For example, the GI of a potato can range from 87 for boiled young potatoes to 111 for fries. Canned apricots have a GI of 91, and fresh ones have a 35.

    1. French fries – 111
    2. Beer – 110
    3. Dates – 103
    4. Pasternak – 97
    5. Butter rolls – 95
    6. Fried potatoes – 95
    7. White (glutinous) rice – 85
    8. Carrots (boiled or stewed) – 85
    9. Unsweetened Popcorn – 85
    10. Mashed potatoes – 83
    11. Muesli with nuts and raisins – 80
    12. Pumpkin – 75
    13. Watermelon – 75
    14. Rice porridge with milk – 75
    15. Millet – 71
    16. Chocolate Bar – 70
    17. Potato Chips – 70
    18. White Sugar – 70
    19. Semolina – 70

    Glycemic load

    As it turns out, remembering a list of high GI foods is not all.More recently, a new and more informative way of assessing the impact of carbohydrate intake has been used.

    © DepositPhotos

    Glycemic Load (GL) is the percentage of how much carbohydrate from food will enter the bloodstream. One point on the glycemic load scale corresponds roughly to the consumption of one gram of glucose.

    © DepositPhotos

    At the same time, the lower the GN, the lower the percentage of pure glucose is absorbed in the body and the better the digestive system works.

    Interestingly, watermelon, which ranks high on the list of foods with a high glycemic index, has a very low glycemic load. It does not contain a lot of carbohydrates, and in order to raise blood sugar levels, you will have to eat a lot of it.

    Table of glycemic indices in front of your eyes. Draw conclusions and choose those foods, the use of which will not lead to weight gain and will not harm your health.

    When the holiday season is in full swing, I would like to pay special attention to how to maintain the health of the pancreas.After all, overeating in combination with alcohol intake can provoke a disruption in the work of this important organ.

    “So Simple!” provides a list of foods you need to include in your diet to keep your pancreas healthy.

    The Mediterranean diet is one of the most popular nutritional systems in Europe. Its famous adherents are Penelope Cruz and Sophia Loren, whose culinary addictions we will tell in the final part of the article.

    90,000 Low GI Products for Weight Loss – Weight Loss Rate

    The glycemic index (GI) is a measure of how high blood glucose levels rise in response to a carbohydrate meal. Foods with a high GI cause the pancreas to release insulin to help normalize glucose levels. With a large spike in insulin, blood sugar levels drop below normal, which makes you feel an overwhelming craving for food again.Insulin sends unprocessed sugar to storage sites – fat depot. Therefore, a high GI of foods is considered a harbinger of excess weight and the cause of difficulty in controlling appetite.

    Glycemic Index Theory

    GI is an evaluation method that has been deduced empirically. In various studies, sugar or white bread was used as a control product. Participants ate a certain amount of the same food. To measure blood sugar, the researchers focused on 50 grams of digestible carbohydrates, not the volume of the food itself.For example, 280 g of potatoes and 80 g of buckwheat groats each contain 50 g of digestible carbohydrates, excluding fiber. After that, the subjects measured glucose in their blood and compared how high its level had risen in relation to sugar. This formed the basis of the glycemic index.

    More recent studies have introduced the concept of Glycemic Load, which most accurately reflects the effect on the body of a particular food. Unlike the index, it allows you to evaluate a specific portion, and does not focus on the abstract 50 g.

    GI and saturation

    Studies in the 2000s have shown that GI has less effect on satiety than previously thought. Saturation factors included: proteins, fats, fiber and energy density of food.

    Proteins take a long time to digest, which allows you to maintain a comfortable feeling of fullness. Fat slows down the absorption of nutrients and helps maintain long-term satiety. Fiber creates volume, and mechanical stretching of the stomach is a satiety factor.

    In terms of energy density, compare 40 g of oat biscuits and 50 g of oatmeal. Their calorie content is the same, but the number of calories per gram of product and the volume are different. Likewise, 200 g of grapes and 50 g of raisins have the same number of calories, but different energy density, respectively, saturation in different ways.

    It is advisable to remember about insulin and the glycemic index for long periods of time without food. Low blood glucose slows down the onset of satiety, so people tend to overeat after a period of hunger, and therefore it is recommended to eat small meals and not skip meals to control appetite.

    Insulin and GI are extremely important for obese and diabetic people. Obesity reduces insulin sensitivity. If you want to lose weight, you will not only have to control the feeling of satiety, but also your blood sugar level – choose foods with a low GI.

    Ways of GI control

    The glycemic index of foods can be influenced. You already know that proteins, fats and fiber slow down the absorption of nutrients – they can also decrease or increase GI.Ice cream increases blood sugar less than bread because it contains fats, not just carbohydrates.

    Whole grain products and preserved cereals have less GI than products made from white flour and refined grains. Buy whole grain breads, crispbreads, durum pasta, oatmeal instead of oatmeal, brown rice instead of white.

    The GI of fresh vegetables and fruits is lower than cooked ones due to the fiber. When you grind vegetables, heat them or puree them, you destroy dietary fiber – the GI rises.Therefore, the index of boiled carrots is almost the same as that of white bread, and mashed potatoes are much higher than that of baked potatoes in their skins.

    Proteins are digested longer than other food components, so nutritionists recommend eating proteins and carbohydrates together. This allows not only to control appetite, but also to reduce the glycemic index of carbohydrates.

    If you have left a moderate amount of sweets in your diet, then eat them not on an empty stomach, but with your balanced meal.Its ingredients will slow down digestion, lower your GI and provide you with a feeling of fullness.

    The glycemic index is not as important to healthy people of normal weight and insulin sensitivity as it is to control appetite while dieting. It should be taken into account for people suffering from obesity and diabetes, since with such diseases, one cannot do with satiety control. For absolutely everyone, the GI tables will be a good cheat sheet for choosing foods, but it is important to understand that overeating can provoke even the most correct foods.

    Author: Ekaterina G., nutritionist, fitness blogger (specially for Calorizator.ru)
    Copying of this article in whole or in part is prohibited.

    What is the glycemic index | Articles about VkusVill products: Nizhny Novgorod

    Nutritionist Victoria Vishnyakova told in detail everything that is important to know about carbohydrates and the glycemic index.

    Carbohydrates are a large group of foods that are the main sources of energy and fiber for the body.

    Under the action of enzymes, carbohydrates are broken down into simple glucose molecules, which are converted into energy through chemical reactions. And that part of carbohydrates that is not absorbed by humans (fiber or dietary fiber) is food for microorganisms in the large intestine. Modern research has shown that these microorganisms protect us from a number of diseases: cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity. Therefore, the most beneficial for health are those carbohydrates that contain not only glucose, but also fiber.

    To “extract” energy from carbohydrates, the body breaks down large food molecules into smaller ones, and finally gets a glucose molecule. Its size allows it to be absorbed from the intestines directly into the bloodstream and used for the needs of the body.

    • If you eat pure glucose, then the body does not have to spend time and resources on the breakdown of the product – after all, it came in its pure form.
    • If you eat celery, the body will have to break down complex polysaccharide molecules for a long time, freeing them from fiber.

    A relative measure of how long the body will have to “extract” glucose from a food is called the glycemic index. Relative – because it is compared to the notional 100 points for pure glucose. The lower the glycemic index, the longer the body will have to digest the product and the slower it will “give” glucose into the blood.


    And this is a huge plus for health: such food causes a gradual, relatively small increase in blood glucose levels and satiates longer.It also means that in addition to energy, the body will also receive fiber as a “waste” material. As a rule, all vitamins, minerals and other useful substances are contained in it. Therefore, the higher the glycemic index (that is, the better the product is cleared of cells), the less healthy substances it contains.

    The glycemic index is :

    • low – 55 and less,
    • medium – 56-69,

    Curiously, there is no upper limit of the glycemic index.That is, 100 – the glycemic index of glucose – is not the maximum. For example, quick breakfasts with sugar or syrups can have a GI of up to 132!

    This is due to the fact that the glycemic index is influenced not only by the presence or absence of fiber, but also by the degree of grinding of the product and heat treatment. The better the product is ground and the longer it is boiled, the easier it is for the body to break it down. Therefore, you can reduce the glycemic index of pasta by simply boiling them to the al dente state, and porridge using large grains for cooking.


    But the glycemic index is not an absolute indicator of the healthiness of food. For example, the glycemic index of mayonnaise will be about 50, and banana – 65. Does this mean that bananas in the diet should be replaced with mayonnaise?

    In addition, for the same product or dish, one person may have different glycemic reactions at different times.

    Therefore, it is not worthwhile to unambiguously divide food into “good” and “bad” only by the glycemic index.


    The glycemic index helps to understand whether we will receive only energy with the product or more vitamins, minerals and food for intestinal bacteria.And whether it will be an instant burst of energy or the product will evenly saturate us with energy over a long period.

    It is convenient to use it when we cannot understand their quality by the total amount of carbohydrates: for example, cookies can be made from premium flour and sugar, then there will be almost no fiber and nutrients, but there will be a huge amount of glucose, which quickly fell into blood flow. Or maybe the cookies are made from whole grain flour – then we will eat fiber and get a gradual flow of glucose into the blood and long saturation.In this case, the total amount of carbohydrates on both packs will be the same.

    Analogous to the glycemic index – the breakdown of carbohydrates into sugars and dietary fiber. With this method, you can easily understand whether there is a lot of sugar in the product (and then it should be limited in the diet) or fiber (then this product is a welcome guest in a healthy diet). In this case, the total number of carbohydrates in foods may be the same.

    Also, doctors use such a concept as glycemic load (GN).This is an indicator that takes into account not only the quality of carbohydrates, but also their quantity. The glycemic load is determined by multiplying the GI of the food by the number of grams of carbohydrates per serving and dividing by 100.


    For example, one apple has a GI of 38 and contains 13 grams of carbohydrates.

    GI = 38 * 13/100 = 5

    Potatoes have a GI = 85 and contain 14 grams of carbohydrates.

    GN = 85 * 14/100 = 12

    It turns out that the GN of a potato will be twice as high as that of an apple.


    GN of food can be classified as low, medium, or high:

    • low – 10 or less,
    • medium – 11-19,
    • high – 20 or more.

    It is needed to assess the consequences of the use of a specific volume of the product. So, for example, if a product has a high glycemic index, but it has few carbohydrates, then there is no point in being afraid of it and deleting it from the diet. For example, the GI of a watermelon is 75, but 100 g of watermelon will contain only 9 g of carbohydrates.This means that his GN is only 7, and this is a low indicator. But if they were assessed only by the GI, then the watermelon would be on the “black list” – something that should be limited in the diet.

    Separately for low glycemic syrups. They are mostly made up of fructose – it has a low glycemic index, so for many it looks like a healthier alternative to sugar. In fact, the body needs glucose to survive, so it perfectly knows how to assimilate it. The body does not have a vital need for fructose, so it is less assimilated.Scientific studies say that excessive consumption of fructose is dangerous: increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes [ 1, 2 ], there are risks of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [ 3, 4, 5 ]. Also high fructose consumption is associated with gene damage in the brain. And this can lead to a number of mental illnesses – Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, and so on.

    However, this does not mean that fruits are also prohibited, since they contain fructose.For example, 1 teaspoon of agave syrup contains 6 g of fructose, and 1 large peach contains 1.5. At the same time, we are unlikely to be able to eat 40 peaches, but 10 teaspoons of syrup is easy.

    How to calculate the glycemic load of porridge

  • When calculating the glycemic load of cereals, you need to correctly calculate the amount of carbohydrates in a serving.

    Do not forget that in the “Tables of food composition” data on carbohydrates are given for dry cereals, it should be borne in mind that when cooking porridge we add water to it.
    Glycemic load is calculated using the formula:

    Glycemic load of liquid barley porridge

    Here is an example of calculating the glycemic load of a liquid barley porridge on water.
    For breakfast, I usually boil a egg in the following ratio: I take 300 ml of water for 50 g of cereal.

    Now let’s calculate how many carbohydrates are contained in a 100 g serving of such a liquid porridge.

    100 g of barley contains 65.4 g of net carbohydrates.
    For porridge, we take 50 g of cereal (this amount of cereal contains 32.7 g of net carbohydrates).

    It turns out that 350 g of liquid porridge will contain 32.7 g of carbohydrates.
    In 100 g of liquid porridge – 9.34 g of carbohydrates (100 * 32.7 / 350)

    GN 100 g of liquid barley porridge – 25 * 9.34 / 100 = 2.3

    Glycemic load of boiled buckwheat

    And this is the calculation of the glycemic load of boiled buckwheat.

    100 g of buckwheat contains 62.1 g of net carbohydrates.

    We will cook buckwheat in the ratio of 70 g of cereal – 110 ml of water.

    Then 180 g of boiled buckwheat will contain 43.5 g of net carbohydrates (62.1 * 70/100)

    100 g of boiled buckwheat – 24.2 g of carbohydrates (100 * 43.5 / 180)

    GN 100 g of boiled buckwheat – 40 * 24.2 / 100 = 9.7

    Porridge

    Carbohydrate content in 100 g of cereal

    Carbohydrate content in 100 g of porridge

    Glycemic index

    Glycemic load 100 g porridge

    Boiled buckwheat

    62.1

    24.2

    40

    9.7

    Liquid barley porridge

    65.4

    9.34

    25

    2.3

    From the calculations it can be seen that to reduce the glycemic load of porridge, it is necessary to increase the amount of liquid in it

    Related Entries:

    Tags: glycemic load

  • 21,185 views
  • .