Fracture jaw healing time: Please Wait… | Cloudflare
This X-ray shows a broken jaw. The dark angular line near the bottom right of the jaw is the fracture. Photo courtesy of Lisa Chan, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona.
What is a Broken or Dislocated Jaw?
A broken jaw (or mandibular fracture) is injury to the mandible, or jawbone. It’s a common type of facial fracture; only the nose and the cheekbone are broken more often.
The U-shaped mandible is the largest and main bone of the lower part of the face. There are two chief areas of the mandible bone: The “body” — the chin out to the jaw angle — and the rami, the two upward branches.
The jawbone connects to the skull at the temporomandibular joints, better known as the TMJs, on either side of your head in front of your ears. Ligaments hold the bone in place, and muscles let your jaw open and close. When your jawbone comes out of its normal position in one or both of the TMJs, that’s a dislocation.
Broken Jaw Causes
A broken jaw is the 10th-most commonly fractured bone in the human body. Fractures (breaks in the bone) are generally the result of a direct force or trauma to the jawbone. The most common causes are:
Motor vehicle accidents
Men are about three times more likely than women to sustain a broken jaw. Those ages 20 to 29 are the group most commonly affected.
A dislocation can also be caused by trauma to the face. But usually it happens when you open your mouth too wide, like while taking a bite of something, yawning, or during a dental procedure.
Broken Jaw Symptoms
A jaw fracture happens after a trauma. If your jaw is broken:
- You’ll have jaw pain.
- You may feel that your teeth do not fit together correctly (this is called a malocclusion).
- You may be unable to open your jaw all the way or have problems speaking.
- There may notice swelling or bruising of the jaw.
- Your chin or lower lip may be numb because of damage to a nerve that runs through the mandible.
- Inside the mouth, you may see bleeding.
- Teeth may be loose or missing.
- There might also be bruising under the tongue or even a cut in the ear canal due to movement backward of the broken jawbone.
If your jaw is dislocated:
- You’ll have jaw pain.
- You may not be able to close your mouth or open it very wide.
- Your jaw may be twisted to one side
- Your bite may not line up correctly.
- You may have trouble speaking or swallowing.
When to Seek Medical Care
If you have symptoms, you need medical attention. This kind of injury is best checked out at a hospital. Your doctor may advise you to go to an emergency department. Remember, if you are the one who is injured, you should not be driving. Have someone take you to the emergency department.
A potential but serious consequence of jaw fractures is a problem breathing due to loss of support to the tongue. Any signs of breathing problems need to be addressed immediately by calling 911.
Broken Jaw Diagnosis
A doctor will conduct a physical exam and order X-rays, if indicated. Blood tests usually are not necessary.
The physical examination includes a general inspection of your face for obvious deformity, bruising, or swelling. The doctor will also look at your TMJ joint (temporomandibular joint), and check to see if there’s nerve or vascular problems. The next step is feeling the jawbone through the skin.
The doctor will check the movement of the mandible. Once the external exam is complete, the doctor will check inside your mouth. You’ll be asked to bite down, and your doctor will look at how your teeth align.
The doctor will check the jawbone for stability. With the straight blade test, the doctor may place a tongue blade (tongue depressor, a flat wooden stick) between your teeth and evaluate whether you can hold the blade in place.
The best screening film is the panoramic X-ray, completely around the jaw. This type of X-ray may not be available in smaller hospitals, so other views may be substituted. If the first X-rays don’t show anything conclusive. Your doctor may order a CT scan if they think you have a broken jaw.
Broken Jaw Treatment
If there is any question that you may have a broken jaw, you need to be checked by a doctor or a dentist specializing in oral surgery.
Self-care at home
If you think your jaw is broken, see a doctor. Apply ice to the jaw to help control the swelling on your way to be seen by the doctor. Sometimes you will need a paper cup to catch the drool or to spit blood into on the trip to the doctor or emergency department.
Many people who have jaw pain will not have a jaw fracture and will be treated with pain medications and instructions to eat a soft diet and to follow up with their doctor.
Further evaluation is required if you have a broken jaw. Many fractures of the jawbone are associated with gum problems or tissue damage and should be considered open fractures. They will be treated with antibiotics.
You may receive a tetanus shot.
Pain will be addressed and managed effectively.
Many mandible fractures are stable, and the only treatment required is wiring the upper and lower teeth together. This will most commonly be performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon.
More unstable fractures often require surgery. Surgical methods using plates across the fracture site may allow you to have normal motion of the mandible and to eat shortly after surgery.
What are treatments for a dislocated jaw?
Manual repositioning. Your doctor or dentist will first move your jaw back into place. They put their thumbs inside your mouth on your back bottom teeth and hold the bottom of your jaw with their fingers. Then they manipulate your jaw down and backward until it pops into place. You may need pain medicine or sedation for the procedure.
Barton bandage. They will often wrap a bandage under your jaw and around the back of your head to keep your jaw in place while it heals.
Surgery. If your jaw gets dislocated often, you might consider surgery to tighten the ligaments that support your jaw.
Broken Jaw Recovery
Many jaw fractures need surgery. Because of that, you may need to follow up with a surgeon. Take antibiotics as instructed and follow all diet recommendations.
With treatment, a broken jaw will typically heal in a month or two.
While your dislocated jaw is healing, you should try not to open your mouth very wide for several weeks.
Broken Jaw Prevention
Because the most common causes of jaw fractures are motor vehicle accidents and assaults, the best prevention is to drive carefully and avoid situations that could turn violent. You can also wear protective devices while taking part in sports.
Broken Jaw Outlook
Depending on the nature and location of the fracture, it may have to be fixed with surgery. Some fractures do not require surgery and are managed best with diet changes and pain control. Some people may need to be admitted to the hospital based on their injury.
Fracture of the Lower Jaw
- Reference Number: HEY-140/2020
- Departments: Maxillofacial Department
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This leaflet has been produced to give you general information about your condition. Most of your questions should have been answered by this leaflet. It is not intended to replace the discussion between you and the healthcare team, but may act as a starting point for discussion. If after reading it you have any concerns or require further explanation, please discuss this with a member of the healthcare team.
What are fractures of the lower jaw?
Your lower jaw has been broken. The doctor who examined you has already established the number of fractures or breaks in your lower jaw, where they have occurred and whether or not they need treatment to help them heal. If surgical treatment is needed it usually requires a general anaesthetic i.e. you will be asleep during the operation. However, not all fractures need an operation, and some can be treated by sticking hooks on teeth, or by placing screws under a local anaesthetic.
Why do I need treatment?
It is important not to leave broken bones untreated as this may well result in difficulty with eating and drinking. Factures of any bones in the jaw will alter the way your mouth opens and closes, treatment will prevent risk of infections, dental decay and long term conditions such as arthritis.
Can there be any complications or risks?
Infection can occur but is uncommon if the mouth is kept clean and because of the antibiotics that are used.
Bleeding from the cuts inside your mouth is unlikely to be a problem but should the area bleed when you get home this can usually be stopped by applying pressure over the site for at least 10 minutes with a rolled up handkerchief or gauze swab.
There is a nerve that runs through the centre of the lower jaw that supplies feeling to your lower lip, chin and bottom teeth. This nerve may have been bruised at the time of the fracture and as a result you might already feel some tingling or numbness in your lip and/or chin. This may feel to have been made worse by surgery. In the majority of people the numbness gets better on its own although it can take several months to do so. For some patients it does not get better.
Occasionally the screws that are used may damage teeth adjacent to the fracture site.
If it has been necessary to put any plates or screws in your jaw under the gum to hold it in position these are not normally removed unless they get infected because they tend not to cause problems. The metal that is used is titanium which does not set off metal detectors in airports, etc.
How do I prepare for the operation?
Please read the information leaflet. Share the information it contains with your partner and family (if you wish) so that they can be of help and support. There may be information they need to know, especially if they are taking care of you following this operation.
What does the operation involve?
If an operation is needed once you are asleep the fracture sites will be opened up. This may involve making a cut on the inside of your mouth through the gum, or on the outside through the skin. The broken bones are then put back together and held in place with small metal plates and screws. The gum is stitched back into place with dissolvable stitches that can take a fortnight or even longer to fall out. During the same operation it is often necessary to place wires or metal braces around your teeth so that elastic bands can be attached to them and guide your bite into the correct position after surgery. Screws inserted into the jawbone between the roots of the teeth are commonly used instead of these wires or metal braces. Any elastic bands, which may be used to guide your teeth together, are not usually attached until the day after your operation, i.e. your jaws will be able to move freely when you wake up from surgery.
Will anything else be done while I am asleep?
Occasionally it is necessary to remove damaged or decayed teeth at the site of the fracture. In very difficult fractures, including fractures around the jaw joint, it is sometimes necessary to make a cut on the outside of the mouth through the skin of your face. If this is thought likely to take place, the site and size of the cut will be discussed with you before you sign the consent form for your operation.
What will happen?
You will be given a letter detailing where you should attend, starving instructions and the time to report to the ward. Staff will greet you and show you around the ward. You will be seen by the doctor and possibly the anaesthetist. The type of anaesthetic you will be having is called a general anaesthetic. You will be prescribed pain relief to manage any pain you may suffer following the operation.
What happens afterwards?
It is likely to be sore and regular pain relief medication will be arranged for you. The discomfort is usually worse for the first few days although it may take a couple of weeks to completely disappear. It is also necessary to make sure that the fractures heal without any infection and so you will also be given antibiotics through a vein in your arm whilst you are in hospital. You will be sent home with pain relief medication and a course of antibiotics. Patients usually stay in hospital for one night following the surgery. The following day the position of your fractures is sometimes checked with X-rays before you are allowed home.
Although the plates and screws hold the fractures in place it still takes around six weeks for your lower jaw to heal completely. During this time you need to eat a relatively soft diet, the nature of which will be discussed with you by the doctors, nurses and dieticians. It is also important that you keep your mouth as clean as possible for the first few weeks after surgery to prevent infection. It may be difficult to clean your teeth around stitches because it is sore. It is best to keep the area free from food debris by gently rinsing your mouth with a mouthwash of hot salt water (dissolve a flat teaspoon of kitchen salt in a cup of hot water) commencing on the day after surgery.
You should also use any prescribed mouthwashes. As healing progresses you will be able to use a toothbrush as normal, or if your gums are tender put toothpaste on your little finger and use it as a toothbrush. If any wires, metal braces or screws are used to help guide your bite into the correct position they will be removed in the outpatient department when your doctors are satisfied that your fracture has healed.
Depending on the nature of your work it may be necessary to take a fortnight or so off, and to avoid strenuous exercise for this time. Some sports with a high risk of facial injury should not be performed for up to three months.
It is important to remember that you will not be able to drive or operate machinery for 48 hours after your general anaesthetic.
Some of information included in this leaflet has been provided by the https://www.baoms.org.uk/patients/procedures/
Should you require further advice on the issues contained in this leaflet, please do not hesitate to contact the Maxillofacial Unit (01482) 463218
General Advice and Consent
Most of your questions should have been answered by this leaflet, but remember that this is only a starting point for discussion with the healthcare team.
Consent to treatment
Before any doctor, nurse or therapist examines or treats you, they must seek your consent or permission. In order to make a decision, you need to have information from health professionals about the treatment or investigation which is being offered to you. You should always ask them more questions if you do not understand or if you want more information.
The information you receive should be about your condition, the alternatives available to you, and whether it carries risks as well as the benefits. What is important is that your consent is genuine or valid. That means:
- you must be able to give your consent
- you must be given enough information to enable you to make a decision
- you must be acting under your own free will and not under the strong influence of another person
Information about you
We collect and use your information to provide you with care and treatment. As part of your care, information about you will be shared between members of a healthcare team, some of whom you may not meet. Your information may also be used to help train staff, to check the quality of our care, to manage and plan the health service, and to help with research. Wherever possible we use anonymous data.
We may pass on relevant information to other health organisations that provide you with care. All information is treated as strictly confidential and is not given to anyone who does not need it. If you have any concerns please ask your doctor, or the person caring for you.
Under the General Data Protection Regulation and the Data Protection Act 2018 we are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of any information we hold about you. For further information visit the following page: Confidential Information about You.
If you or your carer needs information about your health and wellbeing and about your care and treatment in a different format, such as large print, braille or audio, due to disability, impairment or sensory loss, please advise a member of staff and this can be arranged.
Jaw – broken or dislocated Information | Mount Sinai
A person with a broken or dislocated jaw needs medical attention right away. This is because they may have breathing problems or bleeding. Call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local hospital for further advice.
Hold the jaw gently in place with your hands on the way to the emergency room. You can also wrap a bandage under the jaw and over the top of the head. The bandage should be easy to remove in case you need to vomit.
At the hospital, if you have breathing problems, heavy bleeding occurs, or severe swelling of your face, a tube may be placed into your airways to help you breathe.
Treatment for a fractured jaw depends on how badly the bone is broken. If you have a minor fracture, it can heal on its own. You may only need pain medicines. You will probably have to eat soft foods or stay on a liquid diet for a while.
Surgery is often needed for moderate to severe fractures. The jaw may be wired to the teeth of the opposite jaw to keep the jaw stable while it heals. Jaw wires are usually left in place for 6 to 8 weeks. Small rubber bands (elastics) are used to hold the teeth together. After a few weeks, some of the elastics are removed to allow motion and reduce joint stiffness.
If the jaw is wired, you can only drink liquids or eat very soft foods. Have blunt scissors readily available to cut the elastics in the event of vomiting or choking. If the wires must be cut, call your health care provider right away so that the wires can be replaced.
If your jaw is dislocated, a doctor may be able to place it back into the correct position using the thumbs. Numbing medicines (anesthetics) and muscle relaxants may be needed to relax the jaw muscles.
Afterward, your jaw may need to be stabilized. This usually involves bandaging the jaw to keep the mouth from opening widely. In some cases, surgery is needed to do this, particularly if repeated jaw dislocations occur.
After dislocating your jaw, you should not open your mouth widely for at least 6 weeks. Support your jaw with one or both hands when yawning and sneezing.
Guide | Physical Therapy Guide to Jaw Fracture (Temporomandibular Joint Fracture)
Once you have completed a course of rest or splinting, your physical therapist can help restore the natural movement of your jaw and decrease your pain. During your first visit, your physical therapist may:
- Review your medical history, and discuss any previous surgery, fractures, or other injuries to your head, neck, or jaw.
- Evaluate the quality and quantity of movement of your jaw and neck.
- Assess your posture and observe how your neck moves.
- Examine the TMJ to find out how well it can open, and whether there are any abnormalities in jaw motion following the fracture.
Following the examination, your physical therapist will select the appropriate treatments to improve your jaw movement and relieve your pain.
Improving Your Jaw Movement
Stretching and Motion Exercises.Your physical therapist may prescribe stretches and range-of-motion exercises for the jaw. The instruction will include guidelines for frequency and intensity of movement to ensure your safe performance of all your exercises.
Manual Therapy. Your physical therapist may also apply skilled hands-on techniques (manual therapy) to gently increase your jaw movement and relieve your pain.
“Low-Load” Exercises. Your physical therapist may teach you special “low-load” strengthening exercises that don’t exert a lot of pressure on your TMJ, but can help strengthen the muscles of the jaw and restore a more natural, pain-free motion. Your physical therapist also will teach you exercises that help you increase the opening of your jaw and improve the way it works.
Relieving Your Pain
If your pain is severe, your physical therapist may apply physical modalities, such as electrical stimulation or deep heat, to reduce pain and improve motion.
Fractures of the Lower Jaw (Mandible)
Your lower jaw has been fractured. You surgeon will examine you and establish the number of fractures and what treatment you will require to correct the problem. The treatment you will undergo will require a general anaesthetic.
What does the surgery involve
Once you have been put under the general anaesthetic, the fracture sites will be opened up. This involves making an incision on the inside of your mouth through the gum. The broken bones are then repositioned together and held in place with small metal plates and screws. The gum is stitched back into place with dissolvable stitches. It can take up to a fortnight or even longer for them to dissolve.
During the surgery, in rare circumstances, wires or metal braces must be placed around your teeth. This is so that elastic bands can be attached to them and guide your bite into the correct position after surgery. Screws inserted into the jawbone above the teeth are occasionally used instead of these wires or metal braces. Any elastic bands are not usually attached until the day after your operation. i.e. you will be able to move your jaws freely when you wake up.
Will I require any further surgery?
Occasionally, it is necessary to remove damaged or decayed teeth at the site of the fracture. In very difficult fractures it is sometimes necessary to make an incision on the outside of the mouth through the skin. If you are to undergo this procedure, the site and size of the incision will be discussed with you prior to you consenting to this surgery.
What can I expect following the surgery?
It is likely that you will be sore and tender following the surgery and pain relief will be given to you. The discomfort is usually worse over the first few days, although it may take a couple of weeks to completely resolve. It is also necessary to make sure that the fractures heal without any infection and so you will be given antibiotics whilst you are in hospital and when you are discharged.
You will be required to stay in hospital overnight following the surgery. The following day you will undergo an x-ray to check the position of your fractures prior to you being discharged from hospital.
Although the plates and screws hold the fractures in place, it may take around six weeks for your lower jaw to heal completely. During this period you will need to consume a relatively soft diet which will be discussed with you. It is important that you are diligent in maintaining a scrupulously clean mouth for the first few weeks following surgery to prevent infection. It may however be difficult to clean your teeth around the site of the stitches due to tenderness. It is advisable to keep the area free from food debris by gently rinsing your mouth with a mouthwash or warm salt water commencing on the day following surgery.
If any wires, metal braces or screws are used to help guide your bite into the correct position, they will be removed when your surgeon is happy that your fracture has healed completely.
Will I require any time off work?
Depending on the nature of your work, it may be advisable to take a couple of weeks off work and avoid strenuous exercise for this period. It is important that 48 hours following surgery that you avoid driving or operating machinery.
What are the possible complications of the surgery?
- Infection is uncommon as you will be taking antibiotics.
- Bleeding from the incision sites inside your mouth is unlikely to cause a problem. However, if the area does bleed this can usually be stopped by applying pressure over the site for at least ten minutes with a swab.
- The nerve that runs through the centre of the lower jaw that supplies sensation to your lower lip, chin and bottom teeth may be bruised at the time of your fracture. As a result, you may experience some tingling or numbness in your lip or chin. This tingling may also be caused or exacerbated by the surgery. For most people the numbness improves on its own, although it can take several months to do so.
- Occasionally, teeth adjacent to the fracture site may be damaged by screws that are used.
- If you have had plates or screws inserted to hold your jaw in the correct position, these are not normally removed unless they become infected. However, they tend not to cause any problems. The metal that is used is titanium which does not alert metal detectors in airports.
Will I require a follow appointment?
A review appointment will be arranged for you to be seen by your surgeon to ensure that your jaws are healing well.
If you have any post-operative concerns, you should contact your surgeon directly and not any other healthcare professionals.
Fractures of the Upper Jaw
If you have sustained a fractured jaw, your surgeon will assess the number of fractures, where they have occurred and whether you will require treatment. The treatment you will undergo involves a general anaesthetic.
What does the surgery involve?
Your surgeon will make an incision on the inside of your mouth through the gum above your upper teeth. The broken bones are then fixed and held in place with small metal plates and screws. The gum is stitched back into place with dissolvable stitches that can take a fortnight or even longer to fall out.
During the operation, it is often necessary to place wires or metal braces (arch bars: see below) around your teeth so that elastic bands can be attached to them to guide your bite back into the correct position after surgery. Occasionally, screws are inserted into the jawbone above the teeth instead of wires or metal braces. Your jaws will be able to open freely when you wake up from the surgery.
Occasionally, it is necessary to remove damaged or decayed teeth in and around the site of the fracture.
What are arch bars
Arch bars are small strips of metal which are secured to teeth in order to encourage your jaws to heal in the correct alignment. These are placed to achieve the same bite as you had prior to your injury (in cases of trauma).
Arch bars are comparable to braces which are used to align teeth by an orthodontist, except they are placed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon in order to align the jaws. The arch bars are secured to the teeth by wires which wrap around the teeth to hold the arch bars firmly in place. The secure fit of these arch bars is necessary to attain the ideal result. Elastic bands are then fitted between the top and lower jaws to manoeuvre the bite into the ideal position. They do not prevent you from opening your jaws.
The most common reason for fitting arch bars is following trauma of the mandible (lower jaw) or the midface (including top jaw). They may also be placed in some cases of orthognathic surgery (corrective surgery for jaw alignment or sleep apnoea), or following reconstruction after diseases of the jaws.
Arch bars have been used for many years. They may be used by themselves for closed reduction (treatment of bony injuries without cutting the tissues), or in conjunction with open reduction (cutting the tissues and surgical repositioning of the bones).
These appliances are temporary and the length of time required is dependent upon the purpose for their use. Typically trauma cases may require arch bars for two to four weeks before removal.
How do arch bars affect your day-to-day living
During the period you will require arch bars, several issues may arise:
- At the outset, the wires and arch bars may cause some local irritation and discomfort but the tissues usually adapt to this within several days.
- Oral hygiene can be more difficult, as the appliances tend to trap food debris. It is therefore essential that you brush your teeth frequently and meticulously whilst these are on. It will make the application of the elastics much simpler. You may also be advised to use an antiseptic mouth wash (such as chlorhexidine) on a regular basis.
- The arch bars are evident on smiling, but less so than regular braces.
- In rare cases, the jaws are wired together to prevent the mouth from opening. Special instructions will be given to you concerning dietary requirements.
How the elastics are placed
The placement of the elastic bands between the mandibular (lower jaw) and maxillary (top jaw) arch bars is critical to their effectiveness. Failure to place these correctly will lead to an undesirable outcome.
Your surgeon will initially place the elastics for you, either at the time of surgery or within the days following. After providing you with a supply, they will then instruct you on how and where to place them.
A guide for placement of dental elastics for archbars
- Grasp the elastic band with the tip of the tweezers.
- Loop the elastic over one of the ‘cleats’ or ‘hooks’ of the archbar on the top jaw. Do not confuse the cleats with the wires themselves. Ideally, you should not hook the elastic over the wires which are used to secure the arch bar to the teeth.
- With your mouth closed, loop the band over the corresponding cleat in the lower jaw. The elastic band should ideally be almost vertical and not angled between top and lower jaws.
- Return to the top jaw and pull the elastic forward to stretch it over a second cleat in the top jaw.
- In the same way, stretch the elastic over the lower jaw to secure it onto a second cleat.
- Place further elastics in a similar manner as instructed. Typically, an elastic should be placed on the other side of the jaw in a symmetric manner.
What if I experience any problems
You should contact your surgeon if you experience any problems with your arch bars. Very rarely, the arch bars can cause complications with the teeth they are attached to. If you notice any darkening or significant pain following placement of these appliances, please advise your surgeon.
WHAT CAN I EXPECT FOLLOWING SURGERY TO REPAIR FRACTURE OF THE JAWS
It is likely that you will experience some soreness which will be managed with pain relief. The discomfort is generally worse a few days after surgery, although it may take a couple of weeks to completely resolve.
You will also be given intravenous antibiotics whilst you are in hospital to ensure that your fractures heal without any infection. You may also be given oral antibiotics to take home with you. You will generally be required to stay overnight in hospital. The following day you will undergo an x-ray to check the position of your fractures prior to being discharged from hospital.
Although the plates and screws hold the fractures in place, it will still take approximately 4-6 weeks for your jaw to heal completely. During this time, a diet of soft foods is recommended.
It is also important that you keep your mouth as clean as possible for the first few weeks following surgery to prevent infection. It may be difficult to clean your teeth around the stitches due to tenderness in this site. It is advised to keep the area free from food debris by gently rinsing your mouth with a mouthwash or warm salt water.
If any wires, metal braces or screws are used to assist in guiding your bite into the proper position, they will be removed when your surgeon is satisfied that your fracture has healed.
Will I require any time off work?
Depending upon the type of work you perform, it me be necessary to take a couple of weeks off work and to avoid strenuous exercise during this time. It is important that you not drive or operate machinery 24 hours following a general anaesthetic.
What are the possible complications?
- Infection is rare as you will be taking antibiotics.
- Bleeding from the incisions inside your mouth is uncommon. If the area does bleed this can usually be stopped by applying pressure over the site for at least 10 minutes with a swab.
- You may experience numbness and tingling over your top lip. The numbness may take several days to disappear.
- Occasionally teeth adjacent to the fracture site may be damaged by screws that are used.
- If you surgeon has inserted plates and screws in your jaw to hold it in position, these are not generally removed unless there are problems with infection. The metal that is used is titanium which does not alert metal detectors in airports.
Will there be follow up appointments
A follow up appointment will be arranged for you so that your surgeon can monitor you for several months following treatment to ensure that your jaw heals well.
How are the arch bars removed
Removal of the arch bars is generally done in the clinic. This is usually a quick procedure with minimal discomfort. It does not typically require any analgesia, except in complicated cases.
Broken Jaws Melbourne | Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Broken and fractured jaws may occur due to a traumatic event or accident
Depending on the location of the break or fracture, and the severity of the injury, your surgeon may offer a number of different treatment options. Duration of treatment can differ greatly depending on the individual condition and in cases where there is only a minor fracture; effective management of the injury is still essential.
Our team is experienced in managing and performing surgery on the jaw. The jawbone is the second most common broken bone in the face, after the nose. For this reason, surgery and management of this injury often leads to complete and effective recovery.
Broken jaw causes
Although jawbone fractures can occur due to disease, bone loss through infection and other ailments, it is most commonly caused by trauma. Some of the most common causes include:
- Motor vehicle accidents
- Sports injuries
- Face first falls
The broken jaw surgery procedure
Broken jaw surgery is performed under general anaesthetic in a hospital setting. An incision will be made inside the mouth, through the gum in order to access the site of the fracture or break. The broken jawbone will then be put together and held in place using small plates and screws. Once reconstruction is completed, the incision will be stitched up using dissolvable stitches.
Sometimes, elastic bands may need to be used to guide the jaw into position following surgery. These are attached using small temporary metal wires or braces. Your procedure will be discussed with you in full during your consultation and any concerns you have can be addressed with your surgeon.
Broken jaw surgery recovery
Following your surgery, you may need to remain in hospital for a short period of time to be monitored following the use of general anaesthetic. Your surgeon, following surgery in order to help manage pain and discomfort will prescribe painkillers and any necessary antibiotics.
Discomfort and swelling will be worse during the first few days after surgery and may take a few weeks to completely dissipate. Your jaw has a number of nerves surrounding it that may become bruised during the surgery. This may cause some tingling and numbness during recovery, but should subside once fully healed. You will need to stick to a relatively soft diet for the first six weeks following surgery to ensure that your jaw heals properly.
Maintaining healthy oral hygiene is also very important during recovery in order to prevent infection. Brush your teeth with a soft-bristled toothbrush twice daily and rinse your mouth with warm salt water around the site of the incision in order to keep it clean. Once the incision has healed completely, you may begin to eat normally again.
Osteosynthesis | Dentistry Mitino
Osteosynthesis of the jaw is a method of surgical treatment of bone fractures using special, most often metal, structures. Osteosynthesis surgery is performed if the fracture site cannot be fastened with splints, as well as when it is difficult to fix bone fragments. There are different ways of performing the operation, they can be used depending on the type of injury and its severity.
Osteosynthesis allows you to maintain the required level of blood circulation in the damaged bone, which means that such a fracture will heal faster.Not only the integrity of the bone is restored, but also its structure, and this will take only a few weeks.
During the rehabilitation period, it is important to follow certain rules and monitor your well-being and the state of bone tissue. Violations of doctor’s prescriptions can lead to pain and even loss of chewing function.
Indications for osteosynthesis
Osteosynthesis can be prescribed in the following cases:
- if there are not enough stable molars in the areas of the fracture;
- on impact, the fragments moved significantly from their place;
- the jawbone behind the teeth is broken.With such an injury, individual parts of the bone tissue are displaced;
- the injury was caused by the development of inflammatory diseases that thin bone tissue;
- in case of a fracture of the lower jaw, if too small or massive fragments are formed;
- if the branches and the body of the jaw are incorrectly positioned relative to each other;
- it is necessary to perform reconstructive surgery or osteoplasty.
Types of osteosynthesis
There are several methods of osteosynthesis; the doctor decides what type of surgery the patient needs.Most often, surgeons combine several methods with each other, so it is possible to achieve the best result.
Osteosynthesis of the jaw is:
- Open. It is usually useful for severe fractures. During the operation, soft tissues are dissected and bone fragments are exposed. They are connected to each other and non-functional small fragments are removed, squeezed soft tissues and fascia are released. However, with such an operation, the probability of tissue separation from the bone remains, then the callus at the fracture site will be formed incorrectly.And this can affect the patient’s quality of life. In addition, seams remain on the skin and even paresis (decreased activity) of facial muscles is possible. Depending on the type of fastener, it is possible that the incision in the face will have to be re-made to remove the fastener.
- Closed. The doctor combines bone fragments without cutting the facial tissues;
- Focal. Fixing fasteners are applied directly to the fracture site;
- Extrafocal. Fasteners are applied over the skin, above the fracture site.
The essence of osteosynthesis and what kind of procedure it is
During osteosynthesis, the doctor not only connects the fragments of the damaged jaw, but also securely holds them together with metal structures or glue.
Open focal osteosynthesis is performed using:
- Bone suture. If the lower jaw is broken, the zygomatic bone and the trauma is recent, it can be held together with a bone suture.For this, a wire made of stainless steel, titanium or nylon thread is used.
During the operation, the doctor dissects the soft tissues of the face and fixes the debris with a wire. If the fragments are joined by the bone suture method, the patient retains chewing function and can continue to care for the oral cavity. This method is contraindicated if the fracture site is inflamed, the patient has an infectious or purulent bone lesion.
- Installations of periosteal metal mini-plates. This method has worked well in the treatment of all types of fractures of the jawbone, except those in which a large number of fragments were formed. In this case, it is enough to make an incision on one side only. The doctor aligns the fracture sites, applies mini-plates to them and screw them on. Nowadays, mini-plates are most often fixed inside the oral cavity.
- Fixation with fast hardening plastics. Practiced only for fractures of the lower jaw. After exposing the fragments of the bone, the doctor lays the bone groove and puts a special fixing compound in it.The excess plastic is removed with a cutter, after which the wound can be sutured.
- Osteoplast adhesive. This bone fixation compound is made from purified epoxy resin with an organic antiseptic agent, resorcinol. After application, the glue hardens in 8-12 minutes and reliably fixes the aligned bone fragments. Now this method is rarely used.
- Metal staples. For osteosynthesis, braces made of nickel-titanium alloy are used.At low temperatures, the alloy becomes ductile and can easily be shaped. Then, at room temperature, the staple is restored to its original shape. During the operation, it is first cooled, then inserted into the prepared holes on the bone fragments. Once the staples are warm, they straighten and securely fix the fracture site. With the help of metal brackets, it is especially convenient to fix the fracture of the angle of the lower jaw.
Closed focal osteosynthesis is practiced for fusion of fracture sites where no displacement of bones has occurred.Methods:
- Installation of Kirschner spokes. Using a surgical drill, the doctor inserts metal pins into the bone fragments. For reliable fixation, the needles are fixed in each fragment to a depth of 3 cm. It is not necessary to dissect soft tissues, the operation is performed through the mouth. This is a low-traumatic practice, but wearing the needles creates many inconveniences for the patient.
- Surrounding seam overlay. It is applicable when the fracture gap is displaced forward or backward along the jaw. In this case, the suture passes through the central part of each bone fragment.If there are many fragments, the operation takes a long time, but this is one of the most reliable methods of osteosynthesis. It allows the patient’s jaw to be restored even after very difficult injuries.
In maxillofacial surgery with the help of osteometallosynthesis, it is possible to eliminate:
- congenital defects of the face or jaw;
- consequences of injuries, fractures of the bones of the skull;
- bone deformities.
You can also change the shape of the jaw. For this, special orthodontic constructions must be made. Then the doctor will place them on problem areas using the edge fit technique.
Osteosynthesis with ultrasound
With the help of metal fasteners, the jaw bones can be fixed quite firmly. But during the operation, it is most often necessary to dissect the tissues of the face and the salivary glands or branches of the facial nerve can be damaged.
Osteosynthesis with ultrasound is less traumatic. In this case, bone fixing devices can be inserted shallowly into the bone and a small amount of scars remains on the patient’s face.
The doctor acts on a titanium plate with spikes with low-frequency ultrasound. A burr plate is positioned at the fracture site and adapts to the shape of the jaw. Then, using the tool, shallow holes are made in the bone through the plate.After that, low-frequency ultrasound vibrations are directed to the base of the thorns. So the thorns gradually sink into the bone tissue, reliably fixing the bone fragments. At the same time, an antiseptic solution is supplied through the instrument, which treats the wound.
The bone tissue around the spines becomes denser under the influence of ultrasound. This is due to a significant contact area, a decrease in pressure on the bone due to the use of a thorn and its own internal force of compression of the bone tissue.
With ultrasound osteosynthesis, it is possible to shorten the time of the operation, to reduce the volume of postoperative trauma. The method gives fewer complications and provides a good cosmetic effect.
The duration of the rehabilitation period depends on how quickly the osteosynthesis was performed from the moment of injury, on the general condition of the patient and the method of restoring the integrity of the jaw.
Immediately after the operation, you need to wear a fixation bandage and not make any jaw movements, not even talk.
During rehabilitation, the patient must take antibiotics and restorative drugs.
Edema and inflammation relieve physiotherapy well. Usually on the 2nd day after the operation, UHF therapy is prescribed, after 4 days – magnetotherapy. After 2 weeks – electrophoresis with calcium chloride solution.
Depending on the method of the operation and the patient’s condition, the doctor makes up a complex of physiotherapy exercises.Exercises help to gradually return the activity of the operated jaw – to learn to chew, talk, and restore mimic functions again. Classes are prescribed in 3-5 weeks, after removing the fasteners.
During recovery, you need to continue to care for the oral cavity, while irrigation should be carried out at least 7-10 times every day.
After the operation, the patient needs to follow a diet, all food should be liquid or puree, warm, but not hot.During rehabilitation, you will have to eat through a straw. As the chewing function is restored, you can begin to eat solid food, introducing it in small portions. This is important not only in order not to injure the operated jaw, but also to restore the functions of the gastrointestinal tract.
Jaw fracture – features of trauma for the upper and lower part of it
Fracture of the upper jaw, lower jaw – symptoms and treatment
Fracture of the jaw is a fairly common facial injury that occurs as a result of a direct impact or falling onto a hard surface.Treatment of a jaw fracture should be carried out under the supervision of doctors, since if it is carried out incorrectly, severe complications may develop.
Fracture of the lower jaw – features
A similar injury has some peculiarities:
- a fracture with displacement of bone fragments or the entire jaw is called complete;
- if the injury is open, then not only the mucous membrane of the oral cavity is ruptured, but also the soft tissues of the face;
- it is extremely rare to diagnose a comminuted fracture, because this requires the application of too much force.
A fracture of the lower jaw is characterized by the following symptoms:
- pronounced asymmetry of the face, which is formed due to swelling and hemorrhage in soft tissues at the site of injury;
- acute pain when touching any part of the lower jaw, inability to talk, chew;
- mobility of fragments, if any;
- a radical change in the bite – the lower jaw may be too forward or, conversely, “gone” inward.
Everyone can provide first aid for this injury – you need to apply a bandage (put any straight object between the teeth, for example, a ruler) so that the damaged part of the jaw is motionless. If there is bleeding, then it must be stopped by applying something cold, treating with hydrogen peroxide and other classical methods. Then you just have to wait for the arrival of the ambulance team.
Signs, first aid for a fracture of the upper jaw
Fractures of the upper jaw are much less common – only 30% of all facial injuries.This is a dangerous injury, because in most cases it is accompanied by severe complications – meningitis, osteomyelitis. Moreover, the higher the crack (fracture line) is formed, the more severe the consequences will be.
Symptoms of a fracture of the jaw (upper) may vary and depend on which part of it is damaged:
- injury over the palatine arch + fracture of the nose + fracture of the maxillary sinus bone accompanied by severe bleeding between the upper lip and upper teeth, extensive swelling of the upper part faces;
- separation of the upper jaw from the cranial vault + a crack going through the orbit and the bridge of the nose, characterized by severe edema and rapid spread of hematoma under both eyes, numbness in this area, nosebleeds and uncontrollable salivation;
- avulsion of the jaw + fracture of the base of the jaw can be diagnosed by drooping of the eyeballs, visual impairment.
First aid consists in completely immobilizing the upper part of the face, cleaning the oral cavity from fragments of teeth / bones. In each case, the victim will have nausea, vomiting may develop.
Treatment of a jaw fracture
Therapy for trauma should be carried out only by doctors and the sooner qualified medical care is provided, the lower the risk of complications. Treatment of a jaw fracture can include the following manipulations:
- if there is a wound (rupture of soft tissues, mucous membranes), then first the bleeding stops, disinfection measures are taken;
- Manual matching of bone fragments, giving the correct shape of the damaged jaw;
- a splint must be applied – in case of a fracture of the jaw, it is necessary to achieve its complete immobilization for at least one month.
Pain relievers and anti-inflammatory therapy are additionally prescribed. If a fracture of the processes of the jaw is diagnosed, then, most likely, surgical intervention will be prescribed, which implies the implantation of specific metal plates. The doctor will tell you more about the operation during the consultation. Registration on our website Dobrobut.com.
Rehabilitation after a jaw fracture includes physiotherapy, massage and facial exercises.Patients often have to learn to chew and talk again without distorting sounds.
90,000 How long does a jaw fracture heal: no displacement, healing time
Jaw injury is not a common bone fracture, but a dangerous and uncomfortable injury. The inability to talk, eat breaks the usual way of life.
The risk of complications in neighboring organs of vision, hearing, loss of teeth leads to sad thoughts about the duration of treatment. How long does a jaw fracture heal in practice?
Types of fractures and features of healing
The task of the dental surgeon in the event of a patient’s jaw fracture is to restore the integrity of the broken bone along with the dentition.
Up to 70% of injuries occur in the lower jaw due to:
- accidents, accidents;
90,013 hits during a fight;
90,013 sports injuries;
90,013 complications of serious diseases.
The collective concept of trauma includes a wide range of injuries.
Healing will be faster and more effective if the symptoms are correctly recognized and time is not wasted for providing medical attention.
The timing of the healing of the jaws will differ significantly in the case of:
- direct or indirect fractures, i.e.e. remote from the impact site;
- with or without displacement of bone fragments, while maintaining the anatomical location;
- a complete fracture with the advancement of a splinter with an inclination or a comminuted one (one of the most dangerous) with dispersed fragments in disarray.
90,013 closed or open injuries, i.e. with soft tissue rupture;
An accurate assessment of damage can be made based on X-ray and clinical findings.
The timing of healing largely depends on the type of fracture and the provision of timely assistance.Soft tissue injuries, bone displacement, concussion, bruises and concomitant injuries increase the period of inpatient follow-up.
Peculiarities of jaw treatment may be associated with general diseases of the patient.
Negative factors in treatment
Predictions depend on the state of the patient’s bone tissue, which depends on:
- from hereditary characteristics;
- the presence of chronic and acute inflammatory processes.
In the presence of metabolic disorders, tuberculosis infection, oncological neoplasms in the body, forecasts can be disappointing.
Lack of vitamins and minerals affects the duration of treatment. The body needs correction of the general condition for successful recovery, including a fracture of the jaw.
Of great importance for determining the healing time is the nature of the damage:
- Simple fractures are fixed with splints, plaster casts for subsequent conservative treatment.
- Complex fractures of the bone require mechanical fixation of parts using special plates and screws. Sometimes auxiliary elements are built in temporarily, sometimes for permanent wearing.
Threats of complications
Healing of the jawbone depends on the exact fixation and recovery time.
Late visits to a doctor or incomplete rehabilitation prevent healing and cause complications in the form of:
- purulent processes at the site of the fracture;
- malocclusion, tooth decay;
- pain attacks;
- Difficulty swallowing and chewing.
90,013 impairments of smell and vision;
In order to prevent complications and achieve a favorable prognosis of recovery, it is important not to miss a single stage of complex treatment:
- splint or osteoplasty;
- general strengthening therapy;
- medical gymnastics;
- daily wound debridement.
Treatment is not completed, as a rule, in a hospital – it continues at home.The duration of bone fusion depends on adherence to a special diet and doctor’s prescriptions.
The question of how long a fracture of the jaw takes to heal has no definite answer. The minimum period for the restoration of basic functions is 1.5 months.
There is no need to rush to remove the splint, structural devices to restrain the bone, so as not to harm the weakened organ and not be left with a displaced dentition or wide tooth gaps.
Statistics reflect therapeutic treatment on average up to 60 days. Accurate forecasts are always individual. Removal of tires, fixing elements is carried out after 30-45 days.
The success and duration of treatment largely depends on the patient’s desire to overcome the disease, a difficult situation.
You can rejoice at recovery both when the fixator is removed, when you are discharged from the hospital, and when the functionality of the jaw is fully restored without pain.
Lower Jaw Fracture in Children — Treatment Options • OHI-S
A fracture of the lower jaw can cause severe pain in a child and extreme anxiety in a parent or caregiver.Although the picture of fractures and related injuries in children is similar to that of adults, the incidence is quite low. Due to a number of factors, including the anatomical complexity of the developing mandible in a child, the treatment of such fractures differs from that in adults and can pose a great challenge to the pediatric dentist. Various treatments for mandibular fractures are available, such as a closed / open splint with fixation around the lower jaw, arch fixation and cementation of the splint. This article examines 19 cases of fracture using a variety of treatments.
While facial fractures in children account for less than 15% of facial fractures in the general population, mandibular fractures are among the most common in young patients. The incidence of fractures of the mandible in children ranges from 0.6% to 1.2%. The most common causes of fracture in children were falls (64%), traffic accidents (22%) and sports-related accidents (9%). Mandibular fractures usually cause dental trauma (39.3%).In addition, it is widely believed that fracture patterns change with age. McGraw and Cole reported that fractures move from the upper to the lower facial region as people age.
Fractures of the mandible can be diagnosed clinically, but must be confirmed by radiographic methods. Fractures that occur in children present problems in achieving and maintaining stability, unlike in adults. Thus, the components of treatment differ in children due to the anatomical complexity of the developing mandible, the presence of dental germs and the eruption of temporary and permanent teeth.The most common treatments include cap splints with fixation around the mandible, cementation of the mouthguard to the dental arch, and fixation of the dental arch at Erich y.
Through a discussion of a case series, this article presents various treatments for mandibular fractures in children.
Clinical cases: patient selection
Nineteen patients aged 3 to 12 years with maxillofacial injuries (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2) were examined by the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry at K Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, India.
Detailed case histories were collected, clinical and radiographic examinations such as orthopantomography, occlusal radiography and intraoral periapical radiography were performed (Fig. 3 – Fig. 8). After careful evaluation, the type of fracture was diagnosed and a treatment plan was drawn up for each patient. Informed consent was obtained from the parent, and in some cases, treatment was carried out under general anesthesia with written consent from the parent.
Preparation of acrylic splints
For each patient, alginate impressions were made on the upper and lower jaws and models were prepared. In cases of displaced fracture, the operation was performed on cast models (Fig. 9 and Fig. 10). After preparation on the models, they were placed in an altered position, and the correct occlusion was obtained with the opposite upper jaw.Both models were stabilized and installed in the articulator. The splint was fabricated using a self-hardening acrylic resin incorporating lip and buccal projections (Fig. 11).
For displaced fractures
In children with displaced fractures, the mandibular arch was manually reduced under general anesthesia with occlusion in the recommended position, and an acrylic splint was placed.Penetrating incisions were placed in the submandibular and submental areas to facilitate the passage of the Kelsey-Fry mandibular bone awl, which ran lingually along the mandibular body through the incision and pierced the tongue mucosa. A 26-gauge orthodontic wire was brought to the awl. Once the wire was attached to the awl, it was not removed until the tip of the awl reached the lower border of the lower jaw, and then the wire was carefully moved to the buccal furrow along the body of the lower jaw to prevent injury.A wire was passed on each side, taking precautions to avoid trauma to the neurovascular bundle at the mental foramen. (fig. 12).
For non-offset fractures
In children with non-displaced fractures, a prepared acrylic splint was placed on the arch of the mandible and occlusion was checked. After achieving proper occlusion, the splint was cemented directly on the dental arch using glass-ionomer cement.(Ketac ™ Cem, 3M ESPE, www.3MESPE.com) (Figure 13).
Before setting the archwire, the occlusion was checked to confirm complete displacement of the teeth with normal contact. The factory bow has been carefully adjusted in shape and length to avoid damaging the gum tissue. The archwire was adapted flush with the dental arch and placed between the equator of the tooth and the gum. The archwire was extended to the last tooth on both sides in the oral cavity.The braces were positioned symmetrically on the upper and lower jaws to achieve calculated (reliable) tensile forces on both arches for functional training using elastic materials. To fix the arch, a ligature was prepared on each side in the area of the premolars. The dental arch was positioned and secured with a wire twister. The wire was cut with a cutter and the ends were turned away from the gums to prevent damage. Fixation of the maxillofacial region was performed using elastics (elastic rods) for intraoperative control of occlusion (Fig.fourteen).
Each patient was given postoperative instructions followed by a soft and liquid diet and antibiotic prophylaxis.
In all patients, splints and arcs were removed after 2-4 weeks. Postoperative radiographs were obtained to confirm healing of the fracture site prior to splint removal (Fig. 5 and Fig. 8), and all patients were followed up for 12 months. None of the patients had complications in the postoperative period, and unprecedented healing and union of fracture segments occurred in all patients.In one patient, healing time was increased due to displacement of a splint that was re-cemented. There was a slight discrepancy in occlusion in several patients, which was corrected on its own over time.
Maxillofacial trauma in children
Oral and maxillofacial injuries are uncommon in children. The prevalence of various fracture sites of the mandible includes the condyle, alveolus, body, symphysis, parasymphysis, angle, ramus, and coronary process, according to Haug and Foss.Of the 19 cases presented in this article, eight are fractures in the area of the symphysis / parasymphysis, four in the area of the body of the mandible, four in the area of the parasymphysis, and there were single cases with a fracture of the body and condyle, body and parasymphysis, branches and symphysis (table 1). In this case series, the most common etiology was falls, which accounted for 80% of all children. Most of the children were under 6 years of age (12 children), with a male to female ratio of 4: 1.
Treatment of fractures of the mandible in children is somewhat different from that in adults, including anatomical changes, rate of healing, degree of cooperation with the patient, and potential for changes in mandibular development.The method of treating fractures in children in the lower jaw depends on the age and stage of tooth development. Minimally displaced fractures can be treated with a soft diet, pain relievers, and antibiotic prophylaxis. However, in very young children, healing may be prolonged due to lack of cooperation in subsequent postoperative appointments. In such cases, the manufacture of a splint and its cementation to the dental arch can be used to overcome these obstacles.
In this case series, six patients reported an uneven symphysis / parasymphysis fracture that was repaired with acrylic splints attached to the dental arch for an average of 2 weeks.All 19 patients showed satisfactory healing within 2 to 3 weeks without complications. In addition, a decrease in the oral gap was one of the common features in children after a fracture of the mandible, which improved over time (Fig. 15 and Fig. 16). Displaced fractures must be reduced and immobilized. Children show greater osteogenic potential and higher healing rates than adults. Therefore, the anatomical displacement in children should be performed earlier and the immobilization time should be shorter (2 weeks).
In the present case series, seven displaced fractures were reduced and immobilized using splints with guiding around the mandible, two cases were repaired with arch fixation (wire), and in one case the splint was attached to the dental arch. The case where the splint was cemented showed a delay in healing due to splint displacement, which was due to dissolution of the cement. Previous research has shown that the use of an arch fixation limits normal food intake in children, resulting in significant weight loss.Here, in the present case series, maxillofacial fixation was performed using elastics so that an active exercise program could begin as soon as the child could cooperate. Long periods of maxillofacial fixation can lead to ankylosis in children and should be avoided. In cases of muscle fractures, non-surgical rehabilitation is very popular because complications are minimal and the results are good in both adults and children. In addition, in older children, the bone is less able to adapt and remodel, and the branch height cannot be restored.
In this case series, a condyle fracture was associated with the symphysis / parasymphysis, ramus, or body of the mandible. In such cases, emergency use of a cylindrical dressing along with a soft and liquid diet was recommended until the jaw was immobilized with a splint. The muscles have shown remodeling over time. Open displacement with rigid internal fixation is rarely used for condyle fractures, unless the displaced fragment creates a mechanical obstruction.Condyle fractures are more common in children than in adults (50% of mandibular fractures versus 30%) because the child’s abundantly vascularized condyle and thin neck do not resist the impact of falls. In children under 6 years of age, condyle fractures are more often intracapsular than extracapsular. In children over 6 years of age, most condyle fractures are usually due to an injury to the neck. Although a conservative approach is preferable in children, open reduction is sometimes required, and internal fixation is necessary in cases of bone fractures associated with a symphysis / parasymphysis fracture to ensure stabilization of the symphysis / parasymphysis region and to facilitate healing.Soreness detected immediately after injury in children with a fracture of the condyle is caused by muscle spasm, which resolves after 3 to 4 days without the use of maxillofacial fixation.
Correction of fractures of the lower jaw
Correction of fractures of the mandible in children is a problem, given the age and anatomical changes in the child. In this clinical case, the most common fractures of the symphysis / parasymphysis (42%) among other areas of fractures of the mandible.The role of the pediatric dentist is vital to the rehabilitation of children with these fractures. If the proper guidelines are followed, children can be expected to have satisfactory results with minimal discomfort.
90,000 How long does a jaw fracture heal: approximate time frame
It will take a long time for the maxilla, mandibula fracture to heal
The article describes the terms of treatment and recovery after a fracture of the upper (maxilla), lower (mandibula) jaws.Measures are described to help speed up recovery.
Damage to the jaw – an unpleasant injury. This makes eating and speaking more difficult. It is quite natural that patients with such an injury ask themselves how long a jaw fracture will heal.
Contents of article
How does the fracture occur
Human jaws have different structures. In connection with these features, the symptoms of fractures and the timing of healing will differ.
Table.Structural features of maxilla and mandibula:
|Narrower and lighter than the bottom. Contains sinuses. It has four processes that are part of the orbit and hard palate. It connects motionlessly to the bones of the facial skull.||More massive and heavier. No sinuses. There are holes for nerves and blood vessels. It has two processes, with the help of which it forms a movable connection with the bones of the skull.|
Formed from two fused bones
The only movable bone of the skull
The maxilla is easier to fracture than the mandibula. You can break them in the following situations:
- Direct or side impact to the jaw;
- with a sharp shift of the jaws and a slamming of the mouth;
- on collision with a solid object, falling to the ground.
More details about the causes and mechanism of fracture are described by a specialist in the video in this article:
Symptoms of a mandibula fracture are more severe than with a fracture of the upper.Which one is broken will also determine how long the jaw heals after a fracture. The lower one will take much longer to heal. How long a fracture of the lower jaw heals depends on the nature of the damage, in which part of the bone it occurred.
Instructions for treating fractures will vary based on several factors:
- which jaw is broken;
- which fracture is simple or complex, with or without displacement;
- age of the patient and the presence of concomitant pathology;
- risk of complications.
All of this will affect how long the injury site can heal:
- Conservative treatment . It is used for simple fractures, in the absence of displaced fragments, against a background of good health. The imposition of plaster splints or splinting is applied.
- Surgical treatment. Indicated in the presence of displaced fractures, especially the mandibula. It is also recommended for people with concomitant pathology, since their healing can take much longer.Treatment consists in matching the fragments and applying osteosynthesis.
The photo shows different types of broken bones restoration.
Osteosynthesis is performed using metal screws
Fracture healing is monitored periodically by X-ray. How long it takes for such a damage to heal cannot be answered immediately, so several control shots may be needed.
Terms of recovery
If a jaw fracture occurs, how long does it take for the damage to heal? This question cannot be answered unequivocally.There are only average terms. However, they are individual for each person and depend on many factors.
For example, how long does a fracture heal without displacement – the average recovery time is 30-35 days. During this time, the bone is completely healed and the function of the organ is restored. And if we consider the question of how long it takes for a complicated fracture to heal, with displacement of fragments, here the terms will be different and amount to at least two months.
In order for the recovery to take place faster, it is necessary to use a set of measures.These include physiotherapy, massage, and medication. The doctor prescribes restorative treatment after the main one, aimed at eliminating the fracture.
Of the physiotherapy procedures, the following are used:
- magnetic therapy;
- electrophoresis with hydrocortisone;
- UHF therapy.
Physiotherapy is started from the very first days after the restoration of the integrity of the bone, provided that there is no infectious and inflammatory process.A week later, massage is added.
Physiotherapy is a mandatory component of treatment
All these procedures provide in the area of the fracture:
- improvement of microcirculation;
- increased metabolism;
- accelerated healing;
- prevention of adhesions and purulent complications.
How long does it take for the injury to heal if you use a set of restorative measures? Additional treatment does not reduce the healing time by several times, but in general, the healing process proceeds faster and with the patient’s well-being.
Damaged jaw – how much does it heal on average when using physiotherapy and massage? Treatment time is shortened by about a week – for displaced and non-displaced fractures. Fracture of the mandibula, how long it heals with the use of additional methods of treatment – one and a half to two months will be required to fully restore the function of the organ.
The question of how long a jaw fracture heals cannot be answered immediately at the time of injury. The timing of recovery can be determined after examining the patient and carrying out the necessary treatment.
Zygomatic bone fracture
The zygomatic bone is one of the “puzzles” that make up the facial skeleton. It usually breaks at the junction with adjacent bones. These are the so-called seams: zygomatic-frontal, zygomatic-maxillary, zygomatic-temporal.
By Alexey Lobkov, maxillofacial surgeon, otorhinolaryngologist
The zygomatic bone is one of the “puzzles” that make up the facial skeleton. It usually breaks at the junction with adjacent bones.These are the so-called seams: zygomatic-frontal, zygomatic-maxillary, zygomatic-temporal.
Fractures of the zygomatic complex of varying severity occur when the area of the zygomatic eminence (the most prominent point under the eye) is hit.
Most often, the cheekbone complex suffers as a result of an attack, an accident (especially for unfastened passengers in the back seat), a fall from a height.
Classification of fractures
In case of injuries, damage often occurs not only to the zygomatic, but also to the adjacent bones.Thus, we are dealing with fractures of the zygomatic-naso-orbital-maxillary complex in various variations. The only type of fracture within the zygomatic bone proper is the so-called isolated fracture of the zygomatic arch.
What characterizes the damage?
After injury, there are:
- deformation of the area of injury,
- numbness of the skin of the infraorbital region and the teeth of the upper jaw on the affected side,
- nosebleed from the side of the injury,
- limitation of opening and lateral movements of the lower jaw,
- pain when chewing.
- Apply cold to the damaged area. This could be an ice pack wrapped in a towel.
- If there is a wound, treat it with an aqueous antiseptic (miramistin, chlorhexidine) and apply a bandage.
- If pain is severe, take pain reliever.
- Go to the clinic, where a doctor will examine you and prescribe additional examinations. This can be an X-ray or computed tomography.
Consequences of fracture of the zygomatic bone
Fracture with displacement of fragments can lead to deformity of the face and impaired chewing function.
Complications after fracture of the zygomatic bone
- From the side of the paranasal sinuses: maxillary sinusitis.
- From the side of the eye: enophthalmos, hypophthalmos, double vision.
- Prolonged numbness of the teeth of the upper jaw and the skin of the infraorbital region.
- Restriction of opening of the mouth, restriction of lateral movements of the jaw, which cause difficulty in eating.
Computed tomography is the gold standard in diagnosing injuries of the facial skeleton, and the sections must be performed with a minimum step of 0.5-1 mm.
Zygomatic bone fracture treatment
Fractures of the zygomatic bone without displacement and dysfunction are treated conservatively and do not require hospitalization. At the same time, patients are recommended:
- for 10-14 days, exclude foods that require chewing, because the masseter muscle is attached partially to the temporal bone and can cause displacement of fragments;
- apply decongestant lotions and ointments;
- Take pain relievers in case of pain.
Fractures of the zygomatic bone with displacement of fragments require surgical treatment.
Methods of surgical treatment
Surgical methods for the treatment of fractures of the zygomatic bone were especially actively developed in the second half of the 20th century. Many authors have proposed their own methods of access to the zygomatic bone and its reposition: the method of Limberg, Kazanyan, Dubov, Duchant …
For the sake of fairness, it should be noted that we still use one of the author’s methods.This is the Limberg method, but we use it only for isolated fractures of the zygomatic arch, which do not require additional fixation after reduction.
With the introduction of computed tomography into wide practice, it became possible to have a “map” of fracture lines before the operation, and modern technical capabilities and principles of osteosynthesis have combined all existing methods into one.
The operation performed according to this method is aimed at repositioning (putting in the correct position, matching) the fragments and fixing them with titanium microplates.The plates are placed on the bone through micro-incisions. According to modern principles, for stable fixation of the zygomatic bone, at least 3 points of fixation of fragments are necessary: in the region of the inferior orbital edge, the zygomatic-frontal suture and the zygomatic-alveolar ridge.
As a result, the duration of rehabilitation was reduced. The hospital stay is from 1 to 3 days. As a rule, the next day after the operation, a control computed tomography is performed and, in the absence of complications, the patient is discharged.
Patients return to normal life in 7-10 days. Baths, saunas, swimming pools, contact sports, hypothermia are not recommended for up to one month.
Author: Alexey Lobkov, maxillofacial surgeon, otorhinolaryngologist
Bone fracture, osteosynthesis, fracture fusion
We know from childhood that fractures heal on their own, as soon as the damaged part of the body is fixed for a while.How does the process of fracture healing proceed?
The reunification of bone fragments consists of three stages:
1. Formation of hematoma. It takes up to 2 weeks.
There are vessels in the bone that break during a fracture. Blood flows out of them, coagulates and forms a hematoma. This is the key to starting the healing process.
At this stage, it is important to fix the bone fragments of the victim.In “simple” cases, this is done using an external orthosis – plaster, polymer bandages and fixators.
If the bone fragments cannot be fixed in the correct position without direct access to the fracture site, then the osteosynthesis operation is performed. This is the “assembly” of a bone or joint using fixing structures installed directly on the damaged bone and its fragments.
2. Callus. It takes up to 6 weeks.
The hematoma creates a suitable environment for soft callus maturation.It is built from threads of connective tissue and new tiny vessels.
3. Hard callus and successful bone regeneration. Lasts up to 12 weeks
Gradually, soft callus is filled with the main building cells of bone tissue – osteoblasts. The density and hardness of the connective tissue increases, its threads are woven tighter.
When the fracture does not heal
Unfortunately, there are fractures that do not heal without additional medical assistance.According to statistics, the number of such injuries reaches 10%.
The risk group includes people over 55 years old, suffering from diabetes, taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. And, of course, the owners of various degenerative and dystrophic diseases of the skeletal system (osteoporosis, arthritis, arthrosis, etc.)
The direct reasons that the bone does not grow together can be disturbances in the process of bone tissue regeneration – insufficient formation of edema and hematoma, weak growth of new vessels, connective tissue does not mature.
Depending on these reasons, an adequate treatment is selected. However, the first step is osteosynthesis. With the help of surgical intervention, the correct and more dense arrangement of the fragments is set, if necessary, additional bone tissue is taken from the healthy bone.
The Liniya Zhizni clinic specializes in the surgical treatment of complex fractures.