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Full feeling in upper stomach: Indigestion – Symptoms and causes

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Causes of Upper Abdominal Bloating

Upper abdominal bloating has many potential causes.

Image Credit: Nipitphon Na Chiangmai / EyeEm/EyeEm/GettyImages

Upper abdominal bloating can not only lead to discomfort and gas, but it can significantly interfere with daily activities. There are many potential causes of this symptom, but swallowed air, indigestion and food intolerance are among the most common triggers. Upper abdominal bloating can also be due to a medication side effect — or related to a more serious health condition. See your doctor for an accurate diagnosis if you have severe or ongoing abdominal bloating.

Swallowed Air

Bloating is a feeling of increased abdominal pressure. When this symptom occurs in the upper abdomen, it often means something is going on in the stomach or small intestines. Swallowed air is one cause of stomach bloating, and if this is the trigger, belching is often present as well. Eating quickly, drinking carbonated beverages or drinking through a straw can all lead to excess swallowed air. Even poorly fitted dentures or smoking can cause this problem.

Foods

Simply eating large meals or fatty foods can lead to a sensation of upper abdominal fullness and bloating, but food intolerance or poor digestion can also cause this symptom. Bloating is common in people who do not properly digest certain types of carbohydrates — such as lactose in milk, fructose from fruits and vegetables, sugar alcohols commonly found in no-sugar-added foods, or oligosaccharides, found in certain grains, onions, garlic and dried beans, peas and lentils. When these incompletely digested food particles reach the colon, the resident gut bacteria have a feast, and produce excess gas — which leads to the sensation of bloating. While these symptoms tend to be more common in the lower abdomen, excess gas production can lead to the sensation of bloating throughout the abdomen.

Indigestion

Upper abdominal bloating is also a symptom linked to indigestion, also called dyspepsia. Described as a sensation of pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen, symptoms linked to dyspepsia include upset stomach, gassiness, a sense of fullness or bloating after eating, as well as a gnawing or burning sensation. Dyspepsia is caused by a variety of factors, including medications, delayed stomach emptying, swallowing problems, stomach ulcers or acid reflux.

Bowel Disorders

Abdominal bloating can also be related to a bowel disorder. Irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is a collection of symptoms that includes abdominal discomfort, which may be caused by cramping, bloating, diarrhea or constipation. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), a situation where there is an increase in the amount and type of bacteria that reside in the small bowel, can lead to abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, bloating and excess gas. Long-standing constipation can also lead to a buildup of stool and trapped gas, causing an uncomfortable bloating sensation.

Other gastrointestinal disorders may also lead to abdominal bloating, but the symptoms may not be specific to the upper abdominal area. Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition in which the immune system — triggered by gluten — attacks the small intestine. In people with celiac disease, consuming gluten, found naturally in wheat, barley and rye, can lead to bloating, gas and other symptoms. Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, and gastroparesis, a disorder that leads to slow stomach emptying, are other conditions that can also lead to bloating.

Other Causes

Other conditions or medications can lead to abdominal bloating, although these may not be specific to the upper abdominal area. Certain medications can lead to dyspepsia or altered movement of the gut muscles, and cause gastrointestinal symptoms which include bloating. Medical conditions which obstruct the outlet between the stomach and small intestines can also lead to bloating, nausea, vomiting and pain. Foodborne illness can cause bloating either while sick or after the active illness has resolved, since food intolerance and IBS can sometimes develop after a foodborne infection. Bloating is a common symptom before and during the menstrual cycle, and can also be a sensation related to fluid retention — which is a serious issue if caused by liver, kidney, lung or heart disease. Bloating can also be a symptom of certain types of cancers, including cancer of the ovaries, stomach, pancreas and colon.

Warnings

While some causes of bloating are not serious and can be resolved with changes to diet or eating practices, sometimes bloating is a sign of something more serious. If bloating occurs frequently, or if you experience significant pain, talk to your doctor about your symptoms. Also see your doctor if you have persistent diarrhea, vomiting, blood in the stool, painful or frequent heartburn or unintentional weight loss.

Reviewed by Kay Peck, MPH RD

Functional Dyspepsia – About GI Motility

Symptom overlap is common among several functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. For instance, care must be taken not to confuse functional dyspepsia with other common disorders that may cause upper gastrointestinal distress, like heartburn, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), functional abdominal bloating, and functional biliary disorders.

Functional dyspepsia is identified based on symptoms. Additional evaluation by your physician will normally include a physical exam to rule out other possible causes. The actual diagnosis is based on a detailed history to identify symptoms.

Symptoms
Functional dyspepsia is characterized by chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen. Unlike IBS, symptoms are not related to the process of defecation. There is no evidence of organic disease or structural or biochemical abnormality.

Functional dyspepsia can be divided into three categories:

  • Ulcer-like,
  • Dysmotility-like, and
  • Unspecified.

Ulcer-like dyspepsia has upper abdominal pain as its predominant symptom. This pain is accompanied by several other symptoms, including: hunger pain that is sometimes relieved by eating, pain relieved by antacids, night pain, periodic pain, and pain which may be very localized in the upper middle region of the abdomen.

Dysmotility-like dyspepsia has upper abdominal discomfort, not pain, as its predominant symptom. It is accompanied by several other symptoms, including: early feeling of having enough to eat, fullness after a meal, nausea, recurrent retching and/or vomiting, upper abdominal bloating, and upper abdominal discomfort aggravated by food.

Incidence and Treatment
In general, dyspepsia occurs in approximately 1 out of 4 adults. About one-half of that number can be classified as having functional dyspepsia.

Functional dyspepsia may be treated with changes in diet or with medications. Although studies have not proven that dietary changes help, individual dietary experimentation may prove helpful for some.

  • Avoiding spicy and fatty food may reduce symptoms of fullness after eating.
  • Eating six small, low-fat meals per day may reduce early feelings of fullness, bloating after a meal, or nausea.
  • Avoidance of caffeine, alcohol or smoking may also help.

 

Adapted from IFFGD Publication: Functional Dyspepsia and IBS: Incidence and Characteristics by John Kellow, MD, FRACP, Assoc. Professor of Medicine, University of Sydney, Australia.

What are the Symptoms and Signs of Stomach Cancer?

Most patients with early-stage stomach cancer have no symptoms of the disease. In other cases, stomach cancer patients may mistake their symptoms for a common stomach virus. When the signs and symptoms of stomach cancer are not apparent, the disease may reach advanced stages before a diagnosis is made. That’s why it is important that patients considered high risk talk to their doctors about symptoms that may be signs of a stomach tumor.

Early warning signs of stomach cancer

Early signs of stomach cancer may include:

  • Feeling full: Many stomach cancer patients experience a sense of “fullness” in the upper abdomen after eating small meals.
  • Heartburn: Indigestion, heartburn or symptoms similar to an ulcer may be signs of a stomach tumor.
  • Nausea and vomiting: Some stomach cancer patients have symptoms that include nausea and vomiting. Sometimes, the vomit contains blood.

Other common symptoms of cancers that develop in the stomach may include:

  • Unexplained weight loss: Lack of appetite or unexplained weight loss is a common sign of cancer.
  • Stomach pain: Abdominal discomfort or pain in the abdomen above the navel may be a symptom of a stomach tumor. Also, swelling or fluid build-up in the abdomen may also be caused by stomach cancer.

Most of the time, stomach cancer isn’t the reason for these symptoms—these are common discomforts that may be triggered by conditions such as an ulcer or a stomach virus, or even a heavy meal. Since many early-stage symptoms may easily be ignored or attributed to a more common cause, catching stomach cancer before it advances may be challenging.

Anyone experiencing early-stage stomach cancer symptoms that lack a known cause, or that seem to be worsening is urged to make a doctor’s appointment. Whether the symptoms are due to stomach cancer or something else, doctors may help identify the problem and treat it properly.

Advanced symptoms of stomach cancer

As the cancer grows larger and spreads beyond the stomach, it may start causing more noticeable symptoms. The signs and symptoms of more advanced stomach cancer may include:

  • Blood in the stool
  • Vomiting
  • Unexplained and unintentional weight loss
  • Belly pain
  • Jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin)
  • Buildup of fluid, or swelling, in the abdominal area
  • Difficulty swallowing

Stomach cancer screening

Stomach cancer is difficult to treat because it’s often already advanced by the time it’s diagnosed. U.S. medical organizations don’t recommend routine screenings for most people, as is the case with other types of cancer such as breast cancer or colon cancer.

However, people who face an increased risk may want to consider screening for stomach cancer. In some cases, screening may help detect cancer in the early stages, when it may be easier to treat.

Though more clinical trial research is necessary to determine the benefits of screening, according to the National Cancer Institute, screening may be beneficial for people with the following factors that increase their risk of developing stomach cancer:

  • Older people who have chronic gastric atrophy or pernicious anemia
  • People who have surgery to remove part of their stomach (partial gastrectomy)
  • People who have a history of stomach polyps
  • People with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
  • People with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC)
  • People whose country of origin has higher rates of stomach cancer

Additional factors that may increase the risk of developing stomach cancer include:

  • Having a history of the helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) stomach infection, intestinal metaplasia or Epstein-Barr virus
  • Eating a diet high in salted, smoked foods and low in fruits and vegetables
  • Eating foods that are improperly or unsafely prepared or stored
  • Being older
  • Being male
  • Smoking
  • Having an immediate family member with stomach cancer

Patients should ask their doctor about all the risk factors to determine whether screening is appropriate for them.

Stomach Pain – Upper | RemedyConnect

Is this your symptom?

  • Pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen (stomach). This is the area below the rib cage and above the belly button.

Some Basics…

  • There are many things that can cause pain in the upper part of the stomach (abdomen). Most causes are not serious.
  • Pain in this area can be caused by eating too much. It can be caused by a food or a drug that upsets the stomach. It can also be caused by more serious problems like stomach ulcers or a gallbladder attack.
  • Reflux disease (GERD) causes a burning pain that goes into the chest. Laying down makes pain worse. Some people with reflux get a sour or bitter taste in their mouths.
  • Stomach pain is more likely to be serious in an older person.

Pain Scale

  • None: no pain. Pain score is 0 on a scale of 0 to 10.
  • Mild: the pain does not keep you from work, school, or other normal activities. Pain score is 1-3 on a scale of 0 to 10.
  • Moderate: the pain keeps you from working or going to school. It wakes you up from sleep. Pain score is 4-7 on a scale of 0 to 10.
  • Severe: the pain is very bad. It may be worse than any pain you have had before. It keeps you from doing any normal activities. Pain score is 8-10 on a scale of 0 to 10.

Common Causes of Upper Stomach Pain in People Younger Than 50 Years of Age

  • Appendicitis
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • Peptic ulcer disease

Common Causes of Upper Stomach Pain in People Older Than 50 Years of Age

  • Appendicitis
  • Bowel obstruction
  • Diverticulitis
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Pancreatitis
  • Peptic ulcer disease

Other Causes

  • Angina and heart attack
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Hepatitis
  • Herpes zoster
  • Pneumonia

Warni

ng!

A person can have a heart attack and think that it is just “heartburn. ” If you are over 40 years old or have any of these risk factors, you could be having a heart attack:

  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Someone in your family (like a parent, brother or sister) has had a heart attack

When to Call for Stomach Pain – Upper

Call 911 Now

  • Passed out (fainted)
  • Very weak (can’t stand)
  • Sweat on or dripping down face
  • More than 50 years old and pain lasts more than 5 minutes
  • History of a heart problem and pain lasts more than 5 minutes
  • More than 35 years old and have at least one heart risk factor, including:
    • Hypertension
    • Diabetes
    • High cholesterol
    • Obesity
    • Smoker
    • Family member has had a heart attack
  • You think you have a life-threatening emergency

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Fever over 103° F (39. 4° C)
  • Fever and have diabetes
  • Fever and have a weak immune system (such as HIV, cancer chemo, long-term steroids, splenectomy, transplant)
  • Fever and are bedridden (nursing home patient, stroke, chronic illness, or recovering from surgery)
  • Whites of the eyes have turned yellow
  • Pregnant
  • You feel weak or very sick
  • You think you need to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Stomach pains come and go (cramps), and last more than 24 hours
  • More than 60 years old
  • You think you need to be seen, but the problem is not urgent

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • Stomach pains off and on for weeks or months (are frequent, come and go)
  • Burning pains in chest with a sour taste in mouth
  • Stomach pains often occur 1 hour after meals
  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

Care Advice for Mild Upper Abdominal Pain

  1. What You Should Know:
    • Mild stomach pain can be caused by an upset stomach, gas pains, or eating too much. It can also be caused by reflux disease (GERD). Sometimes mild stomach pain is the first sign of a vomiting illness like stomach flu.
    • You can treat mild stomach pain at home.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. Fluids: Sip only clear fluids until the pain is gone for more than 2 hours. Clear fluids include water, broth, and water mixed with fruit juice. Then slowly return to a normal diet.

  3. Diet:
    • Start with clear liquids. When you feel better, you can begin eating a bland diet.
    • Avoid alcohol or drinks with caffeine in them.
    • Avoid greasy or fatty foods.
  4. Stop Smoking: Smoking can make heartburn and stomach problems worse.

  5. Avoid Aspirin: Avoid aspirin and drugs such as Motrin, Advil, and Aleve. These drugs can bother your stomach. Try taking Tylenol.

  6. Antacid:
    • If you are having pain now, try taking a liquid antacid.
    • Read and follow all the instructions and warnings on the package insert of all medicines you take.
  7. Reflux Disease (GERD):
    • Eat smaller meals and avoid snacks for 2 hours before sleeping.
    • Avoid foods that tend to cause heartburn and stomach problems. These include fatty/greasy foods, spicy foods, mints, chocolate, drinks with caffeine, and alcohol.
  8. What to Expect: With harmless causes, the pain most often goes away within 2 hours. With stomach flu, the pain may come and go for 2 to 3 days. You may have belly cramps before you vomit or have diarrhea. If your pain does not stop and gets worse, it may be more serious.

  9. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Severe stomach pain occurs
    • Stomach pain is constant and lasts more than 2 hours
    • You think you need to be seen
    • You get worse

And remember, contact your doctor if you develop any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Last Reviewed: 10/29/2021 1:00:50 AM
Last Updated: 10/21/2021 1:00:51 AM

Copyright 2021 Amazon.com, Inc., or its affiliates.

Symptoms of stomach cancer – NHS

Stomach cancer is a cancer that’s found anywhere in the stomach. It’s not very common in the UK.

Credit:

Main symptoms of stomach cancer

There are many possible symptoms of stomach cancer, but they might be hard to spot.

They can affect your digestion, such as:

Other symptoms include:

If you have another condition, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, you may get symptoms like these regularly.

You might find you get used to them. But it’s important to be checked by a GP if your symptoms change, get worse, or do not feel normal for you.

Urgent advice: Get advice from 111 now if:

  • you’re being sick for more than 2 days
  • you have symptoms that you are worried about, but are not sure where to get help

111 will tell you what to do. They can arrange a phone call from a nurse or doctor if you need one.

Go to 111.nhs.uk or call 111

Non-urgent advice: See a GP if you have:

  • problems swallowing
  • a lump in your tummy
  • lost a noticeable amount of weight over the last 6 to 12 months without trying
  • other symptoms of stomach cancer that get worse or do not get better after 2 weeks
  • a condition that causes symptoms with your digestion that are not getting better after 2 weeks of using your usual treatments

Important

These symptoms are very common and can be caused by many different conditions. Having them does not definitely mean you have stomach cancer.

But it’s important to get them checked by a GP. This is because if they’re caused by cancer, finding it early makes it more treatable.

What happens at the GP appointment

The GP may feel your tummy.

They may ask you to give a poo or pee sample, or have a blood test.

The GP may refer you to see a specialist in hospital for more tests if they think you have a condition that needs to be investigated.

This may be an urgent referral, usually within 2 weeks, if you have certain symptoms. This does not definitely mean you have cancer.

Page last reviewed: 21 October 2019
Next review due: 21 October 2022

5 Common Causes of Bloating and How to Find Relief

Social distancing (or physical distancing) has us all experiencing many changes, including what we eat, how much we exercise and how we go about our day-to-day routines. With so much change happening at once, it’s no wonder we sometimes have symptoms we don’t normally have, and that includes bloating.

Bloating is a feeling that your stomach feels uncomfortably full. Some people describe bloating as a feeling that they have a balloon in their belly. Often times, bloating will go away on its own. But if it lingers, here are some common causes I tell my patients and ways to relieve the discomfort at home.

Jump to:

  1. It could be constipation
  2. Hormones may be the culprit
  3. Excess gas can build up
  4. Eating more calories than usual
  5. A more serious condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome

 

1. It could be constipation

While you’re spending a lot of time at home, you may not be moving as much as you usually do. You may also be eating different foods. This can lead to constipation. You may be constipated if you experience:

  • Fewer bowel movements than normal for you
  • Stool that is lumpy or looks like pebbles
  • Difficulty passing stool or a feeling that you still need to go after you’re finished

Fortunately, you can make a number of at-home changes to help relieve your constipation. These include:

Mix up your diet.

If you can, increase your intake of fiber. This includes foods like whole grains, beans, fruits with the skin, vegetables and nuts. As you increase your fiber, make sure to drink plenty of water or clear liquids, such as broth. Doing so will help soften the foods you eat so you can pass your stool easier.

Try stool softeners or fiber supplements.

The next time you run to the grocery, grab over-the-counter stool softeners or fiber supplements. Be sure to follow the instructions on the label and again, drink plenty of water to help you flush your system.

Don’t forget to work out.

Regular exercise helps your body run more efficiently. It can also help tone the walls of your large intestine to help you move stool through.

4 exercises you can try while staying at home >

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2. Hormones may be the culprit

Women may experience bloating, abdominal pain and cramps just before and during their period. This is normal and usually due to hormonal changes that regulate the menstrual cycle. If you’re bloating just before your period, try the following prevention methods:

Eat low-sodium foods.

The American Heart Association recommends limiting salt intake to 2,300 grams per day. This is equal to about 1 teaspoon of salt. Challenge yourself to flavor foods with herbs such as oregano and thyme, or natural acids such as lemon and lime.

Drink water.

Fill a water bottle and sip on it throughout the day. Drinking water actually helps you flush your system of excess salt and water that may lead to bloating during your period. Aim for 48 to 64 ounces of water per day.

Avoid alcohol.

Drinking alcohol affects your sleep cycle, which in turn leads to inflammation and swelling. Excess alcohol can also cause diarrhea, which contributes to bloating and abdominal pain. In the days leading up to your period, replace alcohol with decaffeinated tea or water.

Exercise regularly.

Even low-impact exercise like walking and yoga can help you break a sweat and release powerful feel-good chemicals. You might also consider taking a class online or try some creative ways to get your daily steps in.

5 ways to get your steps in while social distancing >

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3. Excess gas can build up

Gas is a normal part of digestion, but if it builds up in your intestines, it may cause bloating and pain. Gas happens when food that is not digested is broken down in your colon. This process produces methane and hydrogen, which you pass naturally as gas.

If you do experience bloating due to gas, modifying your food intake may help. Here are some common drinks and foods that can cause bloating:

  • Foods high in fiber or fat
  • Fried and spicy dishes
  • Carbonated drinks, such as soda or beer
  • Lactose found in milk, cheese and yogurts

Over-the-counter supplements can even trigger bloating.

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4. Eating more calories than usual

Let’s face it. When you’re off your schedule, sometimes the most interesting thing you can do is bake. But consuming excess calories — especially those found in cookies, cakes and bread — can pack on the pounds and cause your belly to bloat.

If cooking is your jam while sheltering in place, reserve high-calorie recipes for special occasions, or cut it back to one meal a week.

7 simple and healthy recipes to try with your family >

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5. A more serious condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is a common condition that causes abdominal pain with bloating, diarrhea or constipation. The cause of IBS is unknown, but it may be brought on by certain triggers, including:

  • Bacterial infections
  • Food sensitivity
  • Stressful events

If you think you may have IBS, reach out to your doctor for an evaluation. Many times, lifestyle modifications and medicines can help ease symptoms. You may also try some at-home techniques to relieve your bloating.

How to manage IBS during social distancing >

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Feeling sick or nausea and Upper abdominal pain

This page contains some of the conditions that could be the cause of these symptoms, although it is not a complete list of possible conditions.

Conditions

Acute cholecystitis

Acute cholecystitis is inflammation (swelling) of the gallbladder.

Symptoms of this condition may include:
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Right sided abdominal pain
  • Abdominal pain worse on coughing
  • Feeling sick or nausea
  • High temperature

Our Health A-Z contains more information on Acute cholecystitis.

Need to see a doctor? Livi lets you see a registered doctor by video call whether you’re at home, work or on the go (UK only). Get £5 off with the code Healthily5.

Gallstone

Gallstones are small stones, usually made of cholesterol, that form in the gallbladder.

Symptoms of this condition may include:
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Right sided abdominal pain
  • Feeling sick or nausea
  • Abdominal pain after eating
  • Loss of appetite

Our Health A-Z contains more information on Gallstone.

Need to see a doctor? Livi lets you see a registered doctor by video call whether you’re at home, work or on the go (UK only). Get £5 off with the code Healthily5.

Hepatitis

Hepatitis is the term used to describe inflammation of the liver.

Symptoms of this condition may include:
  • Right sided abdominal pain
  • Yellow skin or eyes
  • Unusually tired
  • Feeling sick or nausea
  • Upper abdominal pain

Our Health A-Z contains more information on Hepatitis.

Need to see a doctor? Livi lets you see a registered doctor by video call whether you’re at home, work or on the go (UK only). Get £5 off with the code Healthily5.

Inflammation of pancreas

Acute pancreatitis is a serious condition where the pancreas becomes inflamed over a short period of time.

Symptoms of this condition may include:
  • Loss of appetite
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Abdominal pain worse on coughing
  • Back pain
  • Abdominal pain spreading to shoulder blade

Our Health A-Z contains more information on Inflammation of pancreas.

Need to see a doctor? Livi lets you see a registered doctor by video call whether you’re at home, work or on the go (UK only). Get £5 off with the code Healthily5.

Recurrent pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is a condition where the pancreas becomes permanently damaged due to inflammation.

Symptoms of this condition may include:
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Feeling sick or nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Itchy skin
  • Yellow skin or eyes

Our Health A-Z contains more information on Recurrent pancreatitis.

Need to see a doctor? Livi lets you see a registered doctor by video call whether you’re at home, work or on the go (UK only). Get £5 off with the code Healthily5.

Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer is when an abnormal groups of cells, known as a tumour, develops inside the stomach.

Symptoms of this condition may include:
  • Bloated stomach
  • Continuous, unexplained weight loss
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Feeling sick or nausea
  • Burning pain in chest or upper abdomen

Our Health A-Z contains more information on Stomach Cancer.

Need to see a doctor? Livi lets you see a registered doctor by video call whether you’re at home, work or on the go (UK only). Get £5 off with the code Healthily5.

Question from: Alexey – Clinic Health 365, Yekaterinburg

Question to the Gastroenterologist

Question from Alexey

Phone:

Question: Hello, bloat, heaviness, feeling of fullness in my stomach have been troubling me for a long time. Last year, an ultrasound scan revealed a large amount of bile in my stomach (on a lean stomach).
In December, heartburn was very worried, underwent gastroscopy, here are the results.

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They prescribed omeprazole and motilium, heartburn was gone, but everything else remained. I drank motilium before, but it practically does not help and after it everything comes back again.

No heartburn now. But I am very worried that I have something constantly splashing in the upper abdomen, on the left (probably in the stomach). Even in the morning on a lean, I feel hungry, but in my stomach there is still a splash and a feeling of overflow, I feel that it is not empty.It is enough for me to eat quite a bit to feel as if I have eaten an elephant, the whole stomach is very bursting. And so until the evening, the belly is very inflated. I myself am thin, but my stomach is very swollen. Unless you eat anything all day, then the next morning it will be normal, not bulging.
I can’t eat often, as the constant feeling of bloating and heaviness in my stomach interferes. I eat less and less because of this feeling of bloating. After all, if I eat normally and fractionally, then I will have a strong swelling and heaviness in my stomach.I can’t sleep well, because even if I eat 4 hours before bedtime, I still go to bed with an overflowing stomach. Everything splashes in him.
In theory, I should not have any throwing of bile into the stomach. The endoscopist doctor told me that all my sphincters are working normally. However, when I underwent gastroscopy, they pumped out bile from me again … Yes, I myself feel that it is enough to lie on the other side or to chat with my stomach and everything splashes inside (under the left ribs).
I 2 years ago after I was diagnosed with gastritis and reflux esophagitis began to eat right.I go out as best I can, I follow all the rules, I eat fractionally and often, in small portions, I don’t eat fast foods, fried foods, I don’t drink alcohol, etc.
But the constant feeling of fullness, fullness, heaviness in the stomach interferes. Even on the skinny, the noise of the splash. I can’t eat every 2-3 hours, even if I’m hungry, it still feels like an elephant is in my stomach!

I also have big problems with weight gain. Height 186cm weight 60 kg. I go to the gym, eat 6-8 times a day. I am gaining 3000 calories, but the weight does not grow, moreover, if I get sick with a cold, the pounds I gained immediately go away.I literally a month ago had ARVI and threw it off from 68 to 60. Such a carving on the bone, and the stomach is inflated.
A gastroenterologist in a polyclinic cannot offer anything but motilak. And from him there is no sense, improvements are only at the time of reception.
Tell me something. Maybe I have some sort of delayed gastric emptying. I have a feeling that food just does not go out of it and that it is constantly full.
Otherwise, there is only flatulence and a slight belching, nothing else bothers, obviously nothing hurts anywhere, no vomiting, heartburn – nothing! Tell me what to do, what it can be and what examinations to go through.
I will be immensely grateful …

Answer:

Hello, Alexey, your feeling of overflow occurs due to a violation of the motor-evacuation function of the stomach, dysfunction of the biliary tract, which in turn affects the function of the intestine, causes excessive bacterial growth in the intestine. An integrated approach is required, I am ready to discuss your problem at the reception.

Best regards, gastroenterologist L.E. Kozhevnikova

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DISPEPSIA – CHRONIC GASTRITIS

Chronic gastritis is a widespread disease of the digestive system and the most frequent among diseases of the stomach.The main factors in the development of stomach diseases are: delayed food advance, increased acidity and the bacterium H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) 1 .

Up to 80% of cases of chronic gastritis are associated with the bacterium H. pylori , which in developing countries infects 70% of the population, and in developed countries up to 40% 2.3 . Chronic gastritis caused by H. pylori often goes unnoticed by the patient and, if untreated, can be complicated by an ulcer or stomach cancer.Therefore, in order to prevent the development of serious pathologies, it is necessary to undergo periodic diagnostics of H. pylori infection and eradication (elimination) in case of its detection 4 .

If the H. pylori infection itself proceeds without symptoms, why does chronic dyspepsia (disruption of the normal functioning of the stomach) bring so much discomfort?

In most cases, chronic gastritis is accompanied by symptoms, which include 1 :

  • Fast saturation
  • Feeling of fullness in the stomach after eating
  • Upper abdominal discomfort
  • Bloating
  • Decreased appetite
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Burning sensation in the abdomen
  • Pain in the upper abdomen

Almost all of these symptoms, with the exception of the last two, are associated with slow movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract.Thus, dyspepsia may not be associated with the presence or absence of H. pylori infection. It is a frequent companion of gastritis and can proceed as an independent disease without inflammation of the gastric mucosa 4 . To combat discomfort, it is necessary to start the work of the stomach. For this, a class of prokinetic drugs is shown. Returning to normal functioning of the stomach usually requires a long course of treatment, at least 2 months 1 .

90,000 404 Not Found

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Feeling of a full stomach

Feeling of discomfort in the stomach

Discomfort in the stomach is a frequent companion of the modern rhythm of life and wrong eating habits.The main negative factors include:

  • Stress. Constant haste, nerves and stressful situations lead to malfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • Tobacco. Cigarettes have a negative effect on the mucous membrane of the internal organs involved in the digestion process;
  • Alcohol. With the regular consumption of alcoholic beverages, you can encounter not only individual symptoms of stomach discomfort, but also with serious diseases;
  • Violation of dietary rules: snacks “on the run”, eating low-quality foods, overeating, abuse of fast food, predominance of fatty and fried foods in the diet, violation of heat treatment rules, lack of diet;
  • Lactose intolerance.It is common to many, but it is especially common in infants and people of age. The fact is that with age, the body secretes less and less enzymes that are responsible for the processing of lactose (this is a disaccharide contained in milk). Due to the inability to break down sugar in the stomach, fermentation begins, and a large amount of gas is released. Which is the main reason for the discomfort.

Also, frequent consumption of too hot and strong coffee or tea, strongly carbonated drinks can lead to stomach problems.


What to do with stomach discomfort

Preventive measures and treatment of discomfort in the stomach area will largely depend on the cause of the pathology. If the symptom appears after eating, then you should pay attention to eating habits:

  • Don’t rush around the table. Food must be chewed thoroughly;
  • Meals should be increased up to 5-6 times a day. Portions should be small, preferably at the same time;
  • Reduce consumption of fried, fatty and overly salty;
  • Do not “seize the problem”.A stressful situation can push you to overeat, which is bad for the gastrointestinal tract;
  • Do not eat very cold or hot food. A sharp temperature drop can lead to irritation of the stomach lining. Warm food should be preferred;
  • Alcohol is a bad companion for lunch or dinner;
  • Discomfort can also occur when eating foods with a high content of preservatives, colors and flavors;
  • It is better to stop drinking carbonated drinks.

Feelings of a full stomach after eating generally have the same causes as discomfort: eating disorders, allergies (eg, lactose intolerance), alcohol and stress. It can also occur in pregnant women due to increased acidity of the stomach, and then it is accompanied by nausea. In addition, the fetus itself can press on internal organs, including the stomach and intestines.

Discomfort and feeling of overcrowding can be overcome quickly and without problems if you know which medication has the desired effect.


Treatment of stomach discomfort

What to do if stomach discomfort worries? The first thing a person should take is to see a doctor. Treatment should be started only after a diagnosis has been made.

Depending on the presence or absence of the disease, its stage and severity, the following types of treatment can be applied: the appointment of a special diet or the use of drugs. In the event that the problem is not associated with serious pathologies and is not related to organ dysfunction, enzyme preparations can be prescribed.

Preparation Creon ® is the latest generation enzyme preparation. It improves the digestive processes in adults and children, and thereby significantly reduces the symptoms of pancreatic enzyme deficiency, including pain in the abdomen, flatulence. The enzymes included in the preparation facilitate the digestion of food and promote better absorption of nutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates).

1 338 tg.1 205 tg.

Buy

Into notes

Dose of the drug to improve food digestion in patients with normal function of the gastrointestinal tract in cases of nutritional errors (eating fatty foods, overeating, irregular eating, etc.) 1-2 capsules Creon ® 10000 per meal. When taking the medicine, you must strictly follow the instructions:

  • Do not break or chew the drug;
  • capsule must be washed down with a sufficient amount of water;
  • taken with meals.

Pain in the upper abdomen

Causes of epigastric pain

Functional dyspepsia

Pain in the epigastrium is provoked by errors in the diet, abuse of fast food and dry food. Unpleasant symptoms usually bother with stress, while traveling and changing time zones. The pains are aching or pulling, are of moderate intensity. Less commonly, patients report a sharp stabbing sensation in the upper abdomen. Such manifestations are observed periodically under the influence of predisposing factors.

Simultaneously with the pain syndrome, a feeling of heaviness and fullness in the epigastrium, nausea, heartburn increases. Belching with air is characteristic, which develops as a result of aerophagia. In functional disorders of the stomach, symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract are accompanied by disorders of the autonomic nervous system. Characterized by pallor and coldness of the extremities, increased sweating, increased heart rate.

Gastritis

For gastritis with high acidity, sharp pains in the upper abdomen are characteristic, which intensify 20-30 minutes after a meal, last several hours.With gastritis with low acidity, there is a constant dull or aching pain that is not associated with food intake. At the end of the meal, patients complain of heaviness in the epigastrium, nausea, belching.

In acute gastritis or exacerbation of the chronic process, pain appears sharply against the background of inaccuracies in the diet, alcohol intake. Pain syndrome is very strong, reminiscent of a “sharp abdomen”. Chronic gastritis is characterized by periodic moderate pain, accompanied by changes in stool, belching, heartburn.Due to impaired absorption of iron, pallor of the skin, weakness, dizziness occurs.

Peptic ulcer

A stomach ulcer is manifested by severe pain in the epigastric region, which appears immediately after eating, accompanied by nausea, heartburn. To relieve discomfort, patients induce vomiting. With a complication of peptic ulcer – perforation of the ulcer – suddenly felt “dagger pain” in the upper abdomen. A person lies motionless, pulling his legs up to his stomach, since the pain syndrome increases with movements.

Pain in the upper abdomen

Pyloric stenosis

In the compensated stage, there are dull and bursting pains in the epigastrium after an abundant meal, combined with a feeling of heaviness in the stomach, belching. With the decompensation of pyloric stenosis, there are constant severe pains in the upper abdomen, aggravated by the completion of nutrition. Vomiting opens with foods eaten the day before, after which the state of health improves for a short time.

Pancreatitis

In the acute course of pancreatitis, the pain is localized in the epigastric part and the left hypochondrium, is of a shingles in nature.The unpleasant sensations are aggravated when lying on the back. The onset of a painful attack is typical for heavy meals with alcohol. The pain is combined with repeated vomiting, which does not bring relief to the patient. Perhaps an increase in body temperature, slight yellowness of the sclera.

Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by discomfort in the upper abdomen, occasionally irradiation of pain to the region of the heart. If you follow a diet, pain is rarely worried, it is moderately pronounced and short-lived. Pancreatitis proceeds with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, therefore the pain syndrome is accompanied by steatorrhea, lientere, flatulence.

Cholecystitis

With inflammation of the gallbladder, pain is localized in the upper abdomen and right hypochondrium. The connection of symptoms with the use of fatty foods is characteristic. In chronic cholecystitis, epigastric pains are aching in nature, they are accompanied by heaviness in the abdomen and changes in stool. Acute cholecystitis is characterized by a sharp paroxysmal pain in the upper abdominal cavity. The clinical picture is complemented by vomiting with bile, yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes.

Hernias

Diaphragmatic hernia is manifested by severe pain in the retrosternal region and epigastrium caused by compression of the stomach in the hernial sac.The symptom is provoked by physical exertion, prolonged coughing, vomiting. Strengthening of pain occurs when the body bends forward, straining. In addition to the pain syndrome, constant heartburn is worried, which is aggravated after eating and in the supine position. With large diaphragmatic hernias, shortness of breath is observed.

A more rare cause of epigastric pain is a hernia of the upper part of the white line of the abdomen. Characterized by constant aching sensations at the top of the abdominal cavity, which do not have a clear localization. Symptoms are aggravated by physical exertion, straining.A typical symptom of this pathology is the appearance of sharp pain when trying to raise your legs while lying on your back. Occasionally, in the middle of the epigastric region, a protrusion of a soft elastic consistency can be felt.

Intestinal infection

Pain in the epigastrium is characteristic of food poisoning, which occurs with the syndrome of gastritis or gastroenteritis. They are often caused by rotaviruses, enteroviruses, staphylococci. Symptoms appear within hours to 1-2 days after eating food of questionable quality.Suddenly there are severe cramps in the abdominal cavity with nausea and repeated vomiting. Then watery diarrhea joins.

Neoplasms

In benign formations (polyps), recurrent dull pains in the upper abdomen develop, not associated with food or other external factors. Stomach cancer is characterized by constant growing pain in the epigastrium, which is not relieved by conventional analgesics and antispasmodics. In addition to the pain syndrome, there is a deterioration in appetite and a change in taste preferences, as a result, patients are rapidly losing weight.

Damage to the respiratory system

Soreness in the upper abdomen occurs with lobar croupous pneumonia, dry and exudative pleurisy. Irradiation of pain is determined by the proximity of the location of the organs of the chest and abdominal cavity, their general innervation. Pains of a dull or aching nature, aggravated by deep breaths, coughing, and turning the body. The symptom is combined with high fever, shortness of breath, lagging half of the chest when breathing.

Myocardial infarction

Severe epigastric pain occurs in abdominal myocardial infarction.Pain syndrome develops suddenly, often preceded by emotional shock. Pain is accompanied by severe weakness. The skin becomes pale and covered with cold sweat. The painful sensations are so strong that the patient is in a light-headed state.

Intercostal neuralgia

With a lesion at the level of the lower ribs, pain may radiate to the epigastric zone. Sensations are sharp and shooting, localized on one side. They occur when the body is in an uncomfortable position, after bending or turning the body, with a long stay in one position.The pain intensifies when feeling the intercostal spaces, trying to bend in the opposite direction.

Complications of pharmacotherapy

NSAID gastropathy is a typical iatrogenic cause of upper abdominal pain. The disease is characterized by periodic epigastric discomfort, which increases at night and on an empty stomach. There is a decrease in appetite, nausea, flatulence. About 40-50% of gastropathies are asymptomatic and manifest with sharp pain in the projection of the stomach with the development of complications – perforated ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding.

Rare causes

  • Spleen affection : splenomegaly, abscess or cyst of the spleen, perisplenitis.
  • Rare gastric diseases : acute gastric dilatation, gastric volvulus.
  • Kidney disease : pyelonephritis, renal colic.
  • Vascular pathologies : portal vein thrombosis, aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, ischemic abdominal syndrome.
  • Intoxication : nicotine, morphine, heavy metals (lead, mercury).
  • Psychogenic conditions : hysteria, masked depression, somatoform disorder.

Diagnostics

During a physical examination, the doctor determines the zones of hyperesthesia, conducts superficial and deep palpation of the epigastric zone. The variety of causes of pain in the upper abdomen requires a gastroenterologist to use a whole range of laboratory and instrumental methods.The most informative for diagnostics are the following studies:

  • Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity. A simple and non-invasive method for detecting signs of inflammation, ulcerative defects and neoplasms in the epigastrium. On ultrasound, the doctor evaluates the anatomical and functional features of the gastrointestinal tract, confirms or excludes typical diseases (calculous cholecystitis, pancreatitis, hernia).
  • X-ray methods. Plain X-ray is not very informative, therefore X-ray with oral contrast is used for examination.The study is necessary to detect ulcerative defects, pyloric stenosis, diaphragmatic hernia. Using this method, the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract is assessed.
  • EFGDS. The most informative method that allows you to visualize inflammatory and erosive changes in the wall of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum 12. EFGDS with biopsy is used for differential diagnosis of ulcers, benign and malignant neoplasms of the gastric zone.
  • Laboratory Methods .The standard complex includes clinical blood and urine tests, coprogram, glucose measurement. To identify gastritis, peptic ulcer, an informative study of gastric juice, a rapid urease test for H. pylori. To exclude chronic bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, the Gregersen reaction is performed.
  • Additional research . Intragastric pH-metry is required to confirm the diagnosis of hyperacid gastritis. The functional ability of the stomach is assessed using electrogastrography, radionuclide scintigraphy.For detailed visualization of the abdominal organs, CT is performed.

In case of sharp pains reminiscent of the symptoms of an “acute abdomen”, the patient must be examined by a surgeon. If extra-abdominal processes are suspected, consultations of specialized specialists are prescribed: a cardiologist, a pulmonologist, a neurologist. Patients with suspected psychogenic causes of epigastric pain should be evaluated by a psychiatrist.

Gastroscopy

Treatment

Help before diagnosis

In case of sudden onset of epigastric pain, pain relievers should not be taken before visiting a doctor, so as not to blur the clinical picture.If a chronic gastrointestinal disease is diagnosed, in order to reduce pain, it is necessary to adhere to dietary recommendations, to avoid provoking factors. In case of food poisoning, you need to rinse the stomach, use sorbents.

Conservative therapy

Treatment begins with non-drug measures: diet therapy, normalization of the daily regimen and rejection of bad habits, elimination of risk factors for the underlying disease. Medicines are selected only after a full diagnosis and identification of the root cause of the pain syndrome.The main groups of medicines that are prescribed for pain in the upper abdomen:

  • Pain medications . In the absence of medicinal gastropathies, medications from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to relieve pain. They are supplemented with antispasmodics, prokinetics, which normalize gastrointestinal motility, eliminate discomfort.
  • Enzymes. Preparations of gastric juice and digestive enzymes are used for painful sensations caused by malabsorption and maldigestion.Their long-term use improves a person’s well-being, eliminates the symptoms of nutritional deficiency.
  • Antisecretory agents . Drugs that reduce the acidity of gastric secretions quickly eliminate pain caused by hyperacidity. They promote the healing of defects in the gastric mucosa.
  • Antibiotics . Specific three- and four-way antibacterial regimens are indicated for the eradication of H.pylori. Antibiotics are recommended for bacterial pneumonia and pleurisy, exacerbation of cholecystitis.

Surgical treatment

Complicated forms of peptic ulcer disease, volumetric neoplasms require surgical treatment – resection of the stomach with anastomosis, gastrectomy. In case of an ulcerative defect, the removal of a part of the organ is combined with selective proximal vagotomy, which sharply reduces the frequency of relapses. In acute calculous cholecystitis, cholecystectomy is prescribed.In case of hernias, hernioplasty is performed with one’s own tissues or with an allograft.

90,000 causes, symptoms, what to do and how to treat

Feeling of discomfort in the stomach

Unpleasant sensations appear individually, but there are general symptoms:

  • pulling pains or burning of the upper abdomen;
  • 90,080 severity;

  • feeling of quick satiety;
  • nausea or vomiting;
  • heartburn;
  • flatulence or increased gas production;
  • feeling of a full stomach.

The presence of even one of the symptoms suggests that not everything is in order with the digestive organs.

Discomfort in the stomach is a frequent companion of the modern rhythm of life and wrong eating habits. The main negative factors include:

  • Stress. Constant haste, nerves and stressful situations lead to malfunctions in the gastrointestinal tract;
  • Tobacco. Cigarettes have a negative effect on the mucous membrane of the internal organs involved in the process of digestion;
  • Alcohol. With the regular consumption of alcoholic beverages, one may encounter not only individual symptoms of stomach discomfort, but also serious illnesses;
  • Violation of dietary rules: snacks “on the run”, eating low-quality foods, overeating, abuse of fast food, predominance of fatty and fried foods in the diet, violation of heat treatment rules, lack of diet;
  • Lactose intolerance. It is common to many, but is especially common in infants and people of age. The fact is that with age, the body secretes less and less enzymes that are responsible for the processing of lactose (this is a disaccharide contained in milk). Due to the inability to break down sugar in the stomach, fermentation begins, and a large amount of gas is released. Which is the main reason for the discomfort.

Also, frequent consumption of too hot and strong coffee or tea, strongly carbonated drinks can lead to stomach problems.

A common manifestation of discomfort is a feeling of a full stomach.

What to do with stomach discomfort

Preventive measures and treatment of discomfort in the stomach area will largely depend on the cause of the pathology.

If the symptom appears after eating, then you should pay attention to eating habits:

  • Don’t rush around the table. Food must be chewed thoroughly;
  • Meals should be increased up to 5-6 times a day.Portions should be small, preferably at the same time;
  • Reduce consumption of fried, fatty and overly salty;
  • Do not “seize the problem”. A stressful situation can push you to overeat, which is bad for the gastrointestinal tract;
  • Do not eat very cold or hot food. A sharp temperature drop can lead to irritation of the stomach lining. Warm food should be preferred;
  • Alcohol is a bad companion for lunch or dinner;
  • Discomfort can also occur when eating foods with a high content of preservatives, colors and flavors;
  • It is better to stop drinking carbonated drinks.

Feelings of a full stomach after eating generally have the same causes as discomfort: eating disorders, allergies (such as lactose intolerance), alcohol and stress. It can also occur in pregnant women due to increased acidity of the stomach, and then it is accompanied by nausea. In addition, the fetus itself can press on internal organs, including the stomach and intestines.

The discomfort and feeling of overcrowding can be overcome quickly and without problems if you know which medicine is working.

Stomach discomfort treatment

What to do if stomach discomfort worries?

To alleviate the condition, you may need:

  • adherence to the diet;
  • drug assistance.

To learn more

If discomfort or heaviness in the abdomen is associated with a lack of digestive enzymes, then you may need to take enzyme preparations.These drugs support digestion by delivering the same enzymes from the outside. Creon ® is available in capsule form and is suitable for this task. Creon ® capsule dissolves quickly in the stomach, releasing hundreds of small particles – minimicrospheres 1 . Due to their small size, they evenly wrap around food in the stomach to aid in the digestion of its bulk. This helps the body get the nutrients it needs from food and cope with symptoms such as heaviness and discomfort in the abdomen, bloating, and seething.This mechanism of action distinguishes the drug Creon ® from similar drugs in the form of a tablet.

The tablet is an indivisible form of release that cannot mix with food in the stomach in the best way, and therefore cannot help in its complete digestion. The idea that the tablet can be crushed is erroneous, since this will lead to a violation of the protective membrane of the drug, and the enzyme will simply die in the stomach.

more details about the differences between Creon ® and other drugs can be found here.

In the fight against heaviness or discomfort, as a rule, 1 capsule of Creon ® 10000 1 helps. Creon ® capsules are easy to use: if necessary, they can be opened and the minimicrospheres can be mixed with food or juice 1 . So you can individually select the dose, which is especially important for young children, to whom Creon ® has been approved since birth 1 .

Recommendations for taking Creon

® 10000 1 :

  • Take with or immediately after meals;
  • Do not chew minimicrospheres;
  • drink plenty of water.

Chronic gastritis: symptoms, treatment and prevention

Definition and risk factors

Chronic gastritis is a group of chronic diseases characterized by inflammatory and dystrophic lesions of the gastric mucosa with impaired secretory and motor function of the stomach.

Risk factors

Most often, this disease develops under the influence of repeated and long-term eating disorders:

  • eating spicy, rough and hot food
  • poor chewing
  • smoking and excessive consumption of various alcoholic beverages
  • long-term uncontrolled medication.

In more than half of cases, chronic gastritis is combined with various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (for example, chronic cholecystitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and others. In recent decades, the decisive role in the etiology of the development of this disease is given to the microorganism Helicobacter pylori.

Symptoms of chronic gastritis

During the period of exacerbation of this disease, the clinical picture is characterized by:

  • severity or pain of varying intensity and localization (more often in the upper abdomen), mainly after eating (there is a connection with a specific type of food), rarely at night and on an empty stomach, disappear or significantly decrease after taking antisecretory drugs (for example Omeprazole) and antacids (for example Maalox)
  • nausea, vomiting
  • bitterness in the mouth
  • feeling of fullness
  • belching with air
  • loss of appetite
  • unpleasant smack with in the mouth.

For all its simplicity, at first glance, this disease can progress and lead to quite serious complications (the appearance of erosions, bleeding ulcers, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric epithelium) and a decrease in the quality of life.

Diagnostics, treatment and prevention of chronic gastritis

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of the disease is carried out by a gastroenterologist or therapist.

To make a diagnosis, the doctor determines the amount of necessary research.You may need to perform:

Treatment

Main goals of treatment:

  • relief of pain
  • destruction of Helicobacter pylori (eradication)
  • prevention of complications
  • correction of complications that have arisen.

Patients with chronic gastritis are treated on an outpatient basis. Treatment is carried out in a comprehensive manner:

  1. Diet (mechanically and chemically gentle).
  2. Cessation of alcohol and smoking.
  3. Reception of antisecretory, antacid drugs and antibiotics that affect peristalsis and the processes of regeneration of the mucous membrane.

The dosage, frequency and duration of taking any drugs are prescribed exclusively by a specialist .