Pms what does it mean: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) | Office on Women’s Health
Top PMS symptoms – PMS myths and common misconceptions
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When you hear the three letters P-M-S, odds are your gut reaction is a four-letter word. The typical perception is, if you have premenstrual syndrome (PMS), you become a bloated, emotional mess for a few days every month. While that may be accurate for some people, it doesn’t capture the true range of premenstrual experiences — and there is much more to PMS than the stereotypical pool of bad symptoms (1).
PMS is a cultural catch-all for everything from eating a whole tub of ice cream to discrediting women in places of power. PMS is given unfounded weight to validate certain behaviors and make people victims of their biology. In reality, the premenstrual experience varies dramatically from person to person, ranging from one or two mild complaints to several near-debilitating symptoms.
Clue created a tool to help people learn about their bodies and dispel myths and misinformation about the menstrual cycle. PMS is one of the biggest misconstructions.
Track your period, PMS, cravings, and more in the Clue app.
First, let’s clarify what we mean when we say PMS.
What is PMS, really?
PMS is a cluster of physical, behavioral, and emotional changes in the time before menstruation that recur with most or all menstrual cycles and affect a person’s normal life (2). Medical diagnostic criteria for PMS requires symptoms that:
Are present during the 5 days before the period starts for at least three menstrual cycles
End within 4 days of when the period starts
Interfere with normal activities (2)
To make a clinical diagnosis of PMS, your healthcare provider will consider the number, type, and severity of your symptoms. Approaching your premenstrual symptoms with this in mind is helpful in assessing your own experience.
Myth #1: All women and people with cycles have PMS.
This myth comes from the popular misconception that any symptoms that occur before the period are directly related to PMS. In truth, just because a person experiences some premenstrual symptoms does not mean they have PMS.
Premenstrual syndrome is a medical diagnosis (ICD-10-N94.3) of multiple symptoms including both emotional and physical discomforts (3). While some people might experience premenstrual symptoms of low to moderate intensity, if they don’t have a significant negative effect on a person’s life, this is not considered PMS (from a medical perspective) (4).
Reported rates of PMS vary so widely that it’s nearly impossible to say how many people experience it. This is probably because PMS is sometimes used as a catch-all term for experiencing any premenstrual symptoms, and not only the diagnosis of PMS.
Many people who use the phrase “PMS” to define their premenstrual experiences are referring to their cluster of individual symptoms, rather than a medical diagnosis. For example, a headache that happens a few days before a person’s period might not have a significant negative impact on their day-to-day functioning, even though it’s uncomfortable. In this case, the headache is a mild premenstrual symptom. A recurrent experience of depression, insomnia, and extreme fatigue, on the other hand, might significantly impact someone’s well-being and therefore meet the criteria for PMS or even premenstrual dysphoric disease (PMDD) (5).
Fact #1: The experience of premenstrual symptoms is not the same as premenstrual syndrome.
Myth #2: The premenstrual phase is all about bad moods.
Science supports that the premenstrual experience is not inherently negative for everyone, despite what culture, society and media suggest. Culturally and socially it’s more common to talk about negative premenstrual experiences, but this limits the true experience of the premenstrual phase, because it includes positive factors as well (1).
Current research has primarily connected negative moods to biologic mechanisms, like hormone fluctuations (1). Most PMS research has deduced a linear relationship between biology and behavior, and failed to reflect the real experience of PMS within a socio-cultural context (6).
Researchers have pointed out that many of the studies of PMS suffer from major methodological errors. It was reported that in many studies, research participants were asked about their mood but were given a list to choose from that only included negative options. If researchers only study negative moods, it doesn’t accurately reflect the experience of PMS (1).
Without clear scientific evidence, why is the idea of negative premenstrual mood so pervasive? It boils down to cultural perceptions of menstruation. People who are socialized to expect a negative premenstrual experience are primed to report more problems, contributing to negative attitudes towards the cycle (1).
PMS is not a one-size-fits all experience, rather, each person’s experience is filtered through social and cultural beliefs that influence how they process symptoms.
Fact #2: Bad moods and the premenstrual experience do not go hand in hand for everyone.
Myth #3: Bad moods in your premenstrual phase can be blamed exclusively on hormone fluctuations.
Hormones play a major role in an individual’s menstrual cycle (7), but aren’t the only reason for bad premenstrual moods. Overall mental and physical health have a greater impact on mood than menstrual cycle phase.
Participants of a recent study (7) tracked daily mood and health data over six months to test a commonly stated fact amongst researchers that the premenstrual phase is the source of depressed, irritable moods and mood swings (8-11). The study tracked both positive and negative moods, collected data from every cycle phase (not just the premenstrual phase) and followed several consecutive menstrual cycles.
The conclusion was surprising; data did not support the idea of a negative mood prevailing in the premenstrual phase. Social support, physical health, and perceived stress were more significant as predictors of daily mood than menstrual cycle phase (12).
Still, it could be true that hormones may be the cause of premenstrual syndrome for some people. Lower levels of estradiol in the premenstrual phase may cause decreased levels of serotonin and dampened mood (13).
Fact #3: Physical and emotional health have a greater impact on your daily mood than your menstrual cycle.
What is PMDD?
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD, is a more recent entry into the medical lexicon. PMDD, like PMS, is a diagnostic label given when the experience of premenstrual symptoms is very severe, but it is considered a psychiatric diagnosis rather than a gynecological one. A PMDD diagnosis requires at least five symptoms during the luteal phase that are present 5-7 days before menstruation and improve within four days of menstruation (14).
Take note: the existence of PMDD is controversial. Some scientists contend that classifying severe PMS as a psychiatric disorder is a dangerous precedent, and that PMDD was created to justify a new pharmaceutical market and representative of the over-medicalization of women’s reproductive biology (15). Whatever we name this extreme form of PMS, studies estimate the prevalence to be 2–8% (14).
What does PMS mean for you?
True PMS is a medical diagnosis given by a healthcare provider after considering the number, type, and severity of a person’s premenstrual symptoms. In order to start the PMS conversation with a healthcare provider, a person can record and report the characteristics of their premenstrual symptom pattern. Carefully tracking your cycle in the Clue app can help you track how you feel both emotionally and physically each day, to help you determine your pattern of premenstrual symptoms.
Symptom tracking is a valuable tool even if you don’t feel the need to have a PMS conversation with your healthcare provider. Getting familiar with your premenstrual symptom pattern can be useful for letting you know where you are in your cycle, helping you plan ahead to mitigate uncomfortable symptoms , and identifying triggers that exacerbate symptoms and/or selecting relief strategies.
While you’re tracking your symptoms, remember to:
Record data every day as you experience it. (Rather than recalling how you felt several days ago, which can be less accurate.)
Track for several (not just one) complete menstrual cycles. This will help capture cycle-to-cycle variation.
Track data in every cycle phase, not just the premenstrual phase. If you only collect data in one phase, it won’t be possible to compare and then conclude that one phase is different from another.
Record both positive and negative symptoms.
Provide life context. Include notes about stress, skin problems, diet, relationships, and other important factors because your cycle is just one of many things that can affect you and your well-being (12).
How to know if you have PMS
Once you’ve tracked several cycles of data, it’s time to evaluate. Here are the basic steps:
Visualize your premenstrual phase: Count back 14 days before each period began. That span of time, from ovulation to the start of your period, is roughly your luteal phase. Clue will identify this phase for you.
Look for patterns: Do any symptoms regularly come up in the premenstrual phase? Or are they distributed throughout your cycle? You might be surprised to learn that the constipation or mood swings you thought only occurred premenstrually are actually happening throughout your cycle.
Assess severity: Are any symptoms severe enough to impact your life in some way? Missing work or school may indicate a moderate/severe case of PMS.
Tracking your premenstrual symptoms with Clue can help you get an overall picture of your cycle health. Having this powerful information all in one place can help you make healthcare decisions. If you’re concerned about how PMS might be impacting you, and what you can do about it, talk to your healthcare provider.
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) | Cedars-Sinai
Not what you’re looking for?
What is premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?
Premenstrual syndrome or PMS is a
group of physical and emotional symptoms many women may have in the days before their
period starts. Symptoms usually stop once the period starts. It’s thought to be related
to the changing hormone levels of the menstrual cycle.
Lifestyle changes and sometimes medicine are used to treat PMS.
What causes PMS?
The cause of PMS is unclear. It seems to be related to hormone fluctuations in the
body. Changes in brain chemicals may also play a role.
What are the symptoms of PMS?
Symptoms may be slightly different for each woman. The following are the most common
symptoms of PMS.
- Irritability and mood swings
- Trouble sleeping
- Bloating and fluid buildup
- Constipation or diarrhea
- Backache or headache
- Tender breasts
- Forgetfulness and trouble concentrating
- Food cravings
The symptoms of PMS may look like other conditions or medical problems. Talk with
a healthcare provider for diagnosis.
How is PMS diagnosed?
Aside from a complete health history and physical and pelvic exam,
there are very few additional tests. Your healthcare provider may ask that you keep
journal of your symptoms for several months to better assess the timing, severity,
onset, and duration of symptoms.
How is PMS treated?
Your healthcare provider will consider your age, overall health, symptoms and other
factors when finding the best treatment for you.
Lifestyle changes and sometimes
medicines can help manage PMS symptoms. Medicines include:
- Water pills (diuretics) before symptoms start to reduce fluid buildup
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen, to reduce pain
- Birth control pills
- Medicines used to temporarily stop ovaries from making estrogen and progesterone
- Changing the diet to increase protein and decrease sugar and caffeine intake
- Vitamin supplements such as vitamin B-6, calcium, and magnesium
- Regular exercise
Can PMS be prevented?
For some women, making lifestyle changes helps to reduce the occurrence of PMS symptoms.
These changes may include:
- Get regular exercise 3 to 5 times each week
- Eat a well-balanced diet. Eat more
whole grains, vegetables, and fruits, while eating less salt, sugar, caffeine, and
- Get enough sleep and rest
- Don’t smoke
When to call your healthcare provider
Call your healthcare provider if you have symptoms of PMS that interfere with your
ability to carry out your normal daily activities.
Key points about premenstrual syndrome
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of physical and emotional symptoms many women
may have in the days before their period starts.
- It’s thought to be related to the
hormone changes of a woman’s menstrual cycle.
- Lifestyle changes and sometimes medicines are used to treat PMS.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
Medical Reviewer: Irina Burd MD PhD
Medical Reviewer: Donna Freeborn PhD CNM FNP
Medical Reviewer: Heather M Trevino BSN RNC
© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.
Not what you’re looking for?
PMS – Meaning, Symptoms and Treatment
Typical PMS Symptoms
The symptoms differ from woman to woman and are mostly not experienced all at once.
Physical symptoms include:
Feelings of tension in the breasts (tender breasts)
Painful breasts that are particularly sensitive to touch (chest pain)
Abdominal pain, tension in the abdomen
Water retention in the tissue (edema), body weight increases and many feel “bloated”; the water is preferentially stored in the breasts (the breasts suddenly become larger), in the face (eyelids) and on the hands, feet and legs.
Head, back, muscle and joint pain
Premenstrual syndrome can cause nausea, digestive problems such as flatulence, constipation or bloating.
Sleep disorders: increased need for sleep, insomnia
Premenstrual syndrome can cause increased sweating and hot flashes.
Impure skin (pimples) up to acne
hunger pangs, e.g. unrestrained craving for sweets, or the opposite: loss of appetite
Premenstrual syndrome also causes psychological symptoms, for example:
Fatigue, exhaustion, loss of performance
dejectedness, insecurity, reduced self-esteem
Listlessness, lack of energy, lack of drive
mood swings, anxiety, tension, depressive moods
Premenstrual syndrome can also lead to depression
Irritated mood, aggressiveness, outbursts of anger
Feeling of loss of control over the body and feelings
As long as this list of symptoms may seem, not every woman with premenstrual syndrome necessarily develops all symptoms, and not to the same degree. There can be two, but also a dozen symptoms. What is clear is that PMS significantly affects everyday life and reduces the quality of life.
In up to five percent of women, the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome are so severe that normal everyday life or work is no longer possible. This severe form of PMS, which is associated with mental complaints, has its own name: Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD).
Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
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The premenstrual syndrome: a twin study. Br J Psychiatry.
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Exercise and premenstrual symptomatology: a comprehensive review. J Womens Health (Larchmt).
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Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Arch Intern Med.
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is there a difference? – O&G Magazine
The name says it all. Or does it? Are premenstrual tension (PMT), premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) one and the same or variants of the same affliction, or are they separate entities? Are they afflictions at all, or just part of the human condition? We aim to disentangle any confusion that has arisen.
It has long been recognised that many women experience a predictable, cyclic pattern of moliminal symptoms, which begin in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and end shortly after menstruation begins. The symptoms may cluster and include physical, emotional, psychological and behavioural components and constitute a syndrome or a disorder, depending on their impact. However, from the outset, it needs to be recognised that for many women, symptoms represent a premenstrual exacerbation of an underlying condition (PME), such as a major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder or eating disorder that may be undiagnosed and untreated, partially treated, or treatment non-responsive. It has been suggested that a significant percentage of women who seek treatment for premenstrual symptoms are in this category.
PMT is said to involve the experience of one or more of the following symptoms: tender swollen breasts, headaches and/or migraines, abdominal cramping and bloating, backache, acne outbreaks, fluid retention, weight gain, constipation and/or diarrhoea, food cravings, emotional irritability, anxiety, nervous tension, lowered coping ability, impairment of concentration, reduced libido, aggression, mood swings, depression, clumsiness, lethargy, insomnia and tearfulness. PMS is the same thing. However, many argue that the latter label better describes the symptom cluster, with the term ‘syndrome’ de-emphasising the emotional and psychological symptoms implied in the term ‘tension’. Overall, diagnostically, it is a loose and informal label, as it only requires one or two symptoms to qualify and is reported to be experienced by up to 50 per cent of women globally.
While PMS is generally manageable and minimally impairs psychosocial functioning, it has been recognised that three to eight per cent of women experience multiple symptoms that can significantly affect their quality of life and daily interpersonal and occupational functioning, to the point of transient impairment. The term premenstrual dysphoric disorder aims to capture this sub-group.
The clustering of more severe premenstrual symptoms was first described by Frank in 1931 and he coined the phrase PMT. His view was that ovarian functioning needed to be obliterated with oophorectomy or radiation therapy in order to restore order in the home and the workplace. The term PMS was later introduced in 1953 by Green and Dalton, who felt that the condition was responsible for decreased worker productivity, increased divorce rates and even murder. Later, Mortola was the first to recognise that depressive mood symptoms sometimes only occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.
In 1987, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) introduced the diagnostic category of late luteal phase dysphoric disorder in the appendix as a proposed diagnostic category needing further study. Prior to the release of the DSM-IV in 1994, there was much debate as to whether the category should be elevated to a distinct diagnosis, kept in the appendix, or entirely eradicated. They decided to keep it in the appendix with an elaboration of diagnostic criteria to aid further study. In 1995, a large study, subsidised by Eli Lilly, suggested that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine assisted 60 per cent of women with symptom relief. In reaction, some argued that such symptoms were a culture-bound syndrome and represented ‘an unnecessary pathologising of cyclical changes in women’, with the diagnostic category potentially being harmful, as it could lead to women believing that they are mentally ill, leading others to mistrust them in situations as important as job promotions or child custody cases. Others argued that it represented a valid condition that was only poorly studied because it didn’t affect men.
The DSM-IV-TR, published in 2000, again decided to keep the condition in the appendix. This view was further supported in 2003 by the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products requirement for the manufacturer of Prozac (fluoxetine) to remove PMDD from the list of indications for fluoxetine sold in Europe. However, with the 2013 introduction of DSM-V, PMDD was introduced as a formal diagnostic category. Soon afterwards, in 2014, a published review addressed reservations regarding this introduction, finding that such a label does not harm women economically, politically, domestically or legally, that financial conflict of interest concerns did not render the diagnosis invalid or the research unusable, and that the condition had been identified worldwide. The International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10), first published in 2010, introduced the diagnostic category of premenstrual tension syndrome, with broad and easily endorsed criteria compared with the DSM-V’s narrow and specific criteria. This difference in diagnostic criteria has impaired research and therapeutic guideline development, as the former criteria captures 91.4 per cent of the female population and the latter only 3.7 per cent, when applied to a sample of college students. In Australia, the Therapeutic Goods Administration recognises the validity of the diagnosis of PMDD, however, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme does not reimburse the cost of SSRIs used for its treatment.
In order to meet the DSM-V definition of PMDD, a patient must meet the following specific criteria.
For most menstrual cycles during the past year, at least five of the following 11 symptoms (including at least one of the first four) must be present in the final week before the onset of menses, start to improve within a few days after the onset of menses, and become minimal or absent in the week post-menses:
- Marked lability (for example, mood swings)
- Marked irritability or anger
- Markedly depressed mood
- Marked anxiety and tension
- Decreased interest in usual activities
- Difficulty in concentration
- Lethargy and marked lack of energy
- Marked change in appetite (for example, overeating or specific food cravings)
- Hypersomnia or insomnia
- Feeling overwhelmed or out of control
- Physical symptoms (for example, breast tenderness or swelling, joint or muscle pain, a sensation of ‘bloating’ and weight gain).
One (or more) of the following symptoms must be present:
- Marked affective lability (for example, mood swings, feeling suddenly sad or tearful, or increased sensitivity to rejection)
- Marked irritability, anger or increased interpersonal conflicts
- Marked depressed mood, feelings of hopelessness or self-deprecating thoughts
- Marked anxiety, tension and/or feelings of being ‘keyed up’ or on edge.
One (or more) of the following symptoms must be present, additionally, to reach a total of five symptoms when combined with symptoms from Criterion B above:
- Decreased interest in usual activities (for example, work, school, friends, hobbies)
- Subjective difficulty in concentration
- Lethargy, easy fatigability or marked lack of energy
- Marked change in appetite, overeating or specific food cravings
- Hypersomnia or insomnia
- A sense of being overwhelmed or out of control
- Physical symptoms, such as breast tenderness or swelling, joint or muscle pain, a sensation of ‘bloating’ or weight gain.
The aetiology of PMS and PMDD remains an active area of research. While the timing of symptom occurrence and disappearance suggests that sex hormone flux is relevant, there are no demonstrable differences in reproductive hormone levels in women who do or don’t experience symptoms. Thus, hormone levels and flux alone appear to be irrelevant, however, the relevant neurobiological and physiological changes may represent an underlying sensitivity to such changes. There is evidence that oestrogen acts as a neuro-modulator, with diverse effects on the central nervous system through its influence on the serotonergic, dopaminergic and GABA neurotransmitter systems, as well as exerting influence on the expression and responsiveness of androgens, progesterone, prolactin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone, all of which have been shown to have effects on immunomodulation.1 Some women may thus have an abnormal central nervous system response to normal hormone levels and variation. Symptoms are no longer considered to be simply cultural or psychological phenomenon, but biologically based occurrences, with hormonal, neurobiological, genetic and epigenetic aetiological components.
In a recent publication, Jablensky suggests that ‘there is little evidence that the majority of recognised mental disorders are separated by natural boundaries and that diagnostic categories defined by their clinical syndromes should be regarded as ‘valid’ only if they have been shown to be truly discrete entities’. The disorders PMT, PMS and PMDD, to date, have not met such a standard. However, they may possess ‘utility’ by virtue of the information they convey about presenting symptoms, outcome and treatment response. A greater understanding of aetiology is essential before we commit to these diagnostic categories unconditionally. Hopefully, research into genetics, epigenetics, neurobiology and population epidemiology will allow a conceptual reconciliation between the emerging continuum and dimensional view of the variation in symptomatology, and the categorical approach embodied in current classifications such as ICD-10 and DSM-5.
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS, PMT) | Symptoms and Treatment
What are the symptoms of PMS?
Dr Sarah Jarvis MBE
The cause is not known. It is not due to a hormone imbalance, or due to too much or too little of any hormone (as was previously thought). However, the release of an egg from an ovary each month (ovulation) appears to trigger symptoms. It is thought that women with PMS are more sensitive to the normal level of progesterone. This hormone is passed into the bloodstream from the ovaries after you ovulate.
One effect of over-sensitivity to progesterone seems to reduce the level of brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) called serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This may lead to symptoms, and may explain why medicines that increase the level of the brain chemical serotonin work in PMS.
What can I do to help?
Is it possible to prevent PMS?
Dr Sarah Jarvis MBE
The following may help:
- Read about it. It may help you to understand what is happening. This may relieve some of the anxiety about symptoms. It may be useful to keep a chart or diary. Note the days you feel irritable, low, or anxious, or have any other symptom that you feel may be part of PMS. See how long symptoms last before a period. Then it may be worth noting in a diary when your periods are due. As you can predict when your PMS symptoms are likely to occur, you can expect them and be ready for them. For example, it may be possible to avoid doing important things on the days when symptoms are expected.
- Talk about it with your family, friends or partner. It may help them to understand how you are feeling. It may be best to do this after your period when symptoms have eased.
- Exercise. Some women who exercise regularly say they have less of a problem with PMS. Try doing some regular exercise several times a week.
- Food and drink. Some people claim that various diets help to ease PMS. However, there is little evidence from research trials that this is true. Reducing the amount of sugar, sugary drinks and refined carbohydrates you eat before your period may help your symptoms. Carbohydrates with a lower glycaemic index give a slower steadier release of sugar, and may be a better choice for some women with PMS. (eg, granary/wholemeal bread rather than white bread). Smaller more frequent meals may suit better than infrequent large meals.
- Reduce caffeine and alcohol intake. Some women find that alcohol or caffeine (found in tea, coffee, cola, etc) makes their symptoms worse. So, it may be worth a trial of not having alcohol or caffeine prior to periods to see if this helps.
What are the treatment options for premenstrual syndrome?
What can you do to cure PMS?
Dr Sarah Jarvis MBE
Many treatments for PMS have been tried over the years. There are very few that have been proven to work. Treatments for PMS may take a while to work fully. If you start a treatment, try it for several months before deciding if it is helping or not.
It can be difficult to remember how things were several months ago. If you keep a diary of symptoms, it will help you to decide if you are better with treatment than you were before. Treatments may not cure symptoms completely. However, the symptoms often become a lot easier or less frequent with treatment.
Not treating is an option
Understanding the problem, knowing when the symptoms are coming and planning a coping strategy are all that is required for many women. Some women find the self-help measures listed above and such things as avoiding stress or doing relaxation exercises prior to a period can help.
Treatments that you can buy without needing a prescription
Various herbal products, vitamins and minerals are sold for the treatment of PMS. The ones which have been studied most include magnesium, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), calcium, and agnus castus. The evidence is mixed and it is not clear yet if they have any effect. Some studies suggest some of them are helpful, whereas others suggest they are not. There is not enough evidence yet to know if they can be recommended, and if so, in what dose. They are unlikely to do much harm as long as you do not exceed the dose suggested on the label, so you may wish to give one or more of these treatments a try.
Evening primrose oil or simple painkillers such as ibuprofen or paracetamol may help with breast tenderness.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
CBT is a talking treatment (psychological treatment), during which, ways to find more adaptive ways of coping with premenstrual symptoms are explored. This has been shown to be effective for some women. If it is helpful, it avoids the need for taking medicines, which may potentially have side-effects, so it is worth considering as an option.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
An SSRI medicine (for example, fluoxetine or citalopram) may be prescribed to treat more severe PMS. These medicines were developed to treat depression. However, they have also been found to ease the symptoms of PMS, even if you are not depressed. They work by increasing the level of serotonin in the brain (see above in ‘What causes premenstrual syndrome?’). You have a good chance that symptoms of PMS will become much less if you take an SSRI.
Research suggests that taking an SSRI for just half of the cycle (the second half of the monthly cycle) is just as effective as taking an SSRI all of the time. Side-effects occur in some women, although most women have no problems taking an SSRI. There are various types and brands. Although commonly used for PMS, and licensed for it elsewhere, these medicines are not licensed for PMS specifically in the UK.
The combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill
In theory, preventing ovulation should help PMS. This is because ovulation, and the release of progesterone into the bloodstream after ovulation, seems to trigger symptoms of PMS. The COC pill (known as ‘the pill’) works as a contraceptive by preventing ovulation.
However, pills do not always help with PMS, as they contain progestogen hormones (with a similar action to progesterone). One type of COC pill contains a progestogen called drospirenone which may not have the downside of other progestogens. (The first of these was called Yasmin® although there are now other brands with the same hormones.) This may be better than other pills for PMS symptoms, but research is ongoing. If you have PMS and require contraception then the pill may be a possible option to use for both effects. If you take the pill, your doctor may advise you to take it without having a break between packets, as this may have further benefits.
Oestrogen given via a patch or gel has been shown to improve symptoms by suppressing egg production. Oestrogen tablets are not effective though. However, you will also need to take progestogens if you have not had a hysterectomy. These can be taken as tablets or an intrauterine system (IUS) can be inserted. The doses of oestrogen in a patch are much lower than in the COC pill, so the patch is not a method of contraception, but the IUS is.
Other methods of suppressing ovulation include medicines called gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues. These medicines are only used for very severe PMS. They are usually advised by specialists and given by injection and with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to protect your bones and prevent symptoms of menopause.
A medicine called danazol is occasionally used by specialists. It may cause side-effects (such as weight gain, excess hair, acne and a deeper voice) so it is not used very often. It is extremely important to use contraception when taking danazol as it can cross the placenta and damage the baby if a pregnant woman takes it.
Surgery to remove the womb and both ovaries (hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) also prevents ovulation and will cure PMS, although is a drastic option. Because of this, it is only done in the most severe cases where nothing else has helped.
What is the outlook (prognosis)?
How troublesome or otherwise PMS is seems to fluctuate. So there may be times in your life when you are not affected by it, and other times when it is very severe. It may get worse at certain times – for example, in times of stress. In one study, about a third of women diagnosed with PMS did not have it a year later.
|PMS||Pantone Matching System (color matching for publishing)|
|PMS||Property Management System|
|PMS||Probability and Mathematical Statistics (various organizations)|
|PMS||Property Management Services (various locations)|
|PMS||Pain Management Service (Australia)|
|PMS||Practice Management System|
|PMS||Performance Management System|
|PMS||Pavement Management System|
|PMS||Project Management System|
|PMS||Private Messaging System (software)|
|PMS||Peninsula Medical School (Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, UK)|
|PMS||Provincial Management Service (Pakistan)|
|PMS||Pre Main Sequence (astronomy)|
|PMS||Professor of Military Science|
|PMS||Personal Medical Services|
|PMS||Pantone Matching System|
|PMS||Privilege Messaging Service|
|PMS||Preferred Message Storage|
|PMS||Polyserve Matrix Server|
|PMS||Programmable Memory Scan|
|PMS||Payment Management System|
|PMS||Piping Material Specification (engineering)|
|PMS||Peacock Mantis Shrimp|
|PMS||Presidential Management Staff (Philippines)|
|PMS||Post-Marketing Surveillance (monitors ongoing safety of marketed drugs)|
|PMS||Production Monitoring System (various businesses)|
|PMS||Paesi Meno Sviluppati (Italian: Least Developed Countries)|
|PMS||Preventive Medicine Service|
|PMS||Philips Medical Systems|
|PMS||Performance Measurement System|
|PMS||Power Management System|
|PMS||Presbyterian Mutual Society (savings plan)|
|PMS||Presbyterian Medical Services (Santa Fe, NM)|
|PMS||Publication Management System (software)|
|PMS||Piedmont Middle School (California)|
|PMS||Premium Motor Spirit (fuel)|
|PMS||Performance Monitoring System|
|PMS||Potential Murder Suspect (law enforcement)|
|PMS||Portfolio Management System|
|PMS||Pass My Shotgun|
|PMS||Program Management Support|
|PMS||Preventive Maintenance System|
|PMS||Poor Me Syndrome|
|PMS||Personnel Management System|
|PMS||Pandora’s Mighty Soldiers|
|PMS||Performance Management Solutions|
|PMS||Package Management System (computer software)|
|PMS||Program Management System|
|PMS||Productive Members of Society (recovery oriented)|
|PMS||Process Management System|
|PMS||Permanent Magnet Synchronous (motor)|
|PMS||Project Management Specialist|
|PMS||Party Management System (web-based application; Assembly Organizing)|
|PMS||Project Management and Scheduling (Workshop)|
|PMS||Preventive Maintenance Service|
|PMS||Pontifical Mission Societies (Catholic association)|
|PMS||Personal Mission Statement|
|PMS||Portable Meteorological Subsystem (US DoD)|
|PMS||Preventative Maintenance System (US DoD)|
|PMS||Please Make It Stop|
|PMS||Post More Soon|
|PMS||Perinatal Mortality Survey (UK)|
|PMS||Poverty Monitoring Survey (various nations)|
|PMS||Pissy Mood Syndrome|
|PMS||Poverty Monitoring System|
|PMS||Pueblo Municipal Shooters, Inc. (Pueblo, CO)|
|PMS||Power Monitoring Software|
|PMS||Pharmacy Management System|
|PMS||Petros and Money Show (radio program)|
|PMS||Platform Management System|
|PMS||People’s Medical Society|
|PMS||Postgraduate Medical School|
|PMS||Periodic Monthly Statement (automated clearinghouse method for duty payment to customs)|
|PMS||Project Manager Ships|
|PMS||Pack My Suitcase|
|PMS||Processor Memory Switch|
|PMS||Parked Motorcycle Syndrome (winter blues)|
|PMS||Powell Middle School (Brooksville, FL)|
|PMS||Pacific Masters Swimming|
|PMS||Plant Monitoring System|
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|PMS||Patient Monitoring System|
|PMS||Participating Member States (European Defence Agency)|
|PMS||Procurement Management System|
|PMS||Precious Metals Sector|
|PMS||Personnel Management Specialist|
|PMS||Pedestal Mounted Stinger|
|PMS||Martinique Socialist Party|
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|PMS||Parallel Math School (Bangladesh)|
|PMS||Project Master Schedule|
|PMS||Palmetto Middle School (Miami, FL)|
|PMS||Percent of Market Share|
|PMS||Password Management System|
|PMS||Plant Management System|
|PMS||Precise Mousing Surface (3M mousepad)|
|PMS||Problem Management System|
|PMS||Public Message System|
|PMS||Program Management Specialist|
|PMS||Pretty Mean Sisters (WWF wrestling)|
|PMS||Power Money Sex|
|PMS||Particle Measurement System|
|PMS||Peyton Marie Sawyer (One Tree Hill character nickname; Peyton Elizabeth Sawyer)|
|PMS||NAVSEA Program Manager|
|PMS||Picturephone Meeting Service (AT&T)|
|PMS||Préparation Militaire Supérieure (France)|
|PMS||Production Management Specialist|
|PMS||Phillips Middle School (Iowa)|
|PMS||Personal Mailing System|
|PMS||Purchase More Shoes|
|PMS||Public Message Service|
|PMS||Plaza Middle School|
|PMS||Physical Media Specific|
|PMS||Pershing Middle School (Missouri)|
|PMS||Periodic Maintenance Schedule|
|PMS||Psychotic Men Slayerz (gaming clan)|
|PMS||Pour More Scotch (alcoholic slang)|
|PMS||Periodic Mesoporous Silica (chemistry)|
|PMS||Pamper Me Softly, Inc.|
|PMS||Patapsco Middle School (Maryland)|
|PMS||Program Master Schedule|
|PMS||Plantation Middle School (Plantation, Florida)|
|PMS||Pittsford Middle School (Pittsford, NY)|
|PMS||Primary Medical Services Contract (National Health Service; UK)|
|PMS||Pure Motor Stroke (medical)|
|PMS||Perpetual Motion Squad (TV show The Big Bang Theory)|
|PMS||Prospect Management System|
|PMS||Pardon My Swag|
|PMS||Palms Middle School|
|PMS||Probability of Mission Success|
|PMS||Pepperoni Mushroom & Sausage|
|PMS||Practically My Sister|
|PMS||Pennichuck Middle School|
|PMS||Propulsion Module Subsystem (US NASA)|
|PMS||Pulse, Motor, Sensation|
|PMS||Pacoima Middle School|
|PMS||Philomath Middle School (Oregon)|
|PMS||Phase Measurement System|
|PMS||Park Maitland School (Maitland, Florida)|
|PMS||Pardon My Stupidity|
|PMS||Paint Mixing System(s)|
|PMS||Pines Middle School (Pembroke Pines, FL)|
|PMS||Permitted Maximum Signal (ITU-T)|
|PMS||Pollicita Middle School (Daly City, CA)|
|PMS||Production and Marketing Systems|
|PMS||Program Manager Surface|
|PMS||Portable Monitoring System|
|PMS||Pollard Middle School (Needham, MA)|
|PMS||Plainfield Middle School|
|PMS||Program Management Squadron|
|PMS||Parkside Middle School (various locations)|
|PMS||Program Manager Sea|
|PMS||Portable Monitoring Set|
|PMS||Phantom Menace Syndrome (Star Wars)|
|PMS||Permanent Measurement System|
|PMS||Primary Message System|
|PMS||Picacho Middle School (Las Cruces, New Mexico)|
|PMS||Pac Man Syndrome (song)|
|PMS||PAC II Project Management System|
|PMS||Poe Middle School|
|PMS||Parras Middle School|
|PMS||Principal Marine Surveyor|
|PMS||Passport Management System|
|PMS||Passe Musikalske Studiner|
|PMS||Portable Memory Stick|
|PMS||Post Meal Sleepies 🙂|
|PMS||Poor Motivational Syndrome (band)|
|PMS||Pennbrook Middle School|
|PMS||Pueblo Middle School|
|PMS||Pharmaceutical Marketing Society (UK)|
|PMS||Pepperell Middle School|
|PMS||Palmer Middle School (Kennesaw, GA)|
|PMS||Power Modulation Symposium|
|PMS||Process Measurement System|
|PMS||Penndale Middle School|
|PMS||Proud Marin Sisters|
|PMS||Payson Middle School|
|PMS||Physical Media Section|
|PMS||Project/Program Manager, Ship (Naval Sea Systems Command)|
|PMS||Pony Motor Starting|
|PMS||Program/Project Manager, Sea (NAVSEA)|
|PMS||Phoenix Missile System|
|PMS||Penn Middle School (Claridge, PA)|
|PMS||Pines Montessori School (Kingwood, TX, USA)|
|PMS||Peru Middle School (Peru, New York)|
|PMS||Professional Military Studies|
|PMS||Propellant Management Subsystem|
|PMS||Provisioning Monitoring System|
|PMS||Pollution Monitoring Satellite|
|PMS||Pike and Musket Society (English civil wars living history group; Australia)|
|PMS||Penfield Middle School|
|PMS||Pressure Modulation System|
|PMS||Planned Maintenance Schedule/Systems|
|PMS||Profiler Meteorological System|
|PMS||Planned Maintenance System/Subsystem|
|PMS||Particle Measure Systems|
|PMS||Punahou Middle School (Hawaii)|
|PMS||Peshawar Medical Services|
|PMS||Penalty Mail System (US Postal Service)|
Youth slang dictionary – pms
Oh, these women !!! We cannot live without them, and it is terribly difficult to be with them. Unfortunately, the reproductive instinct does terrible things to men. Without access to a woman’s pussy, any man loses his will to live, some have thoughts of suicide. As the hero said in one film, “ Women, we cannot live without them, and they cannot write while standing “. Sex hormones have a strong effect on the human psyche, and if for guys this does not pose any particular problems, then under the influence of these substances women can be compared to schizophrenics.You have noticed more than once outbursts of unmotivated aggression, mood swings, tears, laughter, hatred literally from scratch, this is one of the signs of an upset psyche. And when a young lady has PMS, the load on her already small brain increases noticeably, and it begins to malfunction. What does PMS mean? This abbreviation stands for “ premenstrual syndrome “, in fact, this is not a separate disease, but a set of symptoms that appear in pretty girls just before menstruation.As a rule, almost half of all women “get sick” to one degree or another, and it manifests itself three to five to seven days before the onset of menstruation. PMS is a whole complex of negative symptoms and signs that manifests itself in 70 to 80 percent of girls before the onset of menstruation. However, as the female ages, the symptoms of PMS worsen, for example, before the age of 30, every fifth woman experiences PMS syndrome, and after thirty years already in half of all cases 90,010 Many women are very worried about the question, Does PMS in men ? The fact is that some men, for the sake of a joke, sometimes say that “ I have a PMS “, and many young ladies take it for “face value”.Dear ones, they stole, men do not have PMS, because they did not have female sex hormones when they were born, well, almost everyone. Some bearded Eurovision winners seem to have them.
These are strong mood swings, intolerance, aggressiveness, tearfulness, strong resentment. All this you yourself know, if you are, of course, a girl. And if you are an alpha, then such a female state can plunge into a quiet panic. Therefore, there is an opinion that you need to have several women, then today you meet with one maramoyka, tomorrow you choose a feisty chicken, and then you go to your most kawaii cutie. Therefore, I recommend having a calendar and celebrating the days of your lady, and as soon as PMS comes, you urgently need to disappear for a few days, or better for a week, at the same time you will miss your period.
Some life-wise men decipher PMS as “ period of male suffering “. Therefore, in order not to invent such transcripts and to experience all the delights of a mad woman, just disappear from sight. Well, you understand, right, guys? All the best to you, health and patience to survive this nightmare.Do not forget about Fey, they will always come to your aid, though for the cash. 90,015 90,000 PMS – what is it (decoding), symptoms and treatment of the syndrome
Updated July 22, 2021 Views: 67685 Author: Dmitry Petrov
- What is PMS
- Types and stages of PMS
- Syndrome treatment
- How to improve yourself condition with PMS
Hello, dear readers of the blog KtoNaNovenkogo.ru. You can often find among women the excuse for their inappropriate behavior with the words: “What did you want? I have PMS! ”
There are a lot of jokes about this on the Internet and at the speeches of comedians. This medical term has long been common among ordinary people.
But does everyone really know what PMS is in girls? How does it manifest itself in different representatives, what is the reason for this? And the most important question that torments many: is it necessary to endure, or can it be avoided?
What is PMS
According to statistics, only 10% of women have never experienced PMS symptoms. Everyone else has suffered from this at least once, or they do it all the time. Typically occurs between the ages of 20 and 40.
Premenstrual Syndrome is what PMS stands for. “Pre”, in turn, denotes the period before menstruation, which lasts from 2 to 10 days. Also, this condition may be after. Then the PMS transcript will be like “postmenstrual syndrome.”
Manifestations of PMS in women and girls can be associated with the emotional sphere:
- internal tension;
- depressed mood (what is it?);
- aggressiveness; 90 026 90 025 anxiety;
- deterioration in concentration;
- tears flow for no apparent reason;
- feelings of loneliness and uselessness;
- decreased libido (what is it?).
PMS is also physical symptoms :
- constant feeling of hunger and thirst;
- weight gain due to puffiness;
- body aches: muscles and joints hurt;
- skin rash (mostly on the face);
- enlargement of the mammary glands or separately the nipples; 90 026 90 025 diarrhea (what’s this?).
Types and stages of PMS
You can describe the syndrome based on the classification of this condition:
- Edematous form – occurs due to fluid retention in tissues, in the chest, in particular, since the functioning changes slightly for a couple of days kidneys.Edema is noticeable on the arms and legs, face, abdomen.
- Cephalic form – disorders associated with the nervous and vascular systems. Symptoms such as headache, migraine (what is it?), Dizziness with possible nausea and vomiting are characteristic.
- Neuropsychic form – formed against the background of a failure of the emotional and nervous systems. Such girls quickly get tired, may suffer from insomnia, cry for no reason, get irritated and nervous for any reason, and demonstrate increased sensitivity.
Aggressive form prevails in adolescents, depressive in older women. Hearing and sense of smell can also be exacerbated. In addition, bloating and constipation.
- Crisis form – characterized by dysfunction of the kidneys, digestive and cardiovascular systems. Pressure rises, tachycardia appears, chest pain. There may be unreasonable panic attacks. It often happens in the period before menopause.
- Mixed form – a complex of several types.As a rule, this is an edematous form with an emotional one.
- Atypical form – the appearance of signs that are rare. For example, fever and a feeling of suffocation.
Also, there are stages of PMS , depending on when it fades:
- Compensatory – all symptoms disappear when menstruation begins. Over the years, the syndrome does not progress, all the same minor signs remain.
- Subcompensated – a pronounced syndrome that does not allow a woman to perform normal daily activities and tasks.
- Decompensated – the extreme level of PMS severity, the girl feels severe discomfort. At this stage, the syndrome can be during menstruation, and a couple of days after.
Causes of PMS
The medical profession knows what PMS is (symptoms), but the factors that cause it are still little known.
After many studies, scientists have formed several theories of its origin. Hormonal has proven to be the most recognized due to its extensive description and evidence base.
For the normal functioning of the girl’s body, the balance of sex hormones is needed :
- estrogens – female hormones – for the body to function according to the female type;
- androgens – male hormones – for the normal functioning of the reproductive system, libido;
- progesterone – the hormone of pregnancy – helps to carry the fetus.
In the second phase – before menstruation – this hormonal balance changes. That is, a failure occurs, in contrast to their normalized work.
The brain reacts inadequately to such a disorder. Therefore, different symptoms appear. It is worth noting that how much the period before menstruation will manifest itself, is genetically transmitted .
Also, there are factors that additionally affect on the nature of the symptoms of PMS:
- lack of vitamin B6 – can cause swelling, increased breast sensitivity, fatigue, disturbance of the emotional background;
- magnesium deficiency – leads to dizziness, headache, tachycardia;
- overweight – especially if the body mass index is more than 30;
- if earlier there were complications during childbirth, abortion, diseases of the reproductive system;
- smoking – 2 times more likely that the syndrome will occur;
Separately, it is worth noting a decrease in serotonin levels and such a mental disorder as depression.
It has been noticed that in such a state during PMS mood will deteriorate significantly. Up to apathy (what is it?) And strong melancholy.
Treatment of the syndrome
It is necessary to consult a doctor about PMS if it is severe; there are several signs that significantly reduce performance.
Since such symptoms are characteristic of many diseases of the hormonal, nervous, reproductive systems, the diagnosis can be made on the basis of recurrence before menstruation.Also, the specialist needs to take into account the psychological state of the girl throughout the entire time in order to exclude pathology in this area.
Since there is an opinion in medicine that PMS is a hormonal imbalance, hormone-containing drugs are prescribed for treatment.
They often have side effects , therefore, attributing to yourself without consulting a specialist is strictly prohibited.
If the premenstrual syndrome is aggravated by a lack of some vitamins , then the doctor ascribes them separately or in combination.The selection of vitamin and mineral preparations can significantly improve a woman’s condition.
Herbal preparations, herbal tablets or drops will help with a mild form of PMS. They have diuretic properties, so they are able to relieve swelling.
And also have a sedative effect, which normalizes the emotional state and sleep of a woman. Sedative medications can also have this effect.
Diuretics help against edema . If cramps, headaches, discomfort in the chest and pelvis are concerned, the doctor may prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
How to independently improve the condition with PMS
If the symptoms of PMS are not very pronounced, then you can independently work on your condition without using medication.
For example, limit your intake of chocolate and coffee as they increase mood swings and anxiety. It is also best to avoid a lot of red meat and fat-rich foods. But increase your intake of fruits and vegetables, as they contain a lot of healthy fiber.
It also makes sense to control water intake so that swelling does not occur. And regular physical activity increases the level of endorphins (how about?), And therefore reduces the anxiety and depression before menstruation.
Yoga, swimming pool, Pilates (what is it?), Dancing also improve blood circulation in the pelvis and chest, as well as get rid of negative thoughts.
We must not forget about the benefits of regular sex, which boosts immunity, reduces stress, normalizes the emotional background and sleep.
During PMS, libido often rises as a clue from the body that intercourse can help normalize the condition.
Article author: Marina Domasenko
Good luck! See you soon on the pages of the blog KtoNaNovenkogo.ru
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You can be infinitely right, but what does it matter if your woman has PMS 😁😉
PMS is when everything at once:
- zhor (+ pangs of conscience for him)
- loss of strength, apathy, do not want / cannot train
- nervousness, psychos, desire to blow up this world
- sensitivity, vulnerability, “sorry for the bird” 😩
And much more.To infinity.
There are many reasons.
From internal (genetic, physiological, biochemical) to external (stress, gynecological operations, physical inactivity, nutritional imbalance).
In fact, premenstrual syndrome (“premenstrual tension”) is a psychoemotional vegetative-vascular disorder that negatively affects a woman’s usual lifestyle. Classified by WHO as a disease of the 10th revision. And this means, girls, that we have an official mitigating circumstance 😂
What to do in this state?
- Get enough sleep (!) To help the surging hormones.Hang up until 23:00.
- Plan your diet more carefully than ever. Better ahead to avoid a requiem for kilos of chocolate / rolls / ice cream / cappuccino / burgers.
- Drink herbal teas. Preferably with mint as part of 😉
- Exercise in moderation. This means – without high intensity, heavy weights and heavy loads on the abdominal area.
- Meditate. In the morning, a few minutes alone with myself, alone and with my eyes closed. This will set the mood and state of the day.
- Self-massage. Earlobes, temples. You can put half a drop of orange oil on your fingers beforehand. (Checked – it helps.)
- More fresh air. Ventilate, walk, walk.
- Breathe. People who master the techniques of breathing practices can more easily control their mood and mental state, relax the nervous system. Variants:
Standing or sitting. On a deep breath, the stomach puffs out.When exhaling slowly, it falls off. Inhalation duration is 3-4 seconds, hold your breath for a couple of seconds, then exhale for 4-5 seconds. The interval between breathing cycles is 2-3 seconds.
Stress Relief Breath
In any comfortable position. Take a deep breath. Hold the breath. Imagine a circle and exhale slowly. Exhale in this way for three more circles. Then imagine a square and also mentally exhale it a couple of times.
Sitting.Close your eyes, open your mouth wide, tighten the muscles of the lower jaw and take a deep breath. At the same time, do stretching with your hands, arching your back. This will stimulate blood flow to the muscles of the face and neck, increase blood flow to the brain, saturate it with oxygen, and remove carbon dioxide.
If your symptoms during PMS are pronounced and are not relieved by anything – get tested for vitamins, minerals, trace elements. Perhaps the body is experiencing an acute lack of calcium, magnesium, vitamins B 6 , D, etc.
Back to articles
What is PMS and how to deal with it
What is PMS and how to deal with it
What is PMS and how to deal with it – RIA Novosti, 29.02. 2020
What is PMS and how to deal with it
Tearfulness, irritability, swelling, headaches and pain in the lower abdomen. These are all signs of premenstrual syndrome – PMS – which is a disease, not a temporary discomfort, as is commonly believed.
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How to deal with PMS and win
How to deal with PMS and win
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broadcast, video, female biological cycle: time to lose weight and time to relax, Moscow, health, russia
15:30 09/06/2011 (updated: 14:38 02/29/2020)
Tearfulness, increased irritability , swelling, headaches and pain in the lower abdomen. These are all signs of premenstrual syndrome – PMS – which is a disease, not a temporary discomfort, as is commonly believed.
I generally think that women are absolutely honest with their surroundings only a few days a month, in PMS.
This is such, well, a clairvoyant state, close to psychic ecstasy. That is, in broad daylight, without any cheap spiritualism, without a single signal from Mars, suddenly and abruptly, like a cover falls from a newly erected monument, it becomes clear to you: you were lied to. All this time. You are being used dirty and vile. Everything. Nothing more senseless, dumb and talentless than your life is impossible to imagine. You are scary. Thick. Infantile. Nobody loves you, and well done. And rightly so.And there is no money, and this, too, baby, is karma. Everything is bad. Everything is delightful, shameless, heartbreakingly bad.
And this, of course, cannot be a simple coincidence. It’s rigged. Coolly and carefully, by all those who seemed close to you. That is, everyone, of course, tried to poison your existence, and this is an emotionless stupid beam that you took for so long for a boyfriend, and your friend, and your teachers – but mom, of course, she surpassed everyone. Of course, only she could do such a subtly thought-out, sophisticated, wild meanness.Give birth to you! Exactly like this! It is in this fucking backyard of the Galaxy!
And you believe everyone. A tiny, unforgivable blindness! And they all giggle disgustingly into a fist behind your back. But now you know everything. You will take revenge.
I believe, by the way, that Nikita, Trinity, Lara Croft, Eon Flux and all other armor-piercing aunts somehow constantly maintain the state of PMS in the body so that this tragic insight does not pass, so that “traitors!” , and hands with whitened knuckles squeezed blasters and slingshots, and in his temple something pulsed in the manner of die-all-living.
This is a very inspirational and destructive state. You see. You are filled with strength and a thirst for retribution. You become a bare wire, a stripped pin, a straight razor. You grow right into a Slaying Angel.
Your power may be forty kilograms in TNT equivalent, and within the framework of an apartment it is, of course, little Hiroshima; to a couple more people you will tell everything – everything! finally! say! directly! in the face! – but, as a rule, it will not go beyond that. You won’t be recruited into Charlie’s Angels, Oriana Fallachi and Jane’s soldiers, and after a couple of days it will become clear that this is for the best.
You might think: well, yes, everything is rather unpleasant, but you did live somehow; I’ll call Chukovskaya, I’ll ask if everything is really that terrible; but, by the way, they invited, how nice, pancakes, wine; the tail, or something, to hand over, for a long time we did not take checkers in our hands; and so quietly, hastily, in a girlish way, you conceive to seize, appease, smooth out all these black holes in your head, slip some handouts and sweets, cheap, frightened, to the inner fire-breathing dragon; and everything calms down, and it becomes not even that good – passable .
The funny thing is that, no matter how merciless such insights are, they sometimes turn out to be the only truth; it’s as if you tore open the heavy curtains in the morning, and the sharp Gestapo light shrieks under your eyelids – cruel, but in a different way you’ll wake up. Dragons don’t go anywhere from you, they just feed themselves to capacity with sedatives and mow; when everything is fine, when everything is as it should be – it is just tired or sad, but you don’t want to kill anyone; it means that somewhere it is really broken, does not heal.
Today in the magazine “Big City” I saw a mitten for lovers, with two holes instead of one, tied so that inside it was convenient to hold hands.
There was a feeling that this mitten was driven into my head with a blade sword: tears flowed by themselves.
This is, apart from detailed psychoanalytic dreams, from night to night, where I painfully try to find out what I did wrong, that they did not love me, they did not hear me; this is not counting the fact that all asexual conversations boiled down to medical abortions and lack of money, lack of money, lack of money; This is if you do not take into account the fact that I have a longed-for vacation, and I sit for sixteen hours in front of the monitor, updating my mail every couple of minutes, because this is, in fact, all the communication that I can only do.
The world doesn’t owe me a damn thing, of course – but sediment, sediment remains.
And it is clear that it will be forgotten, blotted out, calm down. Such a time, baby, such a dastardly hormonal device.
Only this has been so for a long time, and you, every time, like a mail window, try to update the surrounding reality, but with disarming regularity it leaves the same broken trough at your feet.
So, it’s not a damn thing about the PMS; although, of course, it is better not to think about it.
Hormones during the menstrual cycle and PMS
In order to understand what PMS is, you must first understand what female hormones are and how they affect the reproductive system of women, because they control all the processes associated with the menstrual cycle – from the first menstrual period to the very last, every cycle without the exceptions depend on hormones.
Hormones affect not only menstruation, but also mood, ability to perform physical work, and even eating habits. Despite the fact that the menstrual cycle in all women depends on the same hormones, someone tolerates such changes easily and imperceptibly for themselves, and for some it becomes a monthly test.
What is PMS?
PMS is a condition that affects mood, fitness and behavior on certain days of the menstrual cycle, usually a few days before the onset of your period.
PMS, like many other aspects of women’s health that are not directly related to childbirth, is still little studied, and clear criteria for assessing PMS still do not exist.
Research shows that 5 to 97 percent of women suffer from PMS to varying degrees.
In fact, it is worth distinguishing premenstrual dysphoric syndrome (PDS), which is observed in about 3-8% of women, from the myth of PMS.
PMS is a monthly recurring condition before menstruation, in which there are at least 5 PMS symptoms so severe that they interfere with a woman’s daily life.
One way or another, many women experience symptoms every month that are related to PMS, and they are very real.
What are the symptoms of PMS?
PMS symptoms are usually mild to moderate.
About 80% of women experience at least one of the PMS symptoms to a degree that does not interfere with their daily lives. About 20-30% of women experience palpable symptoms that can affect certain aspects of daily life. 3-8% have PDS.
The severity of symptoms can vary from cycle to cycle and also depends on the individual assessment of each woman.
- Increased breast tenderness
- Acne and skin rashes
- Bloated belly
- Increased appetite
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Abdominal pain
- Sensitivity to light and sound
Why do PMS symptoms occur?
The causes of PMS are still not clear, but many researchers associate it with changes in the volume of hormones and serotonin levels in the period 5-10 days before the onset of menstruation.
Levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone first rise and fall sharply just before menstruation, and this is likely to cause anxiety, irritability, and mood swings as they modulate activity in areas of the brain associated with PMS symptoms. Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters that strongly affects mood and emotions, it is also called the “hormone of happiness.”
How do female hormones work?
The hormone estrogen and progesterone play a huge role in the human body and are part of its endocrine system, which controls almost all functions of our body.
Moreover, these hormones are also produced by the male body, only in smaller quantities, therefore they are usually called female hormones. In the female body, they control the reproductive system and sexual health, including libido. It is because they play such an important role that it is important to understand how they work.
Estrogen is a female hormone secreted by the ovaries, the level of which rises in the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle, causing the growth of endometrial tissue in the uterus.This phase of the cycle is called follicular. A sharp drop in estrogen (and progesterone) levels causes menstrual bleeding. It also affects heart and bone health. Active production of estrogen begins in adolescence and decreases with age until it reaches menopause, when menstruation stops.
Progesterone levels rise after ovulation, during the second half of the menstrual cycle. If conception occurs, then the level of progesterone continues to rise, maintaining the thickness of the uterine endometrium for the further development of pregnancy.If there was no conception, then the level of progesterone falls, giving a signal to the body to begin rejection of the thickened endometrium. Some of the unpleasant symptoms of PMS, such as breast tenderness, acne, and swelling, have been linked to this hormone.
When does PMS usually start?
PMS symptoms in women occur in the second half of the cycle, after ovulation. Most often, the most severe psychological and physical symptoms of PMS are observed 3-4 days before menstruation, and then disappear with the onset of bleeding.PMS symptoms can start and end at other times: for example, some women begin to experience symptoms immediately after ovulation, and for some they may disappear after the end of their period, rather than when it starts.
How do I know if I have a PMS?
To understand if you have PMS, it is most convenient to use a diary of symptoms that you need to mark in the same calendar in which you mark your cycle. If you have a smartphone, now there are many applications in which it is convenient to do this and which can even prompt your statistics on their own.If symptoms appear at about the same time every cycle, then the most likely cause is PMS.
When should I see a doctor?
If physical pain or other symptoms persist or seriously affect your daily life, see a doctor.
PDS is diagnosed if you have one of the symptoms on a regular basis and then disappear on other days. However, these symptoms can be associated with many other conditions, such as endometriosis, thyroid disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, anemia, connective tissue disease and rheumatism, and the doctor will need to rule them out.