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Water and Healthier Drinks | Healthy Weight, Nutrition, and Physical Activity

Water and Nutrition

Getting enough water every day is important for your health. Drinking water can prevent dehydration, a condition that can cause unclear thinking, result in mood change, cause your body to overheat, and lead to constipation and kidney stones.

Water helps your body:

  • Keep a normal temperature
  • Lubricate and cushion joints
  • Protect your spinal cord and other sensitive tissues
  • Get rid of wastes through urination, perspiration, and bowel movements

Your body needs more water when you are:

  • In hot climates
  • More physically active
  • Running a fever
  • Having diarrhea or vomiting

Most of your fluid needs are met through the water and beverages you drink. You can get some fluids through the foods that you eat – especially foods with high water content, such as many fruits and vegetables.

Tips to Drink More Water

  • Carry a water bottle with you and refill it throughout the day.
  • Freeze some freezer safe water bottles. Take one with you for ice-cold water all day long.
  • Choose water over sugary drinks.
  • Opt for water when eating out. You’ll save money and reduce calories.
  • Serve water during meals.
  • Add a wedge of lime or lemon to your water. This can help improve the taste and help you drink more water than you usually do.
  • Make sure your kids are getting enough water too. Learn more about drinking water in schools and early care and education settings pdf icon[PDF-3.68MB].

Healthier Drink Options

Of course there are many other beverage options besides water, and many of these can be part of a healthy diet.  Beverages vary in their nutrient and calorie content.

Low or no calorie beverages
Plain coffee or teas, sparkling water, seltzers, and flavored waters, are low calorie choices that can be  part of a healthy diet.

Drinks with calories and important nutrients
Low fat or fat-free milk, fortified milk alternatives such as unflavored soy or almond milks, or 100% fruit or vegetable juice contain important nutrients such as calcium, potassium, or vitamin D. These drinks should be enjoyed within recommended calorie limits.

Other Beverages

Sugary drinks: Regular sodas, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, sweetened waters, and sweetened coffee and tea beverages, contain calories but little nutritional valuepdf iconexternal icon. Learn how to rethink your drink.

Alcoholic drinks: If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation.

Caffeinated drinks: moderate caffeine consumption (up to 400mg per day) can be a part of a healthy dietpdf iconexternal icon. That’s up to about 3-5 cups of plain coffee.

Drinks with sugar alternatives: Drinks that are labeled “sugar-free” or “diet” likely contain high-intensity sweeteners, such as sucralose, aspartame, or saccharine. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, “replacing added sugars with high-intensity sweeteners may reduce calorie intake in the short-term…yet questions remain about their effectiveness as a long-term weight management strategypdf iconexternal icon.” Learn more about high-intensity sweetenersexternal icon.

Sports drinks: these are flavored beverages that often contain carbohydrates, minerals, electrolytes, and sometimes vitaminsexternal icon. The average person should drink water, not sports drinks, to rehydrate.

The Role of Water in Human Biology – Video & Lesson Transcript

Water in Human Biology

Water is vital to human biology, and indeed, all biology on Earth. We currently believe that the presence of liquid water is an important requirement for the development of life, to the point that it’s the main thing we’re searching for in our attempts to find life elsewhere in the solar system.

But why exactly is water important to human biology? There are five main functions of water in the human body:

  • Cell life
  • Transport
  • Chemical reactions
  • Temperature regulation
  • Waste excretion

Cell life is based on the fact that cells have water inside them. Water is used to transport nutrients to cells and within cells (intracellular). If cells don’t get nutrients including vitamins, minerals, and sugars, they die.

As mentioned, water is needed for transport. It’s how oxygen and food make it through our bodies, and how blood flows through the veins and arteries to take those nutrients to where they’re needed. Blood is, after all, 92% water. In fact, 60% of your entire body is water!

Chemical reactions also require water. Chemically, water is an important solvent and a major part of a lot of chemical reactions that happen inside the cells of our bodies. You can think of the human body as a gigantic chemistry lab: chemical reactions are how our food is turned into energy, how our waste is handled, how blood is oxygenated, and thousands of other processes.

Water is also useful to control your body temperature. That’s because water has a high heat capacity, meaning it takes a lot of energy to change its temperature. This makes releasing warm water the perfect way to cool off – that’s why you sweat. When the water evaporates, it takes its stored heat with it. It also makes it harder for the environment to cause your core body temperature to change.

Last of all, water is important for the excretion of waste. Those chemical reactions that happen in the body often produce waste products and toxins that need to be removed. We remove them through urine, which is mostly water. If your urine had the consistency of honey, It’s fair to say you’d spend a lot more time in the bathroom!

Lesson Summary

Water is a compound made of molecules containing two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. That might not sound very impressive, but water is necessary for life on Earth. Without water, we wouldn’t have evolved. In fact, humans cannot go more than a few days without it.

Water is vital for human biology because it fulfills five vital functions:

  1. Cell life: water carries nutrients to, from, and within cells
  2. Transport: the blood is mostly water, around 92%
  3. Chemical reactions: water is a solvent and needed for the body to operate
  4. Temperature regulation: sweat is mostly water because it has a high heat capacity
  5. Waste excretion: urine is also mostly water

Because of this, water is the most important natural resource in the world.

Dehydration | physiology | Britannica

Symptoms and progression

The symptoms of dehydration depend in part on the cause and in part on whether there is associated salt deprivation as well. When loss of water is disproportionately greater than loss of electrolytes (salt), the osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluids becomes higher than in the cells. Since water passes from a region of lower to a region of higher osmotic pressure, water flows out of the cells into the extracellular fluid, tending to lower its osmotic pressure and increase its volume toward normal. As a result of the flow of water out of the cells, they become dehydrated. This results in the thirst that always accompanies “pure” water depletion.

In those diseases in which there is loss of salt in excess of water loss, the decreased concentration of sodium in the extracellular fluid and in the blood serum results in decreased osmotic pressure, and water therefore enters the cells to equalize the osmotic pressure. Thus there is extracellular dehydration and intercellular hydration—and no thirst.

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Water deprivation produces distinctive symptoms in humans. Weight loss, amounting to two to three pounds per day, occurs. Thirst is the most prominent symptom, with the dryness of mouth, decreased production of saliva, and impaired swallowing that accompany it. It is probable that thirst is the result of this subsequent intracellular dehydration and increased intracellular osmotic pressure. Experimentally, thirst can be produced when the cells have lost about 1 percent of their intracellular water.

As dehydration progresses, the tissues tend to shrink, the skin becomes dry and wrinkled, and the eyes become sunken and the eyeballs soft. Fever develops, possibly from mild to marked, as dehydration progresses. Dehydration itself probably affects the temperature regulatory centres in the brain. As dehydration and salt loss progress, however, the plasma volume and heart output decrease, with a consequent decrease in blood supply to the skin. Sweating decreases and may stop completely, and the main avenue for heat loss is closed. The body temperature may then rise precipitously.

There are marked changes in the volume of the extracellular and intracellular fluids, but the blood plasma volume changes the last and the least. The plasma volume is maintained more or less constant at the expense of the tissue fluids. If, however, the plasma volume does fall, the output of the heart also falls, and the pulse rate climbs, all of which indicates a dangerous physical state.

The renal (kidney) changes that occur in humans during prolonged water depletion similarly tend to maintain a normal balance. If water deprivation continues and the plasma volume falls, however, the output of urine will be drastically reduced. As long as urine output of more than 30 millilitres (1 ounce) per hour is maintained, the kidney can excrete nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous solids with maximum efficiency. Once the urine flow is decreased below this level, the kidney is unable to function efficiently, the substances are retained in the body, and their concentration in the blood rises.

The final result of prolonged dehydration is now apparent. The normal distribution of salt and water in the body is destroyed, the plasma volume decreases, and the blood viscosity increases. As a result of these changes renal function is impaired, the urinary output falls, and waste products accumulate. Far more life-threatening, however, is decreased loss of moisture from the skin, with the subsequent rise in temperature, and the fall in cardiac output with the attendant irreversible shock.

Once renal failure occurs, about 8 percent of the total body water has been lost (4 litres [about 4.25 quarts]). When 5 to 10 litres (about 5.25 to 10.5 quarts) of body water have been lost, a person is acutely and severely ill, with contracted plasma volume, increased concentration and viscosity of the blood, renal failure and excessive urea in the blood, and falling blood pressure. In a previously healthy adult, death follows the loss of 12 to 15 litres (about 12.5 to 15.8 quarts) of body water. In the very young, the very old, or the debilitated, death occurs at a lower level of dehydration.

Protein’s Functions in the Body – Human Nutrition [DEPRECATED]

Proteins are the “workhorses” of the body and participate in many bodily functions. Proteins come in all sizes and shapes and each is specifically structured for its particular function.

Structure and Motion

Figure 6.9 Collagen Structure

Collagen Triple Helix by Nevit Dilmen / CC BY-SA 3.0

More than one hundred different structural proteins have been discovered in the human body, but the most abundant by far is collagen, which makes up about 6 percent of total body weight. Collagen makes up 30 percent of bone tissue and comprises large amounts of tendons, ligaments, cartilage, skin, and muscle. Collagen is a strong, fibrous protein made up of mostly glycine and proline. Within its quaternary structure three peptide strands twist around each other like a rope and then these collagen ropes overlap with others. This highly ordered structure is even stronger than steel fibers of the same size. Collagen makes bones strong, but flexible. Collagen fibers in the skin’s dermis provide it with structure, and the accompanying elastin protein fibrils make it flexible. Pinch the skin on your hand and then let go; the collagen and elastin proteins in skin allow it to go back to its original shape. Smooth-muscle cells that secrete collagen and elastin proteins surround blood vessels, providing the vessels with structure and the ability to stretch back after blood is pumped through them. Another strong, fibrous protein is keratin, which is what skin, hair, and nails are made of. The closely packed collagen fibrils in tendons and ligaments allow for synchronous mechanical movements of bones and muscle and the ability of these tissues to spring back after a movement is complete.


Although proteins are found in the greatest amounts in connective tissues such as bone, their most extraordinary function is as enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that conduct specific chemical reactions. An enzyme’s job is to provide a site for a chemical reaction and to lower the amount of energy and time it takes for that chemical reaction to happen (this is known as “catalysis”). On average, more than one hundred chemical reactions occur in cells every single second and most of them require enzymes. The liver alone contains over one thousand enzyme systems. Enzymes are specific and will use only particular substrates that fit into their active site, similar to the way a lock can be opened only with a specific key. Nearly every chemical reaction requires a specific enzyme. Fortunately, an enzyme can fulfill its role as a catalyst over and over again, although eventually it is destroyed and rebuilt. All bodily functions, including the breakdown of nutrients in the stomach and small intestine, the transformation of nutrients into molecules a cell can use, and building all macromolecules, including protein itself, involve enzymes (see Figure 6. 10 “Enzymes Role in Carbohydrate Digestion”).


Figure 6.10 Enzymes Role in Carbohydrate Digestion


Proteins are responsible for hormone synthesis. Hormones are the chemical messages produced by the endocrine glands. When an endocrine gland is stimulated, it releases a hormone. The hormone is then transported in the blood to its target cell, where it communicates a message to initiate a specific reaction or cellular process. For instance, after you eat a meal, your blood glucose levels rise. In response to the increased blood glucose, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin. Insulin tells the cells of the body that glucose is available and to take it up from the blood and store it or use it for making energy or building macromolecules. A major function of hormones is to turn enzymes on and off, so some proteins can even regulate the actions of other proteins. While not all hormones are made from proteins, many of them are.

Fluid and Acid-Base Balance

Proper protein intake enables the basic biological processes of the body to maintain the status quo in a changing environment. Fluid balance refers to maintaining the distribution of water in the body. If too much water in the blood suddenly moves into a tissue, the results are swelling and, potentially, cell death. Water always flows from an area of high concentration to one of a low concentration. As a result, water moves toward areas that have higher concentrations of other solutes, such as proteins and glucose. To keep the water evenly distributed between blood and cells, proteins continuously circulate at high concentrations in the blood. The most abundant protein in blood is the butterfly-shaped protein known as albumin. Albumin’s presence in the blood makes the protein concentration in the blood similar to that in cells. Therefore, fluid exchange between the blood and cells is not in the extreme, but rather is minimized to preserve the status quo.

Figure 6.11 The Protein Albumin

PDB 1o9x EBI by Jawahar Swaminathan and MSD staff at the European Bioinformatics Institute / Public Domain The butterfly-shaped protein, albumin, has many functions in the body including maintaining fluid and acid-base balance and transporting molecules.

Protein is also essential in maintaining proper pH balance (the measure of how acidic or basic a substance is) in the blood. Blood pH is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45, which is slightly basic. Even a slight change in blood pH can affect body functions. Recall that acidic conditions can cause protein denaturation, which stops proteins from functioning. The body has several systems that hold the blood pH within the normal range to prevent this from happening. One of these is the circulating albumin. Albumin is slightly acidic, and because it is negatively charged it balances the many positively charged molecules, such as protons (H+), calcium, potassium, and magnesium which are also circulating in the blood. Albumin acts as a buffer against abrupt changes in the concentrations of these molecules, thereby balancing blood pH and maintaining the status quo. The protein hemoglobin also participates in acid-base balance by binding and releasing protons.


Albumin and hemoglobin also play a role in molecular transport. Albumin chemically binds to hormones, fatty acids, some vitamins, essential minerals, and drugs, and transports them throughout the circulatory system. Each red blood cell contains millions of hemoglobin molecules that bind oxygen in the lungs and transport it to all the tissues in the body. A cell’s plasma membrane is usually not permeable to large polar molecules, so to get the required nutrients and molecules into the cell many transport proteins exist in the cell membrane. Some of these proteins are channels that allow particular molecules to move in and out of cells. Others act as one-way taxis and require energy to function.


Figure 6.12 Antibody Proteins

Abagovomab (monoclonal antibody) by Blake C / CC BY-SA 3.0

Figure 6.13 Antigens

Antibody chains by Fred the Oyster / Public Domain

An antibody protein is made up of two heavy chains and two light chains. The variable region, which differs from one antibody to the next, allows an antibody to recognize its matching antigen.

Earlier we discussed that the strong collagen fibers in skin provide it with structure and support. The skin’s dense network of collagen fibers also serves as a barricade against harmful substances. The immune system’s attack and destroy functions are dependent on enzymes and antibodies, which are also proteins. An enzyme called lysozyme is secreted in the saliva and attacks the walls of bacteria, causing them to rupture. Certain proteins circulating in the blood can be directed to build a molecular knife that stabs the cellular membranes of foreign invaders. The antibodies secreted by the white blood cells survey the entire circulatory system looking for harmful bacteria and viruses to surround and destroy. Antibodies also trigger other factors in the immune system to seek and destroy unwanted intruders.

Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration

Proteins are involved in all aspects of wound healing, a process that takes place in three phases: inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling. For example, if you were sewing and pricked your finger with a needle, your flesh would turn red and become inflamed. Within a few seconds bleeding would stop. The healing process begins with proteins such as bradykinin, which dilate blood vessels at the site of injury. An additional protein called fibrin helps to secure platelets that form a clot to stop the bleeding. Next, in the proliferative phase, cells move in and mend the injured tissue by installing newly made collagen fibers. The collagen fibers help pull the wound edges together. In the remodeling phase, more collagen is deposited, forming a scar. Scar tissue is only about 80 percent as functional as normal uninjured tissue. If a diet is insufficient in protein, the process of wound healing is markedly slowed.

While wound healing takes place only after an injury is sustained, a different process called tissue regeneration is ongoing in the body. The main difference between wound healing and tissue regeneration is in the process of regenerating an exact structural and functional copy of the lost tissue. Thus, old, dying tissue is not replaced with scar tissue but with brand new, fully functional tissue. Some cells (such as skin, hair, nails, and intestinal cells) have a very high rate of regeneration, while others, (such as heart-muscle cells and nerve cells) do not regenerate at any appreciable levels. Tissue regeneration is the creation of new cells (cell division), which requires many different proteins including enzymes that synthesize RNA and proteins, transport proteins, hormones, and collagen. In a hair follicle, cells divide and a hair grows in length. Hair growth averages 1 centimeter per month and fingernails about 1 centimeter every one hundred days. The cells lining the intestine regenerate every three to five days. Protein-inadequate diets impair tissue regeneration, causing many health problems including impairment of nutrient digestion and absorption and, most visibly, hair and nail growth.

Energy Production

Some of the amino acids in proteins can be disassembled and used to make energy (Figure 6. 14 “Amino Acids Used for Energy”). Only about 10 percent of dietary proteins are catabolized each day to make cellular energy. The liver is able to break down amino acids to the carbon skeleton, which can then be fed into the citric acid cycle. This is similar to the way that glucose is used to make ATP. If a person’s diet does not contain enough carbohydrates and fats their body will use more amino acids to make energy, which compromises the synthesis of new proteins and destroys muscle proteins. Alternatively, if a person’s diet contains more protein than the body needs, the extra amino acids will be broken down and transformed into fat.


Figure 6.14 Amino Acids Used for Energy

Image by Allison Calabrese / CC BY 4.0

Common Bodily Fluids – What Makes the List?

Bodily fluids come in all forms and although unpleasant to think about, they are all vital to our health. Bodily fluids are just like the fluids in our cars. Gas, oil, antifreeze and windshield wiper fluid all serve a role in helping our cars function properly.

Below is a list of bodily fluids and the role each one plays in keeping our bodies healthy and running on all cylinders. 

List of Bodily Fluids

Bodily fluids are liquids that come from inside human bodies and help transport nutrients and expel waste from human cells. A short list of bodily fluids includes:

  • Blood. Blood plays a major role in the body’s defense against infection by carrying waste away from our cells and flushing them out of the body in urine, feces, and sweat. Blood also supplies the body with essential substances such as hormones, sugar, and oxygen that the body needs to function and survive.
  • Saliva. Mostly made of water, saliva contains proteins and minerals that prevent gum disease, tooth decay, and helps you chew and swallow comfortably.
  • Semen. In males, semen is released during ejaculation and contains protein, fructose, and catecholamines.
  • Vaginal fluids. Biological fluids that are within or expelled from the vagina and contain carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, and other acids produced by the normal lactobacillus bacteria.
  • Mucus. Mucus contains antibodies, enzymes, and proteins that help fight bacteria and viruses and prevents the mouth, nose, throat, sinuses, and lungs from drying out.
  • Urine. Made of 95% water, urine flushes out chemicals and dead blood cells from the body and is a way for your body to get rid of extra water that it does not need.

A Short List of Diseases That can be Transmitted Through Bodily Fluids

Although bodily fluids work hard to keep us healthy, many are widely recognized as transmitters for human diseases.

Some examples of diseases that can be transmitted through bodily fluids are:

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A virus that attacks the immune system and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected blood, semen, or vaginal fluids.
  2. Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is an infectious liver disease that can be transmitted through direct contact with blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal fluids.
  3. Hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is a virus that infects the liver and can be spread through direct contact with an infected person’s blood.

Cleaning Up Bodily Fluids

Did you know that it is possible for a person to have hepatitis, HIV, or other diseases and not realize it? Therefore, it is important to treat all bodily fluids as if they contain an infectious disease. If you find yourself in a situation that requires blood or bodily fluids cleanup, it may be better to turn to a professional bioremediation company for help.  

Aftermath does more than clean up bodily fluids – we sanitize and fully remediate potential bloodborne pathogens and blood stains from homes and properties. As an industry leader for almost 20 years, we provide business and residential customers with a full range of cleaning assistance and bioremediation for cases involving suicide, homicide, personal and industrial accidents, unattended death, tear gas, and communicable disease outbreaks. Have your questions answered about Aftermath and our services.



Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/i-had-hepatitis-c-and-didnt-know-it-you-may-have-it-too/2014/12/01/46712476-54a5-11e4-809b-8cc0a295c773_story.html

U.S. National Library of Medicine: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/790.html

New Health Guide: http://www.newhealthguide.org/What-Is-In-Semen.html

Cengage: http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/book_content/0495391123_bettelheim/91123_32_Ch42_OnlineChapter.pdf

The Human Body: Anatomy, Facts & Functions

The human body is everything that makes up, well, you. The basic parts of the human body are the head, neck, torso, arms and legs.

[Image Gallery: The BioDigital Human]

Body systems

Our bodies consist of a number of biological systems that carry out specific functions necessary for everyday living.

The job of the circulatory system is to move blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hormones, around the body. It consists of the heart, blood, blood vessels,arteries and veins.

The digestive system consists of a series of connected organs that together, allow the body to break down and absorb food, and remove waste. It includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. The liver and pancreas also play a role in the digestive system because they produce digestive juices.

The endocrine system consists of eight major glands that secrete hormones into the blood. These hormones, in turn, travel to different tissues and regulate various bodily functions, such as metabolism, growth and sexual function.

The immune system is the body’s defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens that may be harmful. It includes lymph nodes, the spleen, bone marrow, lymphocytes (including B-cells and T-cells), the thymus and leukocytes, which are white blood cells.

The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes, lymph ducts and lymph vessels, and also plays a role in the body’s defenses. Its main job is to make is to make and move lymph, a clear fluid that contains white blood cells, which help the body fight infection. The lymphatic system also removes excess lymph fluid from bodily tissues, and returns it to the blood.

The nervous system controls both voluntary action (like conscious movement) and involuntary actions (like breathing), and sends signals to different parts of the body. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that connect every other part of the body to the central nervous system.

The body’s muscular system consists of about 650 muscles that aid in movement, blood flow and other bodily functions. There are three types of muscle: skeletal muscle which is connected to bone and helps with voluntary movement, smooth muscle which is found inside organs and helps to move substances through organs, and cardiac muscle which is found in the heart and helps pump blood.

The reproductive system allows humans to reproduce. The male reproductive system includes the penis and the testes, which produce sperm. The female reproductive system consists of the vagina, the uterus and the ovaries, which produce eggs. During conception, a sperm cell fuses with an egg cell, which creates a fertilized egg that implants and grows in the uterus. [Related: Awkward Anatomy: 10 Odd Facts About the Female Body]

Our bodies are supported by the skeletal system, which consists of 206 bones that are connected by tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The skeleton not only helps us move, but it’s also involved in the production of blood cells and the storage of calcium. The teeth are also part of the skeletal system, but they aren’t considered bones.

The respiratory system allows us to take in vital oxygen and expel carbon dioxide in a process we call breathing. It consists mainly of the trachea, the diaphragm and the lungs.

The urinary system helps eliminate a waste product called urea from the body, which is produced when certain foods are broken down. The whole system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles and the urethra. Urine produced by the kidneys travels down the ureters to the bladder, and exits the body through the urethra.

The skin, or integumentary system, is the body’s largest organ. It protects us from the outside world, and is our first defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. Our skin also helps regulate body temperature and eliminate waste through perspiration. In addition to skin, the integumentary system includes hair and nails.

Vital organs

Humans have five vital organs that are essential for survival. These are the brain, heart, kidneys, liver and lungs.

The human brain is the body’s control center, receiving and sending signals to other organs through the nervous system and through secreted hormones. It is responsible for our thoughts, feelings, memory storage and general perception of the world.

The human heart is a responsible for pumping blood throughout our body.

The job of the kidneys is to remove waste and extra fluid from the blood. The kidneys take urea out of the blood and combine it with water and other substances to make urine.

The liver has many functions, including detoxifying of harmful chemicals, breakdown of drugs, filtering of blood, secretion of bile and production of blood-clotting proteins.

The lungs are responsible for removing oxygen from the air we breathe and transferring it to our blood where it can be sent to our cells. The lungs also remove carbon dioxide, which we exhale.

Fun facts

  • The human body contains nearly 100 trillion cells.
  • There are at least 10 times as many bacteria in the human body as cells.
  • The average adult takes over 20,000 breaths a day.
  • Each day, the kidneys process about 200 quarts (50 gallons) of blood to filter out about 2 quarts of waste and water
  • Adults excrete about a quarter and a half (1.42 liters) of urine each day.
  • The human brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells
  • Water makes up more than 50 percent of the average adult’s body weight

You use your eyes to see, your ears to hear and your muscles to do the heavy lifting. Well, sort of. In fact, most body parts are far more complicated than that, while some seem to have no business being inside there at all.

Ready for Med School? Test Your Body Smarts

Editor’s Note: If you’d like more information on this topic, we recommend the following book (available on amazon.com):

Related pages

Systems of the human body

  • Circulatory System: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Digestive System: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Endocrine System: Facts, Functions and Diseases
  • Immune System: Diseases, Disorders & Function
  • Lymphatic System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
  • Muscular System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
  • Nervous System: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Reproductive System: Facts, Functions and Diseases
  • Respiratory System: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Skeletal System: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Skin: Facts, Diseases & Conditions
  • Urinary System: Facts, Functions & Diseases

Parts of the human body

  • Bladder: Facts, Function & Disease
  • Human Brain: Facts, Anatomy & Mapping Project
  • Colon (Large Intestine): Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Ears: Facts, Function & Disease
  • Esophagus: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • How the Human Eye Works
  • Gallbladder: Function, Problems & Healthy Diet
  • Human Heart: Anatomy, Function & Facts
  • Kidneys: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Liver: Function, Failure & Disease
  • Lungs: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Nose: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Pancreas: Function, Location & Diseases
  • Small Intestine: Function, Length & Problems
  • Spleen: Function, Location & Problems
  • Stomach: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • The Tongue: Facts, Function & Diseases


Metabolism of Water and Ions • Functions of Cells and Human Body

1. Introduction to metabolism of water and minerals
2. Body water and its distribution, osmolarity
3. Regulation of extracellular fluid volume and sodium metabolism
4. Metabolism of selected ions – a chloride anion, potassium and magnesium cations
5. Calcium and phosphate metabolism


Introduction to metabolism of water and minerals

The internal environment can be defined as the composition of the fluid that bathes the cells. Maintaining a constancy in the internal environment of the human body – its constant composition, is absolutely essential. This is one of the vital functions such as breathing or blood circulation.

The basic components of the internal environment include:

1) Constant volume

2) Constant tonicity and constant ionic composition

3) Constant pH

In this chapter we will further pursue the first two points. The issue of maintaining constant pH will be discussed in detail in subchapter about acid-base balance.


Body water and its distribution, osmolarity

Body fluids

All the water in the human body is summarized under the concept of total body water (TBW). It constitutes 55-60 % of body weight in adults. Women have a lower TBW than men because they have a higher proportion of body fat (the same rule applies to people who are overweight or obese). Young children and pregnant women have an increased proportion of TBW, but, with old age, the proportion of water in human body decreases (we can overstate and say, that as we age, our bodies gradually dry up).

Total body water is divided into two basic groups – intracellular and extracellular fluid.

Intracellular fluid (ICF) contributes 2/3 of adult TBW while extracellular fluid (ECF) contributes the remaining 1/3 TBW. In neonates the distribution is reversed – ICF is 1/3 TBW, ECF 2/3 TBW.

Extracellular fluid is further divided into the liquid stored in the arteriesintravascular fluid (IVF, plasma + lymph), contributing 1/4 ECF, and the interstitial fluid (tissue fluid) contributing 3/4 ECF.

Sometimes, the above is expressed as a percentage of body weight (% b. w.):

TBW (60 % t. h.) = ICF (40 % t. h.) + ECF (20 % t. h.)

ECF (20 % t. h.) = ISF (15 % t. h.) +  IVF (5 % t. h.)

Certain fluids are held in a so called third space or preformed cavities. These include:

1) Cerebrospinal fluid

2) Liquid secreted to the gastrointestinal tract (digestive juices, …)

3) Synovial fluid

4) Fluid in the pleural, peritoneal and the pericardial cavity

Laws of water distribution and osmolarity

The water in the human body is moved by osmosis (most bodily barriers are semipermeable). The water content in the various compartments of the body is determined by the content of osmotically active particles – osmolarity. If deflection in osmolarity occurs anywhere in the body, an induced movement of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane occurs, in order to compensate for this deflection.

Figure captures three major compartments of the human body and the movement of individual substances across their borders.

Plasma osmolarity

Osmolarity is defined as the number of osmotically active particles in a liter – [mosm/l] = [mmol/l]. The physiological range is considered to be 280-295 mmol/l, with a most of the particles being low  molecular weight substances ions, nutrients and metabolites. Consequently we obtain an approximate idea of the osmolarity by a simple sum of concentrations of routinely measured substances -we obtain the so-called calculated osmolarity :

Calculated osmolarity = 2 [Na+] + [glucose] + [urea]

By cross-comparison of measured and calculated osmolarity values we obtain the so-called osmotic gap (OG):

Osmotic gap = measured osmolarity – calculated osmolarity

OG is comprised of all substances which we do not count when calculating the calculated osmolarity – its normal range is 4-12 mmol.

In many pathological conditions, we find OG increasing above normal physiological values. Two primary causes of this are:

1) Accumulation of foreign substances to the human body – For example, during a poisoning (e.g., ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol)

2) Accumulation of substances, which are commonly found in the body, but their metabolism is altered – e.g., excessive catabolism in diabetes mellitus type 1 (overproduction of ketone bodies etc.).

Regulation of osmolarity

Fluctuation in body osmolarity is normally very low – only ± 1-2 %. The osmolarity of body fluids is regulated by the content of free water in the body. The main regulatory mechanisms are simple feedback via antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) and thirst inducement.

Within lateral hypothalamus is an area we call the center of thirst. Neurons in this structure are able to monitor the osmolarity of the surrounding fluid. If surrounded by a hyperosmotic environment, shrinkage occurs in these cells (diffusion of water from the intracellular compartment into the extracellular hyperosmotic compartment), leading to a change in their activity, and ultimately inducing a strong feeling of thirst.

In the supraoptic area are similar neurons with osmoreception abilities. Those in hyperosmotic fluid increase its activity and through projections passing through the infundibulum into the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe of the pituitary gland) release antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) from axons into adjacent capillaries. ADH subsequently flows via circulation to the kidneys, where it binds to its receptors on the cell membrane of cells in distal tubuli and collecting ducts of the kidneys. ADH causes increased permeability of the cells by water, which causes the so-called facultative water resorption and formation of more concentrated urine. These cells carry V2 membrane receptors for ADH, which get activated by ligand (ADH) binding that leads to activation of adenylate cyclase – cAMP formation – incorporation of aquaporins-2 (channels for water) to the apical membranes of cells. Aquaporins allow the passage of water by osmotic gradient from the lumen of the nephron into the hyperosmolar environment of the kidney medulla, where the water is drained by blood vessels. The result is an increase in urine osmolarity (the water is drawn from it, the solute is not) and a decrease in body osmolarity (for free water retention in the body). ADH simultaneously increases cell membrane permeability in cells of the collecting ducts for urea through increased expression transporters for urea (e.g. UT-A), which facilitate the reabsorption of urea into the interstitium medulla . This further enhances the absorption of water.

Antidiuretic hormone shows further effects in the human body, which we will not deal with at this point – they are discussed in other subchapters.

In addition to the above-described endocrine regulation an increase in body osmolarity affects a person’s behavior by inducing thirst → searching for and drinking fluids.

Disorders of antidiuretic hormone secretion

In case of an insufficient effect of ADH (insufficient secretion of hormone or absence of its receptors) appears excessive diuresis (polyuria – up to 30 liters per day) and excessive thirst (polydipsia). This disease is called diabetes insipidus.

The opposite condition is a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH – SIADH (Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion, Schwartz-Bartter syndrome), which leads to excessive secretion of ADH, which does not reflect the current state of osmolality. It leads to water retention, hypoosmolarity and dilutional hyponatremia (relative shortage of Na+ – usual amount is dissolved in large quantities of water). In more severe conditions brain damage develops due to the edema. This is due to intracranial pathologic processes or tumors producing ectopic ADH.

Clinical significance of plasma osmolarity

In clinical practice we frequently encounter osmolarity complications. For example, with each infusion, the doctor must take into account that the infusion has some osmolarity and that it will not harm the patient as a result. We always have to respect the tonicity of the infused solutions. By comparing the osmolarity of administered solutions with plasma osmolarity we can categorize the following solutions:

1) Isotonic solutions

Isotonic solutions have a similar osmolarity as plasma. These are the most frequently encountered in practice.:

a) Normal saline (NS)0,9% NaCl, 154 mmol/l Na+ and Cl

b) 5% glucose – free water remains after glucose metabolism – de facto hypotonic solution

c) Ringer’s and Hartmann’s solution ionic composition similar to plasma

2) Hypotonic solution

Excessive administration of hypotonic solution may cause hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells) and brain edema. Examples of hypotonic solutions: NS 1/2, R 2/3, H 2/3.

3) Hypertonic solutions

Hypertonic solutions can irritate the wall of blood vessels and cause damage to the CNS. Examples of hypertonic solutions: G 10%, G 20%, G 40%, NaCl 10%.

Changes in osmolarity are a particular threat to the brain. The rapid decline in ECF osmolarity can result in brain edema. A rapid rise in ECF osmolarity may in turn lead to the pontine myelinolysis.


Regulation of extracellular fluid volume and sodium metabolism

The volume of the circulating fluid is essential for maintaining blood pressure. Hemodynamic parameters conversely help to regulate the content of Na+ in the body.

Sodium cation – Na


Sodium cation is the primary cation of extracellular fluid. Its concentration in ECF is 135-145 mmol/l , the concentration in intracellular fluid is much lower – about 10 mmol/l. Sodium cation is along with chloride cation responsible for 80 % of the ECF osmolarity – it binds the most water of all ions (therefore retention of Na+ causes water retention). The content of Na+ thus determines the content of water in the ECF and hence in IVF. Volume of intravascular fluid is critical for the regulation of blood pressure and cardiac output.

We ingest Na+ primarily in the form of salts. The recommended daily dose is approximately 2.4 g (70 mmol), which equals to 6 g NaCl. However in reality, the salt intake in developed countries is much higher, which increases the risk of developing hypertension. Na+ is excreted primarily through the kidneys (U – Na = 50-200 mmol/l) and sweat (sweat is hypotonic fluid). The kidneys have a high ability to secrete Na+.

Regulation of Na

+ concentration in the body

Na+ content in the body is regulated by two main systems – the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the system of natriuretic peptides.

Regulation via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)

In the case of insufficient blood flow to the kidneys (e.g., decrease in blood volume) cells of the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus begin the synthesis of protein renin. Renin is an enzyme, which catalyzes the conversion of plasmatic angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted by angiotensin converting enzyme to angiotensin II, which stimulates aldosterone synthesis and causes vasoconstriction. Aldosterone production is also stimulated by increased levels of serum potassium.

The main effects of aldosterone (mineralocorticoids) are:

1) Retains Na+ and water in the body – they strengthen Na+ absorption in the distal tubuli

2) Increases blood pressure by increasing in extracellular fluid volume (intravascular fluid predominantly) – related to point 1)

3) Increases urine excretion of K+ a H+ in distal tubuli

Regulation by the natriuretic peptides

At present we know of several natriuretic peptides. Two of them are considered to be principal – ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) and BNP (brain natriuretic peptide). Both have significant vasodilating effects, increase natriuresis (they inhibit reabsorption of Na+ in distal tubuli – increase in Na+ losses to the urine) and diuresis and reduce sympathetic activity. Quite unusual is the fact that both are secreted by cells of the heart – the heart is therefore an endocrine organ.

ANP is secreted by cardiac atrial cardiomyocytes, and the stimulus for secretion is increased wall stress in the atria (e.g., increased venous return – causes expansion of the atria). BNP was first described in porcine brain (the reason for the designation). In humans , however, it is secreted primarily by cardiomyocytes in heart ventricles – the signal is increased tension in the wall of the ventricle or ventricular dilatation. Natriuretic peptides thus mediate the body’s response to excess Na+ and increased blood volume – their significant secretion occurs in response volume overload of the heart.

Clinical correlation:

In clinical practice, levels of natriuretic peptides, predominantly the N-terminal fragment of proBNP (NT – proBNP), are measured to rule out heart failure in people who present with sudden difficulty in breathing or to determine the prognosis of patients with known heart failure.

Reserves of Na+ in the body can be assessed by clinical examination. Decreased volume of ECF can result in dry mucous membranes, orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia (potentially shock). On the contrary increased volume of ECF indicate edema and lung crackles. Laboratory tests for Na+ reserves are used secondarily (S -Na+).

Na+ losses can occur in several ways – through urine, sweat or through the GIT. Some causes of loss through urine are administration of diuretics, osmotic diuresis (hyperglycaemia in DM), polyuric phase of renal failure, insufficient production of aldosterone, insensitivity of the distal of distal tubule cells in kidney to aldosterone. Losses through GIT occur during vomiting, diarrhea or through fistula and drains. Significant quantities of Na+ may also leave the body due to excessive sweating.

Metabolism of other ions

Chloride anion – Cl

Chloride anion is the main anion of extracellular fluid. Its concentration in ECF is 97-108 mmol/l . The concentration in intracellular fluid is much lower – 3-10 mmol/l. The chloride anion accompanies the sodium cation, and together they account for 80 % of the osmolarity of the ECF. Cl is of great importance for maintaining acid-base balance – exchange for HCO3 (if losses of Cl occur, body replaces them by the bicarbonates, in the retention of Cl- bicarbonate levels decrease). Yet HCl is a much stronger acid than H2CO3. Therefore, with Cl- losses metabolic alkalosis occurs and, vice versa, the retention of Cl results in metabolic acidosis. For details, see subchapter about acid-base balance. Our immune cells can utilize the H2O2-myeloperoxidase-Cl system to aid in the destruction destruction of phagocytosed microorganisms.

Chlorides are primarily ingested in the form of salts – therefore they are received with an equimolar amount of Na+. Likewise, chlorides are excreted along with Na+ (kidneys reabsorb them along with Na+).

Hypochloremia can result from the following conditions: vomiting, collection of gastric juice or during excessive sweating.

Potassium cation – K


Potassium cation is one of the main intracellular cations as is the magnesium cation. 98 % of K+ is in the intracellular fluid – concentration of ~ 155 mmol/l , only 2 % remains in the ECF – concentration of 3.8 to 5.2 mmol/l. From this distribution it is apparent that the plasma levels provide us very limited information about the state of body reserves of this ion. A change in the S-K+ occurs only when the amount of K+ in the body is above 100 mmol. The shifts in potassium levels show predominantly in its changed distribution – doctor should monitor urine and waste balance.

Every day we ingest about 100 mmol K+ , the main source is vegetable diet (fruits and vegetables). Losses of K+ occur principally through excretion in urine – U-K+~ 45 mmol/l and faeces – 12-18 mmol/day. K+ excretion through the kidneys depends on its intake and the levels of regulatory hormones – mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone). The majority of K+ is absorbed in the proximal tubule. Less than 10% of K+ gets to distal tubuli – here is the primary spot of regulation – Na+ is reabsorbed in exchange for K+ and H+ (excretion of K+ is supported by mineralocorticoids – aldosterone). By comparing serum and urine concentrations, it is apparent that the kidneys are powerful at retaining Na+ and, conversely, at eliminating K+: S-Na+ = 140 mmol/l , S-K+ = 4 mmol/l, U-Na+ = 110 mmol/l and U-K+ = 45 mmol/l → serum ratio of Na+/K+ 32:1, urine 2-3:1.

Distribution of K

+ between intracellular and extracellular fluid

Intra-and extracellular distribution of K+ is influenced, for example, by:

1) Na+/K+-ATPase function

2) pH

3) Cellular catabolism and anabolism

4) Insulin and glucose

1) Na

+/K+-ATPase function

Na+/K+-ATPase functions as an antiport and for ATP consumption transmits three Na+ cations outwardly from the cell in exchange for two K+ cations directed to the cell. (For more information, see Chapter 2). When there is inadequate energy production in the cells, the transfer of ions through the Na+/K+-ATPase is slowed down – K+ remains in the ECF and the local level increases while the concentration in the ICF drops.

2) pH

During acidosis cells operate as “gigantic buffers” – they take in H+. But since they took in a cation, a different cation has to be released into the ECF – K+ is leaving the cells and their EC concentration increases. The whole process is reversed by alkalosis. For more information, see subchapter about acid-base balance.

3) Cellular catabolism and anabolism

During catabolism cleavage of intracellular proteins occurs, thus releasing previously bound potassium cations which subsequently pass into the extracellular fluid – potassium levels increase. The opposite process takes place during anabolism. Particularly threatening is rapid anabolism after prolonged catabolism, which can lead to severe hypokalemia.

4) Insulin and glucose

Insulin conditioned entry of glucose into cells is accompanied by a transition of K+ into cells. This is often used in the acute treatment of hyperkalemia when a glucose infusion with insulin is administered.

Summary of regulation of K

+ in the body

1) Regulation of the distribution of K+ between ECF and ICF – is responsible for acute shifts in S-K+:

a) Energetic state of cells, Na+/K+-ATPase

b) pH: alkalosis decreases S-K+, acidosis does the contrary

2) Regulation of the K+ excretion in distal kidney tubuli mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) increase local K+ excretion

The importance of potassium cation

Physiological distribution of cations on the membrane (Na+ mainly extracellularly and K+ predominantly intracellular) is necessary for maintaining proper cell function (neuromuscular irritability, excitability of cells of the conduction system of heart, etc). The gradient of these ions between the ICF and ECF affects membrane potential. The correct ratio of the two ions is ensured by active participation of Na+/K+-ATPase.

Changes in potassium levels – hyperkalemia and hypokalemia

Hyperkalemia, or increased plasmatic K+, can have many causes:

1) Renal failure leads to inadequate secretion of K+ by the kidneys

2) The failure of the adrenal cortex leads to defective production and secretion of aldosterone, a hormone that lowers serum potassium levels (Addison’s disease).

Symptoms of hyperkalemia include muscle weakness and abnormal ECG findings (see below). S-K+ values over 7,0 mmol/l are indications for hemodialysis. Higher values ​​can be fatal, they can cause sudden cardiac arrest resulting from ventricular fibrillation (sometimes occurs even at lower values​​).


Hypokalemia, or decreased plasmatic K+, can have many causes:

1) Hyperaldosteronism or long-term treatment with glucocorticoids which in high quantities have similar effects as mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)

2) Diuretic overdose (furosemide)

3) GIT fluid losses – diarrhea

Symptoms of hyperkalemia include muscle weakness (up to paralytic ileus) and heart rhythm disorders.

How are potassium level shifts reflected on the ECG?

A typical finding in hyperkalemia is shortened repolarization, QT shortening, with a narrow peaked T. On the contrary, in hypokalemia the typical finding is prolongation of repolarization, prolonged QT, flat T.

Magnesium cation – Mg


Magnesium cation is second major intracellular cation. Its concentration in the extracellular fluid is 0.7-1 mmol/l. Magnesium has the following roles in the body:

1) Structural function in bones (2/3 Mg in the body)

2) Cofactor of 300 enzymes

3)  Reduces neuromuscular excitability

Our average daily intake of Mg2+ are just units of mmol (legumes, grains, vegetables, milk).

Hypomagnesemia is manifested by muscle weakness, cramps, gastrointestinal problems and nonspecific ECG changes. It is common in alcoholics.

In the treatment of certain diseases, such as preeclampsia and other seizure disorders, we use induction of hypermagnesemia as a therapy – iatrogenic hypermagnesemia (infusion of 20% MgSO4).


Calcium and phosphate metabolism

Calcium cation – Ca


Calcium forms about 1.5 % of total body weight. The level of calcium cations in the extracellular fluid (2.25-2.75 mmol/l), is about four times higher than its intracellular concentration. 99 % of Ca2+ resides in the bones in the form of hydroxyapatite, where it serves as a mechanical support and prompt supply of Ca2+. In plasma we differentiate two basic fractions of Ca2+bound and free – see Chapter 5. There is a certain balance between its quantity in bone tissue and its plasma concentrations.

Importance of Ca


The role of the calcium cation is stabilization of membranes of excitable tissues (its absence leads to cramps), contribution to muscle contraction and coagulation – blood clotting (calcium cation is an activator of coagulation factors, whose formation is dependent on vitamin K – f II, VII, IX, X, protein C and S, and Ca2+ itself is a factor IV), and it is necessary for lactation. Calcium is also part of the inorganic bone matrix (hydroxyapatite). It is also structural component of the teeth.

Intracellular Ca


Ca2+ has the largest concentration gradient between extracellular and intracellular environments of all ions. In the cytosol there is a very low physiological concentration of Ca2+10-7-10-8 mmol/l. This gradient is maintained by secondary active transport of Ca2+ for 3 Na+ and by active transport of Ca2+-ATPase. Ca2+ enters the cell through the calcium channels.

Roles of Ca

2+ in the cell

Calcium ions work as a second messenger in the cell. Many of its effects are mediated through calmodulin, a major intracellular Ca2+-binding protein.

Increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration affects many important cellular processes:

1) The release of neurotransmitters at nerve synapses

2) Regulation of energy metabolism – activates protein kinase C, glycogenolysis, etc.

3) Regulation of muscle contraction

On the other hand, prolonged increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration can lead to cell death.

Reabsorption and excretion of the calcium cation

The recommended daily dose of calcium for adults is approximately 1 g. The main sources are milk, dairy products and eggs. Its resorption from GIT is physiologically around 25-40 %, located primarily in the duodenum and jejunum. A specific transport protein, calbindin, is found on the apical membrane of enterocytes. On the basolateral side calcium is actively transported against the concentration gradient into the ECF.

Excretion of calcium is through urine and faeces. Ca2+ bound to plasma does not pass to the primary urine. Reabsorption takes place in proximal tubule and the ascending part of the HK.

Regulation of Ca

2+ a phosphate content in the body

Three hormones in the human body play a key role in Ca2+ and phosphate content regulation – parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and calcitonin.

1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol – calcitriol (vitamin D derivative)

Vitamin D, particularly in the form of vitamin D3, is received from nutrition, but the body can also synthesize it from its provitamin 7-dehydrocholesterol. It is located in the cells of the epidermis, and photolysis with UV light forms vitamin D3. The liver can hydroxylate both dietary and synthesized vitamin D3 at position 25 and forms 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. If required by the body, this may be further hydroxylated at position 1 (the result is effective 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, or calcitriol) or at position 24 (to an inactive metabolite). Enzymes catalyzing 1-hydroxylation are present in the kidney, bones and placenta.

Calcitriol stimulates protein synthesis in the small intestine allowing absorption of Ca2+ and phosphates. This ensures the availability of Ca2+ and phosphates for bone growth. It simultaneously activates osteoblasts for collagen synthesis.

Hypovitaminosis leads to defective bone mineralization, which causes rickets in children, characterized by deformation of the skull, spine, chest, and long bones. In adults, bone decalcification manifests by their softening – this is known as osteomalacia. Causes of vitamin D deficiency deficiency are not only its insufficient intake but also a lack of exposure to sunlight or kidney disease.

Hypervitaminosis D manifests by thirst, diarrhea and vomiting, itching of the skin and deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues (e.g., blood vessel walls or in the kidneys).

For more information about vitamin D and calcitriol see Chapter 9.


Parathormone is a peptide hormone produced by the parathyroid glands. It stimulates degradation (resorption) of bones by increasing osteoclast activity (stimulates the transformation of monocytes to osteoclasts). The result is an increased release of Ca2+ and phosphate from bones. PTH affects kidneys – inhibits Ca2+ excretion (increased reabsorption of Ca2+ from the primary urine) and conversely prevents reabsorption of phosphates from urine. It also supports the excretion of HCO3. As a result, PTH increases calcemia, reduces phosphatemia and leads to mild acidosis.

Parathormone also supports the formation of calcitriol – stimulates 1-hydroxylation in the kidneys.


Calcitonin is a peptide hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland (so-called C-cells). It inhibits osteoclast activity (inhibits transformation of monocytes to osteoclasts), thereby reducing bone resorption and results in increased deposition of Ca2+ in bones. Concurrently, calcitonin decreases resorption of Ca2+ and phosphates in the kidneys. Both effects lead to a decrease in calcemia.




BonesEnsures availability of Ca2+ and phosphate for bonesOsteoclast activation, stimulation of bone resorption and increase in calcemia and phosphatemiaInhibition of osteoclasts, reduce bone resorption, deposition of Ca2+ into bones
KidneySlightly reduces the excretion of Ca2+It reduces the Ca2+ excretion (increased resorption), increases excretion of phosphate (prevents resorption), stimulates the production of calcitriolDecreasing bone resorption of Ca2+ and phosphates
IntestineStimulates Ca2+ resorptionOnly indirectly through effect on the formation of calcitriol

For more information about parathyroid hormone and calcitonin, see Chapter 11.

Shifts in calcemia – hypocalcemia a hypercalcemia

Hypocalcemia can have these causes:

1) Hypovitaminosis D or hypoparathyroidism

2) Chronic kidney failure

Damaged kidneys fail to form calcitriol (1-hydroxylation) – reduced intestinal absorption of Ca2+. Due to inadequate excretion of phosphates, there in a phosphate accumulation in the body that causes even higher disbalance in Ca/P ratio.

3) Malabsorption

The decrease in extracellular Ca2+ concentration can lead to cramps (Ca2+ stabilizes cell membranes, thus increasing neuromuscular irritability).


The causes of hypercalcemia include hyperparathyroidism or bone diseases (e.g. tumors). Its symptoms are polyuria, somnolence, muscle fatigue and constipation. It can lead to cardiac arrest in systole.


The human body generally contains about 700 g of phosphates. About 80% is in the bones and teeth. Phosphates (serum concentrations of 0.7-1.5 mmol/l) perform many functions in the body:

1) Constituent part of osseous tissue and teeth

2) Contained in vital organic compounds – phospholipids, ATP, nucleic acids, phosphorylated carbohydrates.

3) Buffer

Reabsorption and excretion of phosphates

We receive daily through our diet 800-1400 mg of phosphates, from which 60-80 % is absorbed in the intestine.

Phosphates are freely filtered into the primary urine. In the proximal tubule is resorbed more than 80 %, this process is regulated by parathyroid hormone.

Shifts in phosphatemia – hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia

Hyperphosphatemia can have the following causes – kidney failure, hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D intoxication. Hypophosphatemia has these causes – hyperparathyroidism, hypovitaminosis D.

Subchapter Authors: Petra Lavríková and Josef Fontana

Wonderful properties and functions of water

Let’s see what water is?

This is, first of all, a simple chemical compound that includes one hydrogen atom and two oxygen atoms – this is the formula for water.

But the water that we use, either for drinking or for washing, in general, all the water that surrounds us is the carrier of various trace elements dissolved in it, which determine its mineral composition.

From where a person takes water, it can be water from open sources (rivers, lakes, sea) or from the Caucasus mountains (glacial), or finally from underground natural storehouses (artesian), its composition will also change, which determines the physical usefulness of water, and on which human health directly depends.

Physiological usefulness is determined by its optimal composition of micro- and macroelements for the body.

And one more of the new directions in the study of the properties of water is research: the structure of water, which includes such concepts as energy-informational or cluster memory of water.

If we drink physiologically high-grade water (water of the highest category), then the cells do not have to adapt this water to the internal environment of the body.The fact is that the body has to spend colossal efforts on biocompatibility if the water is not of sufficient quality (there must be a certain surface tension, redox potential, water hardness, structure, weak mineralization, weak alkalinity, etc.). For example, it is known that the surface tension of tap water is 73 dyn / cm, while inside the cell and in extracellular water it is 43 dyn / cm. Surface tension is molecules that are tightly bound to each other.You can check it like this: put a razor or a needle on the surface of the water. Their specific gravity is 8-10 times higher than that of water, but they do not sink in it due to the surface tension of the water.

Water has many unique properties. That is why living beings have chosen it as the main building material for their body.

1) Water transport and purification function : Water carries nutrients to cells, removes toxins and toxins, delivers oxygen.An aqueous solution of blood is 80 percent pure water. The entire cleansing and excretory system of the body – lymph, sweat, urine – is also pure water, in which the products removed from the body are dissolved. We sweat and with sweat comes out up to one and a half liters of water per day, even in the shade and in temperate climates. The sewerage system of our body, through which all the metabolic “slag” is thrown out of the body, also requires a lot of water for its normal functioning. In addition, as we age, our body produces less and less hormones.80% of hormones are known to be secreted in the small intestine. The more the small intestine is polluted with mucus, water-insoluble substances, the less hormones, – the worse the digestive system works. And it is very easy to clean it. No need to buy special drugs or wait for something. It is necessary every day in the morning on an empty stomach, and also drink 1-2 glasses of water before each meal. So water is immediately absorbed into the intestines and flushes it. In no case should you drink water while eating. We flush out the enzymes that digest food.But after eating, after 2.5 hours, you also need to drink a glass of water.

In case of poisoning, a person is generally given only water. In order to quickly remove toxic products from the body and renew all the water in the body. This is especially true for mothers who are breastfeeding. If such a woman is poisoned by some product, then you can breastfeed the baby, the main thing is to drink water !!! Milk is mainly formed from it, and water will remove all the poisons.

Water can relieve constipation and hemorrhoids, as it will be a kind of lubricant for all digestive and excretion systems.

On the properties of water: It is known that water dissolves in itself all known substances, however, it does not interact with the substances transported by it. In addition, water has a high fluidity in organs and cells under any conditions. No other liquid in the conditions of the Earth possesses a simultaneous combination of such properties!

2) Water delivers oxygen to cells and helps blood to remove carbon dioxide . When we breathe with our lungs, we expel from ourselves 300-400 grams of water every day.And the skin, when breathing, even consumes twice as much water.

3) Water – universal solvent
As we have already said, water dissolves in itself all known substances, but in relation to the body it is neutral! Water breaks down all nutrients into primary components (proteins into amino acids, starches into simple sugars, fats into fatty acids). This explains the fact that water helps the seed to grow and turn into a flower or tree.

The bulk of water in the body plays the role of an environment in which various reactions take place.The water entering the body must be neutral, and preferably slightly alkaline, like body fluids.

4) Keeps the temperature constant 36.6 degrees
Water has a high heat capacity (4.19 kJ / (kg • K), which is 30 times higher than that of other substances, which means that it provides the best conditions for the accumulation and preservation of heat, which our body needs to maintain the stability of all processes in the body, since for the regulation of processes in the body it is required to maintain the temperature with an accuracy of tenths of a degree.Property of water: at the same time it has a high heat capacity and a rather low thermal conductivity. A person used this property not only to heat his body, but also to heat his home with the help of central heating batteries, where water also circulates.

5) Water maintains the normal electrical properties of cells and carries electrical charges, with the help of which cells communicate with each other. Water is an electrolyte. The parameters of our electrolyte are specific and are determined by minerals dissolved in water, which serve as carriers of electrical charges.

Important! The incoming water must have a certain redox potential of water (ORP) in quality water must correspond to the potential of the intercellular fluid in the body. When tap water or artificially created water penetrates into the tissues of the human (or other) body, it takes electrons away from cells and tissues, which are 80 – 90% water. As a result, the biological structures of the body (cell membranes, cell organelles, nucleic acids and others) undergo oxidative destruction.So the body wears out, gets old, the vital organs lose their function. But these negative processes can be slowed down if the body receives water that has protective restorative properties, that is, natural. This is confirmed by numerous studies in specialized research centers in Russia and abroad.

6) Is a building material
Part of the water breaks down into micro and macro elements, which are involved in the repair of cells, tissues and organs.Thus, water accelerates the processes of cell regeneration and tissue regeneration.

7) Organ Protective Equipment
Due to its “incompressibility”, water creates a hydroskeleton inside cells and the whole organism. After all, the main vital internal organs, as you know, are in limbo (lungs, heart, liver, etc.) Each of these organs has a significant mass. When we run, jump, walk, due to the laws of inertia, these organs are subjected to stress.But, since our body consists of 70% water, the mass of all important organs has become minimal. In addition, water began to play the role of a shock-absorbing medium, and this made it possible to almost completely protect the internal organs from overloads. Nature, as always, has found the easiest way! Thus, water protects bones and organs from blows, holds together solid structures in the cell itself, and also serves as a lubricant for joints.

8) Water activates metabolic processes in the body.True, the water must be of good quality, physiologically complete. In this regard, even a hangover syndrome can be eliminated without special pills and pickles. Heartburn may go away. Indeed, at the heart of any diet is a balanced diet and consumption of large amounts of water, since water helps the stomach to digest food and eat less food. Water is also a good way to lose weight, as it fills the space in the stomach and makes you want to eat less. After all, no diet is complete without water.

9) Additional energy . If the water is physiologically full, and has a certain structure and memory, the necessary redox potential, then the body receives pure additional energy. Modern scientists advise children to give more water during exams, as water can eliminate fatigue. How does water provide energy? First of all, it is from water that the body takes all important macro and microelements. It is from them that additional energy appears.When water enters the cell, pumps are turned on, when passing through which, pure energy is generated in the membranes of all cells. Without a sufficient amount of water, a person’s energy decreases and strong fatigue replaces good health.

It is possible that energy can also be given to the body by information “recorded” on water molecules, since water remembers the information with which it interacted. If the information is favorable (classical music is played next to the water, prayers are uttered or just kind words), then the crystals near the water become of the correct shape – the structure will be harmonious.Two words “LOVE AND GRATITUDE” have the most positive effect on the structure and memory of water. And if water interacted with viruses, bacteria, poisons, heavy metals, then the structure and memory will not be harmonious, since any substance has its own radiation frequency and water remembers and transmits these radiation. Unfortunately, tap water remembers the substances with which it came into contact earlier, being not yet purified, and also, passing through pipes, loses its structure and often absorbs lead, polyvinyl chloride and other substances from them.

Homeopathy, which has already two centuries of experience, is based on this ability of water to memorize information. We all also know such an expression as “spoilage”. The fact is that someone else’s bad mood, someone’s swearing in transport, quarrels in the family, everything affects our emotions. And our body, as you know, consists of 60-70% of water, this is reflected in the general condition of all organs. That is why they talk about spoilage. By changing our mental attitude and using natural water that has not lost its structure and good memory, we improve our health.Japanese researcher Massaru Emoto investigated these properties of water. And also Dr. Wolfgang Ludwig, Stanislav Zenin. You can destroy the structure and erase the memory if the water is frozen in the freezer and kept there for at least three hours. Then you can write down other useful information. It is possible that due to this very property, water can improve memory.
Important! After heating the water to 42C, the water loses its structure and turns into ordinary water.

10) Tones the skin, slows down the aging process

In adolescence, cells are large due to water and release a lot of energy.Then the cell decreases (shrinks), and the intercellular space increases. If the cell is constantly not supplied with water, the next time the body creates a little less water. So the cell is constantly decreasing, and the body receives less energy. One of the main causes of premature aging and many diseases is the increased content of free radicals in the body, which are byproducts of oxidative processes in the body. They take electrons away from cells, and they are damaged.Water binds free radicals between cells. And this slows down the aging process, and also prevents diseases, oncology.

11) Eliminates stress

With stress and anxiety, water comes out to relieve tension from the body. It is also no coincidence that when a person is nervous – they give him a glass of water to drink in order to retain moisture in the body, calm down a little and add energy. All of these customs derive from the properties of water, as well as from the mechanisms of water distribution under stress.The ancients knew about these qualities.

As you know, life on Earth originated in water. The first creatures came to land, and they needed to create a system in the body responsible for the conservation and retention of water in the body. Today, people under stress are using the same mechanism of crisis distribution of water as millions of years ago – its strict control: water is received by the most important organs, or not at all (research by Dr. F. Batmanghelidj).Since the body needs water to perform any function, the body manages the amount of water so that all the necessary nutrients reach the most important organs, which will again deal with stress. Dehydration causes stress, and stress leads to further dehydration, as stress mobilizes all reserves.
In the process of research, the doctor came to the following conclusion: that in case of stress, as well as great physical and mental stress and illness, you need to drink twice as much water !!!

In life, we can test how, with a little stress, water soothes the body.For example, when you are very nervous at an exam or at a performance, before a responsible job, you may feel dry mouth. This removes moisture from the body to relieve tension from the body. If you don’t drink water for half an hour or an hour, you will get a headache. Since water comes out through the skin to relieve tension.

On other functions of water: It was also noted that with regular use of high-quality water , stones in the kidneys and pancreas are absorbed.No wonder they say, “water wears away a stone.”

Scientists of our time (F. Batmangheling, R. Mohanti, Stanislav Zenin) say that many diseases, such as allergies, obesity, excess cholesterol, decreased immunity, high blood pressure proceed and worsen against the background of a lack of water in the body. It all depends on what area and to what extent needs water.

Here, for example, how the lack of water affects the body in case of hypertension.When there is not enough water in the body, cells begin to draw in extracellular water. And this is the cause of edema. Because the brain gives the command to increase the salt concentration in the body in order to retain water. Further – more – the osmotic pressure increases in order to increase the flow of water into the cells. This causes hypertension. When the volume of fluid in the body decreases, the vessels also have to narrow the openings to fill the entire circulatory system. Otherwise, gases are separated from the blood and fill the space.This leads to increased blood pressure and increased heart rate. The heart tries to pump more blood to the organs in order to balance the amount of blood in the constricted vessels. Good health depends on maintaining a balance in the body between the two oceans – intracellular and extracellular. Balance in the body can be achieved by drinking quality water, potassium and salt (sodium).

You can believe in these studies, you can not believe, in any case, drinking water is more beneficial for the body and less expensive than buying expensive medicines for every disease.

Water is one of the most essential substances for living things. On Earth, except for water, there is no longer a single substance that is under normal conditions in a liquid, ready-to-eat form, in large quantities, in a liquid form under normal conditions for humans and relatively easy accessibility to organisms. In addition, no other liquid substance can provide all vital processes in a living organism the way water does.

And there is more than enough water in our body.70% of the body’s water is located inside the cells as part of the cellular protoplasm. 30% water in the extracellular fluid. The intercellular fluid is 20%, blood plasma water – 8%, lymph water – 2%. If we calculate how much fluid we have in the body, we get the following figures: blood – about 5 liters, lymph – 2.5 liters, saliva – 1.5 liters, bile – 05-1.5 liters, gastric juice – 2.5 liters, intestinal juice – 3l. The rest of the water is in cells and intercellular interstitial spaces. In addition, every tissue, except bone, is like a sponge filled with water.Especially the brain. Our body is a system of communicating vessels through which streams of various fluids constantly move, interacting with each other. And we shouldn’t care what quality this water and liquid in our body is! Order water “Divo”

Water rules:

  • Drink 1.5 cups of water on an empty stomach in the morning to cleanse the intestines and drink a glass of water before each meal
  • do not drink immediately before meals (only one hour after water can be eaten)
  • after eating also drink water only after 2.5 hours, not to mention tea
  • during the day, you should drink about 2 liters of water, or rather 30 ml per 1 kg of weight
  • for 1 liter of water ¼ h.l. sea ​​salt (salt retains water in the body, and coffee, tea, tablets, soda, alcohol – remove water from the body)
  • Dr. Agapkin advises drinking water 2-3 sips every 20 minutes throughout the day so that the water is absorbed into the cells, since when we drink a whole glass of water at once, the liquid mostly goes into urine. (TV channel Russia, the program “On the most important”).
  • if we drink coffee, tea, carbonated drinks, alcohol, tablets – an additional glass of water
  • drink more water during physical and mental stress, in case of illness!
  • nothing can replace water.But, if you do not have water on hand, then it is best to drink freshly squeezed juices, decaffeinated fruit and berry and herbal teas, milk. Only, by itself, if you are confident in the quality of the product.

Water “Divo” is physiologically complete water for the body of the highest quality category.

Reviews of our customers about water Divo

Author: Maria Krupanova

90,000 – role and water exchange

The role of water in the body

In fact, the role of water is multifaceted and difficult to list.Its most obvious functions are:

1. Participation in enzymatic hydrolysis reactions. Therefore

  • catabolism in the cell of any polymer molecules (triacylglycerols, glycogen) and obtaining energy from them cannot occur without water,
  • The digestion of nutrients is impaired in a state of insufficient water.

2. The formation of cell membranes is based on the amphiphilicity of phospholipids, i.e. on the ability of phospholipids to automatically form a polar membrane surface and a hydrophobic internal phase.As a result, with a decrease in the volume of intra- and extracellular water, part of the phospholipids turns out to be “superfluous” and the cell membranes are deformed.

3. Water forms a hydration shell around the molecules. This provides

  • solubility of substances, in particular protein-enzymes, and the proper interaction of their surface hydrophilic amino acids with the surrounding aqueous medium. With a decrease in the proportion of water in the medium, the interaction worsens, the conformation of the enzyme changes and, therefore, the rate of enzymatic reactions varies, 90 110
  • transport of substances in the blood and in the cell.

4. Water creates an active volume of the cell and intercellular space. Binding of water with organic structures of the extracellular matrix – collagen, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates and other compounds provides turgor and elasticity of tissues. This is clearly manifested in extreme dehydration of the body, when the collapse of the eyeballs and the inelasticity of the skin are observed.

As an example of latent water deficiency, joint degeneration in arthrosis can be indicated.In the preclinical stage, dryness and roughness of cartilaginous surfaces lead to increased friction and adhesion in the joint, which manifests itself as a creak and crunch audible during movement. In the future, the thinning and abrasion of the articular cartilage, a decrease in its amortization properties, the appearance of pain and the onset of the clinical stages of osteoarthritis develop.

5. The state of body fluids (blood, lymph, sweat, urine, bile) directly depends on the amount of water in them. Thickening and concentration of these liquids leads to a decrease in the solubility of their components – salts, organic substances, and an increase in crystal formation in urine and bile.

Thus, in the presence of other factors, for example, an excess of oxalates or uric acid (for urolithiasis) or a deficiency of lipotropic substances (for gallstone disease), water deficiency potentiates the development of these diseases.
6. Adequate water supply maintains blood pressure stability. With a lack of water, the secretion of vasopressin and angiotensin is activated, some of the effects of which are aimed at

  • vasoconstriction to match blood volume and vascular capacity,
  • Increase in blood pressure to provide blood supply to the brain, kidneys and other organs.

Regular water shortage leads to constant contraction of vascular smooth muscles, their “training”, thickening of the muscle layer and, as a consequence, more pronounced vascular tone in response to normal stimuli and natural hormonal background. essential arterial hypertension develops.

Water sources in the cage

There are two sources of water for cellular metabolism:

1. Water supplied with food – per day, an adult organism must be supplied in the form of pure (!) water, not less than 1.5 liters, or at the rate of 25-30 ml / kg mass.Additionally, it can be supplied with drinks, liquid and solid food up to 1.5 liters. In a child of the first year of life, the need for water is 100-165 ml / kg body weight per day, which is associated with a greater amount of extracellular fluid and the ease of its loss when exposed to the body.

2. Water formed during catabolism and oxidative phosphorylation – metabolic water, on average 400 ml per day.

This water source is often overestimated and considered sufficient to cover water shortages, citing camels and the fat in their humps as an example.However, an elementary calculation shows that at rest, even with complete starvation, to provide the human body with daily energy (2100-3500 kcal), 225-380 g of fat is needed (the oxidation value of triacylglycerols is 9.3 kcal / g). It is known that at complete 9020 oxidation of 1 g of fat, 1.09 ml of water is formed, i.e. such water will be only 245-414 ml per day.

Camels are capable of losing up to 25% of their mass due to water loss without complications for their well-being. Their ability to survive in the hot desert conditions is not due to fat stores, but completely different reasons:

  • oval erythrocytes are less sensitive to blood clotting,
  • the water vapor of exhaled air completely condenses on the walls of the nasal passages (nostrils) and returns to the body,
  • lower respiratory rate,
  • body temperature varies from 35 ° C to 41 ° C depending on the environment, which prevents excess sweating,
  • there is a high reabsorption of water from the large intestine, their droppings contain 6-7 times less water than cattle and consists of almost dry plant waste,
  • There is no urea in the urine, an osmotically active substance that retains water, which makes it possible to reduce the volume of urine.

Excretion of water from the body

Water removal is carried out by several systems:

1. Lungs. Water is excreted imperceptibly for a person with exhaled air, this is an imperceptible loss (on average 400 ml / day). The proportion of water removed can increase with deep breathing, breathing dry air, with hyperventilation, artificial ventilation without taking into account the humidity of the air.

2. Leather. Loss through the skin can be

  • imperceptible – practically pure water is removed (500 ml / day),
  • palpable – sweating when the temperature of the body or the environment rises, during physical work (up to 2.0 liters per hour).

3. Intestines – lost 100-200 ml / day, the amount increases with vomiting, diarrhea.

4. Kidneys are removed up to 1000-1500 ml / day. The rate of urine excretion in an adult is 40-80 ml / h, in children – 0.5 ml / kg · h.

Under normal conditions, thanks to the kidneys, water is excreted from the body in an amount corresponding to the volume of fluid taken.

Part of the water is always removed regardless of the water intake, even during dry fasting. This is called obligate water loss (about 1400 ml per day).Obligate water loss includes the removal of water from sweat , exhaled air , stool and urine . At the same time, the proportion of water lost through the kidneys, even with the most concentrated urine, is up to 90,019 50% 90,020 of all losses.

Regulation of water balance

Two antidiuretic systems are responsible for water conservation in the body:

1. Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) – its secretion and synthesis increases at:

  • activation of baroreceptors of the heart as a result of a decrease in blood pressure, with a decrease in intravascular blood volume by 7-10%,
  • excitation osmoreceptors hypothalamus and portal vein – with an increase in the osmolality of the extracellular fluid even by less than 1% (with dehydration, renal or hepatic failure),

In adulthood and old age, the number of osmoreceptors decreases and, consequently, the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to changes in osmolality decreases, which increases the risk of dehydration , usually subclinical.

In the epithelial cells of the distal tubules of the kidneys and collecting ducts, the hormone stimulates the synthesis and incorporation of aquaporins into the apical membrane of cells and the reabsorption of water.

2. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS system) – is activated when the pressure in the renal arterioles decreases or the concentration of Na + ions in the urine of the distal tubules decreases. The ultimate goal of this system is to enhance sodium reabsorption in the terminal sections of the nephron.This entails an increase in the flow of water into the cells of the same departments and the prevention of its loss.

Water loss is caused by low activity of antidiuretic systems.

3. The third hormone is responsible for the targeted removal of sodium and, accordingly, water. Sodium uretic peptide (atriopeptin) is a vasodilating and natriuretic hormone produced in the secretory myocytes of the atria and ventricles in response to their stretching. Atriopeptin levels increase, for example, as a result of congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure, etc.p.

Natriuretic hormone enhances the excretion of Na + ions and water and reduces pressure due to:

  • increase the glomerular filtration rate,
  • inhibiting the reabsorption of Na + and Cl ions in the proximal tubules and increasing their excretion, which reduces water reabsorption,
  • decrease in cardiac output and increase in coronary tone,
  • inhibition of renin secretion, the effects of angiotensin II and aldosterone,
  • increasing the permeability of histohematogenous barriers and increasing the transport of water from the blood to the tissue fluid,
  • dilatation of arterioles and decrease in venous tone.

90,000 Water Facts

Water itself has no nutritional value, but it is an indispensable part of all living things. None of the living organisms on our planet can exist without water.

All living plant and animal creatures consist of water:
fish – by 75%; jellyfish – by 99%; potatoes – by 76%; apples – by 85%; tomatoes – 90%; cucumbers – by 95%; watermelons – by 96%.

In general, the human body consists by weight of 50-86% of water (86% in a newborn and up to 50% in the elderly).The water content in various parts of the body is: bones – 20-30%; liver – up to 69%; muscles – up to 70%; brain – up to 75%; kidneys – up to 82%; blood – up to 85%.

This circumstance allowed the science fiction writer V. Savchenko to declare that a person “has much more reason to consider himself a liquid than, say, a forty percent solution of caustic soda”.

Throughout his life, a person deals with water every day. He uses it for drinking and food, for washing, in summer for rest, in winter for heating.
For humans, water is a more valuable natural resource than coal, oil, gas, iron, because it is irreplaceable.

A person can live without food for about 50 days, if during a hunger strike he drinks fresh water, without water he will not live even a week – death will come in 5 days. According to medical experiments, with a loss of moisture in the amount of 6-8% of the body weight, a person falls into a semi-faint state, with a loss of 10%, hallucinations begin, with 12% a person cannot recover without special medical care, and with a loss of 20%, inevitable death occurs. …

In the human body, water:

  • humidifies breathing oxygen;
  • regulates body temperature;
  • helps the body absorb nutrients;
  • protects vital organs;
  • lubricates joints;
  • helps convert food into energy;
  • participates in the metabolism;
  • removes various wastes from the body.

A person begins to feel thirsty when the amount of water in his body decreases by 1-2% (0.5-1.0 liters).Loss of 10% moisture from body weight can lead to irreversible changes in the body, and the loss of 20% (7 – 8 liters) is already fatal.

An ordinary person loses 2-3 liters of water per day. In hot weather, with high humidity, water consumption increases during sports. Even through breathing, a person loses almost half a liter of water every day.

The correct drinking regime implies the preservation of the physiological water balance – this is the balancing of the intake and formation of water with its release.

The daily need for an adult in water is 30-40 grams per 1 kg of body weight. Approximately 40% of the body’s daily need for water is met with food, the rest should be taken in the form of various drinks. In the summer, you need to consume 2 – 2.5 liters of water daily. In hot regions of the planet – 3.5 – 5.0 liters per day, and at an air temperature of 38–40 C and low humidity, those working in the open air will need 6.0 – 6.5 liters of water per day. At the same time, you cannot be guided by whether you are thirsty or not, since this reflex occurs too late and is not an adequate indicator of how much water your body needs.
It is interesting to know that cereals contain up to 80% water, bread – about 50%, meat – 58-67%, vegetables and fruits – up to 90% water, i.e. “Dry” food consists of 50-60% water.

And about 3% (0.3 l) of water is formed as a result of biochemical processes in the body itself.
According to some estimates, over 60 years of life, a person drinks about 50 tons of water – a whole cistern!
By participating in the metabolism, water can reduce body fat and weight. Many of those who want to lose weight believe that their body retains water and try to drink less of it.However, water is a natural diuretic and, if you drink it, you will lose weight.

If the body receives a sufficient amount of water, then a person becomes more energetic and resilient. It is easier for him to control his weight, as digestion improves, and when you are drawn to snack, it is often enough to just drink water to reduce your appetite. Symptoms of dehydration include dry skin (may be itchy), fatigue, poor concentration, headaches, increased blood pressure, poor kidney function, dry cough, back and joint pain.

Research has already proven that drinking enough water can minimize back pain, migraines, rheumatic pains, and lower blood cholesterol and blood pressure, thereby reducing the likelihood of a heart attack. Drinking enough water is one of the best ways to prevent kidney stones. Since water does not contain salts, fat, cholesterol and caffeine, it is eliminated from the body in a different way.

German scientists, after conducting tests on student volunteers, came to the conclusion that those who drink more water and drinks show more endurance and a penchant for creativity than those who drink less.

Regular water intake improves thinking and brain coordination. The brain and the entire body will be sufficiently charged with the necessary substances if the water we drink is of high quality, that is, it is rich in minerals. A healthy person should not limit himself to drinking, but it is much more beneficial to drink often and little by little.It is harmful to drink a lot of liquid at once, since all the liquid is absorbed into the bloodstream, and until its excess is excreted from the body by the kidneys, the heart receives an excessive load.

Thus, we can conclude that the role of water for humans is enormous. Today, each person can create for himself the conditions for maintaining priceless water balance through the correct organization of the drinking regimen.

The role of water in the body, lack of water and dehydration

Throughout his life, a person does not think about the importance of water for the normal functioning of the body.What causes dehydration? Why is water the source of life? What functions does water perform in the human body?

What role does water play in the human body

First of all, water is a transport for blood and nutrients in the human body. It acts as a solvent for oxygen. Water regulates heat exchange, thins the blood. The body should receive at least two liters of clean water per day. And it cannot be replaced with another liquid.If the body receives an excessive amount of water, it easily removes it.

When the body is thirsty, it gives signals. This can manifest itself in different ways. There is a sharp fatigue, lethargy, inattention. Sometimes dehydration can lead to depression and high blood pressure.

Constant water shortage

Continuous water shortage leads to premature aging. In order not to let your body grow old, you need:

– drink water before meals,
– if thirst arises, always quench it,
– drink water two hours after eating,
– wake up in the morning to drink a glass of water, for normal bowel function,
– when playing sports, replenish water supplies, since water is abundantly removed with sweat,
– exclude the use of carbonated drinks and alcohol,
– do not forget about salt, it is a necessary mineral for the human body,
– remember that juices and milk is not a substitute for water.

Dehydration and its consequences

What can long-term dehydration lead to? With a lack of water, the production of energy is reduced, which is necessary for the normal functioning of the body. The brain reacts very sharply to a lack of water, from which a person can suffer from headaches.

Obesity is a direct consequence of an inactive lifestyle and unintentional dehydration. And to avoid this, you need to drink water before and after meals.Water speeds up metabolic processes and prevents the accumulation of fats. In this case, you can take an example from small children. Very often during meals, they ask to drink and it is water. Children, unlike adults, have not learned to suppress body signals.

Remember that water is life. After all, the human body consists of 75% water, and the brain – 85%. Insufficient water intake can lead to irreversible processes in the human body. Listen to your body and fulfill all its requirements. And then you can live in harmony with your body.You do not have to exhaust yourself with diets and excessive physical activity to get rid of excess weight. And the main thing is health. Take care of your health and you will always be young and full of strength.

Water without harm: all about the benefits for the body of women, men and children

MOSCOW, March 3 RIA Novosti. Water is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. When it is beneficial, and when it is harmful, how much it can be drunk per day, how to use it correctly, as well as how to drink water to lose weight – in the material of RIA Novosti.

Properties of water

– Water is the main component of all living organisms, and, of course, man is no exception. Inside each of us, depending on age, it contains from 60 to 70%. With the help of water, the most important biochemical processes take place, toxins are removed. She also participates in thermoregulation, – told RIA Novosti gastroenterologist and nutritionist Daria Burtseva.

Composition and caloric content of drinking water

The quality of drinking water in the territory of the Russian Federation is determined by the SanPiN standards, as well as GOSTs.

According to the documents, it should be transparent, odorless and with a pleasant taste, with a pH of 7-7.5 and a hardness not higher than 7 mmol / l, in which the total amount of useful minerals is not more than 1 g / l.

In addition, harmful chemical impurities in water must either be completely absent, or their concentration must be so low that its percentage cannot be determined by any modern analytical method. Also, there should be practically no pathogenic bacteria and viruses in the water.

– Drinking water for supplying settlements is taken either from artesian layers or from surface sources.Depending on the terrain, it has different mineralization and hardness. Mineralization is understood as the presence of organic and inorganic substances in water (bicarbonates, chlorides and sulfates of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and others). With a mineralization of 0.2 g / l – 0.5 g / l, the water is considered fresh. With an indicator of 1 g / l – 3 g / l – mineralized, – told RIA Novosti dietology consultant Svetlana Andreeva.

KBZHU of drinking water for each indicator – 0.

According to the expert, filtration of water from a tap or from a spring at home is mandatory in order to exclude an increased content of salts of heavy metals, as well as calcium.

You can also buy an already filtered high-quality product in the supermarket. When choosing, it is important to make sure that the label says “water of the highest category”, as well as the category of water (drinking, mineral, table, medical-table, medicinal) and the source (“purified from a central water supply source” or the number and name of the well, its depth, location). In addition, the manufacturer (legal address, phone numbers and other data) and chemical composition (the amount of anions and cations, total mineralization, PH level or description in one phrase, for example, “sodium chloride sulfate water slightly alkaline”) should be noted.

What happens to the body when dehydrated

If the body does not receive water, dehydration develops and then death. With a shortage of 10% of water in the human body, cell damage and irreversible changes begin.

– The skin becomes rough, dry mucous membranes appear, the tongue swells, general weakness, drowsiness, headache and further loss of consciousness and death are observed. Therefore, in case of dehydration, it is important to replenish water reserves in time and rehydrate the body, – said Daria Burtseva.

Why you shouldn’t drink too much water

With an excess of fluid in the human body, overhydration occurs.

– Excessive water intake is an increased burden on the heart, kidneys and the entire body. Also, there is pasty (pallor, decrease in elasticity, a feeling of pastiness on palpation. – Ed.) Of tissues and edema. Even by consuming about 3 liters of fluid a day constantly, without reason and desire, we increase the load on the kidneys, which negatively affects their work, – explained Daria Burtseva.

An increased drinking regime is necessary for viral diseases, sports, in hot climates, breastfeeding and bad habits. For example, smoking 1 pack of cigarettes a day increases the need for water by 40%. In case of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for example, constipation, it is very important not to forget about water: drink it in small portions during the day, and especially in the morning.

23 December 2019, 09:19

The doctor told who should not drink mineral water

The benefits of water for the human body

– A person is thirsty when the amount of water in his body decreases by only 1-2% (0.5 liters ).Loss of 10% can lead to irreversible changes in the body and death, – said Svetlana Andreeva.

A person loses 2-3 liters of water per day. Almost half a liter of it leaves the body only through breathing. At the same time, the consumption increases in hot weather, with high humidity, during sports.

The benefits of water for the human body are invaluable. It moisturizes oxygen for breathing, regulates body temperature, transports nutrients, vitamins and minerals throughout the body, flushes out dead cells and waste products of microorganisms and bacteria.A number of pathological processes are triggered from a lack of water in the body, which in the long term can lead to negative consequences.

– For example, when there is a shortage of water in the body, the blood becomes thick, as a result of which there are many serious diseases, up to heart attacks and infertility, – explained Svetlana Andreeva.

Benefits of water on an empty stomach

According to Daria Burtseva, it is recommended to start the day with 100-150 milliliters of clean drinking water. Its temperature should be room temperature.

– By consuming water in the morning, we, firstly, replenish what our body has lost at night with sweat and breathing. And secondly, we encourage the body to wake up, stimulate metabolism, start the work of the gastrointestinal tract and, accordingly, improve digestion, ” the doctor said.

Benefits of warm water

Warm water, that is, at a temperature a couple of degrees above body temperature, is comfortable for the body, in contrast to cold water, which is stressful for the gastrointestinal tract.

Warm drinking promotes rapid cleansing of the digestive organs from impurities, food debris, improves metabolism, renews blood, and also more quickly removes toxins and toxins, helps the skin to become elastic and tight.

In addition, warm water relaxes muscles, relieves spasmodic and menstrual pains, and helps relieve migraines.

Benefits of melt water

During the freezing process, the water’s molecular structure changes.It remains for an extremely short time in melt water, which contains ice crystals. Approximately 50-70 grams of water are considered useful within 30 minutes after thawing. They promote self-regulation of the body and improve metabolism.

Experts point out that freezing water followed by thawing is a rather effective way to purify it.

Harm to water

Water can be harmful if you drink a lot – 3-4 liters or more – in one sitting.Overhydration is an overload on the kidneys and the cause of edema. In addition, excess water intake lowers the concentration of electrolytes in the blood, in particular sodium, which maintains a balance between the fluid inside and outside the cells.

If overhydration develops rapidly, then its first signs include vomiting and imbalance and coordination. However, it can be chronic – with a decrease in the volume of urine excreted and edema (including subcutaneous tissue).

11 May 2019, 08:00

Bottled water: the biggest fraud in history

Benefits and harms of boiled water

Boiling water does no harm or benefit, because when heated strongly, the liquid becomes chemically sterile.

Boiling tap water not only kills germs, but also reduces hardness values. Salts that are harmful to the body when raw water is consumed remain on the bottom and walls of the container in which the boiling took place. However, chlorine, which may be present in tap water, is converted to carcinogenic compounds that are not safe for health.

Moisture from a well or source is best suited for boiling. It is especially important to subject such water to heat treatment in the hot season, when the intensive multiplication of bacteria leads to frequent infectious diseases of the intestines.

Benefits and harms of mineral water

Table mineral water with low mineralization is especially useful for residents of regions poor in minerals. This liquid replenishes the balance of salts, perfectly replacing various dietary supplements.

Table mineral water improves metabolism, helps to reduce weight, reduce cholesterol, normalize stool, regulates acid-base balance, digestive system and kidney function.

But medicinal-table and medicinal mineral water should be used only for a certain period of time as prescribed by a doctor.Buying it and drinking it “for prevention” is contraindicated.

Pay attention to carbonation of water. In diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, the use of liquids saturated with carbon dioxide is contraindicated.

Benefits and harms of water with lemon and honey

Water with lemon is an excellent detox tool – it helps to remove toxins, cleanse the blood, and accelerate metabolism. Water with honey enhances immunity, normalizes sleep and has soothing properties.These supplements can be mixed in water at the same time, which will bring double benefits to the body.

However, drinking water with lemon and honey is contraindicated for ulcers and gastritis, for stomatitis and highly sensitive tooth enamel, as well as for people with citrus and honey allergies and people with diabetes.

April 13, 2020, 6:30 pm, the nutritionist told what would happen if you drink water with lemon on an empty stomach

Daily norms of drinking water by human weight

Water must enter our body evenly throughout the day in order to satisfy the daily requirement.The amount of water depends on the climate, type of activity, body size and sex of a person.

– In a healthy person, the need for water is regulated by the feeling of thirst, which occurs when there is a shortage of only 1%, therefore the average amount of water per day is 1500-2500 milliliters or about 30 milliliters per kilogram of weight in a temperate climate and with quiet work. At the same time, do not forget that the body receives part of the water endogenously, that is, as a result of the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. This means that by consuming food (soups and juices as well), we get water as well, – said Daria Burtseva.

Based on this, adults in a certain weight need per day:

  • per 50 kilograms – 1.5 liters of water;

  • for 60 – 1.8 liters;

  • for 70 – 2.1 liters;

  • 80 – 2.4 liters;

  • 90 – 2.7 liters;

  • per 100 – 3 liters.

How much water a child needs to drink

As Svetlana Andreeva explained, children aged from six months to a year are advised to drink up to 260 ml of clean drinking water per day.This amount should be gradually increased. From 5 years old, you need already from 1 to 1.5 liters.

How much water an adult man or woman needs to drink

“A healthy adult is recommended to drink about 30 milliliters of water per kilogram of weight a day,” Svetlana Andreeva noted.

For pregnant women and people with kidney disease, the amount of water is determined by their attending physician. A nursing mother needs 1 liter more fluid than usual.

How much water does an elderly need

The amount of liquid (pure water, juices, compotes, decoctions, teas) should correspond to the physiological needs of a person.From 55-60 years old it is about 1.5 liters per day. Limiting the liquid or increasing its amount is possible only according to indications.

How to drink water correctly

– You can drink water at any time of the day, as well as before, after and during meals. Water does not mix with food, but flows down the back of the stomach. Information that water can cause food rotting or other fantasies are all myths. The main thing is to take into account your own needs. If you want to drink – drink, – said Svetlana Andreeva.

Drinking is best done while sitting or standing. You should not do this while walking or lying down, as you can choke.

Water for weight loss

Although water is not an “elixir” that can quickly give you slimness, it helps to convert food into energy, participates in metabolism. Consuming the RDA of fluids daily, combined with proper nutrition, can help you shed those extra pounds.

– Burning fats release energy necessary for all important processes in the human body, and endogenous water that we do not need.When the body is replenished with clean water, the endogenous one leaves, and in conjunction with the breakdown of fats, you can lose weight well. If we are experiencing a moisture deficit, the cells begin to absorb and retain endogenous water inside them. As a result, weight loss is slow or does not occur at all, – said Daria Burtseva.


Ask a question Question:

How much water should you drink in the morning on an empty stomach?


Eduard Zagidullin


The need to drink water in the morning on an empty stomach is not strictly regulated.If you wish, you can have a drink. But neither water nor food should be used by humans by force.

Ask a question Question:

Why can’t you drink a lot of water in one gulp?


Daria Burtseva


It is important to drink water calmly, in small sips. Otherwise, having received the entire volume in one gulp, we load the stomach, causing a feeling of heaviness, and speed up the trip to the toilet. When consumed quietly, water is absorbed slowly, saturating our body and eliminating thirst.

31 July 2020, 17:00 AM The nutritionist told how much water you need to drink per day Ask question Question:

Can you drink 3 liters of water a day?


Eduard Zagidullin


The required daily volume of fluid even for the same person may vary depending on environmental factors. If a person, for example, is under the summer sun in hot weather and is engaged in physical activity, then he may well need 3 liters of fluid.In addition, you need to understand that water is also contained in the products that we eat (vegetables, fruits include up to 90% water, and soups are also considered). Moreover, if the choice is between a glass of pure water and a glass of sweet drink, it is better to prefer the first one.

Ask a question Question:

Should I drink water at night?


Eduard Zagidullin


At night, as at any time of the day, you need to drink water if you want.The feeling of thirst is the main thing to be guided by. Listen to your body. All that can be found on the Internet about the “need for 8 glasses of water per day” is an advertisement for bottled water producers. The recommendation to “drink as much as possible” has no scientific basis. And the wrinkles will not decrease, unfortunately.

Ask a question Question:

Why is it harmful to drink water while standing?


Daria Burtseva


There is a version that the water should not be drunk while standing, but it has not received scientifically proven justification.Of course, it is better to take food and drinks in a calm, seated position, but there is no pronounced difference in this.

Ask a question Question:

What is body rehydration?


Eduard Zagidullin


This is the replacement of lost fluid. Rehydration is necessary in case of dehydration, for example, with acute intestinal infection, high temperature, as well as with significant physical exertion, accompanied by severe sweating.

Ask a question Question:

What happens if you don’t drink water every day?


Daria Burtseva


If the body does not receive water, dehydration develops in it. With a shortage of only 1% of water, a person begins to feel thirst, and at 10%, cell damage begins.

Ask a question Question:

How to determine dehydration in an adult?


Eduard Zagidullin


Symptoms of dehydration are weakness, lethargy, pale and inelastic skin, dry mucous membranes, decreased blood pressure and urinary volume.These symptoms require medical advice.

Ask a question Question:

How quickly does death occur with dehydration?


Daria Burtseva


In time, the process of complete dehydration takes about 3-4 days. It all depends on environmental conditions, age and the initial state of the body. Therefore, during dehydration, it is important to replenish water reserves in time and rehydrate the body.

Ask a question Question:

How to drink water correctly for constipation?


Eduard Zagidullin


Only water is unlikely to cure real constipation.But with a tendency to such conditions, it is advisable to take water on an empty stomach, at room temperature in order to “revitalize” intestinal motility. If there is no effect, you should consult a doctor for the selection of drug therapy.

The role of iodine in the body,

June 25, 2019

Iodine is one of the vital micronutrients: the daily requirement for it, depending on age, ranges from 100 to 200 μg (1 μg is 1 millionth of a gram), and over a lifetime, a person consumes about 3-5 grams of iodine, which is equivalent to the contents of about one teaspoon.For the formation of the required amount of hormones, a sufficient intake of iodine into the body is also required. The daily requirement for iodine depends on age and physiological condition.

Rates of daily intake of iodine

– 50 mcg for infants (first 12 months)

– 90 mcg for young children (2-6 years old)

– 120 mcg for school children (7 to 12 years old)

– 150 mcg for adults (12 years and older)

– 200 μg for pregnant and lactating women

Brief description of the problem

Iodine is a trace element necessary for the normal growth and development of humans and animals.Once in the body, iodine selectively accumulates in the thyroid gland, where it goes through a complex path of transformations and becomes an integral part of thyroid hormones: thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Thyroid hubbubs regulate the metabolic rate in the body, participate in the work of all organs and systems.

The most common manifestation of iodine deficiency is goiter. However, modern knowledge makes it possible to distinguish a number of diseases caused by the influence of iodine deficiency on the growth and development of the body.In iodine-deficient regions, women have impaired reproductive function, the number of miscarriages and stillbirths increases, and perinatal and infant mortality increases. Deficiency of thyroid hormones in the fetus and in early childhood can lead to an irreversible decrease in mental development, up to cretinism. Not only the child’s brain suffers from iodine deficiency, but also, according to numerous studies, his hearing, visual memory and speech. Lack of iodine can affect the functioning of vital organs and lead to a delay in physical development.

Obviously, the most unfavorable consequences arise in the early stages of the formation of the organism, starting from the prenatal period and ending with the age of puberty. Currently, a number of diseases are known due to the influence of iodine deficiency in different periods of life.

Consequences of iodine deficiency

Antepartum: abortion, stillbirth, congenital anomalies, increased mortality in childbirth, endemic cretinism;

Postpartum period, early childhood: neonatal goiter, overt or subclinical hypothyroidism, impaired mental and physical development;

Childhood and adolescence: endemic goiter (diffuse, nodular), overt or subclinical hypothyroidism, mental and physical development disorders;

Adults: goiter (diffuse, nodular) and its complications, hypothyroidism, mental disorders, reproductive system disorders: infertility and impotence, pituitary tumors, empty Turkish saddle syndrome, early menopause;

Why was salt chosen for iodine enrichment?

  • Salt is used daily, which means iodine will enter the body constantly;
  • Salt uses everything, regardless of material wealth, gender, age and education;
  • Salt is consumed in small quantities, so that it is impossible to overdose the iodine content in the body;
  • The cost of iodized salt is practically the same as for ordinary salt.Iodized salt can be purchased by everyone, from retirees to young people.

Errors and misconceptions of iodine prophylaxis



Consumption of iodized salt may cause an allergic reaction

In medical practice, cases of allergic reactions to iodized salt were not observed

Consumption of iodized salt can induce autoimmune thyroiditis

With the consumption of physiological amounts of iodine, the risk of developing autoimmune thyroid diseases does not increase

Iodized salt is not suitable for salting vegetables and other products

Special studies in many countries have shown that iodized salt does not affect the quality of canning

Regular consumption of sea fish is sufficient to prevent iodine deficiency

Regular consumption of sea fish and seafood is very useful, but not enough to fully provide the body with iodine.Use iodized salt

for cooking

For the prevention of IDD, you can use an alcohol solution of iodine and Lugol’s solution

You do not need to do this. A drop of Lugol’s solution contains almost a six-month dose of iodine, it is better to buy iodized salt

Walnut membranes, persimmons, feijoa and some other fruits contain a lot of iodine

With rare exceptions, the soils are sharply depleted in iodine.Plants are not able to concentrate it, and their fruits, leaves, roots do not contain an increased amount of iodine

Iodized salt is shown to all residents of our country, without exception, where there is a natural deficiency of iodine and its intake with food and water is reduced. Iodized salt is not a medicine, but a food product. You don’t need any recipes to buy it in the store. You just need to buy iodized salt instead of regular salt and use it for cooking and for adding food

Vip Line Linfogei


Lymph circulation and disturbances are often recognized as the main cause of a number of defects and serious pathologies.Therefore, it is imperative that cosmetic therapy has suitable means to help improve lymph flow when the functions of the lymphatic circulation are impaired and it is necessary to help cleanse the lymph nodes to restore healthy tissue function.

The effectiveness of lymph drainage was scientifically tested and proven in 1932 when Dr. Vodder * founded the first research school.

Linfogei is the most sophisticated feature that has taken the lead in cosmetic medicine in all drainage procedures.Work quickly and safely with excellent results.

While manual draining starts from the outside and it is a good rule to maintain a pressure of 30/33 mm Hg (0.00135951 kgf / cm2) to avoid the opposite effect, in the Linfogei function the pressure is achieved by internal muscle stimulation.

The impulses transmitted by the equipment to the nerve nodes excite the muscle fibers, which contract in response, and the muscle contractions, in turn, are converted into pressure along the lymphatic vessels, thereby enhancing the drainage and cleansing processes of the system.

For various reasons (structure, age, sedentary or hyperactive lifestyle, etc.), muscle tone changes not only from person to person, but also from area to area. The equipment is capable of producing the required pressure to obtain the optimal contraction and thus adjusts the treatment procedure according to the client’s needs.


Blood circulation and fluctuations can also lead to defects in the field of beauty, especially on the legs.

Using the same principles. Linfogei acts on the venous circulation system. Indirectly affecting external defects caused by problems associated with veins and venous nodes – decongestant and draining effect.

Therefore, the application of the Linfogei function for cosmetic venous drainage should help improve blood circulation and have a beneficial effect on venous congestion problems.Cellulite, fat, and changes in tissue pigmentation, in addition to problems with venous congestion, can also be caused by poor or insufficient flushing of the area, usually due to vasoconstriction. Cosmetological venous drainage, due to its mobilizing effect, helps to remove fluid from capillary vessels; it eliminates stagnation of blood in such vessels, thereby, improving oxygen supply, and having a general beneficial effect on tissues.

Linfogei is designed for the following tasks:

  • Cosmetic treatment with body and face drainage
  • Cosmetic treatment with saphenous vein drainage.

Linfogei effective at:

  • treatment according to the individual needs of the client
  • friendly programming and application
  • concrete results

Main effects of face and body drainage

  • prevents and eliminates edema
  • improves superficial microcirculation
  • strengthens the body’s defenses
  • has a regenerating effect
  • anti-toxic effect
  • restores blood circulation
  • has a beneficial effect on reducing inflammation
  • removes congestion in superficial venous nodes
  • improves skin tone
  • saturates tissues with oxygen
  • Prevents defects on the body caused by impaired circulation systems

Linfogei are complex cosmetic procedures with face and body treatments for:

  • for cosmetological and aesthetic lymphatic drainage
  • for cosmetic and aesthetic drainage of the venous system
  • prevents cellulite
  • Cosmetological deficiencies caused by the fight against insufficient circulation
  • 12 independent channels (24 points of stimulation for face and body)
  • Waveform: negative square waves alternating with a pause period
  • automatic selection of partial use of channels
  • Independent adjustment of the pause duration – action – duration of the procedure.
  • heart rate sensor
  • color schemes of procedures with display of a computer panel
  • Checking the circuit and connectors

Preoperative period

Provide a more trophic state of tissues, thereby accelerating and promoting recovery after surgery.

Postoperative period

All possible edema is quickly and correctly absorbed, and scars heal better.

Also function Linfogei can be used in mini-lifting, lifting, nose, eyelid, breast, abdomen, buttocks, liposuction, etc.