Fungal infection on back: Tinea versicolor – Symptoms and causes
Tinea Versicolor: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
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Pityriasis versicolor | DermNet NZ
Author: A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, 1997. Updated September 2014. DermNet NZ revision August 2021
What is pityriasis versicolor?
Pityriasis versicolor is a common yeast infection of the skin, in which flaky discoloured patches appear on the chest and back.
The term pityriasis is used to describe skin conditions in which the scale appears similar to bran. The multiple colours of pityriasis versicolor give rise to the second part of the name, versicolor. Pityriasis versicolor is sometimes called tinea versicolor, although the term tinea should strictly be used for dermatophyte fungus infections.
Who gets pityriasis versicolor?
Pityriasis versicolor most frequently affects young adults and is slightly more common in men than in women. It can also affect children, adolescents, and older adults.
Pityriasis versicolor is more common in hot, humid climates than in cool, dry climates. It often affects people who perspire heavily. It may clear in the winter months and recur each summer.
Although it is not considered infectious in the conventional sense, pityriasis versicolor sometimes affects more than one member of a family.
What is the cause of pityriasis versicolor?
Pityriasis versicolor is caused by mycelial growth of fungi of the genus Malassezia.
Malassezia are part of the normal skin microbiota (microorganisms found on normal skin). They are dependent on lipid for survival. Fourteen different species of malassezia have been identified. The most common species cultured from pityriasis versicolor are M globosa, M restricta and M sympodialis.
Usually malassezia grow sparsely in the seborrhoeic areas (scalp, face and chest) without causing a rash. It is not known why they sometimes grow more actively on the skin surface to form pityriasis versicolor. One theory implicates a tryptophan-dependent metabolic pathway.
The yeasts induce enlarged melanosomes (pigment granules) within basal melanocytes in the brown type of pityriasis versicolor. It is easier to demonstrate the yeasts in scrapings taken from this type of pityriasis versicolor than in those taken from the white type.
The white or hypopigmented type of pityriasis versicolor is thought to be due to a chemical produced by malassezia that diffuses into the epidermis and impairs the function of the melanocytes.
The pink type of pityriasis versicolor is mildly inflamed, due to dermatiits induced by malassezia or its metabolites.
What are the clinical features of pityriasis versicolor?
Pityriasis versicolor affects the trunk, neck, and/or arms, and is uncommon on other parts of the body. The patches may be coppery brown, paler than surrounding skin, or pink. Pale patches may be more common in darker skin; this appearance is known as pityriasis versicolor alba. Sometimes the patches start scaly and brown, and then resolve through a non-scaly and white stage.
Pityriasis versicolor is usually asymptomatic, but in some people it is mildly itchy.
In general, pale or dark patches due to pityriasis versicolor do not tend to be more or less prone to sunburn than surrounding skin.
Hyperpigmented, hypopigmented, and pink pityriasis versicolor are usually seen as distinct variants but may sometimes co-exist. Pink pityriasis versicolor may also co-exist with seborrhoeic dermatitis as both are associated with malassezia overgrowth.
See more images of pityriasis versicolor.
How is pityriasis versicolor diagnosed?
Pityriasis versicolor is usually diagnosed clinically. The following tests may be useful.
- Wood lamp (black light) examination— yellow-green fluorescence may be observed in affected areas
- Dermoscopy of pityriasis versicolor – pallor, background faint pigment network, and scale
- Microscopy of a skin scraping (using potassium hydroxide (KOH) to remove skin cells)—hyphae and yeast cells that resemble spaghetti and meatballs
- Fungal culture—this is usually reported to be negative, as it is quite difficult to persuade the yeasts to grow in a laboratory
- Skin biopsy—fungal elements may be seen within the outer cells of the skin (stratum corneum) on histopathology. Special stains may be required.
Microscopy of Malassezia furfur
What is the treatment of pityriasis versicolor?
Mild pityriasis versicolor is treated with topical antifungal agents.
- Selenium sulfide shampoo
- Topical azole cream/shampoo (econazole, ketoconazole)
- Terbinafine gel
The medicine should be applied widely to the skin from the jawline down and left on the skin for 5-15 minutes before rinsing off in the shower. This should be done daily for one week then weekly for one month.
Oral antifungal agents, itraconazole and fluconazole, are used to treat pityriasis versicolor when extensive or if topical agents have failed.
Vigorous exercise an hour after taking the medication may help sweat it onto the skin surface, where it can effectively eradicate the yeast. Bathing should be avoided for a few hours. A few days’ treatment will clear many cases of pityriasis long term, or at least for several months.
Oral terbinafine, an antifungal agent used to treat dermatophyte infections, is not effective for yeast infections such as pityriasis versicolor.
Reapplication of a topical treatment such as selenium sulfide shampoo every month once the rash has cleared will usually prevent recurrence.
What is the outlook for pityriasis versicolor?
Pityriasis versicolor generally clears satisfactorily with treatment but often recurs when conditions are right for malassezia to proliferate. The fine surface scale is the indication of active infection and once this has disappeared, infection is no longer ongoing. The colour may persist for weeks or months, particularly the hypopigmentation, and do not indicate treatment failure.
Pityriasis versicolor often recurs when the weather becomes warm and humid again. Regular use of topical treatment minimises this risk.
Tinea Versicolor Treatment – How to Get Rid of Tinea Versicolor
- Ever seen light-colored spots on your back or chest? It might have been tinea versicolor, a relatively common fungal infection
- Tinea versicolor shows up most often during the summer, when sweat and moisture breed yeast on your skin
- While you may not be happy with how it looks, it’s usually painless and harmless
- That said, tinea versicolor is prone to spreading, so here’s how to stop it in its tracks
Ah, summer: a time for sun, swimming, and showing off lots of skin. Which can suck if your skin isn’t clear.
The warmer months may leave you battling a skin condition called tinea versicolor, a fungal infection that “can show up on the skin as flat or slightly raised spots that can be darker or lighter than the normal skin, or pink to red in color,” says Steven Daveluy, MD, assistant professor at Wayne State Dermatology. “They can be dry and flaky and they can cause itching, but they usually don’t itch.”
Also known as pityriasis versicolor, these spots will not tan in the sun, so you may not even notice them until you get a tan and the light spots stick out. The spots start out small, usually on the upper chest, upper back, shoulders and neck. They then grow slowly and develop into larger spots.
So what’s the deal with these spots, and how can you get rid of them?
An example of mild tinea versicolor, or a fungal infection on the skin.
What causes it
Unlike acne, tinea versicolor is caused by a fungal infection. It’s essentially a yeast overgrowth on your skin.
“Tinea versicolor is especially common in the summer months. This particular yeast is called Malassezia, and it usually lives on our skin without any issues. At certain times, though, it can overgrow, especially in hot and humid weather,” says Rajani Katta MD, author of Glow: The Dermatologist’s Guide to a Whole Foods Younger Skin Diet.
How to treat it
Tinea versicolor can often be cured with over-the-counter products.
“Options include shampoos that contain selenium sulfide (Selsun Blue is a name brand), and anti-fungal creams or ointments containing miconazole, clotrimazole or terbinafine. The shampoo should be left on the skin for at least five minutes before rinsing. Men using the creams or ointments should apply a thin layer once or twice a day for at least 2 weeks,” says Dr. Daveluy.
Selsun Blue, $21. 07 (pack of 2)
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If your spots don;t improve with treatment after one to two weeks, it’s a good idea to see a physician or dermatologist for prescription options, says Evan Rieder, MD, a dermatologist at NYU Langone. The prescription options are similar to the over-the-counter options, including anti-fungal shampoos, creams and ointments.
“In more severe cases, your physician may even prescribe anti-fungal pills to kill the yeast,” says Dr. Daveluy.
But even if you get the yeast under control, your spots may still persist. That’s why early intervention is crucial if the spots on your back are really bothering you.
“Tinea versicolor can really affect the pigment on the skin, leaving light or dark spots in its wake. These spots can persist even after the yeast has been treated, so it’s really something you want to nip in the bud,” says Dr. Rieder.
How to prevent it
There are a few things you can do to prevent tinea versicolor. For starters, wear loose-fitting clothing: tight clothes create a breeding ground for yeast, so stick to breathable fabrics, says Dr. Katta. You should also shower immediately after your workout to prevent a sticky, warm space for yeast to grow.
Try to stay out of the sun, but if you must be out in the sun, use sunscreen. “Protect your skin from sunlight, since it makes tinea versicolor more noticeable,” says Daveluy. And always keep an anti-fungal shampoo or cream on hand.
“To help prevent the disease from returning, I ask my patients to use their anti-fungal shampoo or cream once or twice a month, especially in the warm months,” says Daveluy.
Emily Shiffer is a former digital web producer for Men’s Health and Prevention, and is currently a freelancer writer specializing in health, weight loss, and fitness.
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Tinea Versicolor – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf
Continuing Education Activity
Pityriasis versicolor, also known as tinea versicolor, is a common, benign, superficial fungal infection of the skin. Clinical features of pityriasis versicolor include either hyperpigmented or hypopigmented finely scaled macules. The most frequently affected sites are the trunk, neck, and proximal extremities. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of pityriasis versicolor and highlights the role of interprofessional team members in collaborating to provide well-coordinated care and enhance patient outcomes.
Describe the epidemiology of pityriasis versicolor.
Explain the evaluation for pityriasis versicolor.
Outline treatment considerations for pityriasis versicolor.
Summarize the importance of enhancing care coordination among the interprofessional team to ensure proper evaluation and management of pityriasis versicolor.
Access free multiple choice questions on this topic.
Pityriasis versicolor, also known as tinea versicolor, is a frequent, benign, superficial fungal infection of the skin. It belongs to Malassezia-related diseases. Clinical features of pityriasis versicolor include either hyperpigmented or hypopigmented finely scaly macules. The most frequently affected sites are the trunk, neck, and proximal extremities. The diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor is often made on clinical grounds alone. The ultraviolet black light and the microscopic examination of scales soaked in potassium hydroxide may be helpful in doubtful cases. Pityriasis versicolor responds well to induction therapy. However, long-term maintenance treatment often is required because of high recurrence rate.
Pityriasis versicolor is caused by Malassezia, a dimorphic lipophilic fungus, also known as Pityrosporum. It is a component of normal skin flora. To date, 14 species of Malassezia have been identified. The main species isolated in pityriasis versicolor are Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia sympodialis.
Pityriasis versicolor has been reported worldwide, but it is more common in warm and humid conditions. The prevalence is as high as 50% in tropical countries and as low as 1.1% in cold climates such as Sweden. Pityriasis versicolor occurs more frequently in adolescents and young adults probably due to the increase of sebum production by the sebaceous glands which allow for a more lipid-rich environment in which Malassezia can grow. Pityriasis versicolor affects men and women equally and no specific ethnic predominance has been noted.
Malassezia is commensal of healthy skin, and it is most common in oily areas such as the face, scalp, and back. However, Malassezia can cause pityriasis versicolor when it converts to its pathogenic filamentous form. Factors that lead to this pathogenic conversion include a genetic predisposition, environmental conditions such as heat and humidity, immunodeficiency, pregnancy, oily skin, and application of oily lotions and creams.
A skin biopsy is not required to confirm a diagnosis, but if it is performed, histological findings include hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and a mild superficial, perivascular infiltrate in the dermis. Fungal elements are localized almost exclusively within the stratum corneum and can often be visualized even in sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Both spores and hyphae of Malassezia are present and are often likened to spaghetti and meatballs. Periodic acid-Schiff stain may improve recognition of the fungus.
History and Physical
Patients with pityriasis versicolor present with multiple, well-demarcated, oval, finely scaling patches or plaques. Skin lesions may be hypopigmented, hyperpigmented, or erythematous and occasionally become confluent and widespread. The fine scale may not be readily apparent on the lesions, but it is easily provoked when the affected skin is stretched or scraped. The distribution of affected skin reflects the lipophilic nature of the fungus since the seborrheic areas (trunk, neck, and/or arms) are predominantly involved. The face also may be affected, particularly in children. Pityriasis versicolor skin lesions are usually asymptomatic or slightly pruritic. However, severe pruritus can be present in very warm and humid conditions.
Diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor is usually easily made on the basis of its characteristic clinical presentation (hyperpigmented or hypopigmented, finely scaling patches or plaques).
The ultraviolet black light (Wood lamp) may help to demonstrate the coppery-orange fluorescence of pityriasis versicolor.
The diagnosis is confirmed by microscopic examination of scales soaked in potassium hydroxide examination, which demonstrates the typical grape-like clusters of yeast cells and long hyphae. Since the standard potassium-hydroxide mount lacks a color contrast, methylene blue stain, ink blue stain, or Swartz-Medrik stain may be added to visualize better.
Malassezia species are known to be difficult to grow in the laboratory as they require fastidious culture conditions.
Treatment / Management
Patients should be informed that the causative agent of pityriasis versicolor is a commensal fungal inhabitant of the normal skin flora, and therefore the disease is not considered to be contagious. In addition, pityriasis versicolor does not lead to either permanent scarring or pigmentary disorders. However, in many cases, disease recurrence may occur despite effective treatment.
Pityriasis versicolor may be treated effectively with topical and/or systemic agents.
Topical medications are considered the first-line therapy for pityriasis versicolor. Topical treatments are divided into nonspecific antifungal agents (sulfur plus salicylic acid, selenium sulfide 2.5%, and zinc-pyrithione) that primarily remove dead tissue and prevent further invasion, and specific antifungal drugs, that have fungicidal or fungistatic effects. Antifungal agents include imidazole (clotrimazole 1%, ketoconazole 2%, econazole, isoconazole, miconazole), ciclopirox olamine 1% , and allylamine (terbinafine 1%). Galenic forms such as sprays or foaming solutions in shampoo are preferable to creams because creams are oilier and more difficult to apply, especially in widespread areas. Ketoconazole is the most common topical treatment used to treat pityriasis versicolor. It can be applied as a cream (twice daily for 15 days) or in a foaming solution (single dose).
Oral medications are viewed as a second-line of treatment for pityriasis versicolor in the event of widespread, severe, recalcitrant or recurrent cases. Systemic therapies include itraconazole (200 mg daily for seven days) and fluconazole (150 to 300 mg weekly dose for 2 to 4 weeks) that are preferred to oral ketoconazole which is no longer approved due to its potential hepatotoxic sides effects. Oral terbinafine is not effective in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.
In cases of recurrent pityriasis versicolor, maintenance therapy may be necessary. Topical prophylactic treatment can be used. However, systemic antifungal agents are preferred since they are less time-consuming and ensure better compliance. Many studies have been conducted to identify the best prophylactic regimen.
Pityriasis versicolor may be confused with various conditions:
Pityriasis versicolor is benign and noncontagious since the causative fungal pathogen is commensal of normal skin. Oral and topical antifungal agents are effective; however, disease recurrence is common and may have an impact on a patient’s quality of life. Therefore, preventive measures should be taken. Also, patients must be reminded that pigmentary changes may take weeks to months to clear, even if the fungus is eradicated.
Pearls and Other Issues
Pityriasis versicolor is a benign but commonly recurrent superficial fungal infection of the skin. Therefore, patients need effective follow-up care to implement a relapse prevention strategy.
Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
Tinea versicolor is a relatively common skin disorder that may be encountered by the nurse practitioner, internist, dermtologist and primary care physician. The diagnosis is usually made on clinical features but does require clinical acumen. The rash is benign and may spontaneously disappear.
Patients should be informed that the causative agent of pityriasis versicolor is a commensal fungal inhabitant of the normal skin flora, and therefore the disease is not considered to be contagious. In addition, pityriasis versicolor does not lead to either permanent scarring or pigmentary disorders. However, in many cases, disease recurrence may occur despite effective treatment. An interprofessional team of a nurse and clinician should provide patient education which will decrease their anxiety and provide the best patient outcome.
The outcomes in most patients are excellent. (Level V)
Pityriasis Versicolor. Contributed by DermNetNZ
Pityriasis Versicolor. Contributed by Dr. Shyam Verma, MBBS, DVD, FRCP, FAAD, Vadodara, India
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- Rosen T. Mycological Considerations in the Topical Treatment of Superficial Fungal Infections. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016 Feb;15(2 Suppl):s49-55. [PubMed: 26885799]
- Gupta AK, Foley KA. Antifungal Treatment for Pityriasis Versicolor. J Fungi (Basel). 2015 Mar 12;1(1):13-29. [PMC free article: PMC5770013] [PubMed: 29376896]
- Gupta AK, Lyons DC. Pityriasis versicolor: an update on pharmacological treatment options. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014 Aug;15(12):1707-13. [PubMed: 24991691]
- Hawkins DM, Smidt AC. Superficial fungal infections in children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2014 Apr;61(2):443-55. [PubMed: 24636655]
- Browning JC. An update on pityriasis rosea and other similar childhood exanthems. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009 Aug;21(4):481-5. [PubMed: 19502983]
- Drake LA, Dinehart SM, Farmer ER, Goltz RW, Graham GF, Hordinsky MK, Lewis CW, Pariser DM, Skouge JW, Webster SB, Whitaker DC, Butler B, Lowery BJ, Elewski BE, Elgart ML, Jacobs PH, Lesher JL, Scher RK. Guidelines of care for superficial mycotic infections of the skin: Pityriasis (tinea) versicolor. Guidelines/Outcomes Committee. American Academy of Dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996 Feb;34(2 Pt 1):287-9. [PubMed: 8642095]
Fungal Skin Infection (Tinea)
A fungal infection occurs when too much fungus grows on or in the body. Fungus normally lives on the skin in small amounts and does not cause harm. But when too much grows on the skin, it causes an infection. This is also known as tinea. Fungal skin infections are common and not usually serious.
The infection often starts as a small red area the size of a pea. The skin may turn dry and flaky. The area may itch. As the fungus grows, it spreads out in a red circle. Because of how it looks, fungal skin infection is often called ringworm, but it is not caused by a worm. Fungal skin infections can occur on many parts of the body. They can grow on the head, chest, arms, buttocks or legs. On the feet, fungal infection is known as “athlete’s foot.” It causes itchy, sometimes painful sores between the toes and the bottom or sides of the feet. In the groin, the rash is called “jock itch.”
People with weak immune systems can get a fungal infection more easily. This includes people with diabetes or HIV, or who are being treated for cancer. In these cases, the fungal infection can spread and cause severe illness. Fungal infections are also more common in people who are overweight.
In most cases, treatment is done with antifungal cream or ointment. If the infection is on your scalp, you will need to take oral medicine. To confirm the diagnosis of a fungal infection, the healthcare provider may take a small scraping of the skin to be tested in a lab.
Common fungal infections are treated with creams on the skin or oral medicine.
Follow all instructions when using antifungal cream or ointment on your skin.
If you were prescribed an oral medicine, read the patient information. Talk with your healthcare provider about the risks and side effects.
Let your skin dry completely after bathing. Carefully dry your feet and between your toes.
Dress in loose cotton clothing.
Don’t scratch the affected area. This can delay healing and may spread the infection. It can also cause a bacterial infection.
Keep your skin clean, but don’t wash the skin too much. This can irritate your skin.
Keep in mind that it may take a week before the fungus starts to go away. It can take 2 to 4 weeks to fully clear. To prevent it from coming back, use the medicine until the rash is all gone.
Follow up with your healthcare provider if the rash does not get better after 10 days of treatment. Also follow up if the rash spreads to other parts of your body.
When to seek medical advice
Call your healthcare provider right away if any of these occur:
Fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher, or as directed by your healthcare provider
Redness or swelling that gets worse
Pain that gets worse
Foul-smelling fluid leaking from the skin
Types of skin fungus you can get from exercising
Listen up, sweat fanatics: I’m about to tell a tale about a very sexy topical topic—skin fungus. Early this summer, a small population of cream-colored splotches cropped on my chest and upper back, slightly paler than the rest of my body. I responded with what was more or less a shrug. Hey! I live in the great concrete jungle of NYC, where the new species I’m exposed to tend to be more of the pizza rat variety. And since my dermis’ new inhabitants didn’t itch or anything, I kinda just figured: “Eh.”
Flash forward a few months to when my family and I took a trip to the seaside of Massachusetts where I had the first occasion of the summer season to wear a bathing suit. As I headed to the shore with my younger sister, she took one look at my back and said, “Oh, I’ve seen that before. It’s a fungus.” And that was enough: I promptly got to my dermatologist’s office. There, I learned that, A) my fungus is called “tinea versicolor,” and B) people like me—who spend a good portion of their lives in a sweat-soaked sports bra—are particularly susceptible. (The fungus thrives in damp conditions.)
“Oh, I’ve seen that before. It’s a fungus.”
Even though my derm prescribed me a special foam cleanser to rid my body of the stuff, I still had a ton of lingering queries about skin fungi. Like, what causes an outbreak? Are there different types besides tinea versicolor? Do they actually do your health any harm? To get some answers, I spoke with a few complexion experts. Below, they answer every question an active girl never knew she had about…skin ‘shrooms.
Photo: Stocksy/Guille Faingold
Everything you need to know about skin fungus
First up: What causes the stuff? Paul Cellura, MD, a dermatologist at New York City’s Tribeca Skin Care, tells me that fungal conditions appear on your skin for two different reasons. “Some of these fungi live naturally on our skin (as part of our normal skin flora), but may overgrow in certain scenarios, causing skin disease. Other times, fungi may be present in our surrounding environments and can infect the skin through direct contact, again leading to skin disease.”
In addition, Susan Bard, MD of Manhattan Dermatology Specialists says that those with weaker immune systems—like babies, the elderly, diabetics, HIV patients, and those with autoimmune diseases are less able to combat pathogenic fungi.
So what types exist and how do you treat them? To give your skin the best chance to be fungus-free, dermatologist Purvisha Patel, MD, founder of Visha Skincare in Tennessee recommends adding a full-body exfoliator to your beauty routine. Bonus points if it happens to contain anti-fungal or antimicrobial superstars like tea tree oil or zinc (try The Body Shop Tea Tree Squeaky Clean Scrub, $13). “Zinc is necessary for collagen synthesis, and when deficient, the keratin in the skin can be more sticky—resulting in more clogged pores,” she explains. That’s because fungus feeds on oil, so clogged pores are pretty much Thanksgiving dinner for the stuff.
Like any health concern, you should definitely consult your MD about the best course of treatment for your particular skin condition, but below the derms I spoke with offer a brief summary of the most common fungi wreaking havoc on skin. Plus, how they’re normally treated.
What to know about Tinea versicolor: This fungus falls under the non-contagious category, and according to Dr. Bard, it appears on your skin when “yeast makes a bleaching agent that leaves behind light colored spots that take months to resolve.” People who live in warm and humid climates and athletes are more likely to get this one, especially during the summer months. But luckily, Dr. Cellura points out that this variety usually only poses a cosmetic concern (though it can be itchy).
If you go to your dermatologist, they will likely suggest you use an anti-dandruff shampoos contain fungus-fighting ingredients like selenium sulfide (like Selsun Blue) or zinc pyrithione(like Head and Shoulders) all over your body.
Tinea pedis (Ahlete’s foot): This type can be spread from person to person, and can be picked up from locker rooms, community showers, or sweating. If you’ve ever seen a case, you know that it’s not exactly, well, pretty. “When present, tinea pedis looks like red scaly patches on the feet. The most common sites to see the rash include the spaces between the toes and the soles and sides of the feet,” says Dr. Cellura.
For treatment, your doc will likely prescribe an anti-fungal cream, but the dermatologist notes that you can take extra precautions, like right now, by treating your sneakers with anti-fungal spray, and making sure your feet are completely dry before you slide on your tennis shoes post-hot yoga class.
Tinea corporis (Ringworm): Despite the name of this fungus, there are no worms actually present. (Phew!) “The term ringworm came about as the spots tend to appear ring-shaped, with a raised outer border, central clearing, and scaling of the skin,” says Dr. Cellura. Dr. Patel adds that you can pick this one up from the ground and soil (and even just letting your pup snuggle on your bed). But again, you’re more likely to get it if you’re the type of person who skips the shower line after spin class.
This one will likely also be treated with a topical like Clotrimazole or Terbinafine, but if a more extensive area is affected, your derm might prescribe an oral regimen too, according to Dr. Cellura.
Speaking of things you’d rather not have on your skin, here’s how to treat back acne holistically, and how to rid your bod of “chicken bumps.”
Understanding Fungal Skin Infections | Get Healthy Stay Healthy
When you hear the word fungus, you may think of mushrooms growing on a wet tree trunk, mold on old bread, or mildew at the back of the refrigerator. These are perhaps the most well-known forms of fungi (more than one fungus), but did you know that there are up to 1.5 million species of fungi, approximately 300 of which can cause illness in people?
Is There a Fungus Among Us?
Fungi in the form of yeast, mold, or mildew are found just about everywhere, including in the air, in soil, on plants and trees and in water. Some types live on the human skin. Fungi thrive in cool moist areas like the basement and in between walls.
Fungi grow by shedding tiny spores (think of plant seeds) in the air. These spores can land on your skin or you can inhale them. There are higher concentrations of fungal spores in the air in certain locations that are moist, cool and dark, such as a construction or demolition sites, old barns, or dark caves.
What’s a Fungal Infection?
Since fungi can be inhaled or live on your skin, fungal infections can occur in the lungs or on the skin. Most infections, however, do not go beyond the skin, and are termed “superficial.” These superficial fungal infections can affect areas like nails, skin and hair, and might include athlete’s foot or vaginal yeast infections. Fungal skin infections are generally harmless, and can be treated with medication.
It’s important to note that most people can breathe in fungal spores without getting an infection; however, those with weakened immune systems or lung disease can more easily develop fungal infections in the lung, blood or other organs including the sinuses, liver, spleen, and brain. Examples of people with weakened immune systems include those with HIV/AIDS or cancer, who are hospitalized, or are taking medications that suppress the immune system (e.g., steroids or chemotherapy). Fungal infections of the blood, lung or other organ are called “systemic” infections and are generally more serious than superficial infections.
Common Fungal Skin Infections
Tinea is a common group of fungal skin infections that can affect areas such as the feet, groin and scalp. Tinea infections are easily spread from person to person, from touching someone who has the infection or by touching surfaces where the fungus is present (e.g., shower floors, areas around swimming pools, and locker rooms). Some fungal infections are caused by a type of yeast, Candida. It can affect areas such as the skin, mouth, throat, and genitals. It especially occurs in areas where it is warm and moist, including the armpits, under the breasts, behind the knees, and the groin.
Here are some common superficial fungal infections:
- Oral thrush: a yeast infection that causes white patches in the mouth or throat.
- Vaginal yeast infection: an itchy infection of the vagina that can cause white cottage-cheese like discharge.
- Diaper rash: a fungal infection that infects the skin on a baby’s bottom causing red irritation usually due to warm and moist conditions inside the diaper.
- Athlete’s foot: a fungal infection on the skin of the feet, especially between the toes.
- Jock itch: an infection that occurs on the groin or upper thigh.
- Nail infection: a fungal infection of the fingernails or toenails. The nails become thick, yellow or white in color and are more prone to crack or break.
Superficial yeast and fungal infections are generally not a serious problem in healthy people, but they can occur easily in anyone, and can be very annoying. To learn about the different types of fungal infections, please visit the websites below under Take the Next Step.
Treating Fungal Infections
If you aren’t sure if your skin condition is due to a fungal infection, consult your healthcare provider. Your doctor or pharmacist can recommend over-the-counter antifungal treatments (usually ointment or cream). But know that prescription treatments (ointment, cream or medicines you take by mouth) may be needed to treat stubborn fungal or yeast infections. If you have or think you may have a fungal infection, be sure to see your doctor and/or pharmacist.
What You Can Do To Prevent Superficial Infections
Anyone can get a fungal infection, especially people with weakened immune systems. Moist, unclean, cool and unaired areas on our body can become fertile ground to develop superficial fungal infection. This may include your toenails. It’s good to know what to do to prevent them.
Here are some things you can do to prevent fungal infections from recurring:
- Maintain good overall hygiene, including oral hygiene (to help prevent thrush). Keep your skin clean and dry
- Keep your feet clean, cool and dry. Wear clean socks and change them daily. Wear shoes that allow your feet to “breathe”
- Do not walk barefoot in public places, such as showers or gym locker rooms
- Trim your fingernails and toenails to keep them clean and short
- Wash your hands after touching people or animals. Fungal infections are contagious
- If you think your pet has ringworm, have your veterinarian check for and treat the condition
Dr. Jalal Aram, MD, is a Medical Director, Antifungals, Global Division, at Pfizer.
Dr. Jill Inverso, MS, PhD, is an Executive Director, Disease Area Lead, at Pfizer.
90,000 symptoms of the disease and possible treatment for skin fungus
Many people think that fungus in humans develops only on the nails, but this opinion is erroneous. There is another, albeit less common form of this disease – dermatomycosis, or skin fungus. Often it accompanies nail fungus: pathogens are very persistent and quickly move through the body. They are also easy to get infected through household items. Mycosis can occur in everyone, but it is more common in the elderly, diabetics, people with weakened immune systems and those who wear tight shoes for a long time.
At first glance, skin fungus is not the most serious disease, but it should be understood that dermatomycosis is not only an aesthetic problem. The fungus causes significant physical discomfort and can cause various complications. About what symptoms of the disease should alert and how you can cure skin fungus, we will tell in the article.
Symptoms of skin fungus
In order to notice the occurrence of a fungal infection in time and start treatment in a timely manner, it is important to periodically examine the skin.Mycosis has specific symptoms that are hard to miss. Here are the main ones.
- Dryness and peeling – one of the first manifestations of a fungal infection. Dry white scales appear on the affected area, caused by the rejection of the upper layer of the epidermis. When the fungus penetrates into the deeper layers of the epidermis, peeling appears, which subsequently intensifies.
- Stains. They can be white or red and are usually rounded and have fairly well-defined edges.At the beginning of the disease, such a symptom of a fungal infection can be overlooked – at first, the spots are single and very small. But as the disease progresses, the spots increase in size, merge with each other and cause discomfort.
- Cracks and calluses. Many people often confuse calluses with fungal manifestations. The former are simply dry, dense areas of the skin, and the latter are moist “honeycombs”, as a rule, with a characteristic unpleasant odor. But ordinary cracks and calluses should also alert, because they are a real “gateway” for a fungal infection.And even the smallest wound needs to be disinfected in order to prevent the ingress of microbes – everyone knows this from childhood, but often people neglect such a simple recommendation.
- Skin thickening, discoloration. The areas of the skin affected by the fungus become rough, compacted and rough, and can also change color – from white and pinkish to yellowish and even grayish.
- Itching and burning. Depending on the extent of the lesion, this symptom can appear periodically or be present constantly.No matter how excruciating the itching is, you should not comb the affected area – the best solution would be to start treating the skin fungus on the body.
Treating Skin Fungus: Are All Means Good?
Do not hope that the fungus will go away on its own, over time the disease only gets worse. Often people are ashamed of their illness and prefer not to pay attention to the infection and mask defects with powder, foundation or closed clothing. At the same time, hiding external manifestations is not only meaningless, but also dangerous, as it increases the risk of spreading the infection to healthy parts of the body.In addition, a fungal infection can “attract” other, more dangerous skin diseases, which will be much more difficult to get rid of. In addition, mycosis is contagious, hardly anyone wants to “reward” family members, colleagues or friends with such a disease. Therefore, it is better not to postpone therapy until later: at the first symptoms, a person should start treating a skin fungus.
How to treat skin fungus? There are two lines of therapy.
To non-drug treatment of skin fungus includes the use of all kinds of folk remedies.
For example, on the Internet you can find many tips to use soda, propolis tinctures, celandine, essential oils. We will not argue that such methods are completely useless – at the first stage of the fungus and with a small lesion area, they can really help to some extent, but soon the fungus will probably remind of itself again. Not to mention the fact that such treatments for skin fungus have no proven efficacy. Moreover, for sensitive skin, such experiments can only exacerbate the situation.Therefore, it is better to contact a specialist for the appointment of drug treatment.
A dermatologist or a specialist doctor – mycologist treats skin fungus on the body. After examining and examining the patient, the doctor will be able to finally confirm the presence of the fungus and prescribe treatment based on the characteristics of the patient’s body and the nature of the infection.
Medication remedies for the treatment of skin fungus have different effects.Some eliminate only the symptoms, while others also affect the cause of the disease. Symptomatic treatments for skin fungus include various cosmetic ointments and creams. They can be found not only in drugstores, but also in cosmetics stores. Such funds are used both for mycosis and for dermatitis, acne and other unpleasant skin diseases. They relieve itching and reduce flaking with redness, due to which the fungus becomes less noticeable and temporarily ceases to bother the “carrier”.However, the key word here is “temporarily”, because such drugs do not stop the infection itself. Therefore, the best solution would be to use special medicines aimed directly at combating pathogenic fungi. The components of drugs penetrate the site of infection and deprive harmful microorganisms of the ability to multiply. Many modern remedies for the treatment of skin fungus also have anti-inflammatory properties and, together with the cause, also eliminate the symptoms of the disease. All this contributes to the quick and comfortable treatment of skin fungus.
The fungus is one of the most common infections on earth. Mycosis can be caused by more than 500 types of pathogenic fungi, and no one is immune from such a disease. Of course, you always need to maintain personal hygiene and undergo medical examinations, but if you do get sick, it doesn’t matter. In the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, modern means for the treatment of skin fungus can help.
Fungal skin diseases in children – signs, causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention
With microsporia, clearly defined spots, oval or round, appear on the skin.On the scalp, lesions appear, in which the hair is broken off at a height of 5-6 mm, and the nearby skin tissues are covered with grayish-white scales.
With keratomycases, yellowish-brown or pink spots appear on the back, chest, sides of the trunk or abdomen. Over time, they can change their shade (pityriasis versicolor) or cause peeling and itching of the surrounding skin (pityriasis versicolor).
A common type of fungus in young children is trichophytosis, which has the following symptoms:
- hair breakage, tarnishing and loss of elasticity;
- Formation of round bald patches, covered with flaky particles;
- pale color of the central part of the lesion.
The characteristic symptoms of candidiasis include a white coating on the face and mouth, a vesicular rash and ulcers localized in areas of natural skin folds.
If the symptoms described above are detected, you must make an appointment with a pediatric dermatologist. Parents should be aware that after the illness, the child’s body does not develop strong immunity, which can lead to re-infection.
For an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to consult a mycologist.
After clarifying the patient’s complaints and familiarizing himself with the provided medical documentation, the specialist prescribes a list of laboratory tests, which include:
- visual examination of the patient under a Wood lamp, which allows to identify an uncharacteristic glow of scales;
- collection of clinical material to determine the type and tissue form of mycoses;
- Inoculation of scrapings separated into microflora helps to find out the susceptibility of a particular fungal disease to chemotherapy drugs.
Therapy for this pathological process is carried out on an outpatient basis, but if this does not bring the required results or the course of the disease becomes complicated, the patient is admitted to a specialized hospital.
The affected areas of the outer integument are daily treated with medication, in the focus of infection, serous crusts are removed and hair is shaved off.
The use of antimycotic ointments, antifungal pastes, creams and emulsions is also indicated.In case of complications, laser therapy of damaged areas or surgical removal of the nail plate is possible.
To achieve a greater effect, decimeter (UHF) therapy, darsonvalization and drug electrophoresis are used.
To minimize the likelihood of this ailment, it is recommended to lead a healthy lifestyle, observe the rules of personal hygiene, regularly disinfect premises and personal items.
Literature and sources
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Kerosene helps against nail fungus.Read the best recipes with kerosene for nail mycosis, which will help you get rid of the disease forever. Kerosene is a petrochemical product with high toxicity and a pungent unpleasant odor. You can buy it at a hardware store or order it online. However, in folk medicine it is recommended to use only the deepest kerosene purification. Nail fungus, or scientifically onychomycosis, is a fungal infection that affects the nail and the nail plate and, if untreated, can provoke serious complications.Traditional medicine, along with traditional, drug therapy, provides for the treatment of nail fungus with kerosene – an effective method that has its pros and cons. Justification of the method. Effective remedies for the treatment of toenail fungus at affordable prices with delivery to the nearest pharmacy in our network – online pharmacy Be Zdorov !. An effective remedy for toenail fungus can only be with the right choice of the composition that affects the causative agent of the disease. Nail fungus (mycosis and onychomycosis) is a destructive change in the appearance and structure of the nail plate, sometimes with a transition to the skin of the legs.Nail fungus. Beautiful and healthy nails always attract the attention of others, and in some cases are considered a guarantee of good health. Deficiency of vitamins and minerals can worsen the condition of the nail plates, but sometimes the problem is deeper, associated with a fungal infection. Nail fungus or the medical term onychomycosis refers to a common and insidious disease that can completely destroy the nail plate. Errors in the treatment of nail fungus. How not to stretch the disease for years? Getting rid of onychomycosis When treating nail fungus, local preparations can be used – creams, ointments, patches, which can be used at home.Various spray options are available that have pronounced antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties. It is definitely not recommended to delay the treatment of a fungus of any localization when carrying a child and subsequent breastfeeding. The disease itself and the fear of using pills, antimycotic creams will harm more than the varieties of drugs. Of course, about 90% of the listed antifungals are prohibited for pregnant women, but infection with a fungal infection of a child in the womb does more harm than medicines.Contents Treatment of nail and toe fungus. Fungal infections (mycoses) are different, but skin and nail lesions are among the most common mycoses. Fungi reproduce in a neutral or weakly alkaline environment. The most suitable pH value for them is 6 – 6.7. It should be emphasized that the RN. Medicines used to treat fungal diseases of the skin and its appendages were characterized by low efficacy and high toxicity. To achieve a positive result, long-term treatment or an increase in the dose of drugs was required, which was often accompanied by severe complications.Several treatments were potentially life-threatening for patients. Fungus is a very unpleasant disease, it is easy for them to get infected and it is not easy to get rid of it. What you need to know in order not to get sick, how to detect an infection at an early stage and how to be treated – we answer in our article Causes of a fungal infection. Infection with a fungal infection is called mycosis. Most often, the infection affects the skin of the legs, hands, nails and hair, sometimes even internal organs. Prevention and treatment of fungus. We quit bad habits.Hygiene Eczema, neurodermatitis, psoriasis, acne, allergic dermatitis, herpes, fungal diseases. Helminthic invasions. Prevention of diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, climacteric dyshormonal changes.
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90,000 Fungal diseases – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Fungal lesions (mycoses) – a group of diseases based on infection of the skin, mucous membranes, nails, hair caused by pathogenic fungi.Common manifestations are peeling, oozing, inflammation of the skin, layering of scales, severe itching, thickening and changes in the structure of the skin, nails, hair. When scratching – accession of a secondary infection and suppuration. Diseases are contagious, significantly reduce the quality of human life, causing physical and psychological discomfort, cosmetic problems. Generalized fungal infection of the whole organism may occur.
Fungal diseases are a group of skin diseases caused by filamentous fungi, infection occurs through contact with a sick person or with objects seeded with spores; some of the fungal diseases are caused by saprophytic microflora, which is pathogenic with a decrease in the protective functions of the body.
Keratomycosis is called fungal diseases, in which fungi are localized in the stratum corneum and do not affect the skin appendages, keratomycosis, as a rule, are not highly contagious. These include diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, erythrasma and actinomycosis.
Pityriasis versicolor versicolor is one of the most commonly diagnosed fungal skin diseases. Clinically manifests itself as pinkish-brown spots with slight pityriasis desquamation.It is localized on the skin of the neck, chest, back and shoulders, no inflammatory reactions from the altered skin are observed. Diagnose in adolescents and middle-aged people. Excessive sweating contributes to infection with this and other fungal diseases. The lesions are scalloped and tend to merge due to peripheral growth. The skin affected by this fungal disease is unable to transmit ultraviolet light, which is harmful to microorganisms. On tanned skin, you can see the flaky upper layer of the dermis, under which the secondary leukoderma develops.Relapses usually peak in the spring. Pityriasis versicolor is diagnosed by clinical manifestations and by means of a test with iodine – when the lesion is lubricated, the scales acquire a more intense color. To confirm the diagnosis and exclude other fungal diseases, a scraping study is performed. The fungus affects the mouth of the follicle, and therefore it is not possible to achieve a complete cure.
Ointments containing terbinofine and intraconazole, with prolonged use, eliminate the symptoms of multi-colored lichen, but therapy should be comprehensive, it is recommended to avoid wearing other people’s clothing, during treatment, carefully observe the rules of personal hygiene, and during periods of remission, use cosmetic preparations with an antifungal effect.
Actinomycosis is a chronic fungal skin disease, its causative agent is a radiant fungus, which is widespread in nature on cereals, therefore people who work in mills, in agricultural complexes and in bakeries are at risk. Damage to internal organs is possible if the spores of the radiant fungus enter through the mouth. The skin and tissues affected by a fungal disease are infiltrated, the infiltrate is dense, prone to peripheral spread, granulation can be observed along the edges.The diagnosis is made on the basis of anamnesis, clinical picture and microscopy, if necessary, a bacteriological examination is carried out.
Therapy of actinomycosis should be comprehensive, since this type of fungus causes not only fungal diseases of the skin, but also affects the internal organs. Antibiotic therapy is indicated after sensitivity determination, irradiation of the affected areas, transfusion of blood components and, in extreme cases, surgical excision of tissues. Compliance with personal hygiene, using only your combs and hats, washing hands and body after contact with animals, as well as treating diseases that reduce immunity are the only prevention of keratomycosis.
Dermatophytosis are chronic fungal diseases of the skin with damage to the epidermis, in connection with which there is an inflammatory reaction on the part of the skin. The most common fungal diseases of this group are trichophytosis, microsporia, favus and mycoses of the feet (epidermophytosis).
Trichophytosis caused by an anthropophilic fungus causes superficial lesions, and zoophilic trichophytosis manifests itself in an infiltrative-suppurative form. The source of infection is sick people, animals and objects seeded with fungal spores.
This fungal disease is characterized by limited rounded lesions on the scalp, brittle hair and slight flaking of the skin. In children, trichophytosis usually goes away by the period of puberty, while adults often suffer from chronic forms. Middle-aged women are at risk. Hypovitaminosis, endocrine disorders also increase the likelihood of illness upon contact with the pathogen. Trichophytosis affects the scalp, smooth skin and nails.
Microsporia – a fungal skin disease, clinically similar to trichophytosis, externally manifests itself in the form of intersecting rings of vesicles, crusts and nodules, if the scalp is affected by microsporia, the lesions tend to transition to smooth skin. Itching and other subjective sensations are absent.
With microscopy, you can see the mycelium of the fungus, changes in the skin and hair characteristic of fungal lesions, but it is impossible to differentiate microsporia from trichophytosis.If accurate differentiation is required, then they resort to cultural diagnostics.
Usually, the treatment of fungal diseases from the group of dermatophytosis is carried out by doctors-mycologists or dermatologists in a hospital. Antifungal drugs are shown, such as Fungoterbin, Exifin, the drugs are taken daily until the first negative microscopic examination, and then they switch to maintenance doses. The hair in the lesions is shaved off and treated with iodine tincture, and at night they make applications with sulfur-salicylic ointment.
Favus is a fungal disease that affects the skin, scalp, nails and sometimes internal organs. The contagiousness of this fungal disease is average, mainly children and women are ill, most often there are family foci of infection.
Clinically manifested by the appearance of scutula around the hair, scutula is a yellowish crust with a saucer-shaped impression, the skin in the lesion is hyperemic. Over time, scutules merge and form a single crust with an unpleasant musty odor.Hair grows dull and thinner. With a prolonged course of a fungal disease, hair loss and post-alphabetic baldness are observed. Diagnosis is by clinical presentation and culture.
When treating favus, a good effect is given by course treatment with modern antifungal drugs – ketoconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole, the course of treatment is at least a month, the dosage is selected based on the severity of the lesion. The hair in the lesion is shaved off, and Salicylic ointment is used as an application for the night to soften the scutulum.In the morning, the scalp is treated with iodine solutions.
Fungal diseases of the feet are widespread. The risk group includes people with excessive sweating of the feet, neglecting personal hygiene, athletes and visitors to saunas, swimming pools, public beaches. Dry skin of the feet, tendency to cracking, wearing rubber shoes and endocrine disorders contribute to the development of fungal diseases, since healthy, intact skin is less susceptible to infection. With the erased form of fungal diseases of the feet, slight peeling, redness and itching in the interdigital folds are observed; after contact with water, the symptoms may increase.In the absence of treatment, the arches of the feet are involved in the process and the squamous form of fungal diseases of the feet is diagnosed. The skin thickens, calluses appear, sometimes hyperemia, patients complain of itching and burning.
In dyshidrotic forms of fungal diseases of the feet, mainly the arches of the foot are affected, tense large bubbles with a dense film appear, in the places of the opened bubbles – non-healing painful erosion, the skin around the affected area is swollen and hyperemic, pain syndrome and itching are clearly expressed.On contact with water, cutting pains.
The interginous form of fungal diseases is manifested by maceration, eroded cracks of different depths, pain and itching. With rubromycosis of the feet, the affected skin is dry with mucoid peeling, the skin pattern is pronounced, the lesions have scalloped outlines.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical manifestations, interviewing the patient and, if required, culture analysis to identify the exact type of fungus.
Treatment of fungal diseases of the feet depends on the pathogen, the affected area and the severity of the process.Long-term use of antifungal drugs, with rubromycosis, itraconazole, terbinafine are taken for long courses. Medical treatment of the feet is carried out with antifungal ointments. For the treatment of skin and nails, an alternation of antifungal ointments and cooling lotions is shown; in the absence of erosion, solutions of iodine and fucarcinum are used. Additionally, laser treatment of fungal diseases of the feet is prescribed.
Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, washing feet after visiting saunas, swimming pools, beaches, combating increased sweating, wearing cotton socks and shoes for the season is the only prevention of fungal diseases of the feet.Since healthy and clean skin is a natural barrier against microorganisms and mycotic cells.
Candidiasis is a fungal disease of the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs. The causative agent is a yeast-like fungus Candida, a human saprophyte, which, with a decrease in the protective functions of the body, begins to actively multiply. The risk group includes children, people of old age and those with immunodeficiency states.
Candidal fungal diseases of the skin of the corners of the mouth most often occurs in people with a lower bite and hypersalivation.Fungal diseases caused by the candida fungus can develop only under favorable conditions, it is high humidity and a warm environment. Clinically, candidal seizures are manifested by light maceration and the presence of white plaque, when removed, you can see a smooth reddened eroded surface. The process is bilateral and rarely goes beyond the folds of the corners of the mouth.
Candidiasis of the skin is localized in the folds, more often found in overweight people who are prone to sweating and in children with violation of hygiene rules.The affected area is bright red, has clear boundaries, moist, covered with white bloom on top, epidermis detachment is possible on the periphery.
The elimination of sugary foods, muffins and simple carbohydrates from the diet is an important point in the treatment of candidiasis. Taking long-acting antifungal drugs such as fluconazole has a good therapeutic effect. Topically applied ointment with clotrimazole. In addition, it is necessary to treat intestinal dysbiosis and normalize the immune system.
90,000 Fungus (fungal dermatitis) in dogs on the skin or nails: Treatment
Contents of article
Dog’s skin is a dense and durable outer shell of the body, which sooner or later can be affected by a fungus. Young pets with weak immune systems and poorly cared for pets are at high risk of contracting fungal diseases. Dogs with poor heredity and special individual characteristics of the organism are also vulnerable to fungal dermatitis.
Fungal diseases in dogs are accompanied by the destruction of the skin, resulting in poor health of the animal. It is important to timely identify the fungus in the dog and not delay treatment. When the first signs of fungal dermatitis appear, you should immediately seek help from an experienced veterinarian.
When should I go to the veterinary clinic?
In order for a dog to become a faithful friend for years to come, it is important to closely monitor the health of the pet, including its coat and skin.The first signs of the development of fungal diseases are:
- Bald patches . The development of a fungal infection in a dog most often begins with the formation of a bald spot on the coat. Depending on the immunity of the pet, conditions of detention and hereditary predisposition, the rate of spread of the fungus throughout the body may be different. In some dogs, the fungus affects the skin in one week, in others within 1-3 months. Bald patches most often appear first on the paws and head, and then are transferred to the nose, behind the ear and cervical region.With alopecia, the dog’s skin becomes reddish or grayish, and sometimes peeling skin particles can be traced;
- Severe itching . Constant scratching of the skin between the fingers, behind the ears, near the nose, in the lower paws and other areas may indicate the beginning of the development of the fungus. Particular attention should be paid to the dog in the event that she combes the lesion with the fungus to the blood. In this case, it is necessary to treat the scratched area with any antiseptic and show it to the veterinarian.Frequent scratching of certain areas of the skin leads, as a rule, to the fact that the skin cracks and becomes scarlet, rough and dense. In advanced cases, the pet experiences severe pain to such an extent that it cannot even stand on its paws suffering from fungus;
- Deterioration of the appearance of the coat . If the dog is affected by the fungus malassezia, the scalp may gradually change in the early stages of the disease. Depending on the stage of the disease, the coat can peel off, tangle and fade.Many dog owners mistakenly believe that such changes in the appearance of the coat are the result of a change in food, a sudden change in weather or a change in hygiene products. In fact, none of these factors can have such a strong negative effect.
It is necessary to visit the veterinarian as soon as possible if the dog has:
- itching and soreness appeared;
- the skin is reddened or peeling;
- swelling or swelling has formed in certain areas of the skin;
- a bald spot has appeared;
- the local temperature has risen.
It is important to remember that fungal dermatitis and atopic dermatitis in dogs – the symptoms of which develop very quickly – negatively affect the canine’s immune system.
Self-treatment is considered unacceptable, because fungi can actively spread throughout the body of the animal and lead to negative consequences.
In the best case, pustules can form, and in the worst case, a putrefactive process of the skin and intoxication.
Diagnosis of fungal dermatitis
Going to a veterinary clinic is the best solution for a pet owner who is susceptible to infection with a fungus.Before prescribing a course of treatment, the veterinarian examines the animal, establishes the clinical picture of the disease and carries out diagnostic measures. To rule out other diseases such as brucellosis in dogs.
To make an accurate diagnosis, the specialist performs the following actions:
- collects anamnesis, asks the owner of the dog about the current state of the animal;
- conducts a clinical examination of the pet;
- makes scraping from the affected area of the skin;
- carries out mycological and bacteriological crops from the foci of inflammation;
- takes blood, urine and feces tests.
If malassezia in dogs is confirmed after diagnosis, the veterinarian will prescribe a course of treatment. At the initial stage of the disease, treatment can be carried out at home by the owner himself. In the case of an advanced stage and prevention of recurrence of the disease, the course of treatment is carried out under the supervision of veterinarians in a veterinary clinic.
How is fungal dermatitis treated?
Treatment of fungus in dogs at the initial stage of the disease is carried out by a local method using shampoos or ointments.With advanced stages, drug treatment is carried out, in which antifungal drugs are used.
Treatment of fungal dermatitis consists in carrying out the following cycle of measures:
- relief of itching and local anesthesia;
- Treatment of affected skin areas with special ointments;
- systemic antibiotic therapy;
- detoxification and strengthening therapy.
The specific course is assigned taking into account the general condition of the pet.Your veterinarian may use the following treatments and medications to improve the clinical picture.
- Local treatment according to the scheme: an ointment or cream (synthomycin ointment, Levomekol or Vishnevsky ointment) is applied to dry affected areas of the skin. Dressings are changed 1-2 times a day. Drying antimicrobial agents in the form of powders or solutions (streptocide or iodoform solution with boric acid) are applied to open wounds, weeping ulcers and abscesses.
- Treatment with the antifungal agent fluconazole is effective.Pain syndrome is relieved by intravenous administration of 0.25% -novocaine (dosage 5-20 ml, taking into account the weight and characteristics of the animal). The condition of the dog is closely monitored by a veterinarian for several hours after the injection. Itching is relieved with suprastin, tavegil or other antihistamines.
- Antibiotic therapy is actively used in cases of protracted purulent disease. The course of treatment may be as follows: 15-30 mg / kg of cephalexin 2 times a day for 1 week, 5-10 mg / kg of enrofloxacin once a day for 5 days and 0.2 ml / kg of Baytril once a day for within 5-10 days, depending on the condition of the infected animal.
- Autohemotherapy is necessary to improve the condition of the animal. The modern method of skin treatment involves the subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of 5 ml of blood taken from the forearm saphenous vein into the affected area. In total, 4 injections are given every 2, 3 or 4 days, depending on the course of the dog’s illness.
- Vitamin therapy is essential to boost immunity. To the main treatment, the veterinarian additionally prescribes vitamins of groups A, PP, B and E, immunofan, cycloverone and gamavit.
It is important to remember that self-treatment can lead to negative consequences and a deterioration in the well-being of the pet.
Therefore, in order to cure dermatitis, you should immediately contact the veterinary clinic, where the doctor will conduct all the necessary research, examination and prescribe effective treatment. In order to avoid the formation and infection of a fungal infection, a number of preventive measures must be followed.
Prevention of fungal dermatitis
Compliance with preventive measures will reduce the risk of infection with fungus on the paws, behind the ears and other parts of the dog’s body.Here are some tips for taking care of your pet:
- Examine your pet daily, avoid irritation and allergies;
- Trim your animal regularly, especially during the summer months during extreme heat. To prevent dermatitis in dogs, be sure to wash them with a special shampoo;
- Use drugs only as directed by your doctor. Do not self-medicate, which can only worsen the clinical picture and harm the animal;
- Treat any wounds and scratches in a timely manner with special ointments, solutions or powders, depending on its nature;
- Offer your beloved pet only high-quality food by age.A balanced diet and intake of vitamins will improve health and improve immunity;
- Before a walk, treat your paws with special protective creams and ointments. After walking, be sure to wash your four-legged friend’s paws to avoid infection of the claws.
Fungal dermatitis in dogs is a common and unpleasant condition. Carefully monitor the health of the skin and coat of your household.Take care and take care of your pets, and they will surely return you with love!
Dermatomycosis: causes, symptoms, treatment – Lifehacker
What is skin fungus
This is the name of a fungal infection that affects the skin – dermatomycosis .
This is one of the most common skin diseases. According to some data , at some point in their life, at least 7 out of 10 people experience ringworm.
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Where does the skin fungus come from
There are millions of species of fungi in the world. Approximately 300 of them are capable of attacking the human body, that is, multiplying on it and inside it. Everything would be fine, but each fungus in the process of life releases a number of chemicals. They, in turn, cause inflammation of the organ or tissue where the fungal colony could catch on.
Anyone can pick up a fungus. But 90,378 people with weakened immune systems and those on antibiotics are at greater risk.
Fungal infections can affect the lungs, digestive organs, brain, and the consequences of such inflammations are extremely serious, up to death.
Against this background, the skin fungus looks harmless: it is unpleasant in appearance, but not fatal. It is caused by dermatophyte fungi. Most often they can be picked up like this:
- By touching an infected person or animal (dog, cat, guinea pig, cattle).
- Contact with soil contaminated with spores of fungi that are harmful to the skin. You may have walked around dusty paths in open sandals all day.
- On contact with objects contaminated with fungus. These can be towels, bedding, clothes, shoes, toiletries used by an infected person.
Since dermatophytes like warm and humid environments, skin fungus often appears in “sweaty” places with insufficient ventilation: armpits, groin, skin folds, on the feet.But other parts of the body can also suffer.
How to recognize ringworm
Skin fungus has characteristic symptoms . Epidermis in the affected area:
- changes color – turns red or discolored, becomes pale, almost white;
- itches, and itchy areas are usually rounded;
- covered with small rashes, blisters filled with liquid may appear;
- peels off;
- sometimes swells;
- partially loses hair.
Symptoms may vary slightly depending on the type of fungus.
What is skin fungus
There are many types of dermatomycosis. Here are the most common .
Photo: Kanjanee Chaisin / Shutterstock
See what an athlete’s foot looks like
This is the name of a foot fungus that develops easily in warm, humid conditions. You run the risk of getting an “athlete’s foot” if you wear tight shoes that interfere with air exchange, rarely change socks, use public showers and swimming pools.
Nail fungus (onychomycosis)
Photo: M. Schuppich / Shutterstock
See how nail fungus looks like
Damage to the nail plate also belongs to dermatomycosis, since it is caused by the same types of fungi. With onychomycosis, the nail becomes yellow, brown or white. The structure also changes: the nail plate coarsens, thickens, but at the same time exfoliates and breaks off easily.
Photo: Andrei Dubadzel / Shutterstock
See how ringworm looks like
This type of fungal infection can be recognized by its rounded scaly patches of red or very light color.Lichen appears on any part of the body, but owes its name to the love of the scalp. The fungus makes the hair brittle, it breaks off easily, and it looks as if depriving it is “cutting”.
Photo: Timonina / Shutterstock
See how inguinal ringworm looks like
Its characteristic symptoms are areas of irritated, itchy, sometimes flaky skin in the groin and inner thighs. This type of fungal infection is more common in men and adolescent boys, but women are not immune from it.
Inguinal ringworm may worsen after physical exertion. Sometimes it also spreads to the buttocks and abdomen.
Photo: shutting / Shutterstock
See how versicolor versicolor looks like
With this type of ringworm, many small, oval spots with clear boundaries appear on the skin. They are pink at first and then change color to brown or white. Most often, these itchy patches occur on the back, chest and forearms.
Photo: lavizzara / Shutterstock
See what cutaneous candidiasis looks like
It is caused by the same fungi that cause thrush in women – Candida. On the affected areas, irritation, itching, and sometimes small blisters occur.
Typically, Candida grows where the skin is poorly ventilated and often damp: under the breast, in the folds of the buttocks, under the arms, in other folds of the body.
How to treat dermatomycosis
Pharmacies sell many OTC antifungal drugs that are applied directly to the affected area of the skin: cream, ointment, lotion, spray, shampoo (when it comes to the scalp).But in order for the drug to be as effective as possible in your case, it is better to buy it after consulting a dermatologist.
In addition, pay particular attention to hygiene. Keep your skin clean, well ventilated, and avoid moisture stagnation: dry thoroughly after bathing, use antiperspirants, and change as soon as you sweat. Until you get rid of the fungus, try changing your bedding and towels daily.
If home treatment does not work and the skin condition does not improve or even worsens, it is imperative to consult a dermatologist.
A specialist will examine and possibly prescribe you more potent prescription drugs or tablets. If we are talking about an advanced nail fungus, it may be necessary to remove the nail plate.
But even after the treatment is completed, for several weeks or even months, the color of the skin damaged by the fungus can remain uneven . Also, the infection sometimes returns in warm and humid weather. In some cases, if the fungus occurs over and over again, your doctor may prescribe medication to be taken on an ongoing basis once or twice a month.
How to Prevent Skin Fungus
There are simple prevention rules that will reduce your risk of developing ringworm.
- Observe good hygiene practices. Take a shower or bath every day, and if this is not possible, at least wipe your skin with a cloth dampened with water.
- Wear fresh clothes every day. This is especially true for socks and underwear.
- For everyday wear, choose clothes and shoes made of breathable materials: cotton, linen, viscose, lyocell, wool, membrane and mesh fabrics, natural leather.
- Make sure that your clothes and shoes do not sit too tightly on you.
- Do not share towels, clothing, hairbrushes or other personal items with anyone.
- Do not go barefoot in dressing rooms and showers. Be sure to wear flip flops.
- In gyms, try to wipe down the handrails of exercise equipment with alcohol antiseptic before use. Place a towel on horizontal surfaces. After completing your workout, put it in a separate bag and then wash it in hot water (60 ° C or higher).
- Stay away from animals showing signs of fungal skin infections. For example, a large number of scratches or areas of missing hair.
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fungus in the lungs symptoms and treatment
fungus in the lungs symptoms and treatment
fungus in the lungs symptoms and treatment
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What is a fungus in the lungs symptoms and treatment?
Remitazol has a powerful fungicidal effect.Allows, without systemic methods of therapy, to eliminate the fungus in one course of treatment, reduce the risk of relapse, prevent re-infection upon contact with pathogens by strengthening local immunity.
Effect of the use of fungus in the lungs symptoms and treatment
In just 30 days of using Remitazol cream, you can eliminate wounds and ulcers, dry skin cracks between fingers, remove peeling. Intense hydration and softening will maintain the hydro balance and the upper protective layer of the epidermis to prevent re-infection.
Remitazol is intended for the safe fight against and recovery from external mycoses. It has an effective effect on skin lesions (dermatomycosis, variegated lichen, seborrhea) and destruction of the nail plate (onychomycosis). A feature of this product is the ability to use it at any age. Efficiency is combined with safety and absence of side effects.
How to order
In order to place an order for fungus in the lungs symptoms and treatment, you must leave your contact information on the site.The operator will contact you within 15 minutes. Will clarify all the details with you and we will send your order. In 3-10 days you will receive the parcel and pay for it upon receipt.
Remitazol cream is recommended for the treatment of skin mycoses, restoration of the nail plate in case of onychomycosis, prevention of fungal infection.
Do not postpone treatment with Remitazole until later.If the fungal infection spreads throughout the body, it can trigger allergic skin reactions. The fungus spreads to all soft tissues and can even reach the bone. The infection also affects internal organs, and can lead to complex diseases of the liver, kidneys and even the respiratory system.
I ordered the cream via the Internet, it came quickly enough, right to the nearest post office. He attracted a drug with a price of 0 rubles, but it turned out to be for a course. But at the same time, one package was given free of charge.I used it for two months and was satisfied. The fungus has not yet returned. Where to buy lung fungus symptoms and treatment? Remitazol is designed to safely combat and recover from external fungal infections. It has an effective effect on skin lesions (dermatomycosis, variegated lichen, seborrhea) and destruction of the nail plate (onychomycosis). A feature of this product is the ability to use it at any age. Efficiency is combined with safety and absence of side effects.
Conservative treatment and operations. Paid and free clinics in which. The causative agents of endogenous fungal pneumonia enter the lungs from others. Massive single infection with exogenous fungi provokes an acute process, in the case of repeated admissions. Treatment and prognosis of pulmonary candidiasis. With candidiasis of the lungs, etiotropic therapy with antimycotic drugs is prescribed as a basic treatment – systemically and in the form of inhalation. Oral administration and intravenous administration of fluconazole is recommended, with low sensitivity to it candida.Fungal pneumonia: causes and symptoms of pneumonia. … Fungal spores are easily carried in the air, from where they get to the mucous surfaces of the respiratory tract, and then to the lungs. Actinomycosis of the lungs. Fungal diseases can be very variegated. Actinomycosis of the lungs. It is clinically extremely long-lasting. One should think about them if, after antibiotic treatment, the picture on the part of the lungs worsens, the intermittent temperature is delayed, and others, more. Mycoses of the lungs are relatively rare and occur mainly in patients with sharply reduced defenses.The causative agents of mycoses of the lungs are microscopic fungi (micromycetes). The manifestations of the disease and the nature of its course c. The defeat of the human lungs by fungal flora. Fungus in the lungs is enough. Symptoms of a fungus in the lungs at the initial stage are difficult to distinguish from ordinary ones. Fungus in the lungs can be treated by an infectious disease doctor. Symptoms of pulmonary candidiasis. Shortness of breath with little exercise. Chest pain of unclear localization. … Treatment of pulmonary candidiasis. First of all, therapy is aimed at increasing the body’s defenses and eliminating intoxication.From anti-candidiasis drugs are used. Symptoms of lung damage by fungi. Candidiasis of the lungs at the beginning of its development is manifested by a dry cough, like. Treatment of a fungal infection that affects the respiratory system usually takes a long time and causes many difficulties. In the most severe cases, they resort to surgical intervention. And today, after being treated with antibiotics, I found out that the sputum analysis showed a fungus (++). for today all symptoms persist, but severe weakness is gone. the state of health has improved, but a strong cough has joined, discomfort in the chest and on the back in the area of the lungs, mostly sputum is coughing up.
In just 30 days of using Remitazol cream, you can eliminate wounds and ulcers, cracks between the fingers, dry the skin, remove peeling.Intense hydration and softening will maintain the hydro balance and the upper protective layer of the epidermis to prevent re-infection.
fungus in the lungs symptoms and treatment
Remitazole has a powerful fungicidal effect. Allows, without systemic methods of therapy, to eliminate the fungus in one course of treatment, reduce the risk of relapse, prevent re-infection upon contact with pathogens by strengthening local immunity.
For the treatment of fungal infections on the nails, except.The choice of remedies for fungus at any stage of pregnancy is the sole prerogative of the attending physician. Aloe vera is used as an ingredient in cosmetics. With the plant growing in popularity, bloggers are adding it to smoothies, salads and juices, but why? Aloe Vera is a succulent plant that is. Aloe against toenail fungus. Aloe is a perennial herb with fleshy leaves and a tree-like trunk. Its leaves contain a large amount of bitter jelly-like juice, which is from ancient times.Aloe perennial can be used against toenail fungus. … But the plant manifests itself best of all in the treatment of a fungal infection. Using aloe leaves, they also treat the fungus. Cosmetics with its extracts are used. Aloe is a time-tested herb for treating disease. Its main advantage is safety, favorable. Folk recipes from aloe for the treatment of nail fungus. Useful properties, expert reviews and contraindications for the use of the plant.Useful properties of aloe for the treatment of fungal diseases. Recipes for various trays and pasta from the fungus. What are the contraindications and side effects.