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Vegetables & Fruits That Cause Gas

Cabbage in a garden

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Passing gas, burping and gas pains due to bloating happen to everyone. According to the National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, these embarrassing symptoms may be caused by swallowing air while eating or by the breakdown of foods during the digestive process. Consuming fewer foods that produce gas can reduce bloating and gas pains.

High-fiber Fruits and Vegetables

Bowl of green peas on a table

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Beans, peas and most fruits contain soluble fiber that dissolves easily in water and becomes soft and gel-like in the intestines. Soluble fiber is not broken down until it reaches the large intestine, and it is here that digesting the fiber causes gas. Reducing these high-fiber foods and then reintroducing them gradually into your diet can help you ascertain the quantity of fiber you can digest without bloating and gas pains.

Starchy Vegetables

Corn on the cob on a wooden table

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The body cannot digest starchy vegetables such as potatoes and corn completely because enzymes needed for their digestion are absent or insufficiently present. It is in the large intestine where potatoes and corn byproducts are digested by bacteria. This process produces the gases of carbon dioxide, hydrogen and — in 1/3 of the population — methane, which all eventually exit via the rectum. People who have more gas than others may have an imbalance of two kinds of bacteria, one producing hydrogen and the other destroying it.

Beans and Vegetables Containing Raffinose

Wooden spoon in a pot of baked beans

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Most foods containing carbohydrates can cause gas, especially those containing the complex sugar raffinose. This sugar is found in beans, baked beans and lentils. It is also in Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, asparagus, sauerkraut and cauliflower.

Fruits and Vegetables Containing Fructose

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Foods containing the sugar fructose also can cause gas and gas pains. These include most fruits, including pears, dates, raisins, figs, prunes, grapes, pineapple, apples and bananas. The fructose in dried fruits, such as dried peaches and apricots, can also cause gas, as can cherries, blueberries and kiwis and the fructose in fruit drinks. Onions and artichokes are gas-producing vegetables that contain fructose.

Fruits Containing Sorbitol

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Peaches, pears, apples and prunes contain the gas-producing sugar sorbitol. Sorbitol is also found in sugar-free dietetic foods as an additive, although it causes diarrhea, bloating and flatulence. This sugar is not completely absorbed in your small intestine, but passes to the colon. If consumed in large amounts, sorbitol may cause watery bowel movements and gas.

What Foods Cause Gas and Bloating? – San Diego – Sharp Health News

Nov. 19, 2020

Passing gas can be embarrassing, but it is perfectly normal. However, there are some factors — and foods — that can cause it to happen more than usual.

“It is true that certain food items are known to be more gas-forming. However, not all foods are created equal when it comes to gas,” says Nicole Herrmann, MS, RD, clinical nutrition manager at Sharp Coronado Hospital. “Some foods that cause gas and bloating for some people don’t affect others, and vice versa. Other things that can elicit gas include eating too fast, drinking through a straw and carbonation.”

Although you’ll never live gas-free — the average person passes gas 13 to 20 times per day — you may want to decrease your intake of trigger foods.

Herrmann shares these five gas-causing culprits:

  1. Vegetables
    Cruciferous veggies, such as Brussels sprouts, broccoli and cabbage, and vegetables that contain fructose, such as onions and asparagus, can cause gas. If you find yourself experiencing painful gas after eating salad or other vegetables, try eliminating foods one by one until you find your trigger.
  2. Sugar-free sweets and some fruits
    Sugar-free products are known to contain a class of sugars known as sugar alcohols, which can cause bloating, gas and diarrhea. One of the more common ones is sorbitol, which commonly produces gas and can be found in sugar-free gum, ice cream and candy. However, not everyone has trouble with sugar alcohols, and they actually play a major role in some diabetes-friendly items. That’s not to say that processed sugar items are the answer. It is important to limit consumption of processed sugars for an array of health reasons. When consumed in appropriate portion amounts, natural sugars — found in fruit and honey — are the best option (health permitting).
  3. Dairy products
    Some people have difficulty digesting lactose, a compound found in milk and other dairy products. These difficulties arise in people who lack sufficient amounts of lactase — the enzyme in the intestines necessary for breaking down lactose. Insufficient lactase can cause intolerance for items such as milk, ice cream, yogurt and cheese, producing symptoms of gas, bloating, diarrhea and abdominal pain. If you notice these symptoms after dairy consumption, there are a few things you can try.

    First, try an elimination diet — cutting out the food you believe to be the offender, and slowly introducing small amounts back into your diet one at a time. However, if you do try an elimination diet with dairy, do not go longer than 30 days without eating dairy because the body stops producing lactase if lactose is not consumed. Once the food is introduced again, if symptoms continue or get worse, you might want to consider limiting or avoiding these products. You can also try an over-the-counter lactase supplement to help your body with lactose breakdown.

  4. Legumes
    Yes, we all remember that little childhood ditty about the musical fruit. It’s true: the more beans you eat, the more you … well, you know. Beans include both the sugar and the fiber found in trigger fruits and vegetables, meaning they pack an extra punch to the lower intestine. But don’t pass on beans because you’re worried about passing gas. Beans are a great source of protein, as well as heart- and bowel-healthy fiber. Instead of avoiding legumes, remember to keep portions appropriate. Too much of a good thing can sometimes not be ideal for you or your body. If beans seem to cause excess gas, try to stick to smaller portion sizes, and do not pair them with other gas-forming vegetables (listed above).
  5. Sodas and carbonated drinks
    No surprise here: what goes in, must come out. Carbonated beverages — especially sugary ones — can lead to bloating, burping and flatulence. And the way you consume soda and other beverages can also make a difference. When you drink from a straw, it can introduce more air into your stomach than sipping it straight from a cup.

While gas is normal, there are more serious sources of excess gas. If you think you may have a digestive disorder, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, be sure to speak with your doctor.

“It is always recommended to speak with your doctor if you have concerns regarding your digestive health. You can also discuss the benefit of a referral to see a dietitian,” says Herrmann.

Gas in the Digestive Tract

Everyone has gas and eliminates it by burping or passing it through the rectum. However, many people think they have too much gas when they really have normal amounts. Most people produce about 1 to 4 pints a day and pass gas about 14 times a day.

The digestive tract

Gas is made primarily of odorless vapors—carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sometimes methane. The unpleasant odor of flatulence, the gas that passes through the rectum, comes from bacteria in the large intestine that release small amounts of gases containing sulfur.

Although having gas is common, it can be uncomfortable and embarrassing. Understanding causes, ways to reduce symptoms, and treatment will help most people find relief.

What causes gas?

Gas in the digestive tract—the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine—comes from two sources:

  • swallowed air
  • normal breakdown of certain undigested foods by harmless bacteria naturally present in the large intestine, also called the colon

Swallowed Air

Aerophagia, or air swallowing, is a common cause of gas in the stomach. Everyone swallows small amounts of air when eating and drinking. However, eating or drinking rapidly, chewing gum, smoking, or wearing loose dentures can cause some people to take in more air.

Burping, or belching, is the way most swallowed air—which contains nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide—leaves the stomach. The remaining gas moves into the small intestine, where it is partially absorbed. A small amount travels into the large intestine for release through the rectum. The stomach also releases carbon dioxide when stomach acid mixes with the bicarbonate in digestive juices, but most of this gas is absorbed into the bloodstream and does not enter the large intestine.

Breakdown of Undigested Foods

The body does not digest and absorb some carbohydrates—the sugar, starches, and fiber found in many foods—in the small intestine because of a shortage or absence of certain enzymes that aid digestion.

This undigested food then passes from the small intestine into the large intestine, where normal, harmless bacteria break down the food, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and, in about one-third of all people, methane. Eventually these gases exit through the rectum.

People who make methane do not necessarily pass more gas or have unique symptoms. A person who produces methane will have stools that consistently float in water. Research has not shown why some people produce methane and others do not.

Foods that produce gas in one person may not cause gas in another. Some common bacteria in the large intestine can destroy the hydrogen that other bacteria produce. The balance of the two types of bacteria may explain why some people have more gas than others.

Which foods cause gas?

Most foods that contain carbohydrates can cause gas. By contrast, fats and proteins cause little gas.

Sugars

The sugars that cause gas are raffinose, lactose, fructose, and sorbitol.

Raffinose. Beans contain large amounts of this complex sugar. Smaller amounts are found in cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, asparagus, other vegetables, and whole grains.

Lactose. Lactose is the natural sugar in milk. It is also found in milk products, such as cheese and ice cream, and processed foods, such as bread, cereal, and salad dressing. Many people, particularly those of African, Native American, or Asian background, normally have low levels of lactase, the enzyme needed to digest lactose, after childhood. Also, as people age, their enzyme levels decrease. As a result, over time people may experience increasing amounts of gas after eating food containing lactose.

Fructose. Fructose is naturally present in onions, artichokes, pears, and wheat. It is also used as a sweetener in some soft drinks and fruit drinks.

Sorbitol. Sorbitol is a sugar found naturally in fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, and prunes. It is also used as an artificial sweetener in many diabetic foods and sugar-free candies and gums.

Starches

Most starches, including potatoes, corn, pasta, and wheat, produce gas as they are broken down in the large intestine. Rice is the only starch that does not cause gas.

Fiber

Many foods contain soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber dissolves easily in water and takes on a soft, gel-like texture in the intestines. Found in oat bran, beans, peas, and most fruits, soluble fiber is not broken down until it reaches the large intestine, where digestion causes gas.

Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, passes essentially unchanged through the intestines and produces little gas. Wheat bran and some vegetables contain this kind of fiber.

What are some symptoms and problems of gas?

The most common symptoms of gas are flatulence, abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, and belching. However, not everyone experiences these symptoms. The type and degree of symptoms probably depends on how much gas the body produces, how many fatty acids the body absorbs, and a person’s sensitivity to gas in the large intestine.

Belching

An occasional belch during or after meals is normal and releases gas when the stomach is full of food. However, people who belch frequently may be swallowing too much air and releasing it before the air enters the stomach.

Sometimes a person with chronic belching may have an upper gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, such as peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or gastroparesis, also called delayed gastric emptying.

Sometimes people believe that swallowing air and releasing it will relieve the discomfort of these disorders, and they may intentionally or unintentionally develop a habit of belching to relieve discomfort.

Gas-bloat syndrome may occur after fundoplication surgery to correct GERD. The surgery creates a one-way valve between the esophagus and stomach that allows food and gas to enter the stomach but often prevents normal belching and the ability to vomit. It occurs in about 10 percent of people who have this surgery but may improve with time.

Flatulence

Another common complaint is too much flatulence. However, most people do not realize that passing gas 14 to 23 times a day is normal. Too much gas may be the result of carbohydrate malabsorption.

Abdominal Bloating

Many people believe that too much gas causes abdominal bloating. However, people who complain of bloating from gas often have normal amounts and distribution of gas. They may just be unusually aware of gas in the digestive tract.

Doctors believe that bloating is usually the result of an intestinal disorder, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The cause of IBS is unknown but may involve abnormal movements and contractions of intestinal muscles and increased pain sensitivity in the intestines. These disorders may give a sensation of bloating because of increased sensitivity to gas.

Any disease that causes intestinal inflammation or obstruction, such as Crohn’s disease or colon cancer, may also cause abdominal bloating. In addition, people who have had many operations, internal hernias, or bands of internal scar tissue called adhesions may experience bloating or pain. Finally, eating a lot of fatty food can delay stomach emptying and cause bloating and discomfort, but not necessarily too much gas.

Abdominal Pain and Discomfort

Some people have pain when gas is present in the intestine. When pain is on the left side of the colon, it can be confused with heart disease, which sometimes causes abdominal pain. When the pain is on the right side of the colon, it may mimic gallstones or appendicitis.

What diagnostic tests are used to find the cause of gas?

Because gas symptoms may be caused by a serious disorder, those causes should be ruled out. Health professionals usually begin with a review of dietary habits and symptoms. The health professional may ask the patient to keep a diary of foods and beverages consumed for a specific time period.

If lactase deficiency is the suspected cause of gas, the health professional may suggest avoiding milk products for a period of time. A blood or breath test may be used to diagnose lactose intolerance.

In addition, to determine if someone produces too much gas in the colon or is unusually sensitive to the passage of normal gas volumes, the health professional may ask a patient to count the number of times he passes gas during the day and include this information in a diary.

Careful review of diet and the amount of gas passed may help relate specific foods to symptoms and determine the severity of the problem.

Because the symptoms that people may have are so variable, the health professional may order other types of diagnostic tests in addition to a physical exam, depending on the patient’s symptoms and other factors.

How is gas treated?

Experience has shown that the most common ways to reduce the discomfort of gas are changing diet, taking medicines, and reducing the amount of air swallowed.

Diet

Health professionals may tell people to eat fewer foods that cause gas. However, for some people this may mean cutting out healthy foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and milk products.

Health professionals may also suggest limiting high-fat foods to reduce bloating and discomfort. Less fat in the diet helps the stomach empty faster, allowing gases to move into the small intestine.

Unfortunately, the amount of gas caused by certain foods varies from person to person. Effective dietary changes depend on learning through trial and error how much of the offending foods one can handle.

Nonprescription Medicines

Digestive enzymes, available as over-the-counter supplements, help digest carbohydrates and may allow people to eat foods that normally cause gas.

The enzyme lactase, which aids with lactose digestion, is available in caplet and chewable tablet form without a prescription; Lactaid and Lactrase are two common brands. Taking lactase supplements just before eating helps digest foods that contain lactose. Also, lactose-reduced milk and other products, such as Lactaid and Dairy Ease, are available at many grocery stores.

Beano, an over-the-counter digestive aid, contains the sugar-digesting enzyme that the body lacks to digest the sugar in beans and many vegetables. The enzyme comes in liquid and tablet form. Five drops are added per serving or one tablet is swallowed just before eating to break down the gas-producing sugars. Beano has no effect on gas caused by lactose or fiber.

Prescription Medicines

Doctors may prescribe medicines to help reduce symptoms, especially for people with a disorder such as IBS. For more information about IBS, see the Irritable Bowel Syndrome fact sheet from the National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse.

Reducing Swallowed Air

For those who have chronic belching, health professionals may suggest ways to reduce the amount of air swallowed. Two options are to avoid chewing gum and to avoid eating hard candy. Eating at a slow pace and checking with a dentist to make sure dentures fit properly should also help.

Points to Remember

Although gas may be uncomfortable and embarrassing, it is not life threatening. Understanding causes, ways to reduce symptoms, and treatment will help most people find some relief.

  • Everyone has gas in the digestive tract.
  • People often believe normal passage of gas to be excessive.
  • Gas comes from two main sources: swallowed air and normal breakdown of certain foods by harmless bacteria naturally present in the large intestine.
  • Many foods with carbohydrates can cause gas. Fats and proteins cause little gas.
  • Foods that may cause gas include
    • beans
    • vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, onions, artichokes, and asparagus
    • fruits, such as pears, apples, and peaches
    • whole grains, such as whole wheat and bran
    • soft drinks and fruit drinks
    • milk and milk products, such as cheese and ice cream, and packaged foods prepared with lactose, such as bread, cereal, and salad dressing
    • foods containing sorbitol, such as dietetic foods and sugar-free candies and gums
  • The most common symptoms of gas are belching, flatulence, bloating, and abdominal pain. However, some of these symptoms may be caused by an intestinal disorder, such as IBS, rather than too much gas.
  • The most common ways to reduce the discomfort of gas are changing one’s diet, taking digestive enzymes to help digest carbohydrates, and reducing the amount of air swallowed.

Watch Out: 7 Foods That May Cause Gas in the Stomach

Feeling gassy in your stomach is common and each one of us has been in this uncomfortable situation from time to time. Well, you don’t need to feel embarrass to admit it because it a natural and normal phenomena and in a way healthy too. Gas is produced while the healthy bacteria try to break down and digest the food we eat. These are the most common foods that are known to produce intestinal gas. If you have a sensitive stomach, beware of the following as suggested by Nutritionist Dr. Parveen Verma from Kailash Hospital in Noida.1. Beans and lentils: These are the biggest culprits. If you’ve ever felt bloated after a meal of rajma-chawa, it is probably because of the gaseous build-up in your tummy. Beans contain a lot of raffinose, a complex sugar which the body finds hard to digest. Soaking the beans overnight and the cooking them and eating them the next day may help reduce gas.(Also read: How to De-Gas Rajma and Other Pulses)Beans and lentils contain raffinose that can be hard to digest. Photo Credit: Istock2. Milk: Many people may find it hard to digest lactose, the natural sugar found in milk, and that may make them feel bloated. This could also be a symptom of lactose intolerance or simply indicate a weak gut.Some people may find it hard to digest lactose in milk. Photo Credit: Istock3. Whole grains: Whole grains such as oats and brown rice have been linked to causing gas. They contain a lot of fiber, starch and raffinose which are broken down in the large intestine and thus produce gases like methane, carbon-di-oxide or hydrogen which ultimately exit through the rectum.Whole grains like oats and brown rice have been linked to causing gas. Photo Credit: Istock4. Certain vegetables: Some vegetables some broccoli, cauliflower or cabbage that are high in fiber and carbohydrates may produce more gas than the other because of the way the body digests them. Vegetables that contain insoluble may pass through easily but some like green peas that contain soluble fiber are digested in the large intestine which can cause gas.Vegetables that are high in fiber and carbohydrates may cause gas. Photo Credit: Istock5. Some fruits: Certain fruits may contain another form of sugar called sorbitol that may produce gas. Also, they may have soluble fiber which produces gas as by-product when digested in the large intestine. These include apples, peaches, and pears.Some fruits contain a type of sugar that is hard to digest. Photo Credit: Istock6. Onions: This commonly used ingredient that is often served raw as side with our meals or used as base for curries is known to contribute to gas because of the presence of fructose when the bacteria break it down in the intestines.
 Onion may cause gas due to the presence of fructose. Photo Credit: Istock7. Starchy foods: Starchy foods such as bread, corn and potatoes can lead to intestinal gas causing discomfort. However, unlike all the other starches, rice is not known to produce gas during digestion.(Also read: How to Reduce Bloating)Starchy foods may create gas as a by-product during digestion. Photo Credit: IstockThis does not mean that you have to eliminate these foods from your diet rather focus on food pairing and drink plenty of fluids before your meals. Also, you must eat and drink slowly because if you eat fast you end up swallowing a lot of air that can aggravate the situation and make you feel more gassy. If you are vulnerable to gas and indigestion, then look out for the foods that cause them and then gradually increase their intake to allow your digestive system to adjust to it.

Beat Bloating by Avoiding These 5 Holiday Foods

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Feeling bloated can be uncomfortable. Side-step those discomforts this holiday season by avoiding these foods that can cause bloating and gas.

You’ve saved room for a delicious feast all day long, with images of magnificent turkey legs, mounds of mashed potatoes, and warm dinner rolls dancing around in your head. And while you do your best to eat in moderation, holiday meals have a way of setting up a lot of people for occasional bloating and gas. (It may be embarrassing, but it’s also pretty common!)

In addition to treating with a reliable product like Gas-X — the No. 1 doctor-recommended brand for fast gas relief (among over the counter brands) — we spoke to a registered dietician about the top five gas-inducing holiday food culprits and how to avoid that uncomfortable bloat. If you know you’re susceptible, follow the advice listed below, and make sure you’ve got Gas-X on hand.

Foods To Avoid That Cause Bloating

1. All Those Veggies

Your mom always told you to eat your vegetables, but she probably didn’t warn you about their ability to cause bloat.

“Unfortunately, some of the vegetables that produce the most gas are also the healthiest veggies you can choose.“ says Bonnie Taub-Dix, RD, the author of Read It Before You Eat It — Taking You From Label to Table. She notes that broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, and cabbage are members of the cruciferous family, and can cause gas. “Other foods like eggplant, peppers, grapes, and melon can have the same effect, yet they provide multiple health benefits.

While she cautions not to flat-out avoid these foods, Taub-Dix suggests limiting yourself in terms of how many of these particular vegetables or fruits you’re eating in one sitting and, if you do choose to eat them, to keep an eye on portion size.

2. Legumes

Every silly song you’ve ever heard about beans and gas wasn’t just written for the heck of it. Taub-Dix explains that beans, and any other legume, contain a complex sugar that’s scientifically referred to as oligosaccharide, which the body has a difficult time breaking down, leading to bloating and gas.

As with the vegetables listed above, limit the amount of legumes you consume in one sitting.

3. Super-Salty Foods

“Salt acts like a magnet to water, so go easy on foods that are naturally high in salt, like pickles, olives, and capers, and be sure to read labels of highly processed foods to check their sodium content,” advises Taub-Dix. “Our new dietary guidelines for Americans suggests that we try to limit sodium intake to around 2,300 mg. /day.”

To put that into perspective, a mere tablespoon of salt has roughly 2,300 mg. of sodium.

Though salt doesn’t specifically cause gas, it can lead to water retention, which can make you feel bloated.

4. Ultra-Sugary Foods

Oh no — not the cookies, chocolate, and candies! While the complex sugar in beans is difficult for your body to break down, it’s not the only sugar to be wary of when trying to prevent gas and bloating. The International Foundation For Gastrointestinal Disorders says that raffinose, lactose, fructose, and sorbitol are among the worst gas-inducing sugar culprits, so beware of these ingredients in recipes and prepackaged foods.

5. Gas-Producing Eating Habits

“Sometimes problems arise not from the foods we eat, but how we eat them — aka our habits. Some typical gas-promoters include drinking through a straw, talking while eating, chewing gum, and sitting for too long without moving around,” says Taub-Dix.

Make sure to take time to savor every bite, chew thoroughly, and pair your meal with lots of h30. These small efforts can make a big difference in your gut health at the end of your meal!

6 Types of Foods That Cause Bloating — and What You Should Eat Instead

  • Foods that cause bloating include beans, carbonated beverages, onions, dairy, sweeteners, and cruciferous vegetables.
  • Beans cause bloating because they contain two types of fiber that are hard to digest, called galacto-oligosaccharides and resistant starch.
  • Carbonated beverages may also cause bloating because they contain carbon dioxide gas, which can expand in your belly.
  • This article was medically reviewed by Rudolph Bedford, MD, a gastroenterologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California.
  • Visit Insider’s Health Reference library for more advice.

Everyone experiences bloating from time to time: that uncomfortably full feeling and swollen, distended belly. This is a result of excess gas trapped in the gut. While there can be various causes of bloating, sometimes finding relief is as easy as making some simple changes to your diet. There are plenty of foods that can cause bloating, depending on the individual.

We spoke to a registered dietician who is an expert on bloating to find out why certain foods can cause bloating, and what we can replace them with to feel better. 

1. Beans

Beans are one of the most notorious culprits for bloating and gas because they contain two types of fiber that are very hard for us to digest, says Tamara Duker Freuman, a New York City-based registered dietitian and author of “The Bloated Belly Whisperer.”

These two types of fiber are:

Both of these are types of complex carbohydrates that humans lack enzymes to digest, Freuman says. 

While these are objectively healthy, as they can relieve and prevent constipation, they cause a lot of gas and bloating. Since we can’t digest this fiber, when it reaches our colon, gut bacteria feeds on it, thereby fermenting it and causing gas.  

This is because bacteria in the gut have enzymes that are able to break the bonds of carbohydrates and turn them into smaller units of carbohydrates. Energy is released in the process, and one of the byproducts of bacterial fermentation is hydrogen gas.

Healthy replacements for beans 

Before nixing beans altogether, Freuman says try taking the enzyme alpha-galactosidase, which you can find in Beano, before eating. This enzyme can help you digest the fiber better before it gets to the colon.

If that doesn’t work, you can still get protein from other plan-based sources that are easier to digest, like:

  • Soybeans (edamame)
  • Tempeh
  • Tofu

2. Carbonated beverages

Carbonated beverages contain carbon dioxide gas. That’s what makes them fizzy. But when you drink a carbonated beverage, the gas can expand in your belly, causing bloat, says Freuman. This can especially be the case in people with IBS, functional dyspepsia, or hypersensitive stomachs. 

However, everybody is different, and carbonated beverages don’t cause bloating for everyone. In fact, Freuman says carbonated beverages such as seltzer actually help some of her patients who have bloating because it can induce belching which can relieve some of the built-up gas. 

Beer falls under this category, too. While beer isn’t as fizzy as soda, it still is carbonated, says Freuman. This means that it contains that carbon dioxide gas that can expand in your stomach and cause bloating. 

Another factor is the sheer volume beer that people tend to consume if they want to feel the alcohol. Beer has a low alcohol content, which means you’re going to need to drink more in volume if you’re looking to catch a buzz. This can lead to you feeling full and bloated. 

Alcohol, in general, is a GI irritant, says Freuman. You may experience an upset stomach regardless of what you drink if you have a sensitive stomach.  

Healthy replacements for carbonated beverages 

There are plenty of non-carbonated beverages out there to choose from, and of course, water is always a great option for staying hydrated. If you’d like a beverage that isn’t carbonated and also serves as a remedy for tummy troubles, you can try:

  • Peppermint tea (hot or iced)
  • Ginger tea (hot or iced)

We aren’t saying alcohol is necessarily healthy, but if you are looking for alcohol that is more easily digestible, Freuman says some of her patients report being better able to tolerate vodka and experience less GI symptoms with that. 

3. Onions

Onions can cause bloating for two reasons. First, if you’re prone to acid reflux, onions can contribute to this, because they have a compound that relaxes the tension of the muscle separating the stomach from the esophagus. This makes reflux more likely, Freuman says. This can cause a bloated feeling in the upper belly.

Alternatively, the problem could be a type of carbohydrate called fructans that are in onions. Similarly to the problem with beans, the body has trouble digesting this carbohydrate, and the bacteria in the gut ends up feeding on it, causing a buildup of gas in the colon. 

Healthy replacements for onions 

If you’re looking for something with a similar flavor profile to onions that will cause less gas, Freuman recommends:

  • Green onions/scallions
  • Chives

4. Dairy

Dairy contains lactose and about 65% of people worldwide are not able to fully digest lactose. If you are sensitive to lactose, your body may lack an enzyme called lactase which is necessary to break down and digest lactose, says Freuman. Again, this leaves undigested food in your gut for bacteria to feast on, causing gas and bloating. People with lactose intolerance may also experience diarrhea and nausea after consuming dairy.

However, it’s possible that lactose isn’t the problem, and it’s actually the fat in dairy products  that’s the issue. For example, if you don’t experience bloating after eating dairy products like 0% fat Greek yogurt but you do after eating ice cream, that could be a sign that you’re more sensitive to fats. In this case, take a look at how you feel after eating other non-dairy fatty foods and assess. You might find that you’re actually sensitive to many foods high in fat. 

Healthy replacements for dairy 

Whether you’re looking for alternatives for milk or cheeses, there is a wide variety of dairy-free or lactose-free products.  

  • Oat milk
  • Almond milk
  • Coconut milk
  • Soy milk
  • Lactose-free dairy milk
  • Hard cheese such as parmesan, cheddar, or swiss, because they are lower in lactose compared to other soft cheeses. These cheeses may be tolerable for some people who are sensitive to lactose, but not all.

5. Cruciferous vegetables

Cruciferous vegetables include all vegetables in the cabbage family. But some of the vegetables in this category are more likely to cause bloating than others. This is because there are natural compounds in them that the body has trouble digesting. For example, brussels sprouts have the same gassy carbohydrate that beans do: galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). Not all cruciferous vegetables have GOS, but many still have other hard-to-digest compounds.

Cruciferous vegetables that you should avoid include:

  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cauliflower
  • Broccoli

Healthy replacements for cruciferous vegetables

As with the beans, Freuman says you can try to take Beano before eating meals with these high gas foods to see if that alleviates the problem. Also, you can simply reduce your portion size of the problem vegetable. If you’d like some less gassy, but still nutrient-rich options from the cruciferous vegetable family you can eat:

  • Arugula
  • Bok choy 
  • Cabbage (in moderation)

6. Sweeteners

Certain sweeteners like sugar alcohols such as xylitol and sorbitol which are found in sugar-free snacks can cause bloating and possibly even have a laxative effect. Again, this has to do with the fact that they are hard to digest, leading to bacteria in the intestine feeding on it and fermenting it, causing gas.

Artificial sweeteners can cause bloating in excess, but Freuman says if you only have a packet or less, you should be fine. 

Additionally, people who are sensitive to fructose might find honey and agave nectar to cause problems, Freuman says. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, 40% of people in the Western Hemisphere have some degree of fructose malabsorption, where the intestine doesn’t properly digest the fructose, which can result in bloating and other GI symptoms. Another more rare possibility is hereditary fructose intolerance, which is a genetic disorder where the liver can’t break down fructose. 

Healthy replacements for sweeteners 

If you must add sweetener to your coffee or whatever else it is you want to sweeten up, options that won’t cause as much bloating are:

  • Stevia, since it is not a fermentable carbohydrate, gas is not produced as a byproduct of consuming it, Freuman says
  • Table sugar (while not necessarily health in large amounts, it’s easily digestible)

The bottom line

There isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach to prevent bloating, Freuman says. What causes one person to bloat won’t always make another person bloat. You have to look at the whole person and the whole diet. It’s all about figuring out what your triggers are, getting to know your body, and making changes based on your individualized needs.

14 Common Foods That Cause Gas

It’s safe to say that most people grew up hearing this song on the playground: “Beans, beans: They’re good for your heart! The more you eat, the more you,” well, you know the rest! And be honest—you’ve always thought twice before digging into a bean-heavy meal because of that song, no? Well, here’s the thing: if you still can’t control your tooting but aren’t sure of the culprit, beans are just one of many foods that cause gas most likely in your diet.

Read on to find out which items to avoid, as well as how to alleviate this rather annoying symptom so that you can continue to enjoy those foods you just can’t quit. And be sure while you’re making meals at home, you’re trying out these 21 Best Healthy Cooking Hacks of All Time.

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Sugar alcohols, like sorbitol, mannitol, isomalt, and xylitol are found in some sugar-free candies and gums and cause gas. “Check the label on sugar-free foods,” says Kaleigh McMordie, MCN, RDN, LD. “Instead, go with stevia, maple syrup, or raw sugar as sweeteners.”

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Inulin and chicory root are supplemental fibers that are often added to high-fiber foods like fiber snack bars and fiber cereals. “They are especially notorious for causing gas and bloating. Read your labels and steer clear of these additives to avoid gas,” recommends McMordie.

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About 25% of the US population and 75% of the world population eventually lose some or all of their ability to break down lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.

“Lactose intolerance is when the body is unable to breakdown lactose, and the side effects include diarrhea, congestion, gas and bloating,” says Sarah Greenfield, registered dietitian, and expert in digestive health and sports nutrition. “If you’re worried about calcium, fear not; foods like barley, butternut squash, chickpeas, and collard greens are all high in it. And some people can also tolerate dairy foods with lower levels of lactose like yogurts, ricotta, cottage cheese, Parmesan, Swiss, and cheddar cheese.

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Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and kale are all delicious (and easy to prepare!), so they make great sides or bases in recipes. And with their high fiber and high nutrient content, they’re a great source of nutrition. But since they are high in fiber, this can naturally lead to gas and bloat, if you have a hearty amount of the food.

“Cruciferous vegetables take a longer amount of time to move through the digestive tract, giving them longer exposure to our gut bacteria,” says Greenfield. “The bacteria begin to ferment the fiber and produces gas. A great way to decrease the effects of this is to drink a lot of water and to take a digestive enzyme prior to eating.”

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Highly processed foods with large amounts of sugar can increase the production of flatulence. “Sugar feeds the bacteria in our intestines, which causes fermentation, a process where sugar is turned into gas,” explains Greenfield. “Decreasing the amount of processed sugar can help decrease gas and bloating.

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Sometimes, that discomfort that feels like gas is actually the feeling of being too “full.” And high-fat foods tend to take longer to digest, resulting in a decrease in the stomach’s ability to empty.

“Just like a balloon full of water, this distension sends a message to the brain that translates into ‘fullness,'” says Dr. Rupa Sharma, gastroenterologist with a special focus on nutrition. “Just like every part of the body, the GI tract has nerves and these send messages to the brain and are involved with many symptoms including hunger, pain, and—of course—gas.”

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If an ice-cold beer is your way of relaxing after a long day, you might want to find a new vice. Beer releases carbon dioxide gas and that builds up in your gut—and is then released in the form of some foul-smelling flatulence. And it’s not just beer; other alcohols and fermented and pickled foods can cause bloating, cramps, and excess gas because of yeast overgrowth. Simply put: Too much yeast in our intestines equals too much gas.

Looking for more helpful tips? Be sure to sign up for our newsletter to get daily recipes and food news in your inbox!

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Protein sits in your stomach for a longer period of time, which causes sugars and bacteria to build up. This leads to bloating and gas, but you don’t have to give up your BBQ fix just yet. Some ways to lessen the farting effect is to chew your food very well and consume red meat in smaller portions.

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For some, the carbonation in drinks like soda goes right to their intestines, blowing ’em up like a balloon. The acid and fructose found in these drinks are the culprit—so if you have this problem, switch to natural, non-fizzy drinks like plain iced tea.

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“Many people have gluten sensitivities that they’re unaware of because so many foods have wheat as filler,” explains Dr. Natasha Sandy, celebrity dermatologist, and wellness expert. If you find that you’re gassy and bloated after eating foods made with wheat, you may want to try cutting down on how much gluten you consume.

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Oats should be a staple of your diet—but your intestines may not agree. If you’re tooting after them, reduce the amount you eat per serving to still get in the good fiber but lessen the pain.

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Sure, nuts are a great and versatile snack because they’re high in protein, healthy fats, and fiber. But unfortunately, they claim a spot on our list of foods that cause gas because they are not easily digested. If there was one type of nut to question first, we recommend staying away from cashews, as they are considered one of the biggest culprits.

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Beans are a great and versatile food—they’re high in protein, high fiber, antioxidants, and are relatively inexpensive if you’re on a budget. Plus, their shelf life goes a long way. But the fear of eating beans because they’ll give you gas is valid.

“Beans have specific types of sugar that we don’t have enzymes for,” says Dr. Daryl Gioffre, certified raw food chef, and alkaline diet expert. “When the beans get to the colon, the bacteria in the colon begins to ferment these sugars, producing gas in the process.” To overcome this issue, make sure to chew your beans very well because digestion starts in the mouth. Lean toward smaller beans like lentils and avoid sugary and dairy foods with your beans.

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Yes, fruit for dessert seems like a great way to curb your after-hours sweet tooth without the extra fat, calories, and everything else. But you may want to reconsider enjoying it at the end of your meals.

“Eating fruit for dessert will literally sit on top of whatever else is in your stomach—especially a slow-digesting protein like a steak—and begin to ferment, which is the true cause of gas and bloating,” explains Dr. Gioffre. If you must have fruit, try to stick to fruits like lemons, limes, grapefruit, avocados, pomegranates, watermelon, and tomatoes because they have low sugar and are high in minerals.

90,000 India’s Oil and Gas Industry – Investment Opportunities . ..

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The fastest growing energy market in the world

India is the third largest consumer of energy and oil in the world after China and the USA.

India is 4- m the largest importer of liquefied natural gas (LNG).

India consumed 213.2 million tons of oil products and 60,747 million m3 of natural gas. The dependence of imports of crude oil and LNG in 2018 was 82.59% and 45.89%, respectively.During 2018, the volume of oil imports amounted to $ 112 billion, an increase of 27% compared to $ 88 billion, in 2017 – 18 and 23.42% of the country’s total gross imports. India’s projected oil demand will grow by an average of 4% during 2016-2030 against the global average of 1%, although the projected oil demand will be much lower compared to the United States and China.

  • Traditional hydrocarbons O + OEG with a volume of 230 billion barrels on an area of ​​more than 3 million square meters. Km, distributed over 26 sedimentary basins, are available to investors
  • India aims to reduce dependence on imports of oil and gas by 10% by 2022 90,016 90,015 Demand for petroleum products is estimated to reach 244. 960 mln.Tons by 2021-22 With a CAGR of 10% 90,016 90,015, the total number of points of sale of fuel increased from 18,848 (2002) to 64,624 (2019) with an average annual rate of 7.5%. State marketing companies are planning to add 78,000 new points of sale for fuel.
  • Currently, the share of natural gas in the country’s energy balance is 6%. The target is to increase it to 15% by 2030
  • It is planned to open 12 biofuel plants with an investment of $ 1.5 billion.
  • India is the 2nd – th largest consumer Biogas with 5000 CBF plants to be opened in 2023 under the SATAT scheme
  • Ethanol-in-gasoline blending will grow from 5% to 20% by 2030 in India

100% direct Foreign Investment Allowed for Exploration of Oil and Natural Gas Fields on the Automatic Route

49% of FDI Allowed for Oil Refining by Public Sector Enterprises (PSUs), without any investment reduction or dilution of domestic capital in existing PSUs by automatic route

For more information, please refer to FDI policy

Alexander Lukashenko refused to “kneel” – Mir – Kommersant

President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko said that the Russian leadership is hinting at joining the republic in exchange for uniform prices for energy resources. Earlier, he repeatedly made it clear that under no circumstances does he intend to “trade in the independence” of his country. This time, Mr. Lukashenko also assured: the country will continue to buy oil outside the Russian Federation so as not to “kneel”.

Alexander Lukashenko made new loud statements regarding the economic and political independence of Belarus today at a meeting with the staff of the Svetlogorsk Pulp and Cardboard Mill (CCM). “We do not demand anything superfluous. But we are told: we are different countries – a hint that we need to be one country.How can you have one country with Russia? You probably hear: “Let’s include Belarus in Russia,” he said (quoted by the BelTA agency). At the same time, Mr. Lukashenko added: neither the Belarusian, nor the Russian people will ever want to follow this path.

Alexander Lukashenko spoke in detail about the recent negotiations with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Sochi. So, he noted that the discussion began with the problems of the middle of the last century, then modern threats were touched upon, including the situation in Ukraine. According to Alexander Lukashenko, he made it clear to his colleague that Russia, as the legal successor of the USSR, must abide by the promises of the Soviet government, in particular, continue to support Belarus as the most affected by the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. In particular, Alexander Lukashenko offered the Russian side to supply gas to the affected Belarusian territories at a lower price than to other regions of the republic. He noted that “due to this misfortune (the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant – Kommersant ), people still cannot use both wood and other types of fuel.”

One of the key topics for discussion was the problems in the oil sector.

“I recalled that planes flew from Gomel, Vitebsk, Mogilev to those oil and gas wells (in Russia – Kommersant ) from Gomel, Vitebsk, Mogilev, and also from Minsk. What we drilled and created in Soviet times turned out to be alien overnight. And today we are forced to buy these products at the world price, while Russia sells it at half price or one third, ”BelTA news agency quoted Alexander Lukashenko.

According to Alexander Lukashenko, during the talks in Sochi, President Putin doubted that the Belarusian side would continue to buy oil from other countries. “Why would you do this if it is still more expensive than the Russian one?” – Alexander Lukashenko conveyed the words of Vladimir Putin. The Belarusian leader found the answer easily: according to him, Belarus “will continue to diversify its purchases (oil – Kommersant ) so ​​that every year on December 31 not to kneel.” Mr. Lukashenko assured that purchases from other countries will continue, even if their oil is more expensive than Russian oil.

Let us remind you that US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo visited Belarus in early February. He declared Washington’s readiness to provide Belarus with oil “at a competitive price.” “He (Mike Pompeo – Kommersant ) understands our problems now,” the Belarusian president shared his impressions of the meeting. “Including them (Americans – Kommersant ) know very well, sometimes even better, than me, some questions in relations with Russia. He (Mike Pompeo – Kommersant ) told me: “Don’t worry, we will help Belarus.”

Russian oil, as noted by Alexander Lukashenko, he is also ready to buy “at world prices”, but Moscow, according to the Belarusian leader, is now insisting on a “substantial premium” for the supply. “We are ready to cooperate. But it must be honest, transparent and sincere. We are not asking for anything in addition to how they work in the West, ”Mr. Lukashenko was indignant earlier, claiming that Moscow“ deceived ”Minsk with oil prices.

Moscow views the situation differently.

Russia is striving for Minsk to sign a package of integration documents, which also includes a solution to the problem of gas supplies to Belarus.

If this package is adopted, then within the framework of the Union State Belarus will be able to buy gas from Russia at $ 127 per 1,000 cubic meters. m. If not, then Belarus will be able to buy gas from Russia within the EAEU at a price of $ 152 per 1,000 cubic meters. m. According to the estimates of the members of the Russian delegation who participated in the talks in Minsk, the purchase of American oil by Belarus is “minus $ 2 billion a year” (compared to the Russian “integration” price).

“We are always determined to interact constructively with our Belarusian partners,” he noted earlier in the program “Moscow.Kremlin. Putin “on the TV channel” Russia 1 “the press secretary of the President of the Russian Federation Dmitry Peskov. He admitted that the oil and gas issue is “very emotional” for the Belarusian leadership. But, added Mr. Peskov, Alexander Lukashenko can be understood: the President of Belarus “behaves accordingly in his country,” as he protects its interests. “But together they (Presidents Putin and Lukashenko. – Kommersant ) are gathering in the name of allied, common interests, which we are witnessing now,” Mr. Peskov summed up the line.

Today Alexander Lukashenko has returned to the topic of independence, not only economic, but also political. So, he told the workers of the Svetlogorsk Central Control Commission:

“Remember: your first president, whom you once elected, will never be the last. After me, think about how to live. But even when I live, but I am not president, I will always fight to keep our land sovereign and independent. ”

As for the gradual integration, according to the Belarusian leader, it will continue.“We will continue to work on integration,” said Mr Lukashenko. And he added: “There is nothing wrong with that.”

Pavel Tarasenko

Pavilion No. 21

History of creation

Exhibition pavilion No. 21 was built for the opening of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition in 1954 by the architect A. Rostkovsky. Then it was a cylindrical volume, ending with a dome above the central hall. At the entrance, visitors were greeted by a monumental wreath arch, stylistically close to the compositions of the Main and Northern entrances of VDNKh.Classic flowerpots in the design of the building played the role of farm baskets – they were filled with cement cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage and potatoes. This image of abundance was complemented by relief mini-panels with images of plants.

In 1967, the pavilion was rebuilt according to a project developed by architects E. Antsuta and V. Kuznetsov. As a result of the reconstruction, it became two-storey, its total area increased from 700 to 2,700 sq. The renovated pavilion now has a 200-seat cinema lecture hall, additional exhibition areas and an extensive lobby.

The most expressive element of the main facade of the building is the curved canopy hanging over the glass wall, according to the remarks of the architectural historian A. Yu. Bronovitskaya, referring the attentive observer to the works of the outstanding French architect of the 20th century Le Corbusier. This solution has no analogues in the architecture of the Exhibition.

Exhibition history

The first exposition of the pavilion was devoted to vegetable growing: methods of growing seedlings, mechanization of the industry.

In 1959, the pavilion hosted the “Sugar and Confectionery Industry” exposition. By the way, the building itself, similar to a wedding cake, was then called by the great Italian filmmaker Federico Fellini “the fantasy of an enraged pastry chef”.

Five years later, the “Gas Industry” exposition was opened in the pavilion – operating devices and models, panels and numerous stands, combined with a spectacular modern design, were a vivid image of the development of the gas industry in the USSR.

90,000 Oil and Gas. Comments and reviews

Ukrainian gas industry – 80 years

In 1924, the first “big” gas was produced at the Dashavskoye field

Oksana Liven

Today, workers of the Ukrainian gas industry celebrate the 80th anniversary of their industry. Looking back at the path traveled, it would be worth noting the main milestones in the development of gas production in our country. It originates in the Carpathian region – one of the oldest oil and gas production regions in Europe. 1924 is considered to be the “starting point”, when the first commercial volumes of natural gas were obtained at the Dashavskoye field and the Dashava-Stryi gas pipeline was put into operation.

The first gas fields in the Carpathian region, which was then part of Poland, were discovered around 1920. It is interesting that the first gas was obtained in the Dashavskaya area from a well that was drilled to extract salt. Later, the initial reserves of the Dashavskoye field were estimated at 13.2 billion cubic meters of natural gas.

However, in Ukraine they began to use coke oven gas even earlier – for street lighting (in Odessa – back in 1866., then in Kharkov, Kiev, Chernivtsi). Natural gas was first encountered during the drilling and development of oil wells in the Borislav oil field (in 1912-1913), and it was then considered an undesirable product – it complicated drilling, caused fires, and interfered with the deepening of oil wells.

At the beginning, no purposeful exploration of gas deposits was carried out. Only in the 1930s were the first exploratory gas wells drilled in the Uherskaya and Oparskaya areas. To transport the produced gas in the Carpathian region, the first gas pipelines were built: Dashava-Stryi (14 km long), Stryi-Drohobych-Borislav-Stebnik (55 km), then Dashava-Zhidachev-Khodorov and Dashava-Lvov (81 km) and several small ones.In the pre-war years, the total length of gas pipelines in Western Ukraine was 310 km. The development of gas production in this region at that time was hampered by the fact that there was virtually no industry that consumed gas.

After the western Ukrainian lands became part of the USSR, in 1939 the gas industry of the Carpathian region was nationalized, and the Ukrgaz trust was created to manage the work of the gas fields in Lvov, with a branch in Stryi. In 1940, a new gas field, Oparskoye, was put into operation, and the production of natural gas compared to 1938.almost doubled and reached 341 million cubic meters. In 1940-1941. The Opora-Borislav, Dashava-Lvov gas pipelines were built, and a project was developed for the largest at that time in Europe main gas pipeline Dashava-Kiev with a length of 509 km. Thanks to him, about 1 million tons of expensive Donetsk coal, which Kiev consumed, should have been released annually. It was also planned to build three gas processing plants in 1941 – in Dashava, Kalush and Opory, but these plans were not destined to come true due to the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War.

In the east of Ukraine, the gas industry also developed, but here it was more concentrated on the use of coke oven gas for underground coal gasification. This process was proposed back in 1888 by DI Mendeleev. The first underground coal gasification stations were built in Lisichansk and Gorlovka in the 1930s. In November 1934, during the gasification of Donetsk, the first gas torch was solemnly lit, and since then it has become a traditional ritual when putting into operation main gas pipelines or supplying gas to settlements and important objects.Before the war in Donetsk, Makeevka and Horlivka, compressed coke oven gas operated gas filling stations, thus reducing the consumption of liquid fuel.

During the Nazi occupation, the development of the gas industry almost completely stopped. At this time, only the Opora-Staleva Wola gas pipeline (Poland) was built. Since Staleva Volya ended up abroad in 1944, this year is considered the beginning of the export of Ukrainian gas.

In the period 1924-1944 in Ukraine there was an almost continuous (with some exceptions) growth in gas production – from 37.7 million cubic meters to 530.4 million cubic meters, and in 1950 it reached 1411.1 million cubic meters.In the post-war years, the volume of exploration and production drilling expanded – already in 1945 it exceeded the pre-war level and amounted to 23.1 thousand m (in 1940 -19.8 thousand m). In 1948, a new large gas field was discovered in the western region – Bilche-Volitskoye, which was put into operation in 1953.

The period of 1951-1975 was the time of the most intensive development of the gas industry in Ukraine.7 fields were developed in the western region. It should be emphasized that until 1955 the Carpathian region was the main gas producing region not only in Ukraine, but also in the entire former USSR. Of the all-Union volume of gas production (5.9 billion cubic meters), the Stryi gas production department accounted for 2.8 billion cubic meters, i.e. 48%. The maximum level of production in the western region of Ukraine reached in 1967 (12.265 billion cubic meters) and 1968 (12.571 billion cubic meters).

In the 50-70s. major gas pipelines were built and put into operation: Dashava-Kiev-Bryansk-Moscow, Dashava-Minsk-Vilnius-Riga, thanks to which gas supplies to Russia, Moldova, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia began.The interstate gas pipeline “Brotherhood” (Valley-Uzhgorod-Western border) was built and put into operation in 1967 to export gas to Czechoslovakia and Austria (since 1968). At the same time, the first five UGS facilities were built and started operating – Olyshevskoye, Chervono-partisanskoye, Uherskoye, Dashavskoye, Chervonopopovskoye.

The discovery of the unique Shebelinsky gas condensate field in 1951 and its commissioning in 1956 marked the beginning of the rapid development of gas production in the eastern region – the Dnieper-Donetsk depression.The initial reserves of the Shebelinsky field were estimated at 650 billion cubic meters. In the first year of operation, 332.7 million cubic meters of gas were produced from it, and since 1957 it has become a leader in Ukraine. In the first two decades of operation, Shebelinka was the largest field in terms of reserves and gas production in all of Europe. In 1956-1960. it produced 22.8 billion cubic meters of gas. In the mid-1960s, 30% of all-Union gas production volumes were extracted from the Shebelinsky field. Gas production increased steadily in 1971.reached its maximum – 31.329 billion cubic meters.

The development of Shebelinka stimulated the construction of gas pipelines to large industrial centers of the Kharkov, Dnieper and Donetsk regions. The first to be built were gas pipelines to Kharkov (62 km) and Chuguevskaya GRES (25 km), then large gas pipelines, including Shebelinka-Dnepropetrovsk-Krivoy Rog-Odessa with branches to Zaporozhye, Nikolaev, Kherson, etc . ; Shebelinka-Kiev with branches to Poltava, Kremenchug, Cherkassy; Shebelinka-Belgorod-Kursk-Bryansk and a number of others.In the 70s, the Shebelinka-Kiev-West Ukraine gas pipeline was built, which connected the eastern and western gas producing regions into a single whole.

At the Shebelinskoye field, for the first time in Ukraine, significant volumes of gas condensate production, its extraction and processing directly on site were organized. For this, in 1960, the first in Europe gas fractionation unit was built (with a total capacity of 100 thousand tons per year), which became the “embryo” of the first-born gas processing plant in Ukraine – Shebelinsky GPP, created in 1962.The second stage of the gas processing plant was put into operation in 1970, and then the total capacity for processing gas condensate increased to 400-450 thousand tons per year. At that time, the Shebelinsky GPP produced two brands of motor gasoline, white spirit, diesel fuel, flotation reagent for flotation of Donbass coke oven coal, compressed gas.

The second largest gas condensate field in the eastern region after Shebelinsky at that time was Efremovskoye (with initial reserves of about 110 billion cubic meters), which was commissioned in 1967.In addition, among the large deposits, one should note Mashevskoe (1968), Khrestyshchenskoe (1970), Melikhovskoe (1973), Novotroitskoe (1974) and a number of other gas condensate fields characterized by deep occurrence of productive horizons (3-4 thousand m). Later, the Yablunivskoye gas condensate field was discovered, which since 1990 came into second place (after Shebelinka) in terms of gas production in the country.

The southern gas producing region began its development in December 1966.when natural gas from the Glebovskoye gas condensate field in Crimea was supplied to Simferopol. In 1968 the Zadornenskoye gas condensate field was commissioned, and in 1970 the Dzhankoyskoye gas field. The first to be built were the Simferopol-Sevastopol gas pipelines (with branches to Saki and Evpatoria) and Dzhankoy-Simferopol. Gas production in Crimea in the first year (1966) amounted to 64 million cubic meters, and reached its maximum indicators in 1986 – 1211 million cubic meters.

With the discovery of new highly promising gas-bearing regions in the USSR – in Western Siberia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan – most of the material and human resources began to be directed there.Therefore, since 1976, a gradual decline in gas production began in Ukraine – from 68.7 billion cubic meters in 1975 to 13.4 billion cubic meters in 1999. In general, large fields with reserves of over 30 billion cubic meters played a decisive role in the total gas production. cubic meters. The absence of such deposits in recent decades has led to a steady decline in gas production.

In general throughout Ukraine for the period 1944-1995. About 1.6 trillion cubic meters of natural gas were produced, of which about 85% – in the fields of the eastern region, 15% – in the western and southern regions.

By the Decree of the President of Ukraine dated February 25, 1998 “On Reforming the Oil and Gas Complex of Ukraine” and the corresponding resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers, NJSC “Naftogaz of Ukraine” was created, which included specialized subsidiaries. At the same time, the Ukrgasvydobuvannya complex was assigned the functions of producing its own gas resources. DC Ukrgazdobycha includes four gas production departments (Shebelinkagazdobycha, Lvovgazdobycha, Poltavagazdobycha, Kharkovgazdobycha), Ukrburgaz drilling department, Ukrgasprom-Geophysics Geophysical Research Institute, Natural Gas Research Institute Gas and gas condensate processing department, LIKVO anti-gushing unit.

Today, the Ukrgasvydobuvannya complex is developing as a full-fledged vertically integrated structure operating according to the principle “from a well to a gas station”. The company has a closed production cycle – from prospecting, exploration of gas and oil fields, their development, transportation, processing of hydrocarbon raw materials to the sale of finished petroleum products through a network of filling stations under the brand of NJSC Naftogaz of Ukraine.

The company is currently engaged in industrial and pilot development of 127 gas, gas condensate and oil and gas condensate fields.During the period of the company’s existence, thanks to the growth in exploration drilling, 15 new fields and 27 new deposits were discovered at old fields. In 1999, it was possible to reverse the downward trend and stabilize the level of gas production, and in 2001, it began to increase. For the fourth year in a row, the company no longer “consumes” stocks, but increases them,

According to the results of 2003, Ukrgasvydobuvannya DK produced over 14 billion cubic meters of natural gas, which is 315 million cubic meters more than in 2002.Production of gas condensate amounted to 684.2 thousand tons, oil – 103 thousand tons. Compared to 2002, these indicators increased by 75.8 and 9.1 thousand tons, respectively. Thus, the meterage in production drilling was 93.1 thousand meters, in exploration – 177.1 thousand meters. In 2003, 62 wells were put into operation (in 2002 – 59), including 27 exploratory ones.

The company intends to maintain the pace of increasing the volume of geological exploration, increasing the extraction of raw materials in the future.So we wish our gas producers new successes in their hard work, on which the fuel and energy security of our state largely depends.

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The era of cheap oil is over

Ukrainian consumers will have to get used to the new level of prices for oil products

Ivan Maryanenko

Only the lazy has not recently spoken about the impact of the growth in world oil prices on the cost of oil products in Ukraine. And yet, how do changes in the world oil market affect our country? How close is the relationship between global trends and domestic realities? These issues were discussed at the meeting of the TNK-Ukraine media club on June 10.It was attended by representatives of the operators of the Ukrainian oil market – President of TNK-Ukraine Alexander Gorodetsky, Chairman of the Board of CJSC Ukrtatnafta Pavel Ovcharenko, President of NK Alliance-Ukraine Petr Miroshnikov, Executive Director of FDI LUKOIL-Ukraine Vladimir Tomin, and also director of energy programs at the Ukrainian Center for Economic and Political Research. A. Razumkova Vladimir Saprykin and AMK representative Petr Ambrozevich. The invited representatives of the Ministry of Fuel and Energy and the Ministry of Economy did not appear, so the discussion turned out to be somewhat one-sided.

In a nutshell, the main conclusion that market operators are introducing into the minds of Ukrainian fuel consumers is that it remains only to get used to the current level of prices for oil products. And there’s nothing you can do about it.

“Russia is starting to catch up with global trends, and the Ukrainian market is correlating with the Russian one,” said Alexander Gorodetsky. According to him, Russia is starting to play an increasing role in the global oil industry. And the world oil market is currently experiencing one of the most stressful periods in the last 30 years, which is causing an unprecedented rise in prices.This is influenced by both economic and political factors.

TNK-Ukraine presented to the audience a brief analytical overview of the processes taking place in the world oil market. According to A. Gorodetsky, their main essence lies in the redistribution of the balance of supply and demand, as a result of which there is a complete reformation of the market and its restructuring. Recently, the global centers of oil consumption have changed, in particular, the demand for it is growing rapidly in China, India, and Central Asia.Consumption is also increasing in Europe and the United States, with Russian oil taking an increasing share in Europe. On the other hand, the traditional countries supplying oil to the world market are also changing. Production levels in the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea are falling, and OPEC countries have almost reached their limits. At the same time, production is growing in Russia, West and North Africa. In such conditions, the transport infrastructure does not have time to rebuild, as a result of which a regional deficit arises.The formation of a new infrastructure for the delivery of raw materials, according to international analysts, may take from 3 to 5 years. In addition, environmental concerns are tightening logistics requirements, which also increases insurance, freight and other costs.

Among other economic factors, there is a change in the structure of demand – the demand for light and middle distillates is growing, and the consumption of fuel oil is decreasing. At the same time, there is not enough capacity for deep oil refining. In addition, the limited volume of oil storage facilities in the world means that oil “now” is more expensive than oil “tomorrow.”And the level of stocks in recent years, thanks to the optimization of logistics, has significantly decreased, i.e. Refineries strive to process oil on wheels.

In addition, the price of oil is increasingly determined by political factors. Today the so-called. the “political risk premium” is quite high – at the level of $ 8-10 per bar, which is about 25% of the price. This is primarily due to the long-term instability in the Middle East and international terrorism.

Thus, the world has moved to a new level of oil prices – $ 35-40 per bar.And, as international analysts predict, this price level will remain in the next 3-5 years. Although, as A. Gorodetsky noted, the largest oil producers do not strive to ensure that the high price remains on the market for a long time. According to him, in history there has already been a period of a sharp rise in oil prices, and then many countries began to reorient themselves to alternative energy sources.

Nevertheless, it is obvious that in the current situation it is much more profitable for Russian oil companies – the main suppliers of raw materials for Ukrainian refineries – to supply their oil to the world market, and not to Ukraine.Recently, supplies of Russian oil to North-Western Europe have indeed increased (in three years they increased from 26.2 million tons to almost 80 million tons) due to the depletion of reserves in the North Sea, the level of supplies to the Mediterranean region remains stably high (about 80 million tons). Since the price of oil today in these regions is higher than when it is sold to Ukraine by $ 30-80 per ton, the rise in oil prices is inevitable for us, says

A. Gorodetsky. Oil production in Russia is growing by 10-11% annually, although worldwide growth of 2-3% is considered a good indicator.Therefore, Russia is actively developing its transport capabilities to improve access to the world market – these are the Baltic Pipeline System, CPC, promising projects – the construction of an oil pipeline to Murmansk, to Nakhodka, China, which will make it possible to sell growing volumes of raw materials production.

As A. Gorodetsky emphasized, all the operating companies of the Ukrainian oil market are independent legal entities and buy oil on commercial terms – both from their parent companies and from other suppliers on the market.Thus, TNK-Ukraine buys from the parent company TNK-BP only 50% of raw materials, the rest from Bashneft and Rosneft, from medium and small Russian oil companies, and from Kazakh producers. All of them, naturally, are interested in a higher cost of production. JSC “Ukrtatnafta”, as P. Ovcharenko noted, buys 50-70% of raw materials on the free market. According to A. Gorodetsky, now Russian companies, when planning volumes and directions of export for the third quarter, include Ukraine in their schedules on a residual basis.Already in the second quarter, the volume for Ukraine was initially reduced by 2 million tons compared to the first quarter, but 1.2 million tons were “returned to us later,” A. Gorodetsky noted.

The heads of the operating companies say that due to the artificial containment of prices for petroleum products since January 2003, they have significantly reduced the profitability of their work. During this period, prices for raw materials increased by 90%, while for oil products – only by 33% (before the May jump in prices). According to P. Ovcharenko, if for two quarters of 2003profitability of work of JSC “Ukrtatnafta” was 1 2%, then in the same period of the current year it decreased to 1 .7%, and the company ended May with losses. V. Tomin, Executive Director of FDI “LUKOIL-Ukraine”, reported that in the first half of 2004,

Zero profitability is expected at OAO LUKOIL-Odessa Refinery. The profitability of Khersonneftepererabotka, according to the somewhat evasive answer of the President of the Alliance-Ukraine Oil Company P. Miroshnikov, is $ 10-15 per ton less than, for example, the more technically advanced Kremenchug refinery.As for TNK-Ukraine, as A. Gorodetsky said, it is in a worse position in comparison with other companies, since it still has large investment obligations for LyNOS and “money is still being spent”. By the way, according to his information, investment projects for the reconstruction and modernization of the Lisichansk refinery are now being revised towards increasing costs. The reason for this is the rise in metal prices. According to A. Gorodetsky, works and equipment where metal products are used are currently rising in price by an average of 20 to 30%.In particular, the cost of the isomerization unit construction project will increase by 20-25%. In early July, it is planned to commission a bitumen plant at LiNOS, but since the equipment was purchased earlier, it will rise in price slightly. A. Gorodetsky noted that the funds planned for this year for the technical re-equipment of the plant – $ 27.4 million – will be used in full.

Vladimir Tomin also drew attention to the fact that the technical improvement of the refinery in the long term should pay off due to the increase in fuel prices.According to him, for example, the Odessa refinery needs to invest about $ 300 million for technical re-equipment for the production of gasoline according to EURO-3 standards. will “tighten” the quality of petroleum products to European standards, “V. Tomin believes. According to him, the current Ukrainian GOST standards for the quality of petroleum products no longer meet the requirements of cars, as there are more and more foreign cars in Ukraine.

In the incomplete week that has passed since the signing of the memorandum between the government and oil companies, at 80-90% of gas stations in Ukraine, prices for A-95 gasoline have stabilized at the agreed level – 2.90 UAH per liter, – said P. Ovcharenko. According to him, 80% of the consumption of petroleum products in the country is under the control of the four largest operators. P. Ovcharenko said that Ukrtatnafta CJSC has reduced the wholesale price for A-95 gasoline from UAH 3500 / t to UAH 3200 / t. The company is also fully ready for the shipment of diesel fuel to farmers – there are 40 thousand tonnes in the tanks.t. Prices for low-octane gasoline, according to him, will be regulated by the market, but fluctuations will not exceed 3-4% in one direction or another. “The effect has been obtained, but everyone should understand that this is a forceful influence of our oil companies on the market. We are pressing the retail network with all the available opportunities in order to stabilize it,” Ovcharenko noted.

TNK-Ukraine has also taken a number of actions in this direction. In particular, on June 8, the company held a conference for its jobbers to clarify the provisions of the memorandum, in which 35 jobber companies took part (TNK-Ukraine has about 50 of them).The first vice-president of TD TNK-Ukraine, Sergey Lizunov, told the partners that the wholesale price for A-95 gasoline had been reduced from UAH 3500-3600 / t (at the time of signing the memorandum) to UAH 3200 / t, and recommended that jobbers reduce the retail price by it is up to 2.90 UAH per liter. At the same time, he stressed that TNK-Ukraine cannot force its partners to lower prices, but warned that the government would not regard the price reduction as a violation of agreements and a desire to receive super-profits. “This means they (owners of gas stations) will sort things out with local authorities, tax authorities and so on, state tools will be used,” he said.TNK-Ukraine executives emphasize that the company does not intend to reduce its jobber program. “The program has developed and will continue to develop. It has many tools. The price factor, of course, is not insignificant, but it is not the only one,” Lizunov said. In addition, as the director of the marketing and sales department Felix Lunev noted, all existing marketing and advertising programs of TNK-Ukraine (in particular, the Star of Quality) will remain in force, and at the end of June the company will announce new projects that it is going to start this year.

In 10-12 days the prices of Russian oil for July will become known, then it will be possible to make some short-term forecasts, – P. Ovcharenko said. And long-term forecasts in the current situation, according to him, are a thankless task. “With a further rise in the price of Russian oil, with an increase in duties, an increase in prices on the domestic Ukrainian market is quite possible,” predicts A. Gorodetsky. “It is difficult to say whether it will be or not. Now we are seeing some stabilization of the price at the level of $ 34-35 per bar.It is quite possible that it may go down. The market is now in a state of extreme uncertainty, and it is extremely difficult to forecast it not only for us, but also for international analysts. We now live for weeks or even days, waiting for what will happen. “

At the same time, as P. Miroshnikov noted, the double VAT on the export of Russian oil to Ukraine is expected to be canceled soon, as a result of which oil products in our country may fall in price by 10%. He said that there is information that the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers is in the final stage of negotiations with the Russian Government on this matter and is very close to reaching agreements.P. Miroshnikov noted that prices should be reduced by only 10%, and not by the amount of VAT – because in addition to the price of oil, the price of oil products includes the transport component, export duties, other taxes and mandatory payments.

At the same time, director of energy programs at the Ukrainian Center for Economic and Political Research named after V.I. Razumkova V. Saprykin very much doubts that Russia will agree to abolish VAT. “It would be naive to expect that Russia will abolish the VAT, since this is the proceeds to the Russian budget – $ 800 million.annually, “he said.

According to the representative of AMK Petr Ambrozevich, the regional territorial branches of the committee are now conducting additional checks on the activities of operators of the retail market of oil products, and in a number of regions, facts of abuse have already been revealed. In particular, cases were initiated by the Chernigov, Cherkassk, Kherson, Ivano-Frankovsk, Zhitomir, Volynsk, Zaporozhye and Dnepropetrovsk territorial offices. Many entrepreneurs were given recommendations to eliminate violations, as a result of which they reduced prices for petroleum products.At the same time, he stressed that the AMK cannot promptly respond to the events taking place, since there are certain rules and time frames for considering cases.

Representatives of the oil companies assured that there are currently no fuel interruptions at the gas stations they control. On the whole, Sentosa and Avias petrol stations were closed on the market for rediscounting, since they had bought expensive gasoline in Mazeikiai earlier and now they cannot sell it at a loss.

Over the past week, according to some sources, the demand for oil products in Ukraine has decreased.However, oil market operators are not yet afraid of whether Ukrainian consumers will be ready to pay a new, higher price for oil products. “The economy of the country is developing, the growth of wages is inevitable. There is a large reserve for the rise in prices for oil products,” Ovcharenko said. “The amount of money in the country is limited, but so far it seems to us that the country’s purchasing power can withstand,” A. Gorodetsky noted. “There will be no significant price reduction,” V. Tomin said, adding that since the establishment of a new price level in mid-May, the company has not noticed a decrease in sales in its network of filling stations.On the contrary, there was a certain excitement, but now it is no longer there.

So, to all appearances, until the beginning of July, we are not threatened with another jump in prices. During this time, you need to slowly learn to get used to …

***

photos: Alexander Gorodetsky: “Russia is starting to catch up with world trends, and the Ukrainian market is correlating with the Russian one”; Petr Miroshnikov: “The abolition of double VAT on the export of Russian oil to Ukraine is expected soon, as a result of which oil products in our country may fall in price by 10%”; Pavel Ovcharenko: “We are pressing the retail network with all the available opportunities in order to stabilize it”

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90,000 Azerbaijan exports fruits worth hundreds of millions, and this is not the limit

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Foreign researchers have found that fruits, including those that are abundant in Azerbaijan, prevent many diseases, which means that their export can help the country make good money.

BAKU, 23 Nov – Sputnik. British and Norwegian scientists have named the main products that must be consumed in case of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, including cancer.

The results of research conducted by scientists at the University of Warwick in the UK have been published in the journal Nature Communications.

It was found that pomegranates, red grapes, pears, mushrooms, lentils, soybeans and green peas are very effective in the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

Specialists from the University of Warwick suggested that the British government should arrange for the import of organic types of these products from other countries. They also noted the special and irreplaceable benefits of pomegranate in the fight against cancer.

Considering the fact that most of the listed products, and especially natural (not genetically modified) pomegranate, grows in abundance in Azerbaijan, the proposal of British scientists may turn into a good deal for local suppliers.

Which countries does Azerbaijan export these fruits to? How much profit does their export bring? Sputnik Azerbaijan applied these questions to the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

The head of the press service of the department, Murtuzali Hajiyev, said that for the period from January to August 2017, the volume of exports of products amounted to 374.8 million US dollars, which exceeds the same indicators for the previous year by 47.4%.The bulk of exports were vegetables and fruits.

“Thus, the export of fruits and vegetables increased by about 41.5% and amounted to US $ 306.5 million. Of these, 69.7% are vegetables, 15.8% are fruits,” he said.

According to a representative of the Ministry of Agriculture, canned vegetables and fruits are mostly supplied to New Zealand, the Netherlands, Qatar, Germany, the USA, Australia, and the United Arab Emirates.

“In kind, they are supplied to the CIS countries, Russia, Georgia, Iran, Israel, France,” Hajiyev concluded.90,011 90,000 Biden’s son spent Burisma’s scandalous money on drugs and alcohol

April 1, 2021, 19:00

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Baydn’s son Hunter said that the proceeds from work for the notorious Ukrainian gas company Burisma Holdings were spent on drugs and alcohol.The former head of the board of the company spoke about this on the pages of his book “Beautiful Things”, which will be published on April 6. Excerpts from the book were published by the daily newspaper The Washington Post, reports IA DEITA.RU.

Recalling the affairs of bygone days, Hunter Biden admitted that if he had such an opportunity, he would never have agreed to work for a Ukrainian company.

The funds received from the gas company were used by Hunter on drugs and alcohol.Thus, he destroyed relations with his family and lost his career.

Biden Jr. did not manage to write off drug addiction by age – the 51-year-old son of the first person in the United States assured that he became addicted to drugs after the death of his brother in 2015. The memoir features a tearful story about how he fought drugs with the support of all family members.

“In the last five years alone, my marriage, which lasted two decades, fell apart, a gun was put on my face, and at some point I went missing, lived in motels, paid $ 59 a night, scared my family even more than himself “, – describes the” sentimental “story of a participant in the corruption scandal associated with the Ukrainian Burisma.

Despite everything, Hunter did not find it unethical to start his work at Burisma when Biden Sr. was the Vice President of the United States. He added that his father’s political career helped him, but he assured that neither he nor his father “did anything illegal.”

Author: Arie Tsvai

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