About all

How much fiber per day for men: The request could not be satisfied

Содержание

Guide to getting the right amount

Fiber is an essential part of a healthful diet, and most Americans do not meet the recommended daily guidelines.

A less common problem is when a person eats too much fiber too quickly, which can cause digestive problems. It is important to consume the right amount of fiber each day, spread throughout the day.

High-fiber foods are an essential part of a healthful weight loss diet, and meeting the daily recommended intake of fiber can provide many health benefits.

Read on for the official U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) dietary guidelines, fiber recommendations for weight loss, and tips and a meal plan to help you meet your daily recommended fiber intake.

Share on PinterestMost people fall short of the recommended amount of fiber they should include in their diet.

Fiber is the carbohydrate component of plant-based foods that is not digested or absorbed as it moves through the intestine.

The optimal amount of daily fiber intake varies depending on a person’s age and sex. The current Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend the following approximate daily intake:

  • adult men require about 34 grams (g) depending on their age
  • adult women require about 28 g depending on their age

Intakes of fiber are modified for certain groups as energy requirements vary at different life stages. For example, it is recommended that children consume less than adults, with the following lower and upper bounds representing females and males respectively:

  • teenagers aged 14 to 18 require 25.2–30.8 g
  • adolescents aged 9 to 13 require 22.4–25.2 g
  • children aged 4 to 8 require 16.8–19.6 g
  • children aged 1 to 3 require 14 g

Most Americans are not getting enough dietary fiber. A study in 2008 found that the average daily intake was only 16 g per day.

On the other hand, eating too much fiber can cause bloating, gas, and constipation. These adverse effects may appear after eating 70 g of fiber in a day. Excessive fiber intake is uncommon in the United States while consuming too little fiber is considered a “public health concern” by the U. S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA).

As well as eating a healthful amount of fiber, it is also essential to ensure that the daily diet is balanced with a variety of nutrients and vitamins.

The following meal plan ensures that a person can hit or slightly exceed their recommended daily intake of fiber while eating balanced meals:

Meal Food Fiber content (g)
Breakfast ¾ cup Bran flakes 5
1 cup plant-based milk 0
1 medium banana 2.6
Snack 1 medium apple 4.4
Lunch 1 cup baked beans 6.8
1.5 cups broccoli 7.7
Dinner 1 medium baked potato with skin 3.8
3 oz. wild salmon 0
2 cups spinach salad with olive oil-based dressing 1.4
Dessert Low-fat yogurt 0
1 cup sliced strawberries 3.3
Chopped almonds (13 g) 1.7
Total daily intake 36.7

A person can use the USDA Food Composition Databases to find out the fiber composition of a wide variety of foods.

People who want to lose weight are often encouraged to eat fiber-rich foods because they tend to be low in calories, high in nutrients, and make a person feel full for longer. By adding bulk and slowing digestion, fiber stops a person feeling hungry and minimizes cravings, which is useful when trying to lose weight.

Estimates say that only 5 percent of Americans meet their daily fiber requirements. Eating more dietary fiber, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes is an essential part of maintaining a healthy weight.

Research shows, however, that merely increasing fiber, mainly through eating more plant-based foods, is not enough on its own for weight loss.

When trying to lose weight, start by aiming to reach the recommended daily allowance by basing meals around fiber-rich foods and including regular exercise.

Be careful with the promise of high fiber dietary supplements promoting weight loss. There is very little evidence to support the claims.

When increasing the amount of fiber in the diet, it is best to start slowly, increasing it gradually to allow the digestive system time to get used to it.

Consuming too much fiber, especially very quickly or over a short space of time, is not recommended.

Eating more than 70g per day is not advised and can lead to adverse effects. Consequences of consuming too much fiber include:

  • bloating, gas, and cramping
  • decrease in appetite
  • nutrient deficiencies, especially in calcium, magnesium, and zinc, because fiber may limit their absorption
  • risk of a blocked intestine if too much fiber is consumed with not enough fluid

There are two types of fiber: insoluble and soluble.

Insoluble fiber, referred to as cellulose, does not dissolve in water but increases the movement of waste products through the digestive tract, helping to prevent constipation.

Soluble fiber includes pectin and beta-glucans. It dissolves in water to form a gel in the large intestine.

Fiber-rich foods typically contain both soluble and insoluble fiber. Healthful sources of fiber include:

  • oats
  • bran
  • fruits, such as berries, apples, prunes, and figs
  • vegetables, such as broccoli, sweet potatoes, and cauliflower
  • wholegrains, such as barley, quinoa, and wild rice
  • whole wheat or granary bread
  • nuts, including almonds, peanuts, pistachios and pecans
  • seeds, including ground flaxseeds, chia, and pumpkin
  • pulses like beans, lentils, and peas
  • psyllium husk

Prebiotics occur naturally in foods such as leeks, asparagus, garlic, onions, wheat, oats, and soybeans.

Fiber is an essential part of a healthful, balanced diet and has many benefits, including:

  • improving digestive health
  • preventing constipation
  • reducing the risk of heart disease
  • reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes
  • reducing the risk of colon cancer
  • reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, which is “bad” cholesterol
  • improving the glycemic index (GI) in individuals with diabetes
  • increasing satiety or feeling fuller for longer

Fiber also contains the prebiotics fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Prebiotics have a beneficial effect as they encourage the growth and action of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria that live in the gut, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA).

Fiber intake is best met through eating a range of foods as part of a healthful, balanced diet. Eating more plant-based meals, swapping to wholegrains and snacking on fruit throughout the day will help to reach the recommended daily allowance.

Those not currently eating a lot of fiber should increase the amount gradually over the course of several weeks to help keep any gas and discomfort to a minimum.

Drink plenty of water throughout the day, and always chew food slowly and thoroughly. It takes time for the gastrointestinal system and gut to adjust to changes, including an increase in fiber intake, but the ultimate changes are all for the better.

Dietary fiber: Essential for a healthy diet

Eat more fiber. You’ve probably heard it before. But do you know why fiber is so good for your health?

Dietary fiber — found mainly in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes — is probably best known for its ability to prevent or relieve constipation. But foods containing fiber can provide other health benefits as well, such as helping to maintain a healthy weight and lowering your risk of diabetes, heart disease and some types of cancer.

Selecting tasty foods that provide fiber isn’t difficult. Find out how much dietary fiber you need, the foods that contain it, and how to add them to meals and snacks.

What is dietary fiber?

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage or bulk, includes the parts of plant foods your body can’t digest or absorb. Unlike other food components, such as fats, proteins or carbohydrates — which your body breaks down and absorbs — fiber isn’t digested by your body. Instead, it passes relatively intact through your stomach, small intestine and colon and out of your body.

Fiber is commonly classified as soluble, which dissolves in water, or insoluble, which doesn’t dissolve.

  • Soluble fiber. This type of fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material. It can help lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels. Soluble fiber is found in oats, peas, beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots, barley and psyllium.
  • Insoluble fiber. This type of fiber promotes the movement of material through your digestive system and increases stool bulk, so it can be of benefit to those who struggle with constipation or irregular stools. Whole-wheat flour, wheat bran, nuts, beans and vegetables, such as cauliflower, green beans and potatoes, are good sources of insoluble fiber.

The amount of soluble and insoluble fiber varies in different plant foods. To receive the greatest health benefit, eat a wide variety of high-fiber foods.

Benefits of a high-fiber diet

A high-fiber diet:

  • Normalizes bowel movements. Dietary fiber increases the weight and size of your stool and softens it. A bulky stool is easier to pass, decreasing your chance of constipation. If you have loose, watery stools, fiber may help to solidify the stool because it absorbs water and adds bulk to stool.
  • Helps maintain bowel health. A high-fiber diet may lower your risk of developing hemorrhoids and small pouches in your colon (diverticular disease). Studies have also found that a high-fiber diet likely lowers the risk of colorectal cancer. Some fiber is fermented in the colon. Researchers are looking at how this may play a role in preventing diseases of the colon.
  • Lowers cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber found in beans, oats, flaxseed and oat bran may help lower total blood cholesterol levels by lowering low-density lipoprotein, or “bad,” cholesterol levels. Studies also have shown that high-fiber foods may have other heart-health benefits, such as reducing blood pressure and inflammation.
  • Helps control blood sugar levels. In people with diabetes, fiber — particularly soluble fiber — can slow the absorption of sugar and help improve blood sugar levels. A healthy diet that includes insoluble fiber may also reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Aids in achieving healthy weight. High-fiber foods tend to be more filling than low-fiber foods, so you’re likely to eat less and stay satisfied longer. And high-fiber foods tend to take longer to eat and to be less “energy dense,” which means they have fewer calories for the same volume of food.
  • Helps you live longer. Studies suggest that increasing your dietary fiber intake — especially cereal fiber — is associated with a reduced risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and all cancers.

How much fiber do you need?

The Institute of Medicine, which provides science-based advice on matters of medicine and health, gives the following daily fiber recommendations for adults:

Fiber: Daily recommendations for adults

Age 50 or younger Age 51 or older
Institute of Medicine
Men 38 grams 30 grams
Women 25 grams 21 grams

Your best fiber choices

If you aren’t getting enough fiber each day, you may need to boost your intake. Good choices include:

  • Whole-grain products
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Beans, peas and other legumes
  • Nuts and seeds

Refined or processed foods — such as canned fruits and vegetables, pulp-free juices, white breads and pastas, and non-whole-grain cereals — are lower in fiber. The grain-refining process removes the outer coat (bran) from the grain, which lowers its fiber content. Enriched foods have some of the B vitamins and iron added back after processing, but not the fiber.

Fiber supplements and fortified foods

Whole foods rather than fiber supplements are generally better. Fiber supplements — such as Metamucil, Citrucel and FiberCon — don’t provide the variety of fibers, vitamins, minerals and other beneficial nutrients that foods do.

Another way to get more fiber is to eat foods, such as cereal, granola bars, yogurt and ice cream, with fiber added. The added fiber usually is labeled as “inulin” or “chicory root.” Some people complain of gassiness after eating foods with added fiber.

However, some people may still need a fiber supplement if dietary changes aren’t sufficient or if they have certain medical conditions, such as constipation, diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome. Check with your doctor before taking fiber supplements.

Tips for fitting in more fiber

Need ideas for adding more fiber to your meals and snacks? Try these suggestions:

  • Jump-start your day. For breakfast choose a high-fiber breakfast cereal — 5 or more grams of fiber a serving. Opt for cereals with “whole grain,” “bran” or “fiber” in the name. Or add a few tablespoons of unprocessed wheat bran to your favorite cereal.
  • Switch to whole grains. Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains. Look for breads that list whole wheat, whole-wheat flour or another whole grain as the first ingredient on the label and have at least 2 grams of dietary fiber a serving. Experiment with brown rice, wild rice, barley, whole-wheat pasta and bulgur wheat.
  • Bulk up baked goods. Substitute whole-grain flour for half or all of the white flour when baking. Try adding crushed bran cereal, unprocessed wheat bran or uncooked oatmeal to muffins, cakes and cookies.
  • Lean on legumes. Beans, peas and lentils are excellent sources of fiber. Add kidney beans to canned soup or a green salad. Or make nachos with refried black beans, lots of fresh veggies, whole-wheat tortilla chips and salsa.
  • Eat more fruit and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables are rich in fiber, as well as vitamins and minerals. Try to eat five or more servings daily.
  • Make snacks count. Fresh fruits, raw vegetables, low-fat popcorn and whole-grain crackers are all good choices. A handful of nuts or dried fruits also is a healthy, high-fiber snack — although be aware that nuts and dried fruits are high in calories.

High-fiber foods are good for your health. But adding too much fiber too quickly can promote intestinal gas, abdominal bloating and cramping. Increase fiber in your diet gradually over a few weeks. This allows the natural bacteria in your digestive system to adjust to the change.

Also, drink plenty of water. Fiber works best when it absorbs water, making your stool soft and bulky.

Jan. 06, 2021

Show references

  1. Kim Y, et al. Dietary fibre intake and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all cancers: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Archives of Cardiovascular Disease. 2016;109:39.
  2. Duyff RL. Carbs: Sugars, starches, and fiber. In: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 5th ed. New York, N.Y.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 2017.
  3. Nutrition facts label: Dietary fiber. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/InteractiveNutritionFactsLabel/#intro. Accessed Oct. 1, 2018.
  4. Veronese N, et al. Dietary fiber and health outcomes: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018;107:436.
  5. Song M, et al. Fiber intake and survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis. Journal of the American Medical Association: Oncology. 2018;41:71.
  6. Colditz GA. Healthy diet in adults. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Oct. 1, 2018.
  7. Dietary reference intakes (DRIs): Recommended dietary allowances and adequate intakes, total water and macronutrients. Institute of Medicine. http://www.nap.edu/. Accessed Oct. 4, 2018.

See more In-depth


.

15 High Fiber Foods You Should Eat

Gallery Stock

When you hear the word “fiber,” you probably picture one of two things: your grandma’s tasteless bran muffins, or a creepily joyful cartoon sun double-fisting scoops of raisins.

But fiber doesn’t have to be bland and boring. There are plenty of fiber-filled foods you’ll enjoy eating.

This is super important, because you’re likely not getting nearly enough fiber. The Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics advises that most men try to eat about 38 grams of fiber per day, but most guys only get about 15 grams per day.

“There are two types of fiber: soluble and insoluble. Together, these are called ‘dietary fibers,’” says Karolin Saweres, R.D.N., L.D. Soluble fiber has been proven to lower blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease, while insoluble fiber helps to lower the risk of diverticular disease, says Saweres.

Dietary fibers are found in the leaves, stems, and roots of plants. They’re unique because they hang out in your tract for nearly the entire digestive process, which helps keep things regular (yes, we’re talking about poop).

Best of all, eating more fiber can make you feel fuller, longer. That’s because fiber absorbs water and expands in your gut, according to Registered Dietitian Jessica Bachman, PhD, MS-MPH. She says a good source of fiber should provide about 10 percent of your daily recommended intake per serving.

So how do you get all of that in?

“Eat at least one to two servings of [one of] these foods at every meal and include them in all your snacks,” she says.

To make it easy, we’ve compiled a list of 15 high-fiber foods:

Advertisement – Continue Reading Below

1

Black beans

Serving size: 1 cup
Fiber: 15 grams

“Black beans are a source of anthocyanins (the compound that gives them the deep purple color),” says Marisa Moore, R.D.N., “which are one of the more active antioxidants that may help reduce the risk of heart disease.” Bonus: they’re a great plant protein.

Moore recommends making them into a black bean burger, or tossing them into salads or atop a grain bowl.

2

Raspberries

Serving size: 1 cup
Fiber: 8 grams

With an added boost of antioxidants and vitamin C, these berries are small but mighty. Add them to yogurt or salads, or enjoy as a stand-alone snack.

3

Chia seeds

Serving size: 2 tablespoons
Fiber: 8 grams

Kristi King, M.P.H., R.D.N., L.D. recommends sprinkling these super-absorbent seeds into overnight oats, smoothies, salads, yogurt, or adding them as a thickener to hamburgers or meatballs.

“Not only are they a great source of fiber, but they’re a wonderful source of Omega-3 fatty acids, which help overall inflammation,” she says.

4

Broccoli

Serving size: 1 cup
Fiber: 5 grams

Broccoli is “low in calories and high in folate, which is protective against GI cancers,” says King. It also contains vitamin K, which is vital to maintaining healthy bones. Eat it as a snack or use as a topper for pizza, baked potatoes, or salads.

6

Apples

Serving size: 1 medium apple
Fiber: 4 grams

Four grams may not sound like a whole lot of fiber, but like other fruits, apples have the added benefit of containing a ton of vitamin C and antioxidants.

Be sure to eat your apple with the skin on, as it is filled with fiber. Snacking on an apple with peanut butter is an easy and tasty way to make sure you’re including fiber in your diet every day.

7

Avocado

Serving size: ½ avocado
Fiber: 5 grams

Although they’re known for their heart-healthy fats, avocados also pack a fiber punch. Not only that, but researchers at Loma Linda University discovered that adding half of an avocado at lunch helped study participants feel more satisfied, according to Moore.

Make guacamole for Taco Tuesday, or add avocado to your salads and sandwiches.

8

Quinoa

Serving size: 1 cup
Fiber: 5 grams

Often confused as a grain, quinoa is actually a fiber-and protein-filled seed. “This pseudo-grain boasts five grams of fiber per cup and works as a tasty addition to stir fry, formed into patties or burgers, or as part of a stew,” says Moore. Even better, one serving size also gives you 8 grams of protein.

9

Lentils

Serving size: 1 cup (cooked)
Fiber: 15 grams

Knock out half your daily fiber intake with a single cup of this high-protein pick. “Lentils are a great source of fiber and magnesium,” says McKel Hill, M.S., R.D.N., L.D.N., and Founder of Nutrition Stripped. She recommends trying them in her recipe for Red Lentil Daal with Coconut and Squash.

10

Split peas

Serving size: ¼ cup
Fiber: eight grams

Like other legumes, split peas offer a hearty dose of fiber and protein: a quarter cup offers 11 grams of protein. Plus, they’re low in fat but high in folate, potassium and iron. And no, you don’t have to whip up a batch of split pea soup to reap the benefits. Just boil and toss a handful of split peas into a salad, or puree into a healthy tailgate dip.

11

Blackberries

Serving size: 1 cup
Fiber: 7.6 grams

In addition to providing plenty of fiber, blackberries also serve up the antioxidant, anthocyanin, which reduces inflammation in the body and may lower cancer risk. Add them to your oatmeal for an extra fiber boost.

13

Oatmeal

Serving size: ½ cup dry
Fiber: 3.7 grams

Not only does oatmeal lower LDL, or “bad” cholesterol, but it suppresses appetite, according to Harvard Health. That’s because oats have a specific type of soluble fiber that slows digestion and keeps you full for longer. Stick to your standard overnight oats, or branch out and make a savory version with sautéed vegetables and chicken sausage

15

Brussels sprouts

Serving size: 1 cup
Fiber: 4 grams

Not only will eating brussel sprouts help you reach daily fiber goals, but they could reduce prostate cancer risk, too, Men’s Health previously reported. Research shows that cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli, cauliflower and brussels sprouts, contain a natural chemical that may prevent cancer from growing.

This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

Advertisement – Continue Reading Below

differential effects in men and women on perceived general health and immune functioning

Food Nutr Res. 2017; 61(1): 1297053.

,
a
,
a
,
a
,

b
and
a
,

c
,

d
,

*

Amanda M. Fernstrand

aDivision of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Didi Bury

aDivision of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Johan Garssen

aDivision of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

bNutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Joris C. Verster

aDivision of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

cCentre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia

dInstitute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

aDivision of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

bNutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands

cCentre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia

dInstitute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

CONTACT Joris C. Verster [email protected], Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, Utrecht3584CG, the Netherlands

Received 2016 Jan 20; Accepted 2017 Jan 10.

Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been reported previously that dietary fiber intake provides health benefits. Nevertheless, only a limited number of human studies have investigated whether gender differences exist in the relationship between fiber intake and perceived health and immune status.

Objective: To investigate potential gender differences in the effects of dietary fiber intake on perceived health and immune status of healthy young adults.

Design: A survey was conducted among university students in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Data were collected on perceived general health status and perceived immune functioning. Dietary intake of fibers was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Perceived general health status and immune functioning were associated with daily intake of fibers using nonparametric (Spearman) correlations. Statistical analyses were conducted for the group as a whole, and for men and women separately.

Results: N = 509 subjects completed the survey. Mean (SD) age was 20.8 (2.6) years old. 71.9% of the samples were females. Mean daily dietary fiber intake was 15.5 (6.9) g. Daily dietary fiber intake correlated significantly with general health rate (r = 0.171, = 0.0001) and perceived immune functioning (r = 0.124, = 0.008). After controlling for total caloric intake, the partial correlation between fiber intake and general health remained significant (r = 0.151, = 0.002). In men, dietary fiber intake correlated significantly with perceived general health status (r = 0.320, = 0.0001) and immune functioning (r = 0.281, = 0.002). After controlling for caloric intake, the association between dietary fiber intake and perceived general health (r = 0.261, = 0.005) remained significant. Remarkably, no significant correlations were observed in women.

Conclusion: A significant association between daily dietary fiber intake and perceived general health status and immune rate was found in men, but not in women. Future studies should further address the nature and causes of the observed gender differences, including validated biomarkers for immune responsiveness.

Abbreviations: FFQ: Food frequency questionnaire; GIT: Gastrointestinal tract; NCDs: Non-communicable diseases; SCFA: Short-chain fatty acid

KEYWORDS: Fiber, microbiome, dysbiosis, perceived immune functioning, gender, health status

Introduction

Over the past decades, changes in socio-economic status, population growth and agriculture have led to altered dietary habits.[1] Also, an increasing number of epidemiological observations have highlighted the dramatic increase in the incidence of inflammatory diseases in the ‘Westernized’ world.[2] Previous research has demonstrated the effect of diets on microbial composition, and an increasing number of studies supports the impact of food on both the gut microbiome and immunological pathways.[1,3]

The gut microbiome consists of trillions of microorganisms that have co-evolved with the host in a symbiotic manner.[4,5] The gut microbiome has long been appreciated for the health benefits it provides to the host, which includes supply of essential nutrients, enhancement of metabolic capacities and protection against pathogens.[1,4,6] Furthermore, the microbiome communicates with the immune system and modulates the development of the gastrointestinal tract.[7,8] Dysbiosis, i.e. changes in the relative presence of various gut microbiota, has been associated with the pathogenesis of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease but also with extra-intestinal disorders such as allergy, asthma, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and obesity.[8] Hence, reduced presence of beneficial microbiota has been suggested to be the underlying cause, at least in part, to the increasing incidence of inflammatory disease and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs).[2]

Dietary intake of fibers provides many health benefits, including reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, colon cancer, obesity and certain gastrointestinal disorders. Intake of dietary fibers also appears to improve immune functioning.[9] These findings are supported by studies in both animals and humans.[3] It has been shown that people who consume adequate amounts of dietary fibers have lower incidences of inflammatory diseases.[3,7] Conversely, a low intake of fiber may have adverse effects on microbial composition that could lead to health complications.[3] Although daily intake of fibers has been recommended for many years, Western diets are still characterized by processed and stored food high in fat and refined sugar, but low in fiber content.[2] The recommended adequate intake of fibers is 25–38 g per day for adults (14 g/1000 kcal/day). Yet, the diet of a substantial number of people in developed countries is insufficient to achieve the recommended daily intake of fibers.[9]

Fibers affect immune functioning particularly via the production of short-chain fatty acids.[10] Short-chain fatty acids are produced in the fermentation process of dietary fibers and exert various beneficial effects, including maintenance of epithelial barrier functions, regulation of proliferation and tumor suppression, reduction in oxidative DNA damage, and regulation of cytokine production. They also exhibit several anti-inflammatory effects and appear to have a role in the regulation of timing of immune responses as well as in the resolution of inflammation.[3,11]

The increasing number of studies supporting the association between dietary intake of fibers, the microbiome, and health and immune parameters opens up new approaches in understanding and treating immune related diseases.[3] However, little is known about possible gender differences. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate potential gender differences in the association between dietary fiber intake and perceived general health and immune functioning in healthy young adults.

Methods

Participants

This study was conducted among Dutch university students. The study population included healthy young adults aged ≥18 to ≤ 30 years old. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous, and no formal ethics approval was required to conduct the study. Subjects were informed that a completed questionnaire was considered to give consent to the data being used for scientific purposes only.

Measures

Demographic information

Gender, age, weight and height were recorded in the demographics.

Food frequency questionnaire

In this study, an adapted version of the short semi-quantitative food group questionnaire used in the ‘Million Women Study’ was used.[12] Similar adaptions of this food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) have been used successfully in target populations of young adults.[13,14] The FFQ assesses consumption of meat, fish, vegetables and salads, dairy products, snacks and grain products. The participants were first asked what food products they had been consuming during the past week followed by the estimated amounts of those products. Unlike most conventional FFQs, such as the NHANES,[15] the respondents were asked to write down the estimated number of times a food item was eaten during the past week instead of indicating their consumption in pre-defined categories. For foods such as vegetables, fruits and nuts, quantity was estimated for the food groups eaten in number of tablespoons and similar. The consumption of each food item was proportionally allocated according to the amount of respective food group reported using standard portion sizes (USDA) or quantitative measures when applicable. Daily fiber intake was calculated using data from USDA.[16] Macronutrient intake was calculated using council directives on nutrition labeling of foodstuffs.[17]

Participants with extreme or implausible values for energy intake were excluded to avoid under or over-reporting. Subjects with a total energy intake of <800 or >5000 for men and <600 or >4000 for women were removed from further analysis. The cutoff values were based on values used previously.[18]

Health- and immune status

Data on perceived health and immune status was collected using 1-item scores ranging from bad to excellent on a scale from 0 to 10. They were asked whether they considered their immune functioning to be reduced or not (yes/no).

Statistical analysis

All statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 23. Descriptive statistics were computed for all parameters. For the group as a whole, and for males and females separately, the associations between dietary fiber intake and perceived health and immune status were computed using two-tailed nonparametric Spearman’s rank correlations. Partial correlations were computed to control for daily caloric intake. Gender differences in dietary intake and health parameters were assessed using two-tailed independent-samples Mann–Whitney U-tests. Statistical significance was set at < 0.05.

Results

Characteristics

The study included N = 657 participants, of whom N = 148 had missing responses or under/over-reported energy intake. Data from N = 509 participants were used for the statistical analyses, including N = 366 females (71.9%) and 143 (29.1%) males. Mean (SD) age was 20.8 (2.6) years. Mean BMI was 21.6 (2.3) for women and 22.2 (2.3) for men. The response rate was 77%.

Food consumption and health indicators

Mean (SD) energy intake per day was 1196 (386) kcal/day for women and 1611 (540) kcal/day for men. Mean daily dietary intake of fibers was 15.5 (6.9) g for the total study population, 14.9 (6.5) g for women and 17.3 (7.7) g for men. When controlling for daily energy intake, the daily dietary intake of fibers was 11.9 g/1000 kcal/day for the total study population, 12.5 g/1000 kcal/day for women, and 10.9 g/1000 kcal/day for men (= 0.001). Most fibers come from cereals and grain products (59.7%), followed by fruit (27.1%) and vegetables (5.8%). The relative contribution of these sources to total fiber intake did not significantly differ between men and women for vegetables. However, men consumed significantly more cereals and grain products (= 0.029), whereas women consumed significantly more fruit (= 0.0001). Mean macronutrient intake, as percentage of total energy intake, was 8.3% protein, 58.0% carbohydrates, and 9.4% fat. Macronutrient intake did not differ significantly between the genders.

The mean (SD) general health score was 7.8 (1.0) for the overall population, 7.7 (1.0) for women and 7.9 (1.2) for men. The mean (SD) rating for immune function was 7.8 (1.3) for the total population, 7.7 (1.0) for women and 8.0 (1.5) for men. Regarding perceived immune status, 28.9% of the overall study population reported reduced immunity. In women, 31.9% reported to experience reduced immunity. This number was significantly higher compared to the male population who reported reduced immunity in 21.3% of the cases (= 0.018).

Associations between dietary intake and perceived health and immune rate

and show the relationship between daily fiber intake and perceived health and immune status. Daily total fiber intake correlated significantly with the general health rate (r = 0.171, = 0.0001) and perceived immune functioning (r = 0.124, = 0.008). The partial correlation between fiber intake and general health remained significant (r = 0.151, = 0.002) after controlling for total caloric intake.

Dietary fiber intake and general health. To explore the possible relationship between self-reported health status and fiber intake, a two-tailed nonparametric Spearman’s correlation was applied. Significant positive correlations were found for the total population (= 0.0001) and for men (= 0.0001). No significant correlation was found between daily intake of fibers and general health in women.

Dietary fiber intake and perceived immune functioning. To investigate the potential association between dietary fiber intake and perceived immune functioning, a two-tailed nonparametric Spearman’s correlation was used. Positive correlations were found for the total study population (= 0.008) and for men (= 0.002). There was no significant relationship between dietary fiber intake and perceived immune rate in women.

In men, dietary fiber intake correlated significantly with perceived general health status (r = 0.320, = 0.0001) and immune functioning (r = 0.281, = 0.002). After controlling for caloric intake, the association between dietary fiber intake and perceived general health (r = 0.261, = 0.005) remained significant, whereas the relationship with immune functioning (r = 0.165, = 0.077) appears to be partly moderated by caloric intake. No significant relationship was found between dietary fiber intake and perceived health and immune rate in women.

Daily intake of cereals and grain products correlated significantly with perceived immune functioning (r = 0.110, = 0.14), but not with general health ratings. Daily intake of vegetables or fruit did not correlate significantly with perceived immune functioning or general health ratings. The ratio between protein and carbohydrates correlated significantly with perceived immune functioning (r = − 0.121, = 0.013) but not with health rate. No significant difference in protein–carbohydrate ratio was observed between men and women.

Discussion

The findings from this study are consistent with previous reports in regards to fiber intake and the relationship between fiber intake and health and immune status.[9] Furthermore, it adds to the literature by showing profound gender differences in these associations. Whereas significant associations between fiber intake and perceived health and immune status were found among men, these were not significant among women. In a population consisting of healthy young adults, large effects on health parameters would be unexpected. As anticipated, the average health and immune rates were high for both sexes. Nevertheless, a significant gender difference was found in the associations between fiber intake and health and immune status.

The observed gender differences may be explained by differences in dietary habits. Previous studies have reported greater effects in men than in women.[19] This appears to be related to women having baseline dietary habits more concordant with principles of the dietary interventions compared to men.[19,20] In contrast, men with lower daily fiber intake may benefit from dietary changes towards fiber-rich food.

Consumption of fibers from cereals, fruits and vegetables show different health benefits,[21] including mental benefits.[22] The fact that women consumed significantly more fibers from fruit, whereas men consumed significantly more fibers from cereals and grains may explain the observed gender differences.

There is evidence for substantial individual variation in gut microbial composition. Interestingly, a gender difference in dietary intake on microbiota has been observed for various vertebrates, including humans, with a consistent trend for larger dietary effects in males than in females. Although the underlying mechanisms for gender modulation of diet effects remain uncertain, mammalian studies have shown that sex hormones are able to modulate the microbial composition.[23,24] Additionally, immune function and susceptibility to immune related disease differ between the genders.[25,26] Hence, sex hormones and gender differences in immune function could possibly be the underlying reasons to the microbial differentiations and the different dietary effects.[27] This is further supported by animal studies showing that it is possible to suppress autoimmunity in high genetic risk animals through alteration of the gut microbiome. Additionally, sex hormones appear to be able to modulate sexual dimorphism observed in human autoimmune disease.[23] Although the observed effects in our relatively healthy and young population were small, a gender-specific impact of diet on the gut microbiota may explain the sex differences in perceived immune functioning. Since evidence of intestinal dysbiosis in autoimmune disease is emerging and alterations of the microbiota appear to be a causal factor, nonpathogenic sex-specific microbial therapies could be a future therapeutic option in immune related disease.[28–31]

The mean daily dietary intake of fibers in our study population is in line with previous findings showing that Western diets contain fewer fibers than recommended. Besides dietary fiber intake, the association between self-reported health rate and fiber intake was also consistent with the NHANES results (15.5–16.1 g/day), as presented by King et al. [9]

The uneven ratio of men and women (1:3) in this study reflects the actual gender distribution of the Utrecht student population.[32] Furthermore, the cohorts were large enough to achieve sufficient power to be confident about the study outcome despite the gender ratio.

Although it is important to have objective assessments of immune functioning, people are often judging their health based on perceived health status. By tradition, health has been measured in mortality, morbidity, incidence and prevalence of disease, and so on. However, physical, emotional and social conditions all have a role in the etiology of disease and health perception should therefore not be ignored. Health decisions may be in part dependent on perceived health status.[33,34] In this regard, we agree with the World Health Organization who define health as a subjective state or ‘A complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.’[35] Nevertheless, the lack of laboratory assessments and physical examinations presents certain limitations to this study. Objective assessment should therefore be conducted in future studies.

Although the FFQ provides a measure of dietary fiber intake, it remains an estimate of true consumption. For example, the current FFQ did not account for portion sizes. Future studies should take this into account. Nevertheless, similar estimates have been used successfully in previously studies with young adults investigating the impact of food on perceived stress and depressive symptoms.[13–15] A general concern in dietary studies using self-report is the issue of deliberate or unconscious under-reporting.[36,37] In this study, a considerable low caloric intake was observed for both men and women. This may be explained by an underestimation in fat measurements by the FFQ. Also, to improve the reporting accuracy, energy intake cutoff values can be used to exclude under- or over-reporting subjects. While these values have been used in earlier settings, energy expenditure was not taken into account in the current study. This could have an effect on the validity of the dietary assessment.[18] In future research it will be important to take this into account, for example by applying the Goldberg cutoff that uses the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate to filter out unreliable reporting.[13,36] Nevertheless, since total energy intake may confound associations between specific nutrients and disease risk, bivariate analyses were applied in order to correct for caloric intake.[38] Finally, in the current study we did not take consumption of fiber supplements into consideration. Nonetheless, earlier studies have demonstrated that for the vast majority of people fiber supplements contribute very little to the total intake of dietary fibers.[9,39]

Taken together, the findings from this study suggest that there is a modest association between dietary intake of fibers and perceived general health and immune functioning in men but not in women. Prospects for microbiome manipulation to treat diseases that originate from dysbiosis are of growing interest.[21,28] The use of environmental factors such as diets may lead to therapeutic alteration of the microbiome in a cost-effective manner.[27] Taking into account the limitations of the current study, future research is needed to further investigate the possible effects of gender differences. Combining subjective measurements with laboratory assessments including objective analyses of microbial composition and immune parameters are necessary to further explore the impact of fiber intake on health and immune status.

Acknowledgements

We would like thank Liselot Ribbert, Leontine Lensvelt, Annick de With and Laure Goede for the their help with collecting the data.

Funding Statement

This research was supported by Utrecht University.

Disclosure statement

Joris Verster has received grants/research support from the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, Janssen, Nutricia, Red Bull and Takeda, and has acted as a consultant for the Canadian Beverage Association, Centraal Bureau Drogisterijbedrijven, Coleman Frost, Danone, Deenox, Eisai, Janssen, Jazz, Purdue, Red Bull, Sanofi-Aventis, Sen-Jam Pharmaceutical, Sepracor, Takeda, Transcept, Trimbos Institute, and Vital Beverages. Johan Garssen is part-time employee of Nutricia Research and received research grants from Nutricia research foundation, Top Institute Pharma, Top Institute Food and Nutrition, GSK, STW, NWO, Friesland Campina, CCC, Raak-Pro, and EU. The other authors have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

References

  • Kau AL, Ahern PP, Griffin NW. Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system. Nature. 2011;474(7351):327–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Thorburn AN, Macia L, Mackay CR. Diet, metabolites, and “western-lifestyle” inflammatory diseases. Immunity. 2014;40(6):833–842. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Maslowski KM, Mackay CR, Eswaran S. Diet, gut microbiota and immune responses. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5–9. Nature Publishing Group. [Google Scholar]
  • Kamada N, Seo S-U, Chen GY. Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013;13:321–335. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bäckhed F, Ley RE, Sonnenburg JL. Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. Science. 2005;307:1915–1920. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15790844 Available from. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Round JL, Mazmanian SK. The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune response during health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9(5):313–323. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • De Filippo C, Cavalieri D, Di Paola M. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010;107(33):15691–15696. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Carding S, Verbeke K, Vipond DT. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease. 2015;1:1–9. [Google Scholar]
  • King DE, Mainous AG, Lambourne CA. Trends in dietary fiber intake in the United States, 1999-2008. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(5):642–648. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Slavin J. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients. 2013;5:1417–1435. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hooper LV, Littman DR, Macpherson AJ. Interactions between the microbiota and the immune system. Science (80-) 2012;336:1268–1273. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Roddam AW, Spencer E, Banks E. Reproducibility of a short semi-quantitative food group questionnaire and its performance in estimating nutrient intake compared with a 7-day diet diary in the million women study. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8(2):201–213. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15877913 Available from. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mikolajczyk RT, El Ansari W, Maxwell AE. Food consumption frequency and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among students in three European countries. Nutr J. 2009;8:31. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • El Ansari W, Stock C, Mikolajczyk RT. Relationships between food consumption and living arrangements among university students in four European countries – A cross-sectional study. Nutr J. 2012;11:28. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Questionnaire (or examination protocol, or laboratory protocol) Hyattsville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, [2003–2004]; http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/archive/usualintakes/FFQ.English.June0304.pdf Available from. [Google Scholar]
  • The National Agricultural Library National Nutrient Database for Standard References Release 27. USDA. 2015 http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods Available from.
  • Parliament and of the Council of 2 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers amending Regulations (EC) No 1924/2006 and (EC) No 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Commission Directive 87/250/EEC, Council Directive 90/496/EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10/EC, Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC and Commission Regulation (EC) No 608/2004. Offical Journal of the European Union. 2011 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32011R1169from=EN Available from.
  • Vinikoor LC, Satia JA, Schroeder JC. Associations between trans fatty acid consumption and colon cancer among Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina colon cancer study I. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(4):427–436. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Leblanc V, Bégin C, Hudon A-M. Gender differences in the long-term effects of a nutritional intervention program promoting the Mediterranean diet: changes in dietary intakes, eating behaviors, anthropometric and metabolic variables. Nutr J. 2014;13:107. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Orji RO, Vassileva J, Mandryk RL. Modeling gender differences in healthy eating determinants for persuasive intervention design. Lect Notes Comput Sci (Including Subser Lect Notes Artif Intell Lect Notes Bioinformatics) 2013;7822 LNCS:161–173. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-37157-8_20#page-1 Available from. [Google Scholar]
  • Hauner H, Bechtold A, Boeing H. Evidence-based guideline of the german nutrition society: carbohydrate intake and prevention of nutrition-related diseases. Ann Nutrmetab. 2012;60(Suppl 1):1–58. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Smith AP. Breakfast cereal, fibre, digestive problems and well-being. Curr Top Nutraceutical Res. 2010;8:1–10. [Google Scholar]
  • Koren O, Goodrich JK, Cullender TC. Host remodeling of the gut microbiome and metabolic changes during pregnancy. Cell. 2012;150:470–480. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Markle JGM, Frank DN, Mortin-Toth S. Sex differences in the gut drive hormone-dependent regulation of autoimmunity. Science. 2013;339:1084–1088. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Lockshin MD. Sex differences in autoimmune disease. Lupus. 2006;15:753–756. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17153846 Available from. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Beagley KW, Gockel CM. Regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by the female sex hormones oestradiol and progesterone. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003;38:13–22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Regulation+of+innate+and+adaptive+immunity+by+the+female+sex+hormones+oestradiol+and+progesterone Available from. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • McCarthy M. The “gender gap” in autoimmune disease. Lancet. 2000;356:1088. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11009154 Available from. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gleicher N, Barad DH. Gender as risk factor for autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun. 2007;28:1–6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17261360 Available from. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bolnick DI, Snowberg LK, Hirsch PE. Cavity-free plasmonic nanolasing enabled by dispersionless stopped light. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4500. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Brown CT, Davis-Richardson AG, Giongo A. Gut microbiome metagenomics analysis suggests a functional model for the development of autoimmunity for type 1 diabetes. PLoS One. 2011;6:1–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Frank DN, Zhu W, Sartor RB. Investigating the biological and clinical significance of human dysbioses. Trends Microbiol. 2011;19:427–434. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Investigating+the+biological+and+clinical+significance+of+human+dysbiosis Available from. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • CBS Statstics Netherlands Many women prefer urban environment [Internet] 2015 http://www.cbs.nl/en-GB/menu/themas/gezondheid-welzijn/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2015/many-women-prefer-urban-environmenthtm.htm Available from.
  • Idler EL, Benyamini Y. Self-rated health and mortality : a review of twenty-seven community studies. J Health Soc Behav. 2015;38:21–37. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9097506 Available from. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hunt SM, McKenna SP, McEwen J. A quantitative approach to perceived health status: a validation study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1980;34:281–286. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1052092/ Available from. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • WHO Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948. http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.html Available from.
  • Black AE. Critical evaluation of energy intake using the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake: basal metabolic rate. A practical guide to its calculation, use and limitations. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1119–1130. http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v24/n9/abs/0801376a.html Available from. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bedard D, Shatenstein B, Nadon S. Underreporting of energy intake from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire completed by adults in Montreal. Public Health Nutr. 2004;7(5):675–681. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15251058 Available from. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Willett WC, Howe GR, Kushi LH. Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiological studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(4 Suppl):1220S–1228S. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9094926 Available from. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Pocobelli G, Kristal AR, Patterson RE. Total mortality risk in relation to use of less-common dietary supplements. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:1791–1800. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/91/6/1791.full.pdf Available from. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Fiber Fact Sheet – Food Insight

Download the Fiber Fact Sheet here

Dietary fiber is a plant-based nutrient found in a wide variety of foods. “Fiber” is a broad term that encompasses several types of non-digestible carbohydrates that offer a diverse array of health benefits. In recent year, significant developments have been made in our understanding of fiber and its role in the promotion of health and disease risk reduction.

A wealth of scientific evidence demonstrates that adequate dietary fiber intake has a number of health benefits, including maintenance of a healthy gastrointestinal tract and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and some types of cancers. This fact sheet will examine many topics of interest around dietary fiber, including its definitions, food sources and associations with human health.

Definition of fiber 

There are several definitions of dietary fiber worldwide and a singular definition remains the subject of ongoing discussion. Some of the definitions were the result of analytical methods used to isolate dietary fiber whereas others stemmed from the physiological benefits associated with this food component. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) Food and Nutrition Board (formerly known as the Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board) defines dietary fiber as, “nondigestible carbohydrates and lignins that are intrinsic and intact in plants”, whereas “added fiber” consists of isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in humans.” NASEM defines “total fiber” as the sum of dietary fiber and added fiber. The Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses offers a more technical definition of dietary fiber as, “carbohydrate polymers with a 10 or more monomeric units…not hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzymes in the small intestines of humans…” Additionally, Codex included a footnote that the “Decision on whether to include carbohydrates of 3 to 9 monomeric unites should be left up to national authorities” and may be based on the discretion of the organization.

In 2016, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the Nutrition and Supplement Facts label final rule, in which they declared that dietary fiber on the Nutrition and Supplements Facts label includes certain “naturally occurring fibers that ‘intrinsic and intact’ in plants, and added isolated or synthetic non-digestible soluble and insoluble carbohydrates that FDA has determined have beneficial physiological effects to human health.”

The FDA continues to review various proposed isolated and synthetic fibers to be counted as dietary fiber on labels and in the Nutrition Facts Panel. Some fibers have been approved for inclusion by the FDA as of April 2019. There are several non-digestible carbohydrates that FDA, based on its June 2018 science review, intends to propose to be included in the definition of dietary fiber.

Whole-food sources of dietary fiber include carbohydrate-containing plant foods. Broadly, dietary fiber has often been categorized as either soluble and insoluble, but it can also be further characterized into a wide range of criteria. NASEM recommends phasing out the use of these terms and instead replacing with two terms related to physicochemical properties, viscosity and fermentability, that may illustrate the benefits that they may exert on the body. Fiber sources that are viscous may form a thick, gel-like compound in the stomach, which may later be broken down by bacteria in the colon. Sources of fiber that are slowly, incompletely, or not fermented in the large intestine provide bulk to stool as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract. They may assist with laxation and do not provide a significant source of calories or energy. The major food sources of dietary fiber, accounting for 85 percent of the fiber in the U.S. food supply, are grain products, vegetables, legumes, nuts, soy and fruits. Dietary fiber is not found in animal-derived foods like beef, pork, poultry, eggs, fish and seafood. Most minimally processed diary products, like milk, ice cream, cheese and yogurt, are fiber-free, although some may be fortified with added fiber.

Fiber recommendations and current intake

In 2002, the Institute of Medicine, now known as NASEM, established an Adequate Intake (AI) level for fiber as part of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for macronutrients. The AIs for total fiber are based on amounts that have been observed to protect against heart disease. Generally, recommendations are that people of all ages consume 14 grams of fiber for each 1,000 calories. In adults, the AI for fiber is 38 grams per day for men under age 50 and 25 grams per day for women under age 50. For adults over the age of 50 years, the AI is 30 grams of dietary fiber per day for men and 21 grams of dietary fiber per day for women. These AIs are reduced to align with decreased food consumption that often accompanies the aging process.

Most Americans consume about half of the amount of fiber recommended by NASEM and only about 5% of the population actually meet the recommendations for dietary fiber intake. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2015-2016), the mean fiber intake for adults 20 years and older was 17.3 grams per day. In Canada, the average dietary fiber intake was 19.1 grams per day for men and 15.6 grams per day for women. A study of European adults noted that intakes of dietary fiber in males ranged from 18 to 24 grams per day and from 16 to 20 grams per day for females.

For U.S. adults, the primary sources of dietary fiber are vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%), and fruits (11.1%). The 2015 U.S. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee noted that the U.S. population should continue to increase consumption of foods rich in fiber and that consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods, like fruit, vegetables and whole grains will help to improve intakes of dietary fiber.

Fiber and human health

Dietary fiber first began to make health news when researchers observed that certain populations with a high fiber intake had lower rates of certain health conditions, including gastrointestinal issues, some types of cancer and heart disease. Dietary fiber consumption has been linked with a host of potential health benefits including reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, hypertension, certain gastrointestinal conditions, obesity, metabolic dysfunctions like prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and some types of cancer. Additionally, the benefits of dietary fiber may encompass other conditions and disease states, affecting all-cause mortality. The national Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (a large prospective cohort study) validated that intake of dietary fiber, especially dietary fiber from cereal grains, is inversely associated with total death rates, specifically cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory deaths in both men and women, and cancer deaths in men.

Cancer

While the science continues to emerge regarding the specific role of dietary fiber and cancer, many studies have shown that diets high in fiber-containing foods may be associated with reduced risk of certain types of cancer (including colon, breast, ovarian and pancreatic) although results are mixed and may be dependent on the specific type of fiber being studied. After reviewing the available evidence the FDA found sufficient scientific support to issue a health claim stating that diets low in fat and high in fiber-containing grain products, fruits and vegetables may reduce risk of some types of cancer.  

Although not all of the evidence between dietary fiber and cancer risk has been favorable, some of the research does support a potential benefit. A meta-analysis of 15 studies examining the associations between dietary fiber and all cancers suggested that high dietary fiber intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality from all cancers. 

The World Cancer Research Fund noted abundant evidence that consuming foods containing dietary fiber may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. The association between higher intakes of dietary fiber and reduced risk of colon cancer may be due to resulting increase in fecal bulk size which may help “sweep” carcinogenic substances from the large intestines. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 11 prospective cohort studies reported that the risks for proximal colon cancer and distal colon cancer were decreased in populations with the highest dietary fiber intake, with reductions of 14% and 21%, respectively, versus those with the lowest fiber intake.  

Many studies have examined the link between fiber or higher-fiber dietary patterns and types of cancer; all require additional investigation to determine to what extent intake of dietary fiber may help prevent the development of this disease. 

Weight management 

The impacts of dietary fiber on measures of weight management are not fully understood. Several mechanisms of actions have been suggested; however, much of the research into appetite, short- and long-term energy intake, and body weight has been completed in studies of individual isolated fibers, rather than whole foods or fiber blends.

Meals providing meaningful sources of dietary fiber tend to be processed more slowly by the body, contribute more volume compared with low-fiber meals and may produce a greater feeling of fullness with fewer calories. Additionally, high-fiber foods require more chewing and may take longer to eat, thus potentially limiting total energy intake. These qualities are believed to be involved in the relationship between dietary fiber intake and the control of energy balance and body weight. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are correlated with lower body weight and body mass index (DMI). Observational studies have found that populations with greater intakes of dietary fiber often have lower body weights and obese people have lower fiber intakes. Results from a 20-month prospective cohort study showed a 0.25 kg decrease in body weight with every additional gram of dietary fiber consumed.

Heart disease

Higher intakes of dietary fiber may improve serum lipid levels, reduce blood pressure, lower inflammatory marker levels and indicators of inflammation, which may help to explain dietary fiber’s protective benefits against CVD. Another potential mechanism by which viscous fibers in particular may affect CVD risk is through the lowering of blood cholesterol levels by reducing reabsorption of the bile acid pool, since bile acids are derived from cholesterol.

A meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies documented the highest rates of mortality from CVD and CHD were associated with the lowest dietary fiber intake. A separate systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies reported an inverse associated between intake of total dietary fiber and the risk of CVD and CHD. Study outcomes noted a 9% reduction in risk for each 7 gram per day increase in dietary fiber. Results from studies assessing fiber’s effect on risk factors for CVD have been mixed, but total fiber intake, particularly from food sources (versus supplements), seems to exert a benefit on serum cholesterol levels and other CVD risk factors including blood pressure.

Type 2 diabetes 

Intake of dietary fiber is associated with improved glycemic control, which is an important dietary approach to help manage diabetes. This association has been confirmed with several meta-analyses documenting a reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes with an increasing intake of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, fruit fiber and insoluble fiber intake. Proposed mechanisms of action that accompany the intake of viscous dietary fibers include slowed rates of gastric emptying and digestion and reduced glucose absorption. However, additional research is needed to fully understand the intricacies of this process.  

Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)- InterAct study (with a total of 340,234 participants including 11,559 with type 2 diabetes followed for 10.8 years) support a recommendation for a high intake of dietary fiber due to an associated lower risk of type 2 diabetes, after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors. 

Current guidelines for the prevention and dietary management of diabetes from the American Diabetes Association recommend consuming a variety of fiber-containing foods such as legumes, fiber-rich cereals, fruits, vegetables and whole grain products. The recommended intake of dietary fiber is 14 grams per 1,000 kcal and one-half of grain intake as whole grains, consistent with fiber and whole grain intake goals set for the general population. Evidence is lacking to recommend a higher fiber intake for people with diabetes than for the general population. 

Gastrointestinal health

Fiber is known for its beneficial effects on digestion and digestive health. Dietary fiber helps to promote digestive health by adding bulk to the stool, which then can move through the gut faster and improve regularity. Dietary fiber also plays a role in affecting the composition of the gut microbiota. Some of these outcomes are impacted by dietary fiber’s ability to bind water and increase bulk (bran and other fruit and vegetable fibers can contribute to bulking), whereas others are related to its role in fermentation, which can change osmotic balance and increase fecal mass. When fermentable dietary fiber reaches the colon, the body experiences a range of physiological effects. Fermentable fibers, including oligosaccharides, beta-glucans, gums, some hemicelluloses and some resistant starches, yield the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate. The presence of these SCFAs decreases the pH in the colon, increasing the bioavailability of certain minerals while also inhibiting the growth of certain pathogenic bacteria. 

As with all of the above health effects of dietary fiber, additional investigations are required to fully understand the mechanisms of action. However, the results of both randomized controlled trials and observational studies support an overarching recommendation to increase dietary fiber intake due to the wealth of benefits associated with its regular consumption. 

Fiber and the gut microbiome 

Nearly 20 years ago, a group of compounds in foods were identified as “prebiotics” based on their ability to manipulate the microbes living in the gastrointestinal tract. In late 2016, the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) defined a prebiotic as “a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit.” 

While most prebiotics are considered dietary fiber, all dietary fibers are not prebiotic. Human enzymes are unable to digest prebiotic fibers and as such, they serve as a food or fuel source for the beneficial colonizing microbes found in the gastrointestinal tract. By fueling this “good” bacteria, these microbiota are able to grow and metabolize foods more efficiently. 

In order for fiber(s) present in foods to be classified as prebiotic, it requires substantiation that it:  

  • Resists gastric acidity, hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes, and absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract;
  • Is fermented by the intestinal microflora;
  • Selectively stimulates the growth and/or activity of intestinal bacteria potentially associated with health and well-being (i.e., compounds called fructans (fructooligosaccarides and inulin) and galactans (galactooligosaccharides) met the defining criteria as Prebiotic fibers based on their effects on Lactobacillus and/or Bifidobacterium)

Prebiotic fibers are naturally found in certain plant foods like onions, garlic, banana, chicory root and Jerusalem artichokes. They may also be added to specific food products like yogurts, cereals, breads, biscuits/cookies, desserts or drinks. In the latter case, the ingredients label may show galactooligosaccharides (GOS), fructooligosaccharies (FOS), oligofructose, chicory fiber or inulin. Fiber ingredients such as pectins, gums, inulin, polydextrose, oligofructose and others, may offer multifunctional benefits, including prebiotic functions.

Methods / Strategies to increase fiber intake 

There are a few important steps to remember when working toward the goal recommendations for dietary fiber: 

  • Emphasize whole grains in place of refined grains. Aim for at least half of all grains to be whole grains. 
  • Include whole fruits and vegetables (not juices) at meals and snacks. 
  • Drink plenty of fluids while increasing fiber intake. 
  • Increase fiber intake gradually over time. 
  • Moving too quickly to increase fiber or failing to consume adequate fluids may contribute to nausea or constipation. 

 

What Are the Best Fiber Supplements and Foods for Seniors?

As we age, our body changes. Our digestion system doesn’t work as quickly as it used to. Our body doesn’t absorb nutrients as well. The resulting slowdown causes nutrient deficiency and constipation. For seniors having digestive difficulties, help is available. You need look no further than the dietary fiber in the foods you eat. 

Adding dietary fiber into your daily menu has many benefits beyond digestion. Fiber helps rid the body of cholesterol and toxins. Increasing fiber in your diet also regulates glucose levels in the blood, reduces the risk of heart-related complications, diabetes, colon cancer, diverticulitis and can even help you lose weight. 

Fiber Recommendations for the Elderly

The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends that women over 50 need 21 grams of dietary fiber per day; men over 50 need 30 grams. Too much or not enough fiber, over time, will cause unpleasant issues. To understand why, it’s helpful to know how fiber works.

Soluble fiber, found in fruits, vegetables and oats, absorbs water in the intestines and becomes gel. As it passes through the digestive tract, that gel draws and drags toxins, bile and debris out of your body. Insoluble fiber, found in wheat bran, nuts, beans and potatoes, does not dissolve in water. Instead, it acts as a scrub brush, cleaning the intestines and stimulating movement through the digestive tract.

Too much fiber in your diet (and not enough water) will result in a slowing of your digestive system, and may cause constipation, bloating, gas and abdominal pain. Too little fiber in your diet prevents the body from moving toxins, cholesterol or other substances through the body, resulting in constipation and bloating. Without enough fiber to regulate digestion, you may experience a sugar high followed by a significant crash, weight gain and frequent hunger pangs – even after you eat. 

List of High Fiber Foods for the Elderly

You may be wondering, “What is a good source of fiber for the elderly?” You should look for a combination of soluble and insoluble fibers. This list will help guide your choices. These delicious foods, in the serving sizes noted, will help you obtain the ideal amount of fiber that your body needs. 

Soluble Fiber

  •  Apples (3–4g)
  • Bananas (3.1g)
  • Barley (32g/cup
  • Citrus fruit (3–4g)
  • Lentils (8g/half cup)
  • Oat bran (14g/cup)
  • Peas (3–4g/half cup)
  • Pistachios (6.5g/half cup)
  • Raspberries (8g/cup)
  • Strawberries (3–4g/cup)
  • Sunflower seeds (6g/half cup)

Insoluble Fiber

  •  Beans (7–8g/half cup)
  • Brussels sprouts (3.3g/cup)
  • Carrots (3–4g/cup)
  • Cauliflower (3–4g/half cup)
  • Corn (2.4g/ear)
  • Flaxseed (2g/tbsp)
  • Kale (2.6g/cup)
  • Spinach, cooked (2.4g/half cup)
  • Squash (3–4g/half cup)
  • Sweet potatoes (3–4g/medium potato)
  • Wheat bran (12.5g/half cup)

Fiber Supplements

Some people may be interested in the best fiber supplement for seniors. Before you consider a fiber supplement, understand that supplements do not provide as many benefits as getting fiber from naturally occurring sources. That’s because whole foods contain the vitamins that many supplements may lack. If you’re seeking temporary relief from constipation, a fiber supplement may help. Over the long term, it may be better to boost the fiber-rich foods in your diet. Your doctor will help you make the best decision based on your individual needs.

Incorporate More Fiber in Your Diet

With some easy menu additions and food substitutions, you’ll find it’s not difficult to add more fiber to your diet. Try one of these ideas:

  • Add chopped dried fruit to cookies.
  • Choose whole grain breads.
  • Eat whole fruit instead of drinking juice.
  • Experiment with fiber-rich dishes based on the Mediterranean diet.
  • Slice fruit on top of yogurt or cereal.
  • Sprinkle flaxseed over cereal, soup, salad or yogurt.
  • Substitute whole wheat flour in your baking.
  • Swap your normal snacks for whole wheat crackers
  • Switch to brown rice instead of white.
  • Toss beans and grated carrot into salads.

Ready to incorporate more high-fiber options into your menu? These recipes will get you started. Start slowly adding more fiber to your diet. You may be amazed at how quickly you will feel stronger and more energized. Looking for something else? Find more information about how to lower your cholesterol.

All About Fiber | Precision Nutrition

Getting enough fiber by building your diet around vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts and seeds, is important for overall health and disease prevention.

What is fiber?

Dietary fiber is a non-digestible polysaccharide, which means it’s a complex form of carbohydrate (poly = “many”; saccharide = “sugar”). (See All About Carbohydrates for more on the various types of saccharides.)

These polysaccharides give plants their structure — think plant cell walls.

Types of dietary fiber

We can divide fiber into two general categories, based on their structure and what they do in our bodies.

  • Soluble fibers are viscous and fermentable, and can lower our blood cholesterol.
  • Insoluble fibers help to bulk up stool volume and improve motility.

We need both types of fiber in our diets.

However, within these general groups, there are many types of dietary fiber, including:

Fiber type Found in
Beta-glucans Baker’s yeast, some mushrooms, some grains, seaweed
Cellulose / hemicellulose Plant cell walls, especially plants with a rigid structure (e.g. trees)
Chitin Fungi, exoskeletons (e.g. crab shells)
Chitosan Produced as a chitin derivative
Fructans Many vegetables and grains, such as chicory, Jerusalem artichoke, barley, and the Allium group (onions, leeks, garlic, etc.)
Gums Seaweeds, barley bran, some tree saps and seeds
Lignins Plant cell walls, especially xylem (nutrient-transporting) cells
Non-digestible dextrins Plant starches
Non-digestible oligosaccharides (the prebiotic fibers) like inulin, fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides For inulin and fructo-oligosaccharide, see fructans. Galacto-oligosaccharides are derived from lactose in milk.
Pectin Fruits such as apples, apricots, quince, guava, and citrus. Citrus peels are a very high source of pectin (30% of weight).
Polydextrose Synthesized from dextrose (combined with citric acid and sorbitol), used as a starch replacer in commercial food products
Resistant starches Seeds, legumes, whole grains, potato, corn, green bananas (especially if these foods are cooked then cooled)

As you can guess from the table above, grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts account for 85% of the fiber in the U.S. food supply. These same plant foods provide lots of other nutrients.

However, since we live in a world of refined and fortified foods, there are now “functional dietary fibers.” These are the isolated, non-digestible carbohydrates that fortify foods not usually containing fiber — stuff like “fiber-ed up” Splenda and Apple Jacks. This allows many unhealthy products to claim that they are “healthy”.

Fiber found in nature

Fiber NOT found in nature

Why fiber is so important

In 1972, scientists proposed a “dietary fiber hypothesis”, which suggested that common GI diseases like colon cancer, diverticulosis and appendicitis were due, in part, to lack of dietary fiber. It’s not hard to see why:

  • Americans consume about 15 grams of fiber per day, on average (17.8 g for males and 13.6 g for females). I eat that much before 8:00 am.
  • Refined sugars, oils, dairy products and alcohol contain no fiber and comprise 48% of the energy in the average U.S. diet.
  • When asked about their dietary fiber consumption, 73% of individuals with a fiber intake below 20 grams/day think the amount of fiber they ingest is “about right.” The Institute of Medicine recommends 19 to 38 grams of fiber per day (varies based on age and gender).
  • White flour and white potatoes provide the most fiber to the American diet. This isn’t because these foods contain lots of fiber, it’s because we eat lots of these foods. Legumes only provide about 6% of the fiber in the U.S. diet.

In other words, people eating a standard Western diet aren’t getting anywhere near the fiber that they should.

A low-fiber diet is associated with many health problems, including:

  • Cardiovascular diseases and high blood fats – fiber helps bind and eliminate blood cholesterol/fat
  • GI disorders, cancers and poor bowel function – fiber helps keep the GI tract clean and can ease constipation and diverticular disease
  • Diabetes – fiber controls blood sugar, insulin and body fat
  • Excess body fat – fiber contributes to satiety and dilutes energy density
  • High blood pressure – see all the above

A study with over 500,000 people in 10 European countries showed that people who ate more than 30 grams of fiber per day had approximately half the risk of colon cancer as those who ate 12-15 grams of fiber daily.

Fiber and cardiovascular disease

In one study, researchers followed more than 16,000 middle-aged men from around the world for 25 years. The higher the consumption of beans, the lower the risk of death from heart disease — up to 82% reduction in risk! Dietary fiber from whole grains seems to also have a strong protective effect against cardiovascular diseases.

Fiber and blood lipids

In randomized controlled trials, compared to baseline values, vegetarian diets with additional fiber, soy, and nuts were associated with a 20% decrease in total cholesterol and a 35% decrease in LDL cholesterol.

Fiber and GI function

Fiber can stimulate bacterial fermentation (prebiotic fiber is fuel for colon cells) in the large intestine or pass through the GI tract unfermented. Since GI health is synonymous with immune function, fiber seems to play an important role in immunity. See All About Probiotics for more.

Without adequate stool bulk, the colon will panic and respond with excessive contractions. This leads to the creation of diverticula, which are herniations of the mucosal layer through weak colon muscles (essentially little inflamed intestinal pouches). Consuming sufficient fiber can prevent this.

Fiber and diabetes

Consuming more fiber, especially from legumes, seems to help prevent type 2 diabetes. This is likely due to the moderation of blood sugar and insulin release. (See All About Insulin for more.) Oh – and fiber can help control body fat (see next section).

Fiber and body fat

Fiber thinks body fat is a joke. Fiber increases dietary bulk, decreases energy density and reduces energy intake. This is helpful for the 75% of Americans who are overfat. (On the other hand, because Fiber increases satiety, eating lots of Fiber isn’t helpful for those trying to maintain or increase body weight. We talk about this in All About Raw Food. Also see All About Appetite Regulation.)

More fiber means more fecal energy losses, since GI transit time speeds up. Rapid GI transit leads to less time for digestion and absorption of nutrients. This can be a problem if mineral intake is lacking. Up to 32 grams of fiber each day doesn’t seem to diminish mineral balance in adults. Same thing is noticed with up to 25 grams in kids.

Resistant starches aren’t degraded in the small intestine; they act as a fiber source in the large intestine. Legumes are the big boys of resistant starch. Nearly 35% of legume starch escapes digestion because it’s resistant. American youth and adults are estimated to consume approximately 3 to 8 grams of resistant starch per day.

What you should know

Eat more plants

Plant foods contain Fiber. The best sources are legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits and nuts/seeds. (See All About Fruits and Vegetables.)

Plant-based diets tend to be higher in Fiber – with vegan diets being the highest. People eating these types of diets tend to have lower rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer, lower blood fat, lower blood pressure, and lower body weight. This could be in part due to a higher Fiber intake, or because they’re biking all over the city to protest.

Remember that whole grains are whole grains, as in the entire thing — not whole grain flour, whole grain pasta, whole grain “nutrition bars”, or Fruit Loops with whole grains. (See All About Grains and The Safe Carbs: Whole Grains.)

Kids need fiber too

Adequate fiber during youth can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Fiber goals for kids:

  • All children 1 to 3 years, 19 g/day
  • All children 4 to 8 years, 25 g/day
  • Boys 9 to 13 years, 31 g/day
  • Girls 9 to 13 years, 26 g/day

The adequate intake (AI) of fiber for children and adolescents is based on the data cited for adults, which showed that 14 grams per 1,000 calories reduced the risk of heart disease. The 2005 U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend a fiber intake of 14 grams per 1,000 calories as well.

However, too much fiber in kids can reduce overall food intake (due to its satiating effect), increase fecal energy loss, and decrease mineral absorption. In children consuming a standard Western diet, this is rarely a problem, though.

Also, grain and legume intolerance (most commonly to wheat, corn, soy, and peanuts) is common in children, so parents should look for other sources such as vegetables, fruit, other seeds/nuts, and other beans/legumes if necessary. (May we suggest a kid-friendly, fruit-filled Super Shake? You can sneak all kinds of things in there!)

Downsides of fiber

Lots of fiber can mean less absorption of nutrients and calories. In the U.S., this might actually be a positive thing.

Bezoars have been reported in the esophagus from glucomannan and the large intestine from other dense fiber foods.

Fermentation of fiber and other non-digestible carbohydrates by bacteria in the colon can produce hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide gases. This may lead to distention and expired gas.

Many people are intolerant of some forms of fiber, such as grains. There is evidence that the lectins in grains and beans/legumes can cause health problems for susceptible people, because they affect the lining of the gut. (See All About Lectins for more.) However, there’s also evidence that prebiotic fiber sources such as inulin and glucomannan can help with inflammatory bowel disorders. If you have inflammatory bowel symptoms, review your fiber sources.

Summary and recommendations

Getting enough fiber is important for overall health and disease prevention. And it keeps your plumbing in good working order.

If you build your diet around vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts and seeds, you’re probably getting enough fiber.

If you want a goal:

  • Women should aim for at least 30 to 35 grams of fiber per day.
  • Men should aim for at least 40 to 45 grams of fiber per day.

You should get your fiber from whole foods. Fiber supplements (or fiber-supplemented foods) don’t provide the micronutrients, phytochemicals and water found in whole plant foods. Anyone who relies on a fiber supplement because they don’t get enough from food has a crappy diet (excluding those with unique medical situations).

When you eat enough fiber, you need to consume enough fluids. See All About Dehydration for more.

Extra credit

Eating one cup of beans = about 16 grams of fiber.

The fiber of apples and pears can be recovered from the juicing process and used as a food ingredient.

In those consuming adequate fiber, symptoms associated with hemorrhoids can substantially decrease.

Inulin, oligosaccharides, resistant starch, and other fibers have actually been found to enhance mineral absorption, particularly calcium.

There is a 1% increase in fecal energy loss for every 6 grams of dietary fiber added (check yourself disordered eaters – avoid over-consuming fiber supplements in the hopes of losing weight. You’ll likely end up with a bezoar and/or gut hemorrhage). This might explain why plant-based eaters tend to be lean.

3 additional grams of dietary fiber from oats can decrease blood cholesterol by 2%.

Eat, move, and live…better.

©

The health and fitness world can sometimes be a confusing place. But it doesn’t have to be.

Let us help you make sense of it all with this free special report.

In it you’ll learn the best eating, exercise, and lifestyle strategies – unique and personal – for you.

Click here to download the special report, for free.

References

Click here to view the information sources referenced in this article.

De Natale C, et al. Effects of a plant-based high carbohydrate/high fiber diet versus high monounsaturated fat/low carbohydrate diet on postprandial lipids in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2009;32:2168-2173.

Marcason W. What is the “Age + 5” rule for fiber? 2005;105:301-302.

Hiza H, et al. USDA fiber Fact Sheet. December 2007.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Health Implications of Dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:1716-1731.

Williams CL. Important of dietary fiber in childhood. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:1140-1146,1149.

Craig WJ. Health effects of vegan diets. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1627S-1633S.

Hu FB. Diet and lifestyle influences on risk of coronary heart disease. Curr Athero Rep 2009;11:257-263.

Ruottinen S, et al. Dietary fiber does not displace energy but is associated with decreased serum cholesterol concentrations in healthy children. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:651-661.

Anderson JW, et al. Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutr Rev 2009;67:188-205.

Ferdowsian HR & Barnard ND. Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids. Am J Cardio 2009:104:947-956.

Mounsey AL & Henry SL. Which treatments work best for hemorrhoids? The Journal Of Family Practice 2009;58:492-493.

Robson AA. Preventing diet induced disease: Bioavailable nutrient-rich, low-energy-dense diets. Nutrition and Health 2009;20:135-166.

Weisberger L & Jamieson B. How can you help prevent a recurrence of diverticulitis? 2009;58:381-382.

90,000 How much fiber does the body need per day?

How much fiber does the body need per day?

Fiber is a complex carbohydrate of great importance to human health. We will tell you how much it needs to be consumed.

Not everyone knows how much fiber is useful and important for our body. 90% of the population does not consume even half of the daily value of this valuable substance. Hence, poor immunity, general health, intestinal problems.It is necessary to study this issue and change your diet so that the amount of fiber is the daily rate.

What is fiber

Fiber is a complex type of carbohydrate, dietary fiber that can be divided into two large groups:

  1. Soluble fiber. It is a dietary fiber that can absorb water and turn into a jelly mass in the intestines. This type of fiber lowers “bad” cholesterol, reduces glucose absorption, normalizes bowel function, and feeds good gut bacteria.
  2. Insoluble fiber. These are coarse fibers that cannot absorb water and are excreted from the body unchanged. The benefits of these fibers in the ability to improve bowel function by simulating peristalsis. They provide a daily bowel movement.

Attention! The positive effects of eating fiber are obvious. It promotes weight loss, normalizes metabolism. This leads not only to internal normalization, but also to external beauty, as the skin becomes clear and weight is reduced, due to a decrease in appetite.

Correct fiber intake helps prolong life, reduces the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

The norm of fiber per day

To keep your gut and the whole body healthy, you should eat 25-30 grams of dietary fiber per day. The exact amount depends on age, weight, and physical activity.

The average rate is considered to be 28 grams of fiber per day.This is the norm for both middle-aged men and women.

Attention! A person over 50 needs more fiber – up to 30–35 grams. For children under three years old, 19 grams of dietary fiber is enough.

Tips

For the consumption of a useful substance, it is necessary to establish nutrition. Here are some tips for those looking to consume your daily fiber intake:

  1. Eat oatmeal for breakfast. You can add an apple or some walnuts to increase the fiber content.
  2. More beans are needed. Beans, peas, beans are sources of dietary fiber and vegetable protein. A small serving of cooked beans contains nearly 70% of your daily fiber requirement.
  3. Vegetables and fruits must be eaten with their skins. It contains half of the fiber.
  4. Do not give up seeds and nuts. In small quantities, these food products are able to supply the body with dietary fiber, but it is important for those who are losing weight to take into account their calorie content.
  5. Whole grain bread must be eaten.
  6. Fiber absorbs water, and therefore, to avoid dehydration, a drinking regimen should be observed.
  7. Barley contains 3 grams of fiber per serving.
  8. Beets for dinner – plus 2 grams of fiber.

    Attention! Do not overdo it with dietary fiber either. The increased fiber content in food leads to impaired absorption of vitamins and increased gas production.

    Coarse bran is one of the largest sources of fiber. They contain 43 grams (one and a half daily allowances) of the substance per 100 grams of product.

    One of the first signs of improper fiber intake is diarrhea or constipation. Abdominal pain and cramps can occur immediately after a sharp supersaturation of fiber.

    Disclaimer

    Please note that all information posted on the website
    Prowellness is provided for informational purposes only and is not a personal program, direct recommendation for action or medical advice.Do not use these materials for diagnosis, treatment, or any medical manipulation. Consult a physician before using any technique or using any product. This site is not a specialized medical portal and does not replace the professional advice of a specialist. The owner of the Site does not bear any responsibility to any party that has suffered indirect or direct damage as a result of improper use of materials posted on this resource.

    90,000 Fiber in the diet: what, how much and why

    I have been thinking of this article for a long time, and I wanted to share not only the theory, but also specific foods – sources of fiber that work. The result is a deep, structured material that lays out everything that is important to know about fiber. Here are scientific facts plus my personal experience.

    What is fiber?

    Fiber is a polysaccharide that is a structural part of a plant, its cell.If you look at such a cell under a microscope, you will see long filaments filling the space of the cell – fibers. Therefore, fiber is also called dietary fiber.

    Since there are different types of plants, plant fibers are diverse: cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, gums, etc. Research shows that each type of fiber affects the body in its own way, so it is important to get fiber from a variety of foods …

    How does fiber work?

    1.Reducing the GI of foods, blood sugar and insulin levels

    Water-soluble fiber, which is especially abundant in apples, oranges, plums, carrots, potatoes, legumes, oatmeal and barley, takes a long time to digest. It slows down the absorption of sugar in the intestines, lowering the glycemic index of the foods consumed. As a result, blood sugar and insulin levels decrease, which is especially important for diabetics.

    2. Overeating Aid

    As it expands on contact with liquid, fiber quickly creates a false satiety effect.And prolonged digestion of fiber prolongs satiety and decreases appetite, which can help fight overeating.

    3. Relief for constipation

    Water insoluble fiber is found in vegetables, wheat, corn and rice bran, and other whole grains. When consumed within normal limits, it absorbs liquid along the way and accelerates the passage of food through the gastrointestinal tract, which is especially useful for the prevention and prevention of constipation.

    4.Food for intestinal bacteria

    It is also important to know that the long chains of polysaccharides that make up dietary fiber are not broken down in the small intestine. This is because our digestive enzymes simply cannot break them down. Undigested plant fibers enter the large intestine, where some of them are fermented by beneficial intestinal bacteria, and the other part is released unchanged.

    According to the degree of microbial fermentation in the colon, fiber fibers are divided into:

    • Fully fermentable: pectin, gums, mucus, hemicellulose.
    • Partially fermentable: cellulose, hemicellulose.
    • Non-fermentable: lignin.

    Fully fermentable fibers are especially useful in this list, as these are what our microbiome feeds on. And healthy and “fed” gut bacteria is a healthy immune system. I wrote more about prebiotic fiber and microbiome nutrition here.

    5. Natural sorbent

    Insoluble plant fibers that are not fermented by microflora leave the body unchanged.Along the way, they absorb water and toxins from the digestive tract, acting as an excellent natural sorbent. At the same time, the intestinal mucosa is less in contact with toxic pollutants, which significantly reduces the risk of colon cancer lesions.

    So, if you ate something not very healthy, and you want it to come out of you faster and be absorbed as little as possible, eat more coarse fiber next. For example, you can arrange a smoothie fasting day by adding a teaspoon of plant fiber to each shake.

    6. Source of CCG acids

    As we already know, some types of fiber are fermented by bacteria. As a result of this process, short-chain fatty acids and other valuable metabolites necessary for the body to function are formed in the intestine.

    7. Reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    Research shows that increasing the proportion of fiber in the diet reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome, a combination of factors that increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes.These factors include high blood pressure, high insulin levels, being overweight (especially around the belly), high triglyceride levels, and low “good” HDL cholesterol.

    For example, passing through the duodenum, where food is exposed to bile, fiber actively absorbs the substances that make up its composition (bile acids, bilirubin, cholesterol), thereby preventing the formation of stones in the gallbladder and lowering cholesterol.

    8.Detoxification

    Fiber has antioxidant properties – it binds and removes toxins. In particular, and this is especially important, fiber binds and removes estrogen-like substances that come to us from the environment (plastic, cosmetics, household chemicals) and act as endocrine disruptors in the body. In today’s world flooded with chemistry and toxins, this ability of fiber is especially important.

    Rates of fiber

    Modern nutritionists and nutraceuticals recommend 30 to 50 grams of fiber per day for an adult.For children: 10 grams + 1 gram for each year of life. That is, for a 10-year-old child, the fiber rate will be 20 grams / day.

    Is Added Fiber Needed?

    Now let’s talk about added fiber and the nuances of using it. First, is added fiber needed at all? There has been a lot of controversy lately on this topic.

    Judge for yourself. Ideally, dietary fiber should come from a variety of foods – fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, legumes, nuts.The key point is that it should be 90,028 different whole plant foods that are not industrially processed or minimally processed.

    However, in fact, the diet of the average citizen of the city is oversaturated with animal products, in which there is no fiber at all, as well as refined plant products. It’s all white: white, bread, white rice, white sugar, white pasta. Refining is destructive in that it removes the most valuable thing from the product – fiber.

    Whole plant foods are either in insufficient quantities in diets or are processed to reduce fiber content (juicing, cooking jam, etc.).

    Fiber content in some products:

    • in 200 grams of buckwheat porridge there is only 5 grams of fiber,
    • in 100 grams of greens – 2 g,
    • in 100 grams of carrots – 2.4 g

    Obviously that with such a nutritional picture, the introduction of additional fiber is necessary.

    How to consume added fiber without gastrointestinal effects?

    Let’s start with the contraindications. They are: an active stomach ulcer, colitis and enterocolitis. Pregnancy and breastfeeding are not contraindications.

    More is not better

    It is a mistake to think that the more fiber you eat, the more benefits you get. Moreover, eating more than 50-60 grams of fiber per day (meaning all fiber per day: from foods + added) can cause bloating and gas formation.

    Also, excess fiber impairs the absorption of trace elements from foods. Dietary plant fibers, consumed in large quantities, accelerate the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the absorption of nutrients by the intestinal walls. The body simply does not have time to assimilate the required amount of nutrients before food leaves it. However, subject to the recommended dose and taking courses, this effect is not observed.

    Remember the water!

    It is important to remember that when consuming fiber, be sure to drink at least 2 liters of water per day.However, if you do not have enough water and physical activity, plant fibers are likely to cause constipation.

    Start with small doses, gradually increase

    The added fiber should be introduced gradually, giving the gastrointestinal tract time to adapt. This moment is especially important for people whose usual diet is poor in fiber. If you neglect this rule, you can earn bloating and gas formation, caused by the increased fermentation of fibers, which is unusual for the gastrointestinal tract.

    To minimize these potential effects, start with 1 teaspoon of added fiber daily per day.Listen carefully to the body and its signals. If all is well, gradually bring your fiber intake up to the recommended rate for a healthy diet.

    Remember food combinations

    When eating fiber, it is very important not to forget about the principles of food combinations, which are the foundation of separate nutrition. Fiber is a carbohydrate that is highly undesirable to combine with proteins, including dairy products. It is best to add dietary fiber to a green smoothie, plant-based milk, porridge, or simply drink a glass of water.

    Gluten Free!

    A growing body of research suggests that fiber-rich grains containing gluten are associated with a variety of gastrointestinal diseases, including collorectal cancer. Cardiologist William Davis, in his book Wheat Belly, argues that eating gluten, even in healthy people, increases the risk of developing serious diseases such as arthritis and hypertension.

    This fact casts doubt on the value of the most popular source of fiber, wheat bran (which can be found in every pharmacy today), prompting new sources of added fiber to be considered.

    Add Probiotic

    Fiber is a prebiotic fiber or prebiotic. That is, food for bacteria. It will be great if at the same time you start taking a good probiotic – the bacteria themselves. These can be either cultures in the form of a powder or live bacteria contained in fermented foods. Probiotics + Prebiotics = a healthy microbiome.

    My experience: Ground flaxseed, apple fiber, Siberian fiber, beet fiber Nutriel

    I tried various types of added fiber – ground flaxseed, apple and ready to tell Siberian and Siberian to you about the results.

    “Siberian fiber”

    I tried Siberian fiber at the dawn of my healthy diet 7 years ago. There was still not so much scientific evidence about gluten, so the question of the usefulness of such fiber was not raised. The problems that I had at that time – excess weight, spontaneous overeating, frequent bloating, exacerbation of histaminosis – “Siberian fiber” did not solve.

    Much later, to learn about gluten and discovering a sensitivity to it, I realized the uselessness of “Siberian fiber” and in general any bran.The product itself is not bad and even contains many valuable additives, but gluten negates everything.

    Ground flaxseed

    The advantages of this option are that lignans from flax are natural phytoestrogens that exhibit antioxidant activity. They promote healthy cell replication and cardiovascular function. Flax is also a good source of fatty acids and protein. Flax is also delicious and fits perfectly into cereals and granolas. Smoothies thicken from him.And if you add water to ground flaxseed, you can get a “vegan egg” for baked goods and desserts. For the price – very affordable.

    There are two minuses – there are not very many dietary fibers in flax, and these are fibers of the same type.

    Now Food Apple Fiber

    Same disadvantages – only one type of fiber and generally a small amount of fiber per serving. Only 4 g per tablespoon. Also, this fiber seems to contain pectin, but the composition of this is not indicated anywhere.

    Advantages – taste and price.

    “Gentle fibers”. Jarrow Formulas Soluble and Insoluble Fiber

    Good Composition – Multiple Fiber. A combination of insoluble fibers (flax and chia) with soluble ones (flax seeds, orange pulp and peel, gum arabic and inulin-fructo-oligosaccharide). Gluten free! This delicious fiber can be taken for a child.

    Minus – price and total amount of fibers. There are only 9 grams of fiber per serving (16 grams).

    Nutriel Beet Fiber

    This is my latest discovery. Beet fiber is an organic product made from premium beets. First, I tried regular fiber, and the options with freeze-dried berries: blueberries, lingonberries and sea buckthorn. Berries are generously poured into the package and they are really freeze-dried.

    The main benefit of Nutriel fiber is that it does not contain gluten, but contains pectin. The manufacturer claims to use beets with a high pectin content (20%).Thus, this is so far the only fiber, including the ayherb assortment, with such a pectin content.

    What is pectin and why is it good?

    Pectin is a structural plant substance with binding properties. It is present in all plants, but most of all in apples, beets and citrus peels. Pectin is responsible for the turgor of the fruit, its drought tolerance and shelf life. In food production, pectin is used as a gelling agent – for example, in the manufacture of pastilles.

    Getting into the human body, pectin passes through the stomach undigested, then in the small intestine inhibits the secretion of pancreatic enzymes, thus reducing the absorption of fats, proteins and carbohydrates (which is very useful with excess weight, tendency to overeating).

    Moving into the large intestine, part of the pectin is fermented by bacteria in the large intestine. Intestinal microorganisms partially hydrolyze pectin substances with the formation of oligo- and galacturonic acids, which are absorbed in the intestine and enter the bloodstream. These acids bind lead, cadmium, mercury and other heavy metals in the blood and excrete them in the urine. Scientists have found that the lower the molecular weight of pectin, the better its ability to bind metals.

    Pectin remaining after fermentation easily forms metal pectinates, including lead, envelops the intestinal wall and reduces the absorption of highly toxic molecules, excreting them in the feces. Thus, pectins can both bind heavy metals coming from outside and prevent their secondary absorption in the gastrointestinal tract with bile or as part of digestive secretions.

    Also, Nutriel fiber has an optimal fractional composition of the cell – not a powder or large pieces, which allows the fibers to perform their cleansing functions without injuring the gastrointestinal tract. There is a misconception that the larger the pieces of fiber, the better it cleans the intestines. This is wrong. What’s more, large pieces leave scars on the intestinal walls, where the body secretes additional mucus for healing, and which over time can lead to serious problems.

    Minus Nutriel – one type of fiber in the composition.

    Summary

    As a result of my searches, I settled on Nutriel as the best combination of price and quality, and at the time of this writing I have been eating it for a month. I add it to my morning smoothie by mixing spinach or arugula, frozen banana, and 1 scoop of fiber. I also eat a spoon at lunchtime and in the evening with a glass of water.

    As a result, the manifestations of histaminosis, which began after a little indulgence in the form of coffee, mushrooms and seafood, completely disappeared in one day.The gastrointestinal tract feels very comfortable, and the skin is even cleaner.

    Ahead of your questions, let me tell you about the scheme according to which I introduced Nutriel:

    • 1-2 days: 1 teaspoon in the morning smoothie
    • 3-5 days: 1 teaspoon in the morning smoothie + 1 teaspoon half an hour before supper.
    • Day 6 and beyond: 1 teaspoon in the morning smoothie + 1 teaspoon before or during lunch + 1 teaspoon half an hour before dinner.

    That’s it!

    Source here.

    Photo

    Do you like our texts? Join us on social networks to keep abreast of all the freshest and most interesting!

    Instagram Facebook VK
    Telegram

    Top 20 high fiber foods

    Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate found in plants that the body cannot digest.

    While it is vital for your gut and overall health, most people do not reach the recommended daily fiber intake of at least 25 grams.for women and 38 gr. for men .

    Soluble and insoluble fiber helps increase stool volume and is a source of nutrition for beneficial bacteria in the intestines.

    Soluble fiber stimulates the saturation of your intestines with water, which softens your stools and stimulates peristalsis. In addition, it not only helps to feel better and prevent constipation, but also helps to lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels.

    20 natural products with a high content of soluble fiber.

    1. Black Beans

    Black beans are not only a great way to give your meals a dense texture, but also a great source of fiber.

    One cup (approximately 172 grams) contains 15 grams of fiber, which is the average human intake per day, or 40-60% of the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) for adults.

    Black beans contain pectin, a form of water-soluble fiber that becomes sticky.Pectin delays gastric emptying and thus allows the body to absorb nutrients longer, also prolonging the feeling of fullness.

    Black beans are also rich in protein and iron, are low in calories and contain almost no fat.

    Soluble fiber content: 8% of the total mass of beans.

    2. Lima beans

    Lima beans, also known as moon beans, are large, flat, greenish white beans.

    These beans contain carbohydrates and protein, as well as some fat.

    The total fiber content of lima beans is lower than that of black beans, but the soluble fiber content is almost identical. Lima beans also contain soluble pectin fiber, which is associated with a decrease in blood sugar spikes after a meal.

    Raw lima beans are toxic and must be soaked and boiled before eating.

    Soluble fiber content: 8% of the total mass of beans.

    3. Brussels sprouts

    The world can be divided into lovers and haters of Brussels sprouts, but whoever you are on, no doubt, this vegetable is extremely rich in vitamins and minerals, as well as various anti-cancer substances.

    What’s more, Brussels sprouts are an excellent source of fiber.

    Brussels sprouts soluble fiber is a food for beneficial intestinal bacteria. It produces vitamins K and B, as well as short-chain fatty acids, which support the health of the intestinal mucosa.

    Soluble fiber content: 2% of the total weight of cabbage.

    4. Avocados

    Avocados are an excellent source of monounsaturated fat, potassium, vitamin E and dietary fiber.

    One avocado contains approximately 13.5 grams of dietary fiber.

    Compared to other popular fiber sources, fruits contain fewer antinutrient phytates and oxalates, which can interfere with the absorption of minerals.

    Soluble fiber content: 7% of the total mass of avocado pulp.

    5. Sweet potato

    Sweet potatoes are high in potassium, beta-carotene, B vitamins and fiber.

    On average, one sweet potato tuber contains about 4 grams of fiber, almost half of which is soluble.

    Sweet potatoes are a rich source of fiber.

    Soluble fiber plays an important role in the control of metabolism, which directly affects body weight.The more fiber you eat, the more gut hormones are released, which are responsible for feeling full by reducing the urge to eat.

    Soluble fiber content: 3% of the total weight of sweet potatoes

    6. Broccoli

    Broccoli is a cruciferous vegetable that grows well in the cool season. It is usually dark green, but purple varieties can also be found.

    Broccoli is high in blood thinning vitamin K and is a good source of folate, potassium and vitamin C.It also has antioxidant and anti-cancer properties.

    Broccoli is a good source of dietary fiber – 2.6 grams per 100 grams, more than half of which are soluble.

    Soluble fiber content: 2% of the total weight of boiled broccoli.

    7. Turnip

    Turnip is a root vegetable. The larger species are usually used as livestock feed, while the smaller species are a great addition to your diet.

    Turnip is the richest in potassium, as well as calcium and vitamins C and K.

    Soluble fiber content: 3% of the total weight of the fruit.

    8. Pears

    Pears are an excellent source of vitamin C, potassium and various antioxidants.

    What’s more, they are a source of fiber, with 5.5 grams of fiber in one medium-sized fruit. Soluble fiber makes up 29% of the total dietary fiber in the pear, the main form of which is pectin.

    Due to their high fructose and sorbitol content, pears can be laxative if consumed excessively.

    Soluble fiber content: 1.5 grams per medium pear.

    9. Red beans

    Red beans are an excellent source of dietary fiber, complex carbohydrates and protein. It also contains almost no fat.

    Red beans are a good source of soluble fiber, especially pectin.

    Soluble fiber content: 4% of the total weight of cooked beans.

    10. Figs

    Figs were one of the first cultivated plants in the history of mankind.

    Figs have a high nutritional value, they contain calcium, magnesium, potassium, B vitamins and other nutrients.

    Both dry and fresh figs are a source of soluble fiber.

    Based on some historical evidence, dried figs have been used as a home remedy for constipation for many years.

    Soluble fiber content: 6% of the total weight of dried figs.

    11. Nectarines

    Nectarines are stone fruits that grow in warm regions.They are similar to peaches, but do not have the same characteristic uneven skin.

    They are a good source of B vitamins, potassium and vitamin E. Moreover, they contain various substances with antioxidant properties.

    One medium-sized nectarine contains 2.4 grams of fiber, more than half of which are soluble.

    Soluble fiber content: 2.4 grams per medium nectarine.

    12. Apricots

    Apricots are small sweet fruits that range in color from yellow to orange, with a rare red tint.

    They are low in calories and are a good source of vitamins A and C.

    A medium-sized fruit contains about a gram of fiber

    In Asia, apricots have been used in traditional medicine for many years and are believed to help prevent heart disease.

    Insoluble fiber content: 0.4 grams per mid-sized apricot.

    13. Carrots

    Carrots are one of the most popular and delicious vegetables on Earth.

    Boiled or steamed carrots are a key ingredient in many recipes. Carrots contain beta-carotene, part of which is converted into vitamin A.

    This vitamin is especially important for the health of your eyes and good vision.

    One cup (128 grams) of chopped carrots contains 4.6 grams of dietary fiber, 2.4 of which are soluble.

    Soluble fiber content: 2.4 grams per cup (128 grams) of cooked carrots.

    14. Apples

    Apples are one of the most commonly eaten fruits in the world.Apples contain a variety of vitamins and minerals and are a good source of soluble pectin fiber. Apple pectin has many health benefits, helping to reduce the risk of heart disease and improve bowel function.

    Soluble fiber content: 1 gram per medium apple.

    15. Guava

    Guava is a tropical fruit native to Mexico, Central and South America. The skin is generally green, and the flesh can range in color from white to bright pink.

    One guava fruit contains 3 grams of dietary fiber, about 30% of which is soluble.

    This fruit is indicated for the reduction of blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein levels.

    Soluble fiber content: 1.1 grams per raw fruit.

    16. Flax Seeds

    These contain nutrients and can be an excellent ingredient to increase nutrient content.

    By adding 1 tablespoon of ground flaxseeds to your porridge, you can add an additional 3.5 grams of fiber and 2 grams of protein to your breakfast.Flaxseeds are also one of the best plant-based sources of omega-3 fats.

    If possible, soak flaxseeds overnight as this allows their soluble fiber to combine with water and form a gel that will aid digestion.

    Soluble fiber content: 6-12% of the total weight of whole flax seeds.

    17. Sunflower Seeds

    Sunflower Seeds are an excellent nutritious snack. They contain about 3 grams of dietary fiber per quarter cup, one third of which is soluble fiber.What’s more, they are rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, protein, magnesium, selenium, and iron.

    Soluble fiber content: 3% of the total mass of refined sunflower seeds.

    18. Hazelnuts

    Hazelnuts are a type of nut that can be eaten raw or roasted for a more intense flavor. A quarter cup of hazelnuts contains about 3.3 grams of dietary fiber, a third of which are soluble. In addition, hazelnuts are rich in unsaturated fats, vitamin E, thiamine and iron.

    Thanks in part to soluble fiber, hazelnuts may lower the risk of heart disease by lowering LDL levels.

    Soluble fiber content: 3.3% of the total mass of hazelnuts.

    19. Oats

    Oats are one of the most versatile and healthy grains. Oats contain beta-glucans, a soluble fiber that helps lower LDL cholesterol and stabilize sugar levels. According to medical research, 3 grams of oat beta-glucan per day may reduce the risk of heart disease.

    About 100 grams of dry oats contain 10 grams of dietary fiber. They are composed of 5.8 grams of insoluble and 4.2 grams of soluble dietary fiber, 3.6 grams of which is beta-glucan.

    Beta-glucan gives oatmeal its characteristic texture.

    Soluble fiber content: 4.2% of the total mass of boiled oats.

    20. Barley

    Like oats, barley contains about 3.5-5.9% soluble beta-glucan, which research has shown reduces the risk of heart disease.

    Other forms of soluble fiber in barley are psili, pectin and guar gum.

    Soluble fiber content: 1% of the total weight of barley.

    Subtotal

    Soluble fiber is extremely beneficial for your digestion and overall health, reduces the risk of heart disease by lowering LDL (low density lipoprotein) levels and helps stabilize blood sugar levels.

    All fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes contain varying amounts of soluble fiber, but certain foods such as Brussels sprouts, avocados, flaxseeds, and black beans are an excellent basis for incorporating into your daily diet.

    Adapted from:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3399949/

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2653960/

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5188407/

    https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov / pubmed / 277

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22192505

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3127104/

    https: / /carleton.ca/healthy-workplace/wp-content/uploads/soluble-fibre.pdf

    How much fiber is in potatoes

    How to find out the fiber content of foods, the food list

    How to find out the fiber content of foods

    We suggest that you look at the list from which you will find out which foods contain enough fiber. Since this substance is purely of plant origin, then you need to look for it in the appropriate sources. They can be divided into several conditional groups.Let’s take a look at the fiber content in foods and their amount.

    Bran

    is an easy way to increase your dietary fiber intake. Bran, regardless of the type of grain from which it is made, is rich in fiber. Oat bran is rich in soluble fiber, which lowers blood cholesterol levels.

    Wheat bran, corn and rice are rich in insoluble fiber that helps prevent constipation. The bran can be included in your favorite meals, cereals, pancakes, muffins.

    Fiber content in products

    Quantity:

    • Oat bran, raw – 28 grams – 12 grams of bran and further
    • Wheat bran, raw – 28 grams – 12 grams
    • Corn husk, raw materials – 28 grams – 22 gram
    • Rice bran, raw – 28 grams – 6 g

    Dry beans

    – beans are one of the richest sources of natural fiber, protein, lysine, vitamins and minerals. Some people may experience flatulence or discomfort while consuming beans, so it is advisable to introduce them gradually, in small amounts into the diet.You can choose different varieties of beans as a substitute for animal protein in stews, salads, soups, sauces.

    Dry beans fiber content

    Amount:

    • Lima beans, boiled – 1 cup – 14 g
    • Azuki beans, boiled – 1 cup – 14 g
    • Beans and beans (fava) boiled – 9 g
    • Black beans, boiled – 1 cup – 15 g
    • Lamb peas, boiled – 1 cup – 12g
    • Boiled lentils – 1 cup – 16 g
    • Bean soup, boiled – 100 g – 17g
    • Beans, boiled – 1 cup – 16 g
    • White beans, boiled – 1 cup – 19 g
    • Mash, boiled – 1 cup – 15 g
    • Yellow beans, boiled – 1 cup – 18 g
    • Pinto beans, boiled – 1 cup – 15 g

    Berries

    Berries are rich in antioxidants and fiber.These are just a few of the fewest calorie fiber sources. Berries contain small seeds with higher fiber content than other fruits. You can enjoy the berries throughout the year: they come fresh in summer and winter, frozen, canned or dried. Berries can be used to add to cereals, yoghurts, salads and desserts.

    Berry fiber content

    Amount:

    • Raspberries, 1 cup – 8 g
    • Blueberries – 1 cup – 4 g
    • Red and white currants – 1 cup – 5 g
    • Strawberries – 1 cup – 3 g
    • Gooseberries – 1 cup – 6 grams
    • Elderberries – 1 cup – 10 g
    • Blackberries – 1 cup – 8 g

    Whole grains

    are one of the easiest ways to add fiber to your diet.Eat whole grains, no matter the type.

    Whole grains contain all the ingredients and essential nutrients naturally. Whole grains can be found in breads, biscuits, etc.

    Whole grain fiber

    Amount:

    • Amaranth, beans – 1/4 cup – 6 grams
    • Boiled eggs – 1 cup – 5 g
    • Popcorn – 3 cups – 4 g
    • Dry oatmeal – 1/2 cup – 4 g
    • Rye flour, dry – 1/2 cup – 4 g
    • Quinoa, boiled – 1 cup – 5 g
    • Triticale, flour – 1/4 cup – 5 g
    • Wheat grain, dried – 1/4 cup – 5 g
    • Wild rice – 1 cup – 3 g
    • Rye flour – 1/4 cup, 4 g
    • Brown rice, cooked – 1 cup – 4 g
    • Bulgur, boiled – 1 cup – 8 g
    • Whole grain bread – 1 slice – 2 g
    • Cookies, rye flour waffles – 30 g – 6 g
    • Spaghetti – 1 cup – 6 g

    Sweet peas

    – sweet peas , green peas and dry peas are rich in natural fibers.Peas can be eaten fresh, frozen as a side dish, in soups, as well as with steaks, added to salads, casseroles and sauces.

    Peas contain fiber

    Quantity:

    • Cow peas, boiled – 1 cup – 11 g
    • Pigeon peas, boiled – 1 cup – 9 g
    • Green peas, frozen – 1 cup -14 g

    Green vegetables

    – Green leafy vegetables are rich in beta-carotene, vitamins, minerals, especially fiber.There are over 1000 species of edible leafy plants that have similar nutritional benefits, including those high in fiber. Green vegetables can be prepared as salads, sauteed with olive oil, garlic, lemon and spices.

    Fiber content of green vegetables

    Amount:

    • Boiled turnips – 1 cup – 5 g
    • Mustard – 1 cup – 5 g
    • Boiled cabbage – 1 cup – 5 g
    • Spinach – 1 cup – 4 g
    • Boiled beets – 1 cup – 4 g

    Nuts and seeds

    – nuts and seeds are high in fiber.30 grams of nuts and seeds provide a daily requirement for fiber and healthy fats, proteins and phytonutrients. You can add some nuts and seeds to cereals, yoghurts, salads, desserts. You will discover a delicious way to metabolize fiber.

    Nuts and sour cream – fiber content

    Amount:

    • Almonds – 30 g – 4 g
    • Pistachios – 30 g – 3 g
    • Cashews – 30 g – 1 g
    • Peanuts – 30 g – 2 g
    • Brazil nuts – 30 g – 2 g
    • Sunflower seeds – 1/4 cup – 3 g
    • Pumpkin seeds – 1/2 – 3 g
    • Flax seeds – 30 g – 8 g

    Cruciferous vegetables

    – vegetables of this families are able to protect against cancer.These include: cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, which are rich in fiber. They can be served with French fries, added to casseroles, soups, salads and side dishes.

    Foods containing fiber

    Quantity:

    • Cabbage, boiled – 1 cup -3 g
    • Cauliflower, boiled – 1 cup – 5 g
    • Cabbage, raw – 1 cup – 5 g
    • Broccoli, boiled – 1 cup – 5 g
    • Brussels sprouts, boiled – 1 cup – 6 g
    • Red cabbage, boiled – 1 cup, 4 g

    Potatoes

    Potatoes are high in fiber.It is preferable to cook jacket potatoes, which are rich in fiber. Try adding potatoes, cooked in different ways, to salads, soups, side dishes, casseroles, or simply baked.

    Potato fiber content

    Quantity:

    • Red potatoes – 1 medium potato – 4 g
    • Sweet potatoes – 1 medium potato – 4 g

    Fruit

    To give your body the recommended daily intake of fiber, you can eat fruit.Many of them contain not only fiber, but also important vitamins and minerals. Experts advise not to lose sight of seasonal fruits, be it pears, bananas, apples, etc. In winter, you can opt for dried fruit. It is recommended to eat fruits both for breakfast and as a snack, mixing with yogurt, adding to muesli or salads. Fruit is definitely a healthy food.

    Fruit fiber content

    Amount:

    • Banana – one medium banana – 3 g
    • Orange – one medium fruit – 4 g
    • Prunes – 1/2 cup – 6 grams
    • Raisins – 55g – 2g
    • Dried Figs – 1/2 cup, 8g

    Exotic Fruits and Vegetables

    Some foods with the highest fiber content of exotic fruits and vegetables are eaten around the world.They can be attractive both because of their high fiber content, but also because of their taste. Some of these may not be available in your area, but using them can be a way to alternate and combine commonly consumed foods with exotic fruits.

    Foods containing fiber

    Quantity:

    • Carambola, raw – 1 cup 4 g
    • Asian pears, raw – 1 raw fruit, 4 g
    • Guava – 1 cup, 9 g
    • Straw mushrooms, canned – 1 cup, 5 g
    • Lotus root – 10 slices, 4 g
    • Avocados, raw materials – 1/2 fruit, 9 g

    Foods fortified with fiber fiber

    These are yoghurt-based products, juices, fortified with fiber …Such foods can help busy people to provide a daily intake of fiber, regardless of the meals they eat.

    Foods containing fiber

    Quantity:

    • Wheat bread – 1 slice – 5 g
    • Rye bread – 2 slices – 4 g
    • Fiber-enriched soy milk – 1 cup – 5 g
    • Cereals fiber-fortified cultures – 1/3 cup – 10 g
    • //www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_zsLm9SP-Y

    ****************** ************************************************* *********
    Do not forget to share in social.networks of information read. You can help people who will benefit from this information

    You may be interested in this:

    Sweet potato fiber content | Healthy Eating

    Carly Schuna Updated November 27, 2018

    Sweet potatoes are not only one of the brightest foods you’ll find in the grocery section, but also one of the most nutritious. Rich in fiber, especially if you don’t peel them, sweet potatoes are a great base for vegetarians and versatile enough to add to snacks, desserts, smoothies, and more.

    Tip

    One medium-baked sweet potato contains 4 grams of fiber.

    Sweet Potato Nutrition

    One medium-cooked sweet potato with skin contains approximately 105 calories and 4 grams of fiber. Sweet potato pulp puree contains about 3 grams of fiber per 1/2 cup, while a slice of sweet potato pie contains just 1 gram of fiber.

    Benefits of Fiber

    Many Americans lack fiber in their diets.This nutrient is known for being bulky and indigestible, but it is very beneficial for your health. In addition to improving general health and digestion regularity, fiber can help maintain weight and reduce the risk of conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.

    Medium-roasted sweet potatoes contain approximately the same amount of soluble and insoluble fiber, about 2 grams of each type. While soluble fiber can help lower cholesterol levels, insoluble fiber helps food pass through the stomach and intestines and is especially beneficial for intestinal health.

    Preparing sweet potatoes

    To preserve as much fiber as possible, leave the skins on the sweet potatoes and eat them after cooking. Some cooking methods work better with skinned potatoes than others, and roasting and baking are good choices. Steaming sweet potatoes will retain more nutrients than boiling. Try steaming them with the skins, then mashing the potatoes after a minute or two to cool. Cooked sweet potatoes will stay fresh for several days in a tightly sealed container in the refrigerator.

    Serving Suggestions

    Sweet potatoes have the word “sweet” in their name; they have a naturally sweet and mild flavor only thanks to their natural sugar. Roasting potatoes enhances these sweet notes. Baked or roasted sweet potatoes with a little butter added make a hearty snack high in fiber.

    If you are using potatoes as a dessert or smoothie, remember that you can maximize the healthiness of your sweet treat by reducing the amount of added sugar.Instead of sprinkling your sweet potato casserole with mini marshmallows and candied pecans, for example, make it more rustic by adding toasted chopped pecans and a drizzle of maple syrup.

    .

    High Fiber Foods: 38 Health Benefits

    When a person includes high fiber foods in their diet, it has many benefits, such as maintaining gut health, promoting heart health, and promoting weight loss.

    According to the latest dietary guidelines for Americans, the Adequate Intake (AI) of fiber for adult men is 33.6 grams (g) per day and 28 grams for adult women.

    But most people in America do not achieve this goal. The average fiber intake in the United States is 17 grams, and only 5 percent of people are meeting an adequate daily allowance.

    People need to get both soluble and insoluble fiber from their diet. A varied, high-fiber diet means eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains.

    In this article, we list 38 healthy high-fiber foods, explaining how much fiber each contains, to help people increase their daily fiber intake.

    Share on Pinterest Naval beans contain 10.5 g fiber per 100 g and are also rich in protein.

    Legumes are plant-based fiber-rich foods, including beans, lentils and peas.

    Beans are a good source of fermentable fibers.This fiber travels to the colon and helps nourish a wide variety of healthy bacteria colonies in the intestines.

    Researchers have found a link between a healthy gut microbiome and lower rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Here are some of the legumes with the best fiber content:

    1. Marine beans

    Marine beans are one of the richest sources of fiber. They are also rich in protein. Add navy beans to salads, curries, or stews for extra fiber and protein.

    Fiber content : navy beans contain 10.5 g per 100 g (31.3 percent AI).

    2. Pinto beans

    Pinto beans are a popular food product in the USA. People can eat pinto beans whole, mashed or fried. Along with their high fiber content, pinto beans are an excellent source of calcium and iron.

    Fiber Content : Pinto beans contain 9 g fiber per 100 g (26.8% AI).

    3.Black Beans

    Black beans are high in iron and magnesium and are an excellent source of vegetable protein.

    When vegan people combine black beans with rice, they get all nine essential amino acids.

    Fiber Content : Black beans contain 8.7 g fiber per 100 g (25.9% AI).

    4. Split peas

    Split peas are an excellent source of iron and magnesium. They go well with casseroles, curries and dal.

    Fiber Content : Split peas contain 8.3 g fiber per 100 g (24.7 percent AI).

    5. Lentils

    There are many types of lentils, including red and French lentils. They are a great addition to couscous, quinoa or dal.

    Fiber Content : Lentils contain 7.9 g fiber per 100 g (23.5 percent AI).

    6. Mung beans

    Mung beans are a universal source of potassium, magnesium and vitamin B-6.

    Dried and crushed, people can use mung bean flour to make pancakes.

    Fiber Content : Mung beans contain 7.6 g fiber per 100 g (22.6 percent AI).

    7. Adzuki beans

    Adzuki beans are used in Japanese cuisine to make red bean paste, which is a traditional sweetness. People can also boil these flavored nut beans and eat them neat.

    Fiber Content : Adzuki beans contain 7.3 g fiber per 100 g (21.7 percent AI).

    8. Lima beans

    Lima beans are not only an excellent source of fiber, they are also rich in vegetable protein.

    Fiber Content : Lima beans contain 7 g fiber per 100 g (20.8 percent AI).

    9. Chickpeas

    Chickpeas or garbanzo beans are a popular source of vegetable protein and fiber. They are also full of iron, vitamin B-6, and magnesium.

    Use these legumes as a base for hummus and falafel.

    Fiber Content : Chickpeas contain 6.4 g fiber per 100 g (19 percent AI).

    10. Beans

    Beans are a rich source of iron. Beans are a great addition to chili, casseroles, and salads.

    Fiber Content : Beans contain 6.4 g fiber per 100 g (19 percent AI).

    11. Soybeans

    Soybeans are used to make a variety of products such as tofu, tempeh and miso.People often use soybeans as a dietary substitute for meat and dairy products.

    Fresh soybeans can also be eaten raw or added to salads like edamame.

    Fiber Content : Soybeans contain 6 g fiber per 100 g (17.9% AI).

    12. Baked beans

    Baked beans are rich in fiber and protein. You can buy them at most grocery stores. Try buying brands that are low in sugar and salt for more health benefits.

    Fiber Content : Plain canned baked beans contain 4.1 grams of fiber per 100 grams (12.2 percent AI).

    13. Green peas

    Green peas can be canned or fresh. Green peas are an excellent source of fiber, protein, vitamin C and vitamin A.

    Fiber Content : Green peas contain 4.1–5.5 grams of fiber per 100 grams (12–16 percent AI).

    Among the many health benefits of vegetables, they are an excellent source of dietary fiber.Vegetables with a high fiber content:

    14. Artichoke

    Artichokes are rich in vitamins C and K, as well as calcium and folic acid.

    Cook, bake or steam whole artichokes and use in meals or as a side dish.

    People often cook just the heart of the artichoke on top of the outer leaves.

    Fiber Content : One medium artichoke contains 6 pieces. 9 g fiber (20.5% AI).

    15. Potatoes

    Potatoes, as the main vegetable, are a good source of B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and magnesium.

    Fiber Content : One large potato baked in the skins contains 6.3 g fiber (18.8% AI).

    16. Sweet potato

    Sweet potato is one of the starchy vegetables. They are rich in vitamin A.

    Fiber Content : One large sweet potato baked in the skins contains 5.9 g fiber (17.6% AI).

    17. Parsnips

    Parsnips are a good source of vitamins C and K, as well as B vitamins, calcium and zinc.

    Fiber Content : One cooked parsnip contains 5.8 g fiber (17.3% AI).

    18. Winter squash

    Winter squash vegetables are a rich source of vitamins A and C.

    Fiber Content : One cup of winter squash contains 5.7 grams of fiber (17 percent AI).

    19. Broccoli

    Broccoli is a cruciferous vegetable that is high in vitamins C and A. Cruciferous vegetables are also high in antioxidant polyphenols.

    Fiber Content : One cup of cooked broccoli flowers contains 5.1 grams of fiber (15.2 percent AI).

    20. Pumpkin

    Pumpkin is a popular vegetable and a source of vitamins A, K and calcium. People use it in sweet and savory foods.

    Fiber Content : A standard serving of canned pumpkin contains 3 pieces. 6 g fiber (10.7% AI).

    People can increase their daily fiber intake by eating healthy fruits as a snack between meals.Some fruits contain more fiber than others.

    21. Avocado

    Avocados contain healthy monounsaturated fats that are good for heart health. They are popular in salads and sauces.

    Fiber Content : One peeled avocado contains 9.2 g fiber (27.4 percent AI).

    22. Pear

    Pears are rich in fiber, as well as vitamins C and A, folic acid and calcium. Keep a few pears in a bowl of fruit or serve with dessert.

    Fiber Content : One medium-sized pear contains 5.5 g fiber (16.4% AI).

    23. Apple

    Apples are a good source of vitamins C and A and folic acid. Be sure to eat the peel as well as the pulp of the apple, as the peel contains a lot of fruit fiber.

    Fiber Content : One large apple contains 5.4 g fiber (16.1% AI).

    24. Raspberries

    Raspberries are an excellent source of antioxidants.These ruby ​​red berries also contain vitamins C and K.

    Fiber Content : Half a cup of raspberries contains 4 grams of fiber (11.9 percent AI).

    25. Blackberries

    Like raspberries, blackberries are full of beneficial antioxidants and are an excellent source of vitamins C and K.

    Fiber Content : Half a cup of blackberries contains 3.8 grams of fiber (11.3% AI).

    26. Prunes

    Prunes, or prunes, contribute to the health of the digestive system.Prunes are high in fiber, but can be high in sugar, so eat them in moderation.

    Fiber Content : Five prunes contain 3.4 g fiber (10.1% AI).

    27. Orange

    Oranges are surprisingly a good source of fiber. Oranges are rich in vitamin C, which is essential for health.

    Fiber Content : One orange contains 3.4 g fiber (10.1% AI).

    28.Banana

    Bananas are an excellent source of nutrients, including potassium, magnesium and vitamin C. They can be incorporated into baked goods or eaten on their own as a snack.

    Fiber Content : One medium banana contains 3.1 grams of fiber (9.2 percent AI).

    29. Guava

    This tropical fruit is not only a source of fiber, but also very high in vitamin C and vitamin A.

    Try guava in smoothies or juices.The peel is edible, which means it makes a great fruit snack on the go.

    Fiber Content : One guava contains 3 grams of fiber (8.9 percent AI).

    Nuts and seeds have many health benefits. They contain healthy fats, a high concentration of protein, and often contain essential omega-3 fatty acids.

    High fiber nuts and seeds include:

    30. Buckwheat

    Despite its name, buckwheat is a seed, not a grain.

    Buckwheat is the grain-like seed of a plant that is more closely related to rhubarb than wheat. It is rich in magnesium and zinc. Buckwheat does not contain gluten.

    Buckwheat is traditionally used for making soba noodles in Japan. He also gained popularity in other countries.

    People can add cereals to breakfast cereals or smoothies.

    Buckwheat flour is an excellent gluten-free alternative to plain flour for baking and cooking.

    Fiber Content : Half a cup of buckwheat contains 8.4 grams of fiber (25 percent AI).

    31. Chia Seeds

    Originally grown in Central America, these edible seeds are not only rich in fiber, but also high in omega-3s, protein, antioxidants, calcium and iron.

    People can get more health benefits from chopped chia seeds. Buy them ground or grind the seeds into a fine powder using a food processor or mortar and pestle.

    Fiber Content : Each tablespoon of chia seeds contains 4.1 grams of fiber (12.2 percent AI).

    32. Quinoa

    Quinoa is another pseudo-grain and also edible seed.

    This seed is rich in antioxidants, magnesium, folate and copper, as well as vitamins B-1, B-2 and B-6.

    Quinoa is good for people who are sensitive to gluten. Quinoa flour is great for baking, and people often add cereal to breakfast cereals.

    Fiber Content : Half a cup of quinoa contains 2.6 grams of fiber (7.7% AI).

    33.Pumpkin seeds

    Pumpkin seeds are an excellent source of healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, as well as magnesium and zinc.

    Fiber Content : A quarter cup of pumpkin seeds contains 1.9 g fiber (5.7% AI).

    34. Almonds

    Almonds are rich in vitamin E, which acts as an antioxidant, as well as calcium and healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Fiber Content : Ten almonds contain 1.5 g fiber (4.5 percent AI).

    35. Popcorn

    Popcorn is a healthy, whole food snack. It is a source of zinc, folate, and vitamin A. Avoid brands of popcorn that are high in sugar and salt.

    Fiber Content : One cup of popcorn contains 1.2 g fiber (3.6 percent AI).

    Whole grains help maintain heart health and help people feel full after eating. Whole grains that are high in fiber include:

    36.Frike

    People make freeke from roasted green wheat. They use it as a side dish with meat or add to salads to add flavor and flavor.

    Fiber : Freekeh contains 13.3 g fiber per 100 g (39.6 percent AI).

    37. Bulgur Wheat

    Bulgur Wheat is a popular whole grain grain in Middle Eastern cuisine. Bulgur wheat processing includes the opening of the wheat germ and their steaming.

    Bulgur wheat is a traditional ingredient in tabouleh and pilaf.Use it as an alternative to rice in warm salads. Keep in mind that this is not gluten-free.

    Fiber Content : Bulgur Wheat contains 4.5 g fiber per 100 g (13.4 percent AI).

    38. Barley with pearls

    Barley with pearls is excellent as a garnish for meat, as well as in salads or stews.

    Fiber Content : Pearl barley contains 3.8 g fiber per 100 g (11.3 percent AI).

    The following tips can help people increase the amount of fiber they get each day:

    • Avoid peeling vegetables as the skins are high in fiber, including cellulose
    • Replace white bread with whole grain bread
    • Replace white rice for brown rice
    • try steel or oatmeal instead of instant oatmeal
    • aim to eat at least 2 ½ cups of vegetables and 2 cups of fruit every day
    • choose starchy vegetables
    • use psyllium husks or other fiber supplements when your diet cannot provide adequate intake

    Fiber is an essential part of a healthy diet, although most people in the United States.S. do not comply with the recommended daily intake of fiber.

    A high fiber diet helps prevent constipation, maintain heart health, and fuel beneficial bacteria in the gut. It can also help with weight loss.

    People can increase the amount of fiber from their diet by choosing foods that are high in fiber and following certain dietary advice, such as without peeling edible peels from fruits and vegetables.

    Foods naturally rich in fiber also have many other health benefits. Eating a variety of whole foods will help people meet their daily needs for fiber and other key nutrients.

    .

    22 High Fiber Foods You Should Eat

    Fiber is incredibly important.

    It leaves your stomach undigested and travels to the colon, where it harbors beneficial gut bacteria, resulting in various health benefits (1, 2).

    Certain types of fiber can also promote weight loss, lower blood sugar, and fight constipation (3, 4, 5).

    The recommended daily intake is 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men (6).

    However, most people eat only half that amount, or 15-17 grams of fiber per day (7).

    Fortunately, increasing your fiber intake is relatively easy – just include foods that are high in percent (%) fiber by weight.

    Here are 22 high fiber foods that are both healthy and enjoyable.

    Pear is a popular fruit that is both tasty and nutritious. It is one of the best fruit sources of fiber.

    Fiber content: 5.5 grams in medium-sized pears, or 3.1 grams per 100 grams (8).

    Strawberries are delicious and healthier than junk food.

    Interestingly, they are also some of the most nutritious fruits you can eat – rich in vitamin C, manganese, and various powerful antioxidants.

    Fiber content: 3 grams per cup or 2 grams per 100 grams. That’s a lot given their low calorie content (9Trusted).

    Avocados are different from most fruits. Instead of carbohydrates, it contains a lot of healthy fats.

    Avocados are very rich in vitamin C, potassium, magnesium, vitamin E and various B vitamins and have many health benefits.

    Fiber content: 10 grams per cup or 6.7 grams per 100 grams (10).

    Apples are one of the most delicious and delicious fruits you can eat. They are also relatively high in fiber.

    Fiber content: 4.4 grams per medium apple, or 2.4 grams per 100 grams (11).

    Raspberries are very nutritious and very strong in flavor. They are high in vitamin C and manganese.

    Fiber content: One cup contains 8 grams of fiber, or 6.5 grams per 100 grams (12).

    Bananas are a good source of many nutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin B6, and potassium.

    A green or unripe banana also contains significant amounts of resistant starch, a type of indigestible carbohydrate that acts like fiber.

    Fiber content: 3.1 grams in a medium-sized banana, or 2.6 grams per 100 grams (13).

    Other high-fiber fruits

    Blueberries (2.4%) and blackberries (5.3%).

    Carrots are a delicious, crunchy and highly nutritious root vegetable.

    It is rich in vitamin K, vitamin B6, magnesium and beta-carotene, an antioxidant that the body converts to vitamin A.

    Fiber content: 3.6 grams per cup or 2.8 grams per 100 grams. That’s a lot given their low calorie content (14).

    Beetroot or beetroot is a root vegetable that is high in various important nutrients such as folic acid, iron, copper, manganese and potassium.

    Beets are also rich in inorganic nitrates, which have been shown to have various benefits related to blood pressure regulation and exercise (15).

    Fiber content: 3.8 grams per cup or 2.8 grams per 100 grams (16).

    Broccoli is a cruciferous vegetable and one of the most nutritious foods on the planet.

    It is rich in vitamin C, vitamin K, folate, B vitamins, potassium, iron and manganese, and contains antioxidants and powerful cancer-fighting nutrients.

    Broccoli is also relatively high in protein compared to most vegetables.

    Fiber content: 2.4 grams per cup or 2.6 grams per 100 grams (17).

    The artichoke rarely makes the headlines. However, this vegetable is rich in many nutrients and is one of the best sources of fiber in the world.

    Fiber content: 10.3 grams per artichoke, or 8.6 grams per 100 grams (18).

    Brussels sprouts are a type of cruciferous vegetable related to broccoli.

    They are very high in vitamin K, potassium, folate and powerful antioxidants that fight cancer.

    Fiber content: 4 grams per cup or 2.6 grams per 100 grams (19).

    Other vegetables with a high fiber content

    Almost all vegetables contain significant amounts of fiber. Other notable examples include cabbage (3.6%), spinach (2.2%), and tomatoes (1.2%).

    Lentils are very cheap and one of the most nutritious foods on earth. They are very high in protein and many important nutrients.

    Fiber content: 90,029 15.6 grams per cup of cooked lentils, or 7.9 per 100 grams (20).

    Beans are a popular legume variety. Like other legumes, they are rich in plant protein and a variety of nutrients.

    Fiber content: 11.3 grams per cup of cooked beans, or 6.4 grams per 100 grams (21).

    Split peas are produced from dried, split and peeled pea seeds.

    Fiber content: 16.3 grams per cup of cooked split peas, or 8.3 grams per 100 grams (22).

    Chickpeas are another legume that is rich in nutrients, including minerals and protein.

    Fiber content: 12.5 grams per cup of cooked chickpeas, or 7.6 grams per 100 grams (23).

    Other legumes high in fiber

    Most legumes are high in protein, fiber and various nutrients. When properly prepared, they are some of the world’s cheapest sources of quality nutrition.

    Other high-fiber legumes include black beans (8.7%), edamame (5.2%), lima beans (5.3%), and baked beans (5.5%).

    Quinoa is a pseudo-cereal that has become incredibly popular with health conscious people over the past few years.

    It is rich in many nutrients, including protein, magnesium, iron, zinc, potassium and antioxidants to name just a few.

    Fiber content: 5.2 grams per cup cooked quinoa, or 2.8 grams per 100 grams (24).

    Oats are one of the healthiest grains on the planet. They are very rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.

    They contain a powerful soluble fiber called oat beta-glucan, which has a large beneficial effect on blood sugar and cholesterol levels (25, 26).

    Fiber content: 16.5 grams per cup of raw oats, or 10.6 grams per 100 grams (27).

    If your goal is to increase your fiber intake, popcorn may be the best snack you can eat.

    Popcorn is very rich in fiber, calories per calories. However, if you add a lot of fat, then the ratio of calories to fiber will drop significantly.

    Fiber content: 1.2 grams per cup of popcorn or 14.5 grams per 100 grams (28).

    Other high fiber grains

    Almost all whole grains are high in fiber.

    Almonds are a popular type of tree nut.

    They are very rich in many nutrients, including healthy fats, vitamin E, manganese and magnesium.

    Fiber content: 3.4 grams per ounce or 12.5 grams per 100 grams (29).

    Chia Seeds are tiny black seeds that are very popular in the natural community.

    They are very nutritious, high in magnesium, phosphorus and calcium.

    Chia seeds may be the single best source of fiber on the planet.

    Fiber content: 10.6 grams per ounce dried chia seeds, or 34.4 grams per 100 grams (30).

    Other high fiber nuts and seeds

    Most nuts and seeds contain significant amounts of fiber. Examples include coconuts (9%), pistachios (10%), walnuts (7%), sunflower seeds (8.6%), and pumpkin seeds (18.4%).

    Sweet potatoes are a popular tuber that is very satisfying and deliciously sweet.It is very high in beta-carotene, B vitamins and various minerals.

    Fiber content: Medium-sized boiled sweet potatoes (skinless) contain 3.8 grams of fiber, or 2.5 grams per 100 grams (31).

    Dark chocolate is perhaps one of the most delicious foods in the world.

    It is also surprisingly nutrient-dense and one of the most antioxidant and nutrient-rich foods on the planet.

    Just make sure to choose dark chocolate with a cocoa content of 70–95% or higher, and avoid products with added sugar.

    Fiber content: 3.1 grams per 1 ounce piece, or 10.9 grams per 100 grams (32).

    Fiber is an important nutrient that can promote weight loss, lower blood sugar and fight constipation.

    Most people do not meet the recommended daily intake of 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men.

    Try adding some of the foods above to your diet to easily increase your fiber intake.

    Food preparation: apples for the whole day

    .

    Health Benefits and Nutrition Information

    If you buy something from the link on this page, we may earn a small commission. How it works.

    Sweet potatoes are a staple food in many parts of the world. They are a good source of fiber, potassium, vitamins, and other essential nutrients.

    Some people use the terms sweet potato and yam interchangeably. However, they are not related. Yams are drier and more starchy than sweet potatoes.

    This article discusses the nutritional value and possible health benefits of sweet potatoes. He also gives some advice on how to include sweet potatoes in your diet, as well as some of the health risks.

    Sweet potatoes are good for your health. Here are some of the ways they can benefit human health:

    Improving insulin sensitivity in diabetes

    In one 2008 study, researchers found that white-skinned sweet potato extract improved insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes.

    Earlier in 2000, laboratory rats consumed either white-skinned sweet potatoes or an insulin sensitizer called troglitazone for 8 weeks. Insulin resistance levels improved in those who ate sweet potatoes.

    However, more human studies are needed to confirm these benefits.

    The fiber in sweet potatoes is also important. Studies have shown that people who consume more fiber have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

    A 124 grams (g) serving of mashed sweet potatoes, or about half a cup, will provide approximately 2 servings. 5 g fiber.

    American Diet Guide 2015–2020 recommends that adults 19 and older consume 22.4 to 33.6 grams of fiber daily, depending on age and gender.

    Find out about the best diabetes products here.

    Maintaining Healthy Blood Pressure

    The American Heart Association (AHA) encourages people to avoid foods high in added salt and instead consume more potassium-rich foods to support cardiovascular health.

    A 124 g serving of mashed sweet potatoes provides 259 milligrams (mg) of potassium, or about 5% of an adult’s daily requirement. Current guidelines recommend that adults consume 4,700 mg of potassium per day.

    Find more tips on blood pressure lowering products here.

    Reducing the risk of cancer

    Sweet potatoes are an excellent source of beta-carotene. It is a plant pigment that acts as a powerful antioxidant in the body.Beta-carotene is also a provitamin that the body converts to the active form of vitamin A.

    Antioxidants may help reduce the risk of various types of cancer, including prostate and lung cancer.

    Antioxidants such as beta-carotene can help prevent cell damage caused by unstable molecules called free radicals. If the level of free radicals in the body gets too high, cell damage can occur, increasing the risk of certain diseases.

    Obtaining antioxidants from food sources can help prevent conditions such as cancer.

    Can certain foods help prevent cancer? Find out here.

    Improving and Regular Digestion

    The fiber in sweet potatoes helps prevent constipation and helps maintain regularity in a healthy digestive tract.

    In addition, numerous studies have linked high fiber intake to a reduced risk of colorectal cancer.

    Why is dietary fiber important? Find out more here.

    Eye protection

    As mentioned above, sweet potatoes are a good source of pro-vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene. After 18 years of age Diet Guideline No. recommends an intake of 700 mg vitamin A per day for women and 900 mg per day for men. Vitamin A is essential for protecting eye health.

    According to the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), peeled baked sweet potatoes provide about 1,403 mcg of vitamin A, or 561% of a person’s daily value.

    Vitamin A also acts as an antioxidant. Together with other antioxidants, it can help protect the body against various diseases.

    Learn more about vitamin A.

    Boost immunity

    One serving of sweet potatoes (124 g) provides 12.8 mg of vitamin C. Current recommendations recommend a daily intake of 75 mg of vitamin C for adult women and 90 mg for adult men. …

    A person who has little or no vitamin C intake may develop scurvy.Many of the symptoms of scurvy are due to tissue problems due to impaired collagen production.

    Vitamin C also supports the immune system and enhances iron absorption. Low intake of vitamin C may increase the risk of iron deficiency anemia.

    Learn more about vitamin C and why we need it.

    Reducing inflammation

    A 2017 rodent study found that purple sweet potato extract could help reduce the risk of inflammation and obesity.

    Sweet potatoes contain choline, a nutrient that promotes muscle movement, learning and memory. It also supports the nervous system.

    A 2010 study found that taking high doses of choline can help reduce inflammation in people with asthma, but this does not necessarily mean that choline from sweet potatoes has the same effect.

    A 124 g serving of mashed sweet potatoes contains about 98.7 g of water.

    The table below shows the nutrients in sweet potatoes and the recommended daily intake for adults.The exact requirements will depend on age, gender, and activity level (calories).

    )

    micrograms …9

    69

    μg)

    Nutrients Serving 124 g Recommended Daily Intake for Adults
    Energy (calories) 108 1,600-163,000 2 46-56
    Fat (g) 3 360-1 050 g, depending on energy requirements
    Carbohydrates (g) 18.7, of which 6.77 g is sugar 130
    Fiber (g) 2.48 22.4–33.6
    Iron (mg) 0.7 8-18
    Calcium (mg) 50.8 1000-2000
    Magnesium (mg) 19.8 310-420
    Phosphorus (mg) 50 , 8 1000-1 200
    Potassium (mg) 259 4.700
    Sodium (mg) 306 2300
    μg 55
    Vitamin C (mg) 12.8 75–90
    Folate (μg) 7.44 400
    Choline (mg) 14 , 4 425– 550
    Vitamin A, RAE (μg) 823 700–900
    Beta-carotene (μg) 9.470 No data

    5.1 90-120
    Cholesterol (mg) 1.24 No data

    Sweet potatoes also contain B vitamins, calcium and other important vitamins and minerals.

    Eating the skins of sweet potatoes can increase its nutritional value. The skin color can range from white to yellow and purple to brown. However, whatever color it is, it will provide additional nutrients.

    When buying and preparing sweet potatoes, it is important to ensure that the potatoes are firm, with a smooth, taut skin.

    Also, always store in a cool, dry place for no longer than 3-5 weeks.

    Cooking tips

    Fry sweet potatoes for a natural flavor and eat them without filling. Sweet potatoes have a naturally sweet and creamy flavor.

    To roast them by the fire or on the grill, wrap them in aluminum foil and place them in the burning coals. Leave it on for about 50-60 minutes, until the fork goes into them easily.

    People who do not plan to eat the skins can put potatoes in the coals without wrapping them in foil.

    For a quick cook of sweet potatoes, pierce them with a fork, wrap them in a paper towel and microwave over high heat until tender.

    If a person wants to add topping, try:

    • sprinkle with cinnamon, cumin or curry powder
    • spoon low-fat cottage cheese or Greek yogurt
    • sprinkle with olive oil

    Other Ways To include sweet potatoes in your diet, add fried sweet potatoes and pecans in a salad and drizzle with balsamic vinegar and sweet potatoes in pancakes or potato pancakes.

    Sweet Potato Recipes

    Try these simple and healthy sweet potato recipes:

    Sweet potatoes contain potassium. High potassium intake may not be suitable for people taking beta blockers. Doctors usually prescribe them for heart conditions, as they can cause an increase in the level of potassium in the blood.

    People with kidney problems should also pay attention to the amount of potassium they consume. Excessive consumption can be harmful for people with kidney problems.For example, serious complications can occur if a person with impaired kidney function consumes more potassium than their kidneys can process.

    Another risk to be aware of is that some fruits and vegetables are susceptible to pesticide contamination. Every year the EPA classifies foods according to their likelihood of contamination. Sweet potatoes were ranked 31st in 2019.

    Buying organic produce or growing it at home is the best way to minimize your risk of contamination.

    You can buy sweet potatoes and sweet potato products on the Internet.

    Q:

    Are sweet potatoes fatter than white ones?

    A:

    Both sweet and white potatoes are nutrient-dense carbohydrates and do not gain weight when a person eats them as part of a complete diet.

    White potatoes are slightly higher in calories than sweet potatoes, but the difference is not significant. When it comes to choosing between sweet and white potatoes, people should choose whichever they like best.

    Like any other carbohydrate source, remember to control your portions if weight loss is a priority.

    Gillian Kubala, MS, RD Answers reflect the opinions of our medical experts. All content is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice.

    . 90,000 Determining fiber in the diet

    How much fiber does a person need? It all depends on age and gender. Men under the age of fifty are advised to consume 38 grams of fiber per day; for women of the same age, the norm is 25 grams per day (during pregnancy and lactation, the norm becomes slightly higher).If you’re in your fifties, you need 30 grams of fiber daily (for men) and 21 grams (for women).

    Need to boost your fiber?

    Although fiber is found in plant-based foods, you do not need to eat large amounts of whole grains, legumes, vegetables and fruits to satisfy your body’s needs. When deciding which foods to choose, do not get hung up on how much fiber they contain – it is enough to eat a variety of “gifts of nature” with each meal.

    All plant products contain heterogeneous fiber – soluble and insoluble, and both of these types are needed by the body. It’s all about the texture of the food. Insoluble fiber is abundant in whole grains from wheat, oats, corn bran, flaxseeds, and many vegetables (such as cauliflower, green beans, and potatoes), including the peels of fruits, root vegetables, and beans. Their tough texture is indicative of the presence of insoluble fiber in them.

    Dried beans and peas, oats, barley, flax seeds, many fruits and vegetables (such as apples, oranges and carrots) are rich in soluble fiber.When heat treated, their texture becomes soft. This is due to the dissolution of the fibers.

    The properties of the bran are also not the same, they depend on the type of grain. The bran of wheat, rice, corn, oats and other grains are rich in fiber of various types and differ in fiber content. Wheat bran, for example, has a higher fiber concentration than most other bran. Oat bran contains mostly soluble fiber.

    The fiber content in fruits and vegetables fluctuates, some of them have more fiber than other food sources.For example, there is only 1 gram of fiber in a bunch of fresh lettuce leaves, everything else is water. In contrast, half a serving of legumes contains 3 grams of fiber. Cooking foods can reduce their fiber content. Minimally processed foods are generally the best sources of fiber.

    In addition to foods containing fiber, there is fiber in tablets and powders. This form of fiber is good if you have constipation. Fiber-rich foods are always healthier because they contain other beneficial nutrients.Tablets and powders can inhibit the absorption of certain minerals and pose problems for people on a meager diet. If you consume fiber regularly, your body is used to “leaning” on it. Fiber-rich foods – whole grains, fruits, legumes, vegetables – provide additional dietary benefits: low in fat, especially saturated fat, and plenty of other nutrients. There is no such benefit from pills and powders with fiber.

    Aim to eat 4-5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily if your calorie intake is 2000 calories per day.If you need more calories, then you need to eat fruits and vegetables a little more than the specified norm. Half of the daily ration should be whole grains: 100 grams or more daily. Eat legumes more often (about 3 servings per week). With this approach, you will satisfy the body’s need for fiber in all its types.

    Add to the wall!

    All About Fiber – Nutrition Rules – Nutrition

    Dietary fiber (fiber) is part of plant cells that are resistant to the action of enzymes of the human digestive system.

    By its chemical composition, dietary fiber is a heterogeneous group of substances that are polysaccharides and lignin. The well-known cellulose, pectins and lesser known hemicellulose, gums, mucus belong to polysaccharides. The content of dietary fiber in food products varies widely from 45-55% (bran) to 0% in such food products as sugar, sour cream, premium flour. The role of fiber has been fully disclosed only in the last 10-15 years. An important role in this was played by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, after which the question arose about the use of affordable and effective mass prevention among the population living in areas contaminated with radionuclides.Fiber is not digested in the digestive tract, it reaches the large intestine unchanged, where it is partially broken down by the intestinal microflora.

    Why Dietary Fiber?

    The functions of fiber are quite diverse. Eating fiber makes our intestines contract evenly, and is also the prevention of many diseases. Carcinogens in the gut attach to fiber and move much faster than normal, which reduces the risk of bowel cancer.Fiber also promotes the elimination of cholesterol from the body, reducing the likelihood of heart disease.

    Fiber causes a feeling of fullness faster and remains in the stomach longer than other foods, as a result of which the feeling of hunger comes later. Due to its high fiber content, one serving of whole grain bread will be more nutritious than 2 servings of regular white bread. Also, fiber helps to accelerate the movement of fat in the digestive system, so it is less stored.

    Taking into account the rapid changes in the nature of nutrition in recent years, with the predominance of foods depleted in dietary fiber, the question of compensating for this deficiency is acute, as the basis for the prevention of many disorders and diseases. A diet enriched with dietary fiber is actively used as one of the components for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis, hemorrhoids, liver and gall bladder diseases, and dysbiosis. Currently, a whole series of products has been developed, mainly based on pectins, which contribute to the elimination of heavy metals, radioactive elements, toxins of various origins from the body.Deficiency of dietary fiber in the diet increases the risk of bowel cancer and dysbiosis. They are a necessary component of a normal diet and, in terms of their importance, are not inferior to other essential food components (proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and microelements).

    What is the daily fiber requirement?

    It is recommended to consume 15-25 grams of fiber per day. Today, most of our fiber comes from vegetables and fruits.

    Meat and dairy products are fiber-free.To increase your fiber intake, you need to eat more natural whole foods and, if possible, reduce your intake of processed foods. Examples of fiber-rich foods are:

    – Legumes (lentils, beans, peas)

    – Vegetables

    – Fruits

    – Brown rice

    – Whole grains (wheat, oats, barley, rye)

    What to Remember When Consuming Dietary Fiber?

    When using dietary fiber, it is necessary to increase the amount of fluid you drink, by an average of 0.5-1 liters, otherwise constipation may worsen.If you have diseases of chronic inflammatory diseases of the pancreas, intestines – the dose of dietary fiber should be increased gradually (over 10-14 days), so as not to cause an exacerbation of the disease.

    Dietary fiber, when used for a long time and in significant quantities (more than 35-40 g per day), can lead to the loss of excess amounts of vitamins (especially fat-soluble) and microelements. Therefore, prophylactic intake of multivitamin complexes with microelements is recommended.

    The most readily available source of dietary fiber is bran. They are characterized by a high content of B vitamins, mineral salts (potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, etc.), fiber. For example, wheat bran contains almost 2 times more potassium than potatoes. The only problem is low availability.

    Fiber in the diet of a bodybuilder

    Fiber in the diet of a bodybuilder

    The benefits of fiber have long been confirmed by all modern nutritionists.Everyone knows that without fiber, proper nutrition cannot be, but not everyone adheres to these simple rules. Fiber not only normalizes bowel function, but also helps burn fat. Now let’s take a closer look at the benefits of fiber for the bodybuilder.

    What is fiber and its types?

    Fiber is called the coarse, indigestible part of the plant product, which is part of many plant organisms. The cell walls of plants are usually made up of fiber.Fiber can dissolve and therefore will not dissolve. Soluble in contact with water can turn into jelly, which will have a beneficial effect on the development of beneficial bacteria in the body. The insoluble type of fiber does not change when it enters the body, but this fiber option is suitable for certain beneficial bacteria.

    Fiber is divided into different types. The first of these is hemicellulose, which is part of Brussels sprouts, cereals, beets and bran. Cellulose is found in foods such as cabbage, peas, green beans, cucumber peels, peppers, and apples.The above types of fiber can improve digestion, preventing constipation, colon cancer, hemorrhoids and varicose veins.

    Gum fiber is found in oats and barley. There is a lot of pectin in apples, citrus peel, in all varieties of cabbage, peas, potatoes, strawberries and strawberries.

    It is gums with pectin that, when exposed to water, become jelly, which prevents fat absorption and lowers blood cholesterol. Also, these components help empty the stomach, and slow down the absorption of glucose.

    Another type of fiber lignin can be found in cereals, eggplants, peas, etc. It promotes better absorption of other fibers and lowers cholesterol by speeding up the passage of food into the stomach.

    How to take?

    Every day you need to eat at least thirty grams of fiber. This moment depends on your lifestyle and age category. Men under 50 should take 38 grams of fiber per day, over 50-30 g. Women need 25 and 21 grams, respectively.Pregnant women should consume 25 grams of fiber from foods.

    Fiber in bodybuilding

    The diet of bodybuilders is essentially special, as it contains a lot of protein products, but they often neglect fiber. Athletes are probably afraid of gaining excess weight by consuming a lot of carbohydrates, but this will only happen if they overuse simple carbohydrates. Fiber is found exclusively in complex carbohydrates. What are the benefits of fiber for a bodybuilder?

    • First and foremost, fiber can seriously reduce the energy density of protein foods by helping to slowly and gradually absorb nutrients.
    • Fiber regulates blood sugar levels, which helps to store glycogen in muscles, enabling intense exercise.
    • Fiber affects the synthesis and homeostasis of a number of hormones, enterokines.
    • Fiber regulates the digestive tract.
    • Dietary fiber is an excellent sorbent.
    • Eating fiber reduces estrogen and increases testosterone.

    As a result, we can add that fiber is an irreplaceable product in the human diet.