About all

Genetic dandruff: What Causes Dandruff?

Содержание

Dandruff/seborrhoeic dermatitis is characterized by an inflammatory genomic signature and possible immune dysfunction: transcriptional analysis of the condition and treatment effects of zinc pyrithione


Background:

Dandruff/seborrhoeic dermatitis is a common scalp condition that is characterized by flakes, pruritus and sometimes mild erythema. These symptoms reflect tissue level events that are poorly understood at the molecular level.


Objectives:

The purpose of this work was: (i) to compare gene expression profiles in subjects with dandruff vs. those of subjects without dandruff to determine the key physiological disruptions manifest in the condition; and (ii) to determine the effect on this profile of treatment with a shampoo containing potentiated zinc pyrithione (ZPT).


Methods:

In study 1, scalp biopsies were taken from 16 normal subjects and from involved and uninvolved sites in 15 subjects with dandruff. In study 2, 30 subjects with dandruff were treated for 3 weeks with a commercial ZPT shampoo (n = 15) or a vehicle (n = 15), and scalp lesional biopsies were collected at baseline and end of study for transcriptomic analysis. RNA was extracted from all biopsies and Affymetrix gene chips were used to analyse transcriptomic profiles, followed by bioinformatic analysis.


Results:

Analysis of study 1 biopsies revealed more than 7000 individual probes differentially regulated in dandruff lesional skin relative to normal. Enriched Gene Ontology categories included: lipid metabolism, immune response, response to stimulus, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and epidermal development. The most striking feature of lesional skin relative to normal was the reciprocal expression of induced inflammatory genes and repressed lipid metabolism genes. Induced inflammatory genes were also enriched in dandruff uninvolved skin, suggesting the existence of predisposing factors associated with inflammation. Many genes increased in lesional skin were increased at the level of protein in stratum corneum samples (e.g. IL-1RA, S100A8, S100A9, S100A11, IL-8). Under conditions known to improve overall scalp condition, the ZPT shampoo treatment in study 2 produced a transcriptomic profile resembling that of normal scalp skin.


Conclusions:

These data provide novel insights into the nature of dandruff and the therapeutic action of potentiated ZPT-containing shampoo, and provide a basis to explore many new mechanistic questions related to these topics.

Dandruff’s genes sequenced | Reuters

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – First, researchers grew enough fungus to give dandruff to 10 million people. Next, they sequenced its genes. Then they found out that not only does an icky fungus live on your head and cause dandruff– but it could be having sex. On your head. Right now.

A man stands in front of a landscape by Vincent van Gogh to be sold in Sotheby’s upcoming fall sale of Contemporary Art in New York November 2, 2007. A team at Procter & Gamble Beauty said on Tuesday they had sequenced the genome of Malassezia globosa, a fungus that grows on the skin of between 50 percent and 90 percent of the population. It causes dandruff and a range of other skin conditions. REUTERS/Lucas Jackson

A team at Procter & Gamble Beauty said on Tuesday they had sequenced the genome of Malassezia globosa, a fungus that grows on the skin of between 50 percent and 90 percent of the population. It causes dandruff and a range of other skin conditions.

Writing in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers said their study can shed light on ways to fight not only dandruff, but an infection that can threaten the lives of newborns.

“A complete genomic sequencing of a Malassezia genome opens tremendous opportunities for researchers to understand the interactions of fungi and humans,” said Thomas Dawson, a scientist at P&G Beauty who led the study.

“It’s amazing that the understanding of the genetic make-up of a microscopic organism can have broad implications ranging from human health to agricultural science.”

The team at P&G Beauty, a subsidiary of the company that makes household products ranging from toilet tissue to shampoo, said M. globosa is capable of excreting more than 50 different enzymes that help digest and break down compounds in the hair and scalp.

“The M. globosa genome sequence also revealed the presence of mating-type genes, providing an indication that Malassezia may be capable of sex,” they wrote in their report.

Other fungi can reproduce sexually, but this particular type had not been known to, Dawson’s team said. This means it could find a way to evade dandruff shampoo.

They said dandruff can affect up to 90 percent of people, and that it has been known for more than 100 years that Malassezia can cause dandruff and eczema.

Malassezia fungi also cause systemic infections in newborns, and is related to some fungi that affect plants such as corn.

The fungus joins organisms ranging from yeast to rice to human beings that have had their genomes sequenced.

Dawson’s team said they grew 10 liters (quarts) of the fungus, “equal to the amount of fungus that would be found on the heads of 10 million people,” the company said.

Unlocking the Dandruff Gene: Scientists ID Fungus – Wellness

Scientists at P&G Beauty have studied the nature of dandruff for years, and recently brought their investigation right down to the molecular level in sequencing the genome of the fungus that causes the flakes. Their goal: stop dandruff before it starts.

Researchers have discovered how dandruff works. A fungus (Malassezia globosa), feeding on scalp oils, leaves a deposit on the scalp surface that irritates the scalp. But why does more than half the population suffer from the condition? Thomas Dawson, principal scientist at P&G Beauty, talked about some of the group’s latest findings.

Q. What is the scientific definition of dandruff?

A. Dandruff is an irritating condition that causes itching, tightness and excessive skin flaking of the scalp. Dandruff is caused by a combination of factors triggered by the presence of a common fungus called Malassezia, a naturally occurring microscopic fungus that’s part of the normal human scalp flora. Everyone has Malassezia on his or her scalp, but not everyone is irritated by it. Research by P&G Beauty has pinpointed the exact species, Malassezia globosa.          

Q. How does this fungus cause dandruff?

A. To have dandruff, three factors must be present: sebum, the Malassezia fungus and a personal predisposition to irritation. The fungus feeds on the scalp’s natural oils and creates by-products and acids that irritate the scalp. Your immune system reacts to the irritation by accelerating the amount and rate of flaking of dead skin cells.

Q. What’s the best way to get rid of dandruff?

A. The most effective treatments are shampoos with antifungal ingredients. You can’t stop your head from creating sebum, and it’s difficult to change your immune system, but shampoos with ingredients like pyrithione zinc can go right to the source of the irritation—the fungus.

Q. What are the implications of the genome study for dandruff treatment in the future?

A. [We have] a fully stocked library of genetic information where there was none before. Instead of one target—the fungus in general—there are now more than 4,000 genetic doors opened as possible treatment routes that can be selectively targeted to stop the fungus from working.

Instead of eliminating the fungus from the scalp to treat dandruff, it may be possible to restore a more natural balance.

While the sequencing of the genome is revealing possibilities for further advancement in the way we care for dandruff, it is still recommended that clients use an anti-dandruff shampoo every time they cleanse. Clinical studies have shown that only 26 percent of dandruff sufferers maintain this regimen, yet the same studies prove that consistent use of a good anti-dandruff shampoo can effectively treat the condition in more than 90-percent of people who have flakes and itch.

For more information on the sequencing of the M. globosa genome or about P&G Beauty, visit www.pgbeautyscience.com.

For reprint and licensing requests for this article, Click here.

4 Bad Habits That Are Giving You Dandruff

We can blame genetics for many things—a receding hairline, a crooked nose, crippling anxiety—but dandruff is not one of them. So what causes dandruff? The truth is that you do. Those flaky, embarrassing white flecks are caused by your grooming habits, not some predisposed genetic order (sorry, you can’t blame mom and dad for this particular problem). Which is actually good news, because it means dandruff is entirely preventable and treatable.

Here are a few habits you should avoid, if you want to keep your scalp and hair follicles healthy.

1. Shampooing Too Much, or Not Enough

Shampoo should not be used daily. Accept this fact, and you’ll solve many of your hair care and scalp problems. Shampoo’s function is to remove excess oil, grime, and product buildup. A simple rinse will remove most of these things, and the excess buildup should be washed away with shampoo every second or third day. Otherwise, you dry out the hair and the scalp by stripping away the oils that keep everything nourished and strong. At this point, your skin flakes and your hair wilts. No good.

However, if you don’t shampoo enough, all that grime and hair product will choke out the healthy skin cells and hair follicles. Next thing you know, you’ve got flaky skin and greasy hair. Also not good. It’s a delicate balance, this shampoo game.

2. Not Using Conditioner

A proactive shampoo, used twice a week, is one ongoing way to prevent and treat dandruff (find one with selenium sulfide or zinc pyrithione). One other solution is to condition your hair daily, regardless of how often you shampoo—and always after you shampoo. Conditioner adds vitamins and nutrients back to the hair and scalp, and prevents over-drying. It’s like a moisturizer for your scalp and hair, so stock up.

3. Skipping SPF

A lot of people forget that the skin on their scalp should be treated exactly like the skin on the rest of your body: It burns in the sun and peels easily, aggravating any preexisting dandruff conditions. If your hair is short, then you can apply sunscreen (or an SPF-packed moisturizer) directly onto your scalp without affect on your hair’s sheen. However, if you’ve got medium or long hair, sunscreen will make it greasy. Instead, pick up Sachajuan’s Hair in the Sun, which protects the scalp and hair from UV damage (while also acting as a light styling cream). Apply it after a shower for day-long coverage.

4. Ignoring Obvious Symptoms

If your dandruff is persistent, it might be the sign of a bigger problem, like a fungal infection or seborrheic dermatitis (a scaly, itchy skin condition). Don’t let these things persist; if the aforementioned shampoo treatments aren’t solving the problem, you should see a dermatologist immediately to get a high-grade prescription remedy.

Watch Now: The 17 Mightiest Hair Gods Who’ve Ever Lived

Understanding the Mechanism of Action of the Anti-Dandruff Agent Zinc Pyrithione against Malassezia restricta

  • 1.

    Turner, G. A., Hoptroff, M. & Harding, C. R. Stratum corneum dysfunction in dandruff. Int J Cosmet Sci 34, 298–306, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2494.2012.00723.x (2012).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 2.

    DeAngelis, Y. M. et al. Three etiologic facets of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis: Malassezia fungi, sebaceous lipids, and individual sensitivity. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 10, 295–297, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1087-0024.2005.10119.x (2005).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • 3.

    Peter, R. U. & Richarz-Barthauer, U. Successful treatment and prophylaxis of scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis and dandruff with 2% ketoconazole shampoo: results of a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol 132, 441–445 (1995).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 4.

    Danby, F. W., Maddin, W. S., Margesson, L. J. & Rosenthal, D. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ketoconazole 2% shampoo versus selenium sulfide 2.5% shampoo in the treatment of moderate to severe dandruff. J Am Acad Dermatol 29, 1008–1012 (1993).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 5.

    Pierard, G. E., Arrese, J. E. & Pierard-Franchimont, C. & P, D. E. D. Prolonged effects of antidandruff shampoos – time to recurrence of Malassezia ovalis colonization of skin. Int J Cosmet Sci 19, 111–117, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-2494.1997.171706.x (1997).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 6.

    Findley, K. et al. Topographic diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in human skin. Nature 498, 367–370, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12171 (2013).

    ADS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 7.

    Xu, Z. et al. Dandruff is associated with the conjoined interactions between host and microorganisms. Scientific reports 6 (2016).

  • 8.

    Clavaud, C. et al. Dandruff is associated with disequilibrium in the proportion of the major bacterial and fungal populations colonizing the scalp. PLoS One 8, e58203, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058203 (2013).

    ADS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 9.

    Honnavar, P. et al. Malassezia arunalokei sp. nov., a Novel Yeast Species Isolated from Seborrheic Dermatitis Patients and Healthy Individuals from India. J Clin Microbiol 54, 1826–1834, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00683-16 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 10.

    Cabanes, F. J., Coutinho, S. D., Puig, L., Bragulat, M. R. & Castella, G. New lipid-dependent Malassezia species from parrots. Rev Iberoam Micol 33, 92–99, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riam.2016.03.003 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • 11.

    Wang, L. L. et al. Characterization of the major bacterial-fungal populations colonizing dandruff scalps in Shanghai, China, shows microbial disequilibrium. Exp Dermatol 24, 398–400, https://doi.org/10.1111/exd.12684 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • 12.

    Park, T. et al. Collapse of human scalp microbiome network in dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. Exp Dermatol 26, 835–838, https://doi.org/10.1111/exd.13293 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • 13.

    Ro, B. I. & Dawson, T. L. The role of sebaceous gland activity and scalp microfloral metabolism in the etiology of seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 10, 194–197, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1087-0024.2005.10104.x (2005).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 14.

    White, E. C. Bactericidal Filtrates from a Mold Culture. Science 92, 127, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.92.2380.127 (1940).

    ADS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 15.

    White, E. C. & Hill, J. H. Studies on Antibacterial Products Formed by Molds: I. Aspergillic Acid, a Product of a Strain of Aspergillus Flavus. J Bacteriol 45, 433–443 (1943).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 16.

    Dutcher, J. D. & Wintersteiner, O. The Structure of Aspergillic Acid. Journal of Biological Chemistry 155, 359–360 (1944).

    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 17.

    Pansy, F. E., Stander, H., Koerber, W. L. & Donovick, R. In vitro studies with 1-hydroxy-2(1H) pyridinethione. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 82, 122–124 (1953).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 18.

    Schwartz, J. R., C. W. Cardin, & T. L. Dawson. In Textbook of cosmetic dermatology (ed R. Baran and H. I. Maibach) Ch. 12, 259–272 (Martin Dunitz, Ltd., 2004).

  • 19.

    Roques, C., Brousse, S. & Panizzutti, C. In vitro antifungal efficacy of ciclopirox olamine alone and associated with zinc pyrithione compared to ketoconazole against Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta reference strains. Mycopathologia 162, 395–400, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-006-0075-0 (2006).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 20.

    Turner, G. A. et al. Enhanced efficacy and sensory properties of an anti-dandruff shampoo containing zinc pyrithione and climbazole. Int J Cosmet Sci 35, 78–83, https://doi.org/10.1111/ics.12007 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 21.

    Ermolayeva, E. & Sanders, D. Mechanism of pyrithione-induced membrane depolarization in Neurospora crassa. Appl Environ Microbiol 61, 3385–3390 (1995).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 22.

    Albert, A., Rees, C. W. & Tomlinson, A. J. The influence of chemical constitution on antibacterial activity. VIII. 2-Mercaptopyridine-N-oxide, and some general observations on metalbinding agents. Br J Exp Pathol 37, 500–511 (1956).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 23.

    Khattar, M. M., Salt, W. G. & Stretton, R. J. The influence of pyrithione on the growth of micro-organisms. J Appl Bacteriol 64, 265–272 (1988).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 24.

    Yasokawa, D. et al. DNA microarray analysis suggests that zinc pyrithione causes iron starvation to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biosci Bioeng 109, 479–486, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.10.025 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 25.

    Reeder, N. L. et al. Zinc pyrithione inhibits yeast growth through copper influx and inactivation of iron-sulfur proteins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55, 5753–5760, https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00724-11 (2011).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 26.

    Park, M., Cho, Y. J., Lee, Y. W. & Jung, W. H. Whole genome sequencing analysis of the cutaneous pathogenic yeast Malassezia restricta and identification of the major lipase expressed on the scalp of patients with dandruff. Mycoses 60, 188–197, https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12586 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 27.

    DeAngelis, Y. M. et al. Isolation and expression of a Malassezia globosa lipase gene, LIP1. J Invest Dermatol 127, 2138–2146, https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jid.5700844 (2007).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 28.

    Galiazzo, F. & Labbe-Bois, R. Regulation of Cu, Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett 315, 197–200 (1993).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 29.

    Muhlenhoff, U. et al. Compartmentalization of iron between mitochondria and the cytosol and its regulation. Eur J Cell Biol 94, 292–308, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcb.2015.05.003 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 30.

    Dancis, A. et al. Molecular characterization of a copper transport protein in S. cerevisiae: an unexpected role for copper in iron transport. Cell 76, 393–402 (1994).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 31.

    Knight, S. A., Labbe, S., Kwon, L. F., Kosman, D. J. & Thiele, D. J. A widespread transposable element masks expression of a yeast copper transport gene. Genes Dev 10, 1917–1929 (1996).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 32.

    Ding, C. et al. The copper regulon of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans H99. Mol Microbiol 81, 1560–1576, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07794.x (2011).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 33.

    Waterman, S. R. et al. Role of a CUF1/CTR4 copper regulatory axis in the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Clin Invest 117, 794–802, https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI30006 (2007).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 34.

    Portnoy, M. E., Schmidt, P. J., Rogers, R. S. & Culotta, V. C. Metal transporters that contribute copper to metallochaperones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Genet Genomics 265, 873–882 (2001).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 35.

    MacDiarmid, C. W., Gaither, L. A. & Eide, D. Zinc transporters that regulate vacuolar zinc storage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J 19, 2845–2855, https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/19.12.2845 (2000).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 36.

    Lee, Y. W., Lee, S. Y., Lee, Y. & Jung, W. H. Evaluation of Expression of Lipases and Phospholipases of Malassezia restricta in Patients with Seborrheic Dermatitis. Ann Dermatol 25, 310–314, https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2013.25.3.310 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 37.

    Gazaryan, I. G. et al. Zinc is a potent inhibitor of thiol oxidoreductase activity and stimulates reactive oxygen species production by lipoamide dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem 277, 10064–10072, https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M108264200 (2002).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 38.

    Dineley, K. E., Votyakova, T. V. & Reynolds, I. J. Zinc inhibition of cellular energy production: implications for mitochondria and neurodegeneration. J Neurochem 85, 563–570 (2003).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 39.

    Lemire, J., Mailloux, R. & Appanna, V. D. Zinc toxicity alters mitochondrial metabolism and leads to decreased ATP production in hepatocytes. J Appl Toxicol 28, 175–182, https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.1263 (2008).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 40.

    Foury, F. & Talibi, D. Mitochondrial control of iron homeostasis. A genome wide analysis of gene expression in a yeast frataxin-deficient strain. J Biol Chem 276, 7762–7768, https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M005804200 (2001).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 41.

    Kumanovics, A. et al. Identification of FRA1 and FRA2 as genes involved in regulating the yeast iron regulon in response to decreased mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster synthesis. J Biol Chem 283, 10276–10286, https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M801160200 (2008).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 42.

    Chen, O. S. et al. Transcription of the yeast iron regulon does not respond directly to iron but rather to iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. J Biol Chem 279, 29513–29518, https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M403209200 (2004).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 43.

    Hissen, A. H., Wan, A. N., Warwas, M. L. , Pinto, L. J. & Moore, M. M. The Aspergillus fumigatus siderophore biosynthetic gene sidA, encoding L-ornithine N5-oxygenase, is required for virulence. Infect Immun 73, 5493–5503, https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.73.9.5493-5503.2005 (2005).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 44.

    Longo, V. D., Liou, L. L., Valentine, J. S. & Gralla, E. B. Mitochondrial superoxide decreases yeast survival in stationary phase. Arch Biochem Biophys 365, 131–142, https://doi.org/10.1006/abbi.1999.1158 (1999).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 45.

    van Loon, A. P., Pesold-Hurt, B. & Schatz, G. A yeast mutant lacking mitochondrial manganese-superoxide dismutase is hypersensitive to oxygen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 3820–3824 (1986).

    ADS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • 46.

    Celotto, A. M., Liu, Z., Vandemark, A. P. & Palladino, M. J. A novel Drosophila SOD2 mutant demonstrates a role for mitochondrial ROS in neurodevelopment and disease. Brain Behav 2, 424–434, https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.73 (2012).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • 47.

    Yasmin, S. et al. The interplay between iron and zinc metabolism in Aspergillus fumigatus. Fungal Genet Biol 46, 707–713, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2009.05.003 (2009).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 48.

    Gioti, A. et al. Genomic insights into the atopic eczema-associated skin commensal yeast Malassezia sympodialis. MBio 4, e00572–00512, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00572-12 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 49.

    Wu, G. et al. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin. PLoS Genet 11, e1005614, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005614 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 50.

    Xu, J. et al. Dandruff-associated Malassezia genomes reveal convergent and divergent virulence traits shared with plant and human fungal pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104, 18730–18735, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0706756104 (2007).

    ADS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • 51.

    Mao-Qiang, M., Elias, P. M. & Feingold, K. R. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function. J Clin Invest 92, 791–798, https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI116652 (1993).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 52.

    Katsuta, Y., Iida, T., Inomata, S. & Denda, M. Unsaturated fatty acids induce calcium influx into keratinocytes and cause abnormal differentiation of epidermis. J Invest Dermatol 124, 1008–1013, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-202X.2005.23682.x (2005).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 53.

    Park, M., Jung, W. H., Han, S. H., Lee, Y. H. & Lee, Y. W. Characterisation and Expression Analysis of MrLip1, a Class 3 Family Lipase of Malassezia restricta. Mycoses 58, 671–678, https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12412 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 54.

    Guillot, J. & Gueho, E. The diversity of Malassezia yeasts confirmed by rRNA sequence and nuclear DNA comparisons. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 67, 297–314 (1995).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 55.

    Leeming, J. P. & Notman, F. H. Improved methods for isolation and enumeration of Malassezia furfur from human skin. J Clin Microbiol 25, 2017–2019 (1987).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 56.

    Thomas, B. J. & Rothstein, R. Elevated recombination rates in transcriptionally active DNA. Cell 56, 619–630 (1989).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 57.

    Sugita, T. et al. Antifungal activities of tacrolimus and azole agents against the eleven currently accepted Malassezia species. J Clin Microbiol 43, 2824–2829, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.43.6.2824-2829.2005 (2005).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 58.

    Langmead, B. & Salzberg, S. L. Fast gapped-read alignment with Bowtie 2. Nat Methods 9, 357–359, https://doi. org/10.1038/nmeth.1923 (2012).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 59.

    Liao, Y., Smyth, G. K. & Shi, W. The Subread aligner: fast, accurate and scalable read mapping by seed-and-vote. Nucleic Acids Res 41, e108, https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt214 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 60.

    Robinson, M. D., McCarthy, D. J. & Smyth, G. K. edgeR: a Bioconductor package for differential expression analysis of digital gene expression data. Bioinformatics 26, 139–140, https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btp616 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 61.

    Shi, Y., Ghosh, M. C., Tong, W. H. & Rouault, T. A. Human ISD11 is essential for both iron-sulfur cluster assembly and maintenance of normal cellular iron homeostasis. Hum Mol Genet 18, 3014–3025, https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddp239 (2009).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • 62.

    Djordjevic, J. T., Del Poeta, M., Sorrell, T. C., Turner, K. M. & Wright, L. C. Secretion of cryptococcal phospholipase B1 (PLB1) is regulated by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Biochem J 389, 803–812, https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20050063 (2005).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Dry Scalp and Dandruff: What’s Causing Those Flakes? – Skin and Beauty Center

    Common Dandruff Causes — and Treatments That Work

    Dry scalp. Dry skin on the scalp can cause scaly flakes. Dandruff due to a dry scalp can be treated with inexpensive, medicated dandruff shampoos sold in drugstores. Look for products that contain pyrithione zinc, salicylic acid, tar, selenium sulfide, or ketoconazole. Use dandruff shampoo a few times a week to keep flakes away.

    A gentle scalp massage and a good rinse can also help to prevent dandruff. Remember that your scalp can be sensitive to drying hair products, so take care with your hair and watch what you put on it.

    Seborrheic dermatitis. A greasy, oily scalp is a result of increased production of sebum or oil from sebaceous glands around the hair follicles. An oily scalp can lead to other dandruff-producing conditions, notably seborrheic dermatitis, the name for eczema that affects the scalp. This skin problem results from inflammation of the oily areas, causing scaly, yellowish patches to form on the scalp and then flake off. Seborrheic dermatitis can be due to stress, oily skin, and certain medical conditions. Seasonal changes and a family history can also play a role.

    To help prevent seborrheic dermatitis outbreaks, keep skin, scalp, and hair clean with frequent shampooing. Medicated dandruff shampoos can help treat the condition. Sulfur, selenium, zinc, or coal tar-based treatments are designed for serious cases.

    Scalp psoriasis. This inflammatory skin condition gives the scalp a silvery, powdery appearance. Scalp psoriasis often causes thick scales and large, white flakes, and may cause itching. Psoriasis occurs for unknown reasons, but is thought to be an autoimmune condition. Although you can’t prevent or cure psoriasis, various medical treatments, like coal tar, light therapy, and topical corticosteroid use can help manage psoriasis symptoms.

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. You can have an allergic or irritant reaction to a shampoo, styling gel, or other hair product. Using a product with an ingredient you’re allergic to or one that simply irritates the scalp can result in inflammation and dry, flaky skin. Discontinuing the product that causes a reaction may be all it takes to stop the reaction and the dandruff flakes.

    Get a Dandruff Diagnosis

    How do you know for sure what condition is causing your dandruff? Only a dermatologist can uncover the real cause and prescribe the best course of action. This is especially important when a medical condition like eczema or psoriasis is to blame. If drugstore dandruff shampoos and conditioners aren’t helping, get a firm diagnosis and advice on treatment from a specialist — and say goodbye to your flakes.

    How to Get Rid of Dandruff According to Doctors in 2021

    As much as I try to ~accept my body~ for what it is, there’s one thing I just can’t get on board with: the massive amount of dandruff that sits on my scalp 24/7. And I’m not the only one dealing with it either, since a whopping 50 million Americans have dandruff (it’s nuts, I know).

    Unfortunately, dandruff can mean much more than a few pesky white flakes on your scalp—sometimes it can lead to itchy, red patches that scab and even bleed. But no matter how much you’re suffering, you’ve still got options. That’s why I spoke with hair expert David Kingsley, PhD, who has specialized in hair and scalp problems for more than 35 years, to figure out the easiest ways to get rid of dandruff for good (or, like, at the very least, lessen the symptoms).

    This content is imported from {embed-name}. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site.

    What exactly is dandruff?

    Imaxtree

    Dandruff is caused by a yeast on your scalp called malassezia, and while it kiiinda sounds gross, it’s actually on all scalps (with and without dandruff). Not everyone’s scalp responds to malassezia the same though, which is why some people have dandruff and others don’t. The biggest misconception surrounding dandruff is that it’s caused by dryness (aka dry scalp, another common condition that looks—and sometimes feels—pretty similar to dandruff). People think dandruff is triggered by dry skin, but it’s actually due to excess oil on your scalp,” says Kingsley. In general, the more oily your scalp is, the more your malassezia yeast multiplies, which can eventually cause dandruff.

    Can dandruff run in the family?

    Yes and no. While there is a genetic link to dandruff, Kingsley says it’s not definitive—you can very easily be the only person in your family who has dandruff. That’s because there’s a variety of internal factors that can cause dandruff and/or make it worse (like your menstrual cycle and stress) as well as external factors (like cold, dry weather, and infrequent cleansing). Even the foods you eat (like chocolate or cheese, says Kingsley) can trigger dandruff if you’re already prone to it.

    How do I get rid of dandruff fast?

    Imaxtree

    ⇝ 1. FIGURE OUT WHAT IT IS

    Before you can effectively treat what’s happening on your scalp, you need to know what you’re dealing with. And to make it all the more confusing, there are technically three types of dandruff:

    » Psoriasis (large, itchy, red scales that are usually also seen on your elbows, knees, and other areas of your body). If you think you have psoriasis, make sure you head to your doctor for an evaluation—psoriasis won’t respond to regular dandruff shampoos or treatments, so you’ll need to chat with a derm who can prescribe medications that can help.

    » Dry scalp (little white flakes that easily come off your hair and scalp without sticking). Dry-scalp flakes are usually quite small and noticeably dry,” says trichologist Dominic Burg, chief scientist at Evolis Professional. If you’re dealing with dry scalp, try using a scalp-oil treatment for a few weeks before you shower, followed by a soothing scalp serum. If your dandruff only gets significantly worse or shows zero signs of improvement, you’re likely dealing with…

    » Seborrheic dermatitis (yellowish sticky flakes that are often—but not always—seen with a red, oily scalp. This type is considered the classic type of dandruff and is affected by your scalp’s yeast production). “Dandruff can often appear oily, and it sheds as larger flakes that are usually clumped together,” says Burg. To get rid of your dandruff, try using an anti-dandruff shampoo every time you wash your hair—then as your symptoms lessen, swap it out for your regular shampoo once or twice a week.

    The dandruff-fighting formula you use is super important here, since not all ingredients will work the same. Consider zinc pyrithione and ketoconazole the two holy-grail ingredients for dandruff treatments, both of which work to kill the extra yeast and fungus on your scalp (and the cute little flakes that come with it). For a lighter approach (or when your symptoms have calmed down), try a shampoo with salicylic acid, which gently exfoliates your scalp and soothes any redness or irritation. A few of my favorite options, below:

    Neutrogena T/Gel Therapeutic Shampoo Extra Strength

    Leonor Greyl Gentle Anti-Dandruff Shampoo

    Head & Shoulders Instant Oil Control Daily Shampoo

    amazon.com

    Phyto Phytheol Anti-Dandruff Purifying Shampoo

    Just know that not all products will work the same for everyone—but try sticking to one formula for at least 28 days (aka a full skin cycle) to see if it’s a good fit before you nix it. If the shampoo you’re using is working, Kinglsey says you’ll likely start to see results within a couple weeks.

    ⇝ 2. LOCATE THE CAUSE

    If you’re experiencing dandruff for the first time, Kingsley suggests locating a cause. Keep track of what you’re eating, note any stressful events, and be aware of big changes in your environment. “Look at those possible triggers first, and if there’s something obvious that sticks out, work on it,” he says. Keep in mind, though, that even if you figure out what’s causing or making your dandruff worse, there’s no guarantee your fix will be permanent. “Once you get dandruff, it doesn’t necessarily mean it’s going to go away immediately or never come back,” says Kingsley.

    This content is imported from {embed-name}. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site.

    ⇝ 3. TRY A SCALP SCRUB

    It’s no secret that product buildup does not get along with dandruff (double the white flakes? uh, no, thank you). Try using a scalp scrub once a week to combat leftover product (think: dry shampoo, hair spray, the works) and excess oil. Remember that scalp scrubs should be used super gently—massage the formula with your fingertips (not your nails) and rinse it out entirely before you shampoo and condition.

    DpHue Apple Cider Vinegar Scalp Scrub Treatment

    Christophe Robin Cleansing Purifying Scrub with Sea Salt

    Kristin Ess Instant Exfoliating Scalp Scrub

    Briogeo Scalp Revival Charcoal + Coconut Oil Micro-Exfoliating Shampoo

    ⇝ 4. ASK A DOCTOR ABOUT STEROID CREAMS

    Not noticing a difference in your dandruff after 30 days? First, don’t be discouraged, because finding the right cocktail to zap your dandruff is hard. Second, you’ve still got options—and some good ones. Find a dermatologist or doctor who can assess your dandruff and walk you through next steps. You’ll likely be given a topical steroid—like a cream or lotion—that can help soothe any irritation or redness on your scalp or a salicylic acid treatment to exfoliate your scalp and cancel out excess buildup.

    Final Thoughts

    I get it: Dandruff is an actual b*tch, but treating it doesn’t have to be. Before you start on your dandruff-fighting journey, it’s important to remember that there might not be a permanent fix—some people (and scalps) are just prone to it. “You can get rid of it and it may never come back, but the odds are that you might experience dandruff again at some point in time,” says Kingsley. As long as you’re keeping up with your anti-dandruff shampoo and scalp scrub, you should definitely notice a little—if not a lot of—relief.

    Ruby Buddemeyer
    Ruby was the beauty editor at Cosmopolitan, where she covered beauty across print and digital.

    Lauren Adhav
    Associate Fashion Editor
    I’m Cosmopolitan’s Associate Fashion Editor and write about any and all trends, major celeb fashion moments, and why wide-leg jeans are basically the best.

    This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

    Seborrhea and dandruff

    SEBOREA.

    In translation seborrhea is “sebum outflow”. Sebum is a sebaceous secretion that is produced by the sebaceous glands. The amount and quality of sebum depends on genetic predisposition, the state of the endocrine and immune systems, lifestyle (nutrition, stress, etc.), care of the scalp.

    With seborrhea, we observe both an increase in the amount of sebum and changes in the composition of the sebaceous secretion.With changes in the composition, sebum reduces its protective properties and against this background the possibility of reproduction of microorganisms and the development of an inflammatory reaction increases ( seborrheic dermatitis ).

    By itself, seborrhea is not a disease if it is not directly related to other pathological conditions (only a doctor can find out).

    But whatever the cause, seborrhea requires careful scalp care. When selecting hair and scalp care products , one should pay attention to the composition of these products.The shampoo should rinse the scalp well, while not being aggressive towards the skin, not disturbing the hydrolipid balance, and not overdrying. Masks and lotions should contain components with bactericidal, moisturizing, emollient, anti-inflammatory properties. What specific components should be used in each case, it is better to consult a doctor. In parallel with the use of external agents, it is imperative to exclude possible diseases that can lead to disruption of the activity of the sebaceous glands.

    SILVER DERMATITIS.

    Dermatitis in translation is “skin inflammation”, a frequent companion of seborrhea. Inflammation is manifested by redness, itching, soreness on the part of the skin. Microorganisms are present on the skin of all people; this is a normal microflora. Sebum, produced by the sebaceous glands, is used by microorganisms for reproduction and in the process of splitting sebum, substances are formed that can cause inflammatory reactions of the skin.

    The severity and frequency of seborrheic dermatitis depends on the quantity and quality of sebum, on the number of microorganisms on the skin, individual skin sensitivity, the state of the immune system, and on how well the hair care products are selected.

    Speaking of hair products – there are a lot of them on our market, it is better to choose the right combination together with a trichologist. The jar may say that this is the best remedy for seborrhea, but in fact it will contain 1-2 active ingredients.It is better if there are several active ingredients for the treatment of seboea dermatitis and dandruff and in the right combination. Shampoo in the case of seborrheic dermatitis plays an important role, sometimes being the only drug for treatment, the effectiveness of which will be sufficient.

    In case of self-medication, be prepared for the fact that you may not find an effective combination of funds the first time (if at all). A trip to a trichologist will save you time and money that you will spend on an independent search for what will give results in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    DANDRUFF.

    Dandruff is also a common companion of seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis, or it can exist on its own. It is associated with a disruption in the normal cycle of skin cell renewal.

    Manifests itself in the appearance of scales on the scalp, which can be large or small; whitish, grayish or yellowish in color; oily or dry; more or less; evenly cover the scalp or form local “islands”; to form a dense growth – “seborrheic helmet”.The presence of a large amount of yeast-like fungus is called one of the causes of dandruff.

    With dandruff treatment , the preparations should contain antifungal, exfoliating ingredients (keratolytics), as well as anti-inflammatory, soothing skin, softening, moisturizing and normalizing the activity of the sebaceous glands. Which of them should prevail in the composition of drugs for the treatment of dandruff, and which will play a secondary role, depends on the clinical picture.

    The variety of manifestations of seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff implies different combinations of active ingredients in the remedies and different forms of these funds. It can be shampoo, peeling mask, cleansing serum, lotion, cream or ointment, solution. The use of these forms can also be combined (for example: cream + shampoo + lotion). And sometimes one form will be enough. For each specific case, a specific combination is selected. If there is no result from the use of the funds that you bought yourself – welcome to the trichologist, we will help you understand the situation.We use a large arsenal of drugs: from budget to expensive, from pharmacy to exclusive.

    90,000 6 causes of dandruff: how to deal with it?

    An unpleasant phenomenon like dandruff is uncomfortable and can seriously ruin your mood. Everyone wants to have strong, strong hair and healthy, not inflamed scalp. But before you start fighting dandruff, you need to find out the reasons for its appearance.

    Care errors

    Washing your hair too often or rarely is not worth it.This leads to skin irritation and the appearance of a large number of dead scales. Ideally, this should be done 1-2 times a week, but only if the skin is not too oily.

    For combing hair, use gentle, non-scratching combs with natural bristles. You also need to monitor the cleanliness of your combs, wash them regularly.

    Attention! Remember that shampoos must contain ingredients that care for the skin.

    You can use special masks, oils, balms.These products restore natural balance, relieve itching and fight dandruff.

    Genetic predisposition

    The structure of the skin in humans is different, and the sebaceous glands work in different ways. There are people who are prone to various skin diseases – psoriasis, eczema. And they have dandruff more often than those who do not suffer from chronic skin problems.

    Attention! It is important to understand that dandruff is a symptom of a disease. You need to take control of the process and consult a doctor.

    Changes in hormonal levels

    Dandruff often worries young people from 14 to 25 years old. This is the time of puberty, when the process of sebum secretion in the skin is especially active.

    Dandruff can occur due to an imbalance in the body of female and male hormones. This often happens to women during the period of expectation of a child and, again, during adolescence.

    Immunity problems

    When the immune system is working properly, dandruff is usually not a problem for a person. The fungus Malassezia, which causes it, is especially active during periods of ailments and illnesses.

    As a result, the head begins to peel off heavily. The sebaceous glands, due to impaired metabolism, do not work correctly, exacerbating the situation. Hair condition during such periods deteriorates significantly. They become thin, dry, break and split at the ends.

    Unbalanced nutrition

    Often dandruff appears due to the fact that the patient does not eat properly, abuses fatty, fried, too sweet or salty foods.

    Also, troubles can begin due to a lack of dairy and fermented milk products. They are rich in fats and calcium, valuable for the body, and also contain a number of vitamins and microelements.

    Frequent temperature changes

    Dandruff often appears during the winter. Even when a person just goes outside from the office or home in windy and cold weather, his skin suffers from stress. In a stuffy room or under a warm headdress, the sebaceous glands begin to work more actively.That is why in winter you need to moisturize the skin with special masks and products with a firming composition.

    Attention! Before you start treating dandruff, you need to understand what caused it.

    If the cause is hormonal imbalance, an endocrinologist will help. And if skin problems arise from nutrition, you need to make the diet more balanced and healthy.

    The wrong choice of hair care products can also cause dandruff.Then you need to replace them with more efficient and high quality ones.

    90,000 As snow on your head. 10 Myths About Dandruff | Health & Beauty | Health

    Dandruff has long ceased to be an “easy” problem that can be solved by buying shampoo from advertisements that are shown on TV every day. Don’t you believe you can get rid of dandruff in just one application either? Do you think dandruff is incurable?

    Myths about dandruff were debunked by the Chelyabinsk dermatologist – Trichologist Tatyana Trapeznikova.

    Myth 1: Dandruff is a disease

    Dandruff is a lesion of the scalp, characterized by the formation of small scales on the skin. Dandruff is more likely not a disease, but a consequence or symptom of another disease or a number of malfunctions in the body.

    Myth 2: Dandruff will appear if you wash your hair often

    This is not the case. Everyone has dandruff, regardless of whether a person washes their hair often or a little less often. The situation is aggravated by low-quality shampoos, the frequent use of which can disrupt the natural microflora of the scalp.Shampoo for daily use should have a mild detergent base and not dry out and degrease the scalp.

    There can be many more causes of dandruff:

    • Genetic. If your relatives have an increased skin sensitivity to the formation of inflammatory reactions and dandruff, then your skin may be susceptible. You may have dandruff too.
    • Metabolic disorders.An unbalanced diet can lead to “snow” on the head. In order not to provoke the appearance of dandruff, it is worth excluding from the diet grilled, salty, flour and sweet.
    • Hormonal disruptions. Unfortunately, problems with the thyroid and pancreas can also provoke excessively rapid death of skin cells on the head.
    • Violation of microflora. The scalp also has its own microflora. Normally, fungal molecules are always present in it. If the balance of the scalp is disturbed, then the microflora changes.Excessively oily scalp is a favorable breeding ground for fungi of the genus Malassezia globosa. Fungi love warmth and moisture. Therefore, dandruff can be seasonal. Many people find dandruff in themselves in winter: under a warm hat, ideal greenhouse conditions are created for the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms (especially if you do not take off your hat indoors).

    To identify the causes of dandruff, patients have to take a lot of tests. Including fungal diseases.Only complex treatment can solve the scalp problem. In addition, dandruff is dry when the sebaceous glands are not working enough and oily when the glands are working too actively.

    Myth 3: Dandruff is contagious

    This is not the case. Dandruff is not a contagious skin condition, despite the fact that we are talking about its fungal nature. Every person has these mushrooms.

    Myth 4. Seborrhea and dandruff are the same

    It would be more accurate to say that dandruff is a consequence of seborrhea – excessive formation of sebum, which is caused by increased functional activity of the sebaceous glands, hormonal changes.Further, there is an increase in the colonies of microorganisms (Malassezia), which feed on sebum and cause the appearance of characteristic peeling of the skin.

    Myth 5. Dandruff does not need to be treated

    Of course, dandruff needs to be treated as the condition causes itching, flaking and aesthetically unacceptable appearance. And without the help of a doctor, getting rid of the problem is more difficult than it seems. Treatment is always very individual. There is no one magic pill for everyone. The plan of examination and treatment for each patient is always individual, but without fail a general blood test is taken and the gastrointestinal tract is examined, sometimes, if an infectious fungal disease is suspected, scraping is done for pathological fungi.There is also no universal recipe for the treatment of dandruff: in each case, an individual treatment regimen is selected depending on the problem.

    Myth 6. Multivitamins with zinc relieve dandruff

    To a certain extent, zinc reduces the activity of the sebaceous glands and can be useful if the patient does not have serious hormonal disorders.

    Myth 7. If you rinse your hair with vinegar, then there will be no dandruff

    Today there are a sufficient number of dermatological lotions, shampoos, which are prescribed by a dermatologist.Self-medication can backfire.

    Myth 8. African Americans have black dandruff

    Human skin consists of several layers of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The epidermis is a stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium, which, in turn, consists of several more layers – basal, prickly, horny (superficial). The pigment cells are contained in the basal layer, and the cells of the stratum corneum are exfoliated. That is, they cannot be colored in any way, there is no melanin in this layer.Therefore, dandruff is always white.

    Myth 9. Poor ecology and stress contribute to dandruff

    Indeed, these factors play a role. You can also remember the quality of the water, which we have to wash our hair and body. Hard chlorinated water from taps dries out the top layer of the skin and impairs its barrier function. But these factors most of us cannot change. This means that you need to strengthen the protective functions of the body and monitor nutrition.

    Myth 10.Blondes don’t have dandruff

    Blondes are people too and they have dandruff. On blond hair, it is sometimes less noticeable. It is worth noting that dandruff occurs in all people, regardless of hair color, their amount and skin color.

    See also:

    90,000 Treatment for dandruff in the NEARMEDIC network of clinics

    The cause of this disease is a conditionally pathogenic fungus – the infectious agent Pityrosporum Ovale. The development of seborrhea is facilitated by genetic, gastrointestinal, endocrine, stress factors.The emergence and subsequent treatment of severe dandruff in adolescents is associated with hormonal problems, since at this age, a violation of the physiological balance of male and female sex hormones is especially pronounced.

    If you have troubling symptoms or problems with your hair and scalp, please contact us. The specialists of NEARMEDIC, the best network of private clinics in Moscow, awarded with the Moscow Quality Prize, using advanced methods of treating dandruff in men and women, will do their best to restore the health and beauty of your hair.

    Make an appointment with NYARMEDIC trichologists on the website, or call.

    Why you should contact us

    Experienced qualified personnel

    Among the specialists of the NEARMEDIC network of clinics there are doctors of the highest and first categories, holders of scientific degrees, authors of many publications. Constant participation in specialized seminars, conferences allows them to keep abreast of all the latest world achievements in the treatment of dandruff in children and adults.

    Complex treatment of dry and oily dandruff on the head

    Various effective methods are used to dry and cleanse the scalp (ozone therapy), microinjections of vitamin cocktails (mesotherapy), antiseptic (laser hair treatment for dandruff) and physiotherapeutic procedures.Such an integrated approach provides a good result, relieving patients of aesthetic and physical discomfort.

    Treatment in a comfortable environment

    In any clinic of our network (located near your home or work), you can make an appointment in advance, saving yourself from the tedious waiting in queues. Diagnosis of the causes of dandruff and its treatment takes place in cozy, comfortable rooms, in a friendly, confidential atmosphere.

    Methods of dandruff treatment in NEARMEDIC

    Experienced trichologists of our clinics take a comprehensive approach to eliminating this serious problem.Modern diagnostic methods make it possible to determine what is associated with the development of seborrhea. Based on the results of the examination, an individual course of treatment is prescribed.

    In the case of dysbiosis, therapy is aimed at restoring the microflora of the body. If the cause of dandruff is associated with the thyroid gland, the emphasis is on treating this organ. Sometimes the cause of dandruff in children and adults is cosmetics, in this case treatment begins with a ban on the use of drugs in this series.

    Among the effective methods of seborrhea treatment:

    • mesotherapy;
    • ozone therapy;
    • laser scalp treatment;
    • physiotherapy procedures.

    Sometimes dandruff forms a crust on the scalp, in this case it is not recommended to postpone treatment. The dandruff crust interferes with the free access of oxygen to the scalp, as a result of which the hair roots are deprived of nutrition and hair loss begins. It is quite difficult to treat dandruff on the eyelashes.In this case, creams and lotions (usually based on cortisone) are recommended to be used with extreme caution, and only under the supervision of a specialist.

    Contact the NEARMEDIC network of clinics

    Despite the fact that many consider dandruff to be a rather aesthetic problem, treatment should not be postponed. Often the appearance of dandruff is a reaction that indicates a disruption in the work of the whole body. Do not delay the visit to the doctor, the earlier the treatment is started, the better the result.Make an appointment on the website or call our phone. We will help you!

    Coconut oil for scalp microbiota

    Everyone knows what dandruff is on the collar and shoulders. These small, unattractive flakes are a very common chronic condition. A recent study found that coconut oil helps maintain scalp health by improving its microbiota.

    We hastily shake off our shoulders, but she reappears again and again… Yes, dandruff is really difficult to get rid of. Dandruff is a disease associated with excessive flaking of the scalp, in the development of which a number of factors can be distinguished, including genetic predisposition, characteristics of the composition of sebum and the microbiota of the scalp. A fungus called Malassezia is known to promote dandruff and inflammation. Although antifungal drugs are effective against Malassezia, they do not prevent dandruff from recurring after treatment is stopped.In India and other Asian countries, coconut oil is used to moisturize and maintain the barrier function of the scalp. The authors of a recent study compared the effects of coconut oil and a neutral shampoo on the bacterial and fungal microbiota of the scalp of 140 women with and without dandruff.

    Is dandruff associated with a specific fungus?

    Many more unusual species of Malassezia were found in women who complained of frequent dandruff. Conversely, the scalp species of M.globosa. The use of coconut oil changed the ratio of M. Globosa to other Malassezia groups, bringing it in line with the balance of a healthy scalp.

    Does coconut oil improve biochemical processes?

    Despite the absence of significant differences between the bacterial microbiota of the healthy group and the group of people with dandruff, an increase in the number of bacteria involved in biotin metabolism was observed in both groups after the use of coconut oil. Biotin, one of the B vitamins, has anti-inflammatory properties and is essential for maintaining scalp health.Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of dandruff formation, but scientists believe that the discovered positive effects of coconut oil on the composition and function of the microbiota can be considered the first major step towards long-term maintenance of scalp health.

    90,000 Publications in the media

    An international team of scientists has deciphered the genetic code of the fungus that causes dandruff.

    Experts hope that a detailed understanding of the genome of the fungus Malassezia globosa will help develop more effective methods of getting rid of dandruff.

    This fungus lives on the skin under the hair and causes itching and flaking.

    Details of the study by Proctor and Gamble are published in the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    It is believed that half of the world’s population suffers from dandruff. Moreover, men have dandruff more often than women.

    According to statistics, about 10 million Malassezia globosa fungi live on average on the human head.

    Yeast-like fungus feeds on the so-called skin sebum, or the secretion of the sebaceous glands.That is why dandruff, as a rule, first appears in adolescents – in puberty, the sebaceous glands begin to work in full force.

    Secretion of the sebaceous glands is needed to protect the hair and scalp – it protects them from drying out and damage.

    The fungus is not able to produce fatty acids on its own, therefore it depends on the sebum of the skin.

    The genome of Malassezia globosa is 300 times smaller than a human and consists of only 4285 genes.

    New treatment

    Recent research shows that the fungus produces lipase, the enzyme that causes dandruff.

    First, fungi use lipase to break through the layer of sebaceous secretions, and then penetrate into the top layer of the skin and accelerate the natural process of renewal of scalp cells, and therefore dandruff.

    Scientists have found that the fungus produces eight types of lipase, as well as three types of phospholipase.

    It is in the action on these enzyme proteins that the secret of successful dandruff treatment can be hidden.

    Currently existing methods allow you to fight the fungus, but they do not guarantee a 100% result.

    The fact that Malassezia globosa is the cause of dandruff was discovered only five years ago.

    To decipher the genome of the fungus, scientists grew ten liters of the fungus and froze it in liquid nitrogen. Then they extracted the DNA and broke it down into its smallest pieces.

    Treatment of seborrhea in Moscow in “SM-Cosmetology”

    What are the causes of dandruff in men and women?

    • Disorder of sebum production.It can be a consequence of pathologies of the endocrine system, changes in hormonal levels (puberty, pregnancy, etc.), as well as genetic features of the structure of the skin.
    • Skin diseases. Usually these are inflammations that arise both under the influence of bacterial infections and as a result of immunity disorders (allergies, psoriasis, eczema, etc.).
    • Fungal skin lesions.
    • Diet disorders. For example, often the reason why dandruff appears on the head is excessive consumption of carbohydrates, which stimulate the work of the sebaceous glands.
    • Improper hair care – the use of low-quality dyes, permanent perms, drying with a too hot hair dryer, etc.

    Also, depending on the cause of the dandruff, it can be dry or oily. Deficiency of vitamins, poor skin hydration, zinc deficiency and improper cosmetic procedures often lead to the formation of dry dandruff. Such dandruff looks like whitish scales, is often combined with itching of the skin and actively crumbles from the hair.

    Oily dandruff is mainly associated with excess synthesis of sebum. Its scales are large, yellowish and may be a little oily. Such dandruff is more often found at the roots of the hair and is combined with acne and inflammatory lesions of the facial skin.

    How to cure dandruff?

    In order to choose a method to get rid of dandruff, you must first establish the cause of its appearance. And only a qualified cosmetologist can do this. He will develop the most effective treatment regimen in your case and recommend a number of effective physiotherapy procedures.The clinic “CM-Cosmetology” uses:

    • cryomassage, based on improving the blood supply to the scalp and regulating the synthesis of sebum through exposure to low temperatures;
    • mesotherapy – the introduction of a “cocktail” of biologically active compounds into the skin;
    • microcurrent therapy that stimulates the renewal of skin cells using low frequency currents;
    • ozone therapy, in which an ozone-oxygen mixture acts as a “cocktail” introduced by microinjections, which activates metabolism in the cells of the epidermis.

    In addition, our cosmetologists will give you recommendations on how to enhance the effect of the course of health treatments. So, for example, if the cause of seborrhea and dandruff on the head is a violation of sebum production, then you need to get advice from an endocrinologist, gynecologist and gastroenterologist. In case of disturbances in the diet, the participation of a nutritionist of the clinic will be required, a dermatologist and trichologist will help to cure fungal infections, etc.