Glandular system definition: Endocrine System: Facts, Functions and Diseases
Endocrine System: Facts, Functions and Diseases
The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.
The endocrine system is made up of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries (in females) and testicles (in males), according to the Mayo Clinic.
The word endocrine derives from the Greek words “endo,” meaning within, and “crinis,” meaning to secrete, according to Health Mentor Online. In general, a gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body. The endocrine system affects almost every organ and cell in the body, according to the Merck Manual.
Although the hormones circulate throughout the body, each type of hormone is targeted toward certain organs and tissues, the Merck Manual notes. The endocrine system gets some help from organs such as the kidney, liver, heart and gonads, which have secondary endocrine functions. The kidney, for example, secretes hormones such as erythropoietin and renin.
The thyroid also secretes a range of hormones that affect the whole body. “Thyroid hormones impact a host of vital body functions, including heart rate, skin maintenance, growth, temperature regulation, fertility and digestion,” said Dr. Jerome M. Hershman, a professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and author of the thyroid sections of the Merck Manual.
“In this way, the thyroid gland is the body’s master metabolic control center,” said Cindy Samet, a chemistry professor at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. “Brain, heart and kidney function, as well as body temperature, growth and muscle strength — and much more — are at the mercy of thyroid function.”
Diseases of the endocrine system
Hormone levels that are too high or too low indicate a problem with the endocrine system. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones in the appropriate ways. Stress, infection and changes in the blood’s fluid and electrolyte balance can also influence hormone levels, according to the National Institutes of Health.
The most common endocrine disease in the United States is diabetes, a condition in which the body does not properly process glucose, a simple sugar. This is due to the lack of insulin or, if the body is producing insulin, because the body is not working effectively, according to Dr. Jennifer Loh, chief of the department of endocrinology for Kaiser Permanente in Hawaii.
Diabetes can be linked to obesity, diet and family history, according to Dr. Alyson Myers of North Shore-LIJ Health System. “To diagnose diabetes, we do an oral glucose tolerance test with fasting.”
It is also important to understand the patient’s health history as well as the family history, Myers noted. Infections and medications such as blood thinners can also cause adrenal deficiencies.
Diabetes is treated with pills or insulin injections. Managing other endocrine disorders typically involves stabilizing hormone levels with medication or, if a tumor is causing an overproduction of a hormone, by removing the tumor. Treating endocrine disorders takes a very careful and personalized approach, Myers said, as adjusting the levels of one hormone can impact the balance of other hormones.
Hormone imbalances can have a significant impact on the reproductive system, particularly in women, Loh explained.
Another disorder, hypothyroidism, a parathyroid disease, occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone to meet the body’s needs. Loh noted that insufficient thyroid hormone can cause many of the body’s functions to slow or shut down completely. It has an easy treatment, though. “Parathyroid disease is a curable cause of kidney stones,” said Dr. Melanie Goldfarb, an endocrine surgeon and director of the Endocrine Tumor Program at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California, and an assistant professor of surgery at the John Wayne Cancer Institute in Santa Monica. The damaged part of the gland is removed surgically.
Thyroid cancer begins in the thyroid gland and starts when the cells in the thyroid begin to change, grow uncontrollably and eventually form a tumor, according to Loh. Tumors — both benign and cancerous — can also disrupt the functions of the endocrine system, Myers explained. Between the years of 1975 and 2013, the cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed yearly have more than tripled, according to a 2017 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). “While overdiagnosis may be an important component to this observed epidemic, it clearly does not explain the whole story,” said Dr. Julie Sosa, one of the authors of the new study and the chief of endocrine surgery at Duke University in North Carolina. The American Cancer Society predicts that there will be about 53,990 new cases of thyroid cancer in 2018 and around 2,060 deaths from thyroid cancer.
Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when blood glucose drops below normal levels. This typically happens as a result of treatment for diabetes when too much insulin is taken. While Loh noted that the condition can occur in people not undergoing treatment for diabetes, such an occurrence is fairly rare.
What is an endocrinologist?
After completing four years of medical school, people who want to be endocrinologists then spend three or four years in an internship and residency program. These specialty programs cover internal medicine, pediatrics, or obstetrics and gynecology, according to the American Board of Internal Medicine.
Endocrinologists-in-training then spend two or three more years learning how to diagnose and treat hormone conditions. Overall, an endocrinologist’s training will take more than 10 years after the undergraduate degree. They are certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Endocrinologists typically specialize in one or two areas of endocrinology, such as diabetes or infertility. These specialists treat patients with fertility issues and also assess and treat patients with health concerns surrounding menstruation and menopause, Loh noted.
Milestones in the study of the endocrine system
200 B.C.: The Chinese begin isolating sex and pituitary hormones from human urine and using them for medicinal purposes
1025: In medieval Persia, the writer Avicenna (980-1037) provides a detailed account on diabetes mellitus in “The Canon of Medicine” (c. 1025), describing the abnormal appetite, the collapse of sexual functions and the sweet taste of diabetic urine.
1835: Irish doctor Robert James Graves describes a case of goiter with bulging eyes (exophthalmos). The thyroid condition Graves’ disease was later named after the doctor.
1902: William Bayliss and Ernest Starling perform an experiment in which they observe that acid instilled into the duodenum (part of the small intestine) causes the pancreas to begin secretion, even after they had removed all nervous connections between the two organs.
1889: Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski observe that surgically removing the pancreas results in an increase of blood sugar, followed by a coma and eventual death.
1921: Otto Loewi in 1921 discovers neurohormones by incubating a frog’s heart in a saline bath.
1922: Leonard Thompson, at age 14, is the first person with diabetes to receive insulin. Drugmaker Eli Lilly soon starts mass production of insulin.
Additional reporting by Alina Bradford, Live Science contributor.
The endocrine system produces hormones that regulate your body and mind. (Image credit: by Ross Toro, Infographics Artist)
Editor’s Note: If you’d like more information on this topic, we recommend the following book:
Systems of the human body
- Circulatory System: Facts, Function & Diseases
- Digestive System: Facts, Function & Diseases
- Immune System: Diseases, Disorders & Function
- Lymphatic System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
- Muscular System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
- Nervous System: Facts, Function & Diseases
- Reproductive System: Facts, Functions and Diseases
- Respiratory System: Facts, Function & Diseases
- Skeletal System: Facts, Function & Diseases
- Skin: Facts, Diseases & Conditions
- Urinary System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
Parts of the human body
- Bladder: Facts, Function & Disease
- Human Brain: Facts, Anatomy & Mapping Project
- Colon (Large Intestine): Facts, Function & Diseases
- Ears: Facts, Function & Disease
- Esophagus: Facts, Function & Diseases
- How the Human Eye Works
- Gallbladder: Function, Problems & Healthy Diet
- Human Heart: Anatomy, Function & Facts
- Kidneys: Facts, Function & Diseases
- Liver: Function, Failure & Disease
- Lungs: Facts, Function & Diseases
- Nose: Facts, Function & Diseases
- Pancreas: Function, Location & Diseases
- Small Intestine: Function, Length & Problems
- Spleen: Function, Location & Problems
- Stomach: Facts, Function & Diseases
- The Tongue: Facts, Function & Diseases
Glandular System | Notes, Videos, QA and Tests | Grade 10>Science>Human Nervous and Glandular Systems
Those organs that produce enzymes or hormones and plays important role for metabolism of body are called glands. This is a short introduction note on glandular system which is an aggregate of endocrine and exocrine gland.
The system which comprises all glands of the body is called glandular system. Glandular system is divided into two categories according to their secretion. The glands that secrete hormones are categorized as endocrine glands and glands that secrete digestive enzymes are grouped as exocrine glands.
Those organs that produce enzymes or hormones and plays important role in the metabolism of the body are called glands.
Types of Glands:
There are three types of glands. They are:
- Exocrine glands: Those glands that have their own duct to pass their secretion are called exocrine gland. Their production is called enzyme. They help in the digestion.
- Endocrine: those ductless glands whose secretion directly mixed with blood and reach up to the target organs are called endocrine glands. Their secretions are called hormones and they maintain the overall metabolism of the body. The secretion of the hormones is regulated by the negative feedback mechanism. It is basically a system that if the hormonal concentrations in blood increase then secretion of the hormone is decreased.
- Heterocrinegland: Those glands which produce both enzymes and hormones are called heterocrine glands. Pancreas is a heterocrine gland. It produces hormones (Insulin and Glucagon) and enzymes (Trypsin, Amylase).
|Exocrine glands||Endocrine glands|
|They are ducted glands.||They are ductless glands.|
|They secrete mucus, saliva tear etc. like juices.||They secrete hormones.|
|Consumption of their product is more in amount.||Consumption of their secretion is less in amount.|
|Their secretions are related with respiration, digestion etc. like life processes.||Their secretions are responsible for control and coordination of growth.|
|Distance between the glands and the working region of the juices is less.||Distance and the working region is less.|
Exocrine glands are studied in the digestive system. We will study about endocrine glands here. The science that studies about endocrine glands is called Endocrinology.
Things to remember
- The system which comprises all glands of the body is called glandular system.
- Those organs that produce enzymes or hormones and plays important role in the metabolism of a body are called glands.
- The types of glands are Exocrine glands, Endocrine and Heterocrine gland.
- It includes every relationship which established among the people.
- There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
- It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
- common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Glandular System
Endocrine Vs Exocrine Glands
Exocrine Gland and Endocrine Glands
Questions and Answers
Hormone regulates the cells and other glands for the various activities of the body. Therefore, hormone is known as chemical messenger.
Pancreas secrets pancreatic juice that passes to the small intestine and helps in digestion as the juice contains enzymes. Pancreas also secrets insulin and glucagon directly into the blood to control blood sugar level. As the same gland secrets both enzymes and hormones, it is considered both as exocrine gland and endocrine gland.
|Exocrine glands||Endocrine glands|
The glands that can produce hormones and enzymes are called heterocrine glands. Pancreas is an example of heterocrine gland.
The pituitary gland is a type of endocrine gland. It is popularly called the master gland. It produces growth and catalytic hormones which are poured directly into the blood.
Endocrine System – Definition, Function & Parts
The endocrine system is a collection of ductless glands that produce hormones and secrete them into the circulatory system. Endocrine glands work without ducts for carrying secretions towards target organs. Instead, hormones can act as chemical messengers for a large number of cells and tissues simultaneously.
The endocrine system consists of many glands, which work by secreting hormones into the bloodstream to be carried to a target cell. Endocrine system hormones work even if the target cells are distant from the endocrine glands. Through these actions, the endocrine system regulates nearly every metabolic activity of the body to produce an integrated response. The endocrine system can release hormones to induce the stress response, regulate the heartbeat or blood pressure, and generally directs how your cells grow and develop.
Endocrine glands are usually heavily vascularized, containing a dense network of blood vessels. Cells within these organs produce and contain hormones in intracellular granules or vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane in response to the appropriate signal. This action releases the hormones into the extracellular space, or into the bloodstream. The endocrine system can be activated by many different inputs, allowing for responses to many different internal and external stimuli.
Endocrine System Function
The endocrine system, along with the nervous system, integrates the signals from different parts of the body and the environment. In addition, the endocrine system produces effector molecules in the form of hormones that can elicit an appropriate response from the body in order to maintain homeostasis. The nervous system produces immediate effects. The endocrine system is designed to be relatively slow to initiate, but it has a prolonged effect.
As an example, the long-term secretion of growth hormone in the body influences the development of bones and muscles to increase height and also induces the growth of every internal organ. This happens over the course of many years. Hormones like cortisol, produced during times of stress, can change appetite, and metabolic pathways in skeletal and smooth muscle for hours or weeks.
The endocrine system is involved in every process of the human body. Starting from the motility of the digestive system, to the absorption and metabolism of glucose and other minerals, hormones can affect a variety of organs in different ways. Some hormones affect the retention of calcium in bones or their usage to power muscle contraction. In addition, they are involved in the development and maturation of the adaptive immune system, and the reproductive system. Crucially, they can affect overall growth and metabolism, changing the way every cell assimilates and utilizes key nutrients.
Endocrine System Parts
The endocrine system consists of a number of organs – some of which have hormone production as their primary function, while others play important roles in other organ systems as well. These include the pituitary and pineal glands in the brain, the thyroid and parathyroid glands in the neck, the thymus in the thoracic region, the adrenals and pancreas in the abdominal region and the gonads in the reproductive system.
Endocrine System Diagram
Endocrine System in the Brain
Starting from the brain, the hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands are involved in the regulation of other endocrine organs and in the regulation of circadian rhythms, changing the metabolic state of the body. The pineal gland is located near the center of the brain, in a region called the epithalamus. The pituitary gland is seen very near the hypothalamus and has some direct interactions and feedback loops with the organ for the production of hormones.
Together, the hypothalamus and pituitary can regulate a number of endocrine organs, particularly the gonads, and the adrenals. In fact, the hypothalamus can be considered as the nodal point that integrates two major pathways for regulation – the nervous and endocrine systems. It is made of a collection of neurons that collect information from the body through the nervous system and integrate it into a response through the endocrine system, especially the anterior and posterior parts of the pituitary gland.
Endocrine System within the Neck
The neck contains the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The thyroid gland consists of two symmetric lobes connected by a narrow strip of tissue called the isthmus glandularis, forming a butterfly-like structure. Each lobe is about 5cm in height, and the isthmus is approximately 1.25 cm in length. The gland is situated in the front of the neck, behind the thyroid cartilage. Each lobe of the thyroid gland is usually positioned in front of a pair of parathyroid glands. Each of the four parathyroid glands is approximately 6x3x1 mm in size, and weighs between 30 and 35 gms. There can be some variation in the number of parathyroid glands among individuals, with some people having more than 2 pairs of glands.
Endocrine System within the Body
The thymus is an endocrine organ situated behind the sternum (also known as the breastbone), between the two lungs. It is pinkish-gray in color and consists of two lobes. Its endocrine function complements its role in the immune system, being used for the development and maturation of thymus-derived lymphocytes (T-cells). This organ is unusual because of its activity peaks during childhood. After adolescence, it slowly shrinks and gets replaced by fat. At its largest, before the onset of puberty, it can weigh nearly 30 gms.
The adrenals are placed above the kidney and therefore also known as suprarenal glands. They are yellowish in color and surrounded by a capsule of fat. They can be seen just under the diaphragm and are connected to that muscular organ by a layer of connective tissue. The adrenal glands consist of an outer medulla and an inner cortex, having distinct secretions and roles within the body.
The pancreas plays a dual role, being an integral and important part of both the digestive and endocrine systems. The glandular organ located close to the C-shaped bend of the duodenum, and it can be seen behind the stomach. It contains cells with an exocrine function that produce digestive enzymes as well as endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans that produce insulin and glucagon. The hormones play a role in the metabolism and storage of blood glucose and thus the two different functions of the organ are integrated at a certain level.
The gonads also have important endocrine functions that influence the proper development of reproductive organs, the onset of puberty, and maintenance of fertility. Other organs such as the heart, kidney, and liver also act as secondary endocrine organs, secreting hormones like erythropoietin that can affect red blood cell production.
Endocrine System Structure
Unlike some body systems, the endocrine system is widely distributed within the body. Further, unlike some systems, the parts of the endocrine system can function independently from one another to regulate and coordinate the body. For example, the pineal gland in the brain responds to light received in the eyes, which causes it to release the hormone melatonin. This action can be completely separate from the actions of the reproductive endocrine glands, which are responding to a different set of signals to enable a different outcome.
However, some glands like the thyroid and hypothalamus also control other glands and their functions. These glands can help to coordinate the overall actions of the system and the body as a whole. A release of hormones from these glands can create a cascade of effects from the release of a single hormone. This makes the endocrine system one of the most complexly structured body systems.
Diseases of the Endocrine System
Endocrine system diseases primarily arise from two causes – either a change in the level of hormone secreted by a gland, or a change in the sensitivity of the receptors in various cells of the body. Therefore, the body fails to respond in an appropriate manner to messenger signals. Among the most common endocrine diseases is diabetes, which hampers the metabolism of glucose. This has an enormous impact on the quality of life since adequate glucose is not only important for fueling the body, but it is also important in maintaining glucose at an appropriate level to discourages the growth of microorganisms or cancerous cells.
Imbalances of hormones from the reproductive system are also significant since they can influence fertility, mood, and wellbeing. Another important endocrine gland is the thyroid, with both high and low levels of secretion affecting a person’s capacity to function optimally, even affecting fertility in women. The thyroid also needs a crucial micronutrient, iodine, in order to produce its hormone. Dietary deficiency of this mineral can lead to an enlargement of the thyroid gland as the body tries to compensate for low levels of thyroid hormones.
Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, refers to a metabolic disease where the blood consistently carries a high concentration of glucose. This is traced back to the lack of effective insulin hormone, produced by the pancreas, or a lack of functioning hormone receptors. Diabetes mellitus could either arise from a low level of insulin production from the pancreas or an insensitivity of insulin receptors among the cells of the body. Occasionally, pregnant women with no previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. This can threaten the health of the mother and fetus, as well as increase all the risks associated with childbirth.
Insulin is an anabolic hormone that encourages the transport of glucose from the blood into muscle cells or adipose tissue. Here, it can be stored as long chains of glycogen, or be converted into fat. Concurrently it also inhibits the process of glucose synthesis within cells, by interrupting gluconeogenesis, as well as the breakdown of glycogen. A spike in blood sugar levels causes the release of insulin. Its release protects cells from the long-term damage of excess glucose, while also allowing the precious nutrient to be stored and utilized later. Glucagon, another hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha cells), acts in an antagonistic manner to insulin and is secreted when blood sugar levels drop.
Hypothyroidism is a condition where the body has an insufficient supply of thyroid hormones – thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Both these hormones contain iodine and are derived from a single amino acid – tyrosine. Iodine deficiency is a common cause for hypothyroidism since the gland is unable to synthesize adequate amounts of hormone. This can arise due to damage to the cells of the thyroid gland through infection or inflammation, or medical interventions for excessive thyroid activity. It can also arise from a deficiency in the pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid. Alternatively, it could be due to defects in the receptors for the hormone. Thyroxine is the more common hormone in the blood and has a longer half-life than T3.
Hypogonadism refers to a spectrum of disorders where there is an insufficiency of sex hormones. These are usually secreted by the primary gonads (testes and ovaries) and affect the development, maturation, and functioning of sex organs and the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. It can arise due to a low level of sex hormone production by the gonads itself, or the insensitivity of these organs to cues from the brain for hormone production. The first condition is called primary hypogonadism and the latter is called central hypogonadism.
Depending on the period of onset, hypogonadism can result in different characteristics. Hypogonadism during development can cause ambiguous genitalia. During puberty, it can affect the onset of menstruation, breast development and ovulation in females, delay the growth of the penis and testicles, and affect the development of secondary sexual characteristics. It can also impact self-esteem and confidence. In adulthood, hypogonadism leads to reduced sex drive, infertility, fatigue or even loss in bone and muscle mass.
human endocrine system | Description, Function, Glands, & Hormones
Human endocrine system, group of ductless glands that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones. Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs and distant tissues. Diseases of the endocrine system can result from the oversecretion or undersecretion of hormones or from the inability of target organs or tissues to respond to hormones effectively.
The principal glands of the female and male human endocrine systems.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
It is important to distinguish between an endocrine gland, which discharges hormones into the bloodstream, and an exocrine gland, which secretes substances through a duct opening in a gland onto an external or internal body surface. Salivary glands and sweat glands are examples of exocrine glands. Both saliva, secreted by the salivary glands, and sweat, secreted by the sweat glands, act on local tissues near the duct openings. In contrast, the hormones secreted by endocrine glands are carried by the circulation to exert their actions on tissues remote from the site of their secretion.
As far back as 3000 bce, the ancient Chinese were able to diagnose and provide effective treatments for some endocrinologic disorders. For example, seaweed, which is rich in iodine, was prescribed for the treatment of goitre (enlargement of the thyroid gland). Perhaps the earliest demonstration of direct endocrinologic intervention in humans was the castration of men who could then be relied upon, more or less, to safeguard the chastity of women living in harems. During the Middle Ages and later, the practice persisting well into the 19th century, prepubertal boys were sometimes castrated to preserve the purity of their treble voices. Castration established the testes (testicles) as the source of substances responsible for the development and maintenance of “maleness.”
This knowledge led to an abiding interest in restoring or enhancing male sexual powers. In the 18th century, London-based Scottish surgeon, anatomist, and physiologist John Hunter successfully transplanted the testis of a rooster into the abdomen of a hen. The transplanted organ developed a blood supply in the hen, though whether masculinization occurred was unclear. In 1849 German physiologist Arnold Adolph Berthold performed a similar experiment, except, instead of hens, he transplanted rooster testes into capons (castrated roosters). The capons subsequently regained secondary sex characteristics, demonstrating that the testes were the source of a masculinizing substance. Also in the 19th century, French neurologist and physiologist Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard asserted that the testes contained an invigorating, rejuvenating substance. His conclusions were based in part on observations obtained after he had injected himself with an extract of the testicle of a dog or of a guinea pig. These experiments resulted in the widespread use of organ extracts to treat endocrine conditions (organotherapy).
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Modern endocrinology largely originated in the 20th century, however. Its scientific origin is rooted in the studies of French physiologist Claude Bernard (1813–78), who made the key observation that complex organisms such as humans go to great lengths to preserve the constancy of what he called the “milieu intérieur” (internal environment). Later, American physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon (1871–1945) used the term homeostasis to describe this inner constancy.
The endocrine system, in association with the nervous system and the immune system, regulates the body’s internal activities and the body’s interactions with the external environment to preserve the internal environment. This control system permits the prime functions of living organisms—growth, development, and reproduction—to proceed in an orderly, stable fashion; it is exquisitely self-regulating, so that any disruption of the normal internal environment by internal or external events is resisted by powerful countermeasures. When this resistance is overcome, illness ensues.
How to Keep Your Glandular System Healthy
The glandular system is a communication device but is slower than the nervous system.
Messages travel as hormones and work in a series of chain reactions. These hormones can work at the site, near the site, or a long way from the site where they originate.
For example, the thyroid hormone works in the gland, around the gland and on many other tissues far from the gland. Hormones control conditions in the body so that a “steady state” of internal balance is maintained.
How the Glandular (Endocrine) System Works
At its simplest, the glandular (endocrine) system works like a thermostat in any heating system. When the room temperature falls, the thermostat may instruct the central heating to switch on so that the temperature rises.
Eventually, the thermostat again comes into operation and switches off so that the room doesn’t get too hot. The glands are like rooms and the thermostat senses the temperature in the rooms and acts accordingly.
All of the glands are interconnected.
If one gets out of balance it may tip the balance of the other organs in an unbalanced state as well. Constant stress and the fight or flight production of adrenal hormones may lend an under-active thyroid.
Thyroid imbalance can lend irregularity in the female reproductive system. This is why it is so vitally important to nourish your whole system with a fresh and raw, whole food nutritional protocol.
Obtaining good nutrition is imperative for all of the cells of the glandular system to be fed properly. A well fed system lends internal balance or more “homeostasis”.
The glandular system is extremely diverse.
Differences in hormone levels from person to person account for differences in abilities, characteristics and physiologic function. The enormous physical and emotional changes in puberty and maturation are entirely controlled by the secretion of hormones.
The glandular system consists of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus gland, sex glands (ovaries and testis), pancreas, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. These all work together in monitoring the body’s various functions and ordering it to make any needed adjustments.
The hypothalamus is the link between the endocrine and nervous systems.
The hypothalamus talks to the pituitary and the pituitary talks to the endocrine glands. The glands then produce and excrete chemical substances known as hormones.
Hormones coordinate and control various organs and tissues so that all parts of the body work together smoothly and efficiently.
When in a steady balanced state the glands signal back to the centers in the brain creating what is called a negative feedback loop. Any deviation from normality has to be remedied immediately or life can be endangered.
Hormones (from the Greek word meaning “to stir up”) regulate basic drives and emotions, promote growth and sexual identity, control body temperature, assist in the repair of broken tissue and help to generate energy for life’s daily functions.
The amount of hormones released depends on the body’s needs. Levels change in response to infection, stress and changes of the blood. There is a constant, fine control in this system.
1. Focus on quality nutrition.
Nutrition is vital to quality health and optimal performance. 85% of our long term outcome is nutrition.
Poor nutrition starves all of the organs and glands in the system and prevents them from proper function. The human system functions properly when it has ample stores of vitamins, minerals (particularly trace minerals), as well as the macronutrients: proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
The thyroid gland, for example, is able to maintain proper metabolic rates and body fluid levels when it has ample iodine. A similar need has been established for chromium in the pancreas and its control of blood sugar levels.
Each gland in the body has special nutritional needs, and if these needs are not met, decline is eminent.
Eating foods rich in trace minerals and vitamins will help to nutritionally support the glandular functions of the body. Unfortunately, many of the foods that are a mainstay of the modern diet are devoid of the high quality nutrition that is necessary.
Changing your lifestyle and adopting a healthy living protocol will improve your overall health. Eating a nutritional plan that is full of fresh and raw fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds and good clean protein ensures a baseline success in satisfying your body’s needs.
2. Develop a
balanced exercise plan.
Exercise can be friend or foe. Too much exercise can exhaust the adrenal system and dampen the glandular (endocrine) system much like chronic stress. Too little exercise impedes circulation and healthy heart function.
If the heart is not healthy, it is not able to pump blood to the endocrine glands in an optimal fashion to lend nutrition and oxygen.
3. Get rid of the stress.
Stress can interfere with the glands and may cause an over production of some hormones, such as adrenal hormones. If your body produces excessive stress hormones you may suffer from anxiety, weight gain, sleep dysfunction and a multitude of other symptoms.
Excessive and chronic overproduction of stress hormones can eventually lead to exhaustion and clinical depression.
Stress effects sleep and recovery. If the body is stressed, the over or under production of hormones may lead to insomnia. Chronic insomnia lends system failure. The system eventually fails to recover.
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About the Endocrine System – Endocrine Glands and Hormones
The Endocrine System Essentials
- The endocrine system is made up of a network of glands.
- These glands secrete hormones to regulate many bodily functions, including growth and metabolism.
- Endocrine diseases are common and usually occur when glands produce an incorrect amount of hormones.
Simply put, the endocrine system is a network of glands that secrete chemicals called hormones to help your body function properly. Hormones are chemical signals that coordinate a range of bodily functions.
The endocrine system works to regulate certain internal processes. (Note: endocrine shouldn’t be confused with exocrine. Exocrine glands, such as sweat and salivary glands, secrete externally and internally via ducts. Endocrine glands secrete hormones internally, using the bloodstream.)
The endocrine system helps control the following processes and systems:
- Growth and development
- Homeostasis (the internal balance of body systems)
- Metabolism (body energy levels)
- Response to stimuli (stress and/or injury)
The Endocrine Network
The endocrine system completes these tasks through its network of glands, which are small but highly important organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones.
The glands of the endocrine system are:
These glands produce different types of hormones that evoke a specific response in other cells, tissues, and/or organs located throughout the body. The hormones reach these faraway targets using the blood stream. Like the nervous system, the endocrine system is one of your body’s main communicators. But instead of using nerves to transmit information, the endocrine system uses blood vessels to deliver hormones to cells.
To ensure that everything runs smoothly (that is, your body functions as it should), certain processes must work properly:
- The endocrine glands must release the correct amount of hormones (if they release too much or too little, it is known as hormone imbalance).
- Your body also needs a strong blood supply to transport the hormones throughout the body.
- There must be enough receptors (which are where the hormones attach and do their work) at the target tissue.
- Those targets must be able to respond appropriately to the hormonal signal. The model here would be like primary hypothyroidism, where the pituitary produces TSH, the TSH is carried via the bloodstream to the thyroid, the thyroid has the appropriate receptors, but for whatever reason it isn’t able to effectively make or secrete thyroid hormone.
Endocrine diseases are common and happen even when one step in the process doesn’t work as it should. If you have an endocrine disease or disorder, you may consult a specialist known as an endocrinologist who will effectively diagnose and help treat your condition.
Updated on: 02/18/16
An Overview of the Hypothalamus
The glands of the endocrine system secrete hormones into the bloodstream to maintain homeostasis and regulate metabolism. The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are the command and control centers, directing hormones to other glands and throughout the body. Other primary endocrine glands, including the thyroid and parathyroid glands, the adrenal glands, and the pineal gland, adjust the levels of various substances in the blood and regulate metabolism, growth, the sleep cycle, and other processes. Organs such as the pancreas also secrete hormones as part of the endocrine system. Secondary endocrine organs include the gonads, kidneys, and thymus.
1. Command Centers: The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland Direct the Endocrine System
The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are part of the diencephalon region of the brain. The hypothalamus connects the nervous system to the endocrine system. It receives and processes signals from other brain regions and pathways and translates them into hormones, the chemical messengers of the endocrine system. These hormones flow to the pituitary gland, which is connected to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. Some hypothalamic hormones are stored in the pituitary stores for later release; others spur it to secrete its own hormones. The hormones released by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus control the other endocrine glands and regulate all major internal functions.
2. The Pineal Gland Runs a Daily Biological Clock
The pineal gland is small and pinecone-shaped, located at the posterior of the diencephalon region in the brain. As a seemingly unique, unpaired structure near the center of the brain, the pineal gland has been an object of historical fascination. The 17th-century French philosopher René Descartes thought it must be the “seat of the soul.” Perhaps the thought stemmed from the pineal gland’s role in sleep. At night, in the absence of light, the pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin. Melatonin regulates the body’s sleep patterns in both circadian (daily) and seasonal patterns. In the morning, when light hits the eye, photo receptors in the retina send signals to the pineal gland, which then decreases melatonin production.
3. The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Increase Metabolism and Regulate Calcium Levels
The thyroid gland sits in the throat region, just below the larynx, served by large arteries with many branches and a dense network of capillaries. The thyroid hormones it secretes, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), travel in the bloodstream throughout the body to increase metabolism, glucose use, protein synthesis, and nervous system development. The thyroid also releases calcitonin, which helps maintain blood calcium homeostasis by causing calcium to be removed from blood and deposited into bones when blood (calcium) levels are too high. On the posterior surface of the thyroid sit much smaller, separate glands: the parathyroids. Typically there are four parathyroid glands, a superior and inferior pair on the left and right sides of the thyroid. They secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH or parathormone), which stimulates bones to release calcium into the blood when blood (calcium) levels are low. PTH also causes the kidneys to reduce calcium secretion into urine to further elevate calcium levels in the blood. Together, calcitonin and PTH act in complementary ways to maintain blood calcium homeostasis, which is one of the most tightly controlled physiological parameters in the body.
4. The Adrenal Glands Regulate Substance Levels in the Blood and Release “Fight-or-Flight” Hormones
The adrenal glands are pyramid-shaped organs that sit at the top of each kidney. Each adrenal gland consists of two structures: an outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex is a network of fine connective tissues that makes up most of the gland. It secretes a range of steroid hormones. Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, manage protein and glucose levels. Mineralocorticoids, including aldosterone, adjust levels of water and salt. Gonadocorticoids (androgens and estrogens) are secreted by the adrenal cortex in small amounts by both sexes. The adrenal medulla produces epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE). These chemicals promote “fight-or-flight,” the body’s initial response to stress.
5. Key Contributor: The Pancreas Regulates Blood Sugar
Some organs from other body systems also secrete hormones, and so are considered “secondary organs” of the endocrine system. The pancreas, for example, is part of the digestive system. It excretes pancreatic juice into the small intestine via the pancreatic duct. But scattered within the pancreas there are also tiny cell clusters called pancreatic islets (or islets of Langerhans) that release hormones into the bloodstream. These islets make up less than 2% of pancreatic tissue, but their specialized cells regulate blood glucose levels (or blood sugar). When blood sugar is low, alpha cells in the islets release glucagon. Glucagon spurs the liver to break down glycogen and release more glucose into the blood. When blood sugar is high, beta cells in the islets release insulin, which increases glucose reuptake.
Atypical endometrial hyperplasia
typical endometrial hyperplasia is a pathological proliferation of the inner layer of the uterus with the appearance of atypical cells. It is provoked by an excess of estrogen and a lack of progesterone. Considered as a precancerous disease. It can develop at any age, but is more often detected after 45 years. It is accompanied by menstrual irregularities and uterine bleeding (menorrhagia, metrorrhagia). The diagnosis is established on the basis of complaints, anamnesis and additional research data.Treatment is hormone therapy, scraping or ablation of the mucous membrane.
Symptoms of atypical endometrial hyperplasia
Symptoms of atypical endometrial hyperplasia take place in the form of certain manifestations inherent in each specific character and type of development of the pathological process. The main symptom of this disease is uterine bleeding. In most patients, such bleeding occurs against the background of a delay in menstruation for a period of 1-3 months.Less often (as a rule, in the absence of obesity and obvious endocrine pathology), regular cycles are observed with the duration of menorrhagia for more than 7 days. Anovulatory uterine bleeding is detected in about a quarter of patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Metrorrhagia is diagnosed in 5-10% of cases. Possible scanty spotting in the middle of the menstrual cycle or in the absence of menstruation. So with the glandular form of the disease, which is inherently benign, the stroma and endometriotic glands proliferate.There is a thickening of the mucous membrane, and the glands in the stroma are located in the wrong way. The severity of the processes of glandular hyperplasia determines its differentiation into an active, acute stage of the disease and a resting, chronic form of it. The active form is characterized by a large number of cellular mitoses in the stroma and epithelium of the glands, which manifests itself as a result of prolonged excessively high levels of estrogen. At the stage of chronic disease, mitoses are rarely formed, which is caused by insufficient hormonal stimulation due to the small amount of estrogen.Symptoms of atypical endometrial hyperplasia of the glandular-cystic type are similar to the manifestations of glandular hyperplasia, with the only difference that they have a slightly greater degree of severity. One of the characteristic signs is cystic enlargement of the glands.
Treatment of atypical endometrial hyperplasia
Treatment of this pathology can be both conservative and operative, carried out on an outpatient basis or in a hospital setting. Indications for planned hospitalization in the reproductive age are bleeding and spotting, in postmenopausal women – bleeding, prolonged watery or purulent discharge.Emergency hospitalization is indicated for heavy bleeding. The tactics of treating atypical endometrial hyperplasia is determined taking into account the patient’s age, her desire to have children, the presence of somatic diseases and diseases of the reproductive system (especially adenomyosis or fibroids), the form of atypical endometrial hyperplasia and the number of relapses. The main thing is the timely detection of this disease or the initial stages of cancer, when atypical cells have just appeared in the basal layer of the endometrium. Therefore, all menstrual irregularities should be examined immediately. For this, women are firstly performed an ultrasound examination of the uterus, and then, if changes have been detected, endoscopic (hysteroscopy). Hysteroscopy can be diagnostic and therapeutic. Most often, diagnostic hysteroscopy, when the doctor looks at the endometrium enlarged by optical equipment with an eye, turns into a therapeutic one, that is, the endometrium is removed. But this is not always done. In childbearing age, today they are trying to use mainly hormonal therapy: suppressing the secretion of estrogens with the help of drugs with antiestrogenic properties, progestogens (synthetic analogs of progesterone) or analogs of the hypothalamic risling hormones (they suppress the secretion of pituitary hormones).If the reproductive function is not required to be preserved, then the mucous membrane of the uterine cavity is ablated – its complete destruction in various ways together with the basal layer, after which the endometrium is no longer restored. Subsequent hormonal correction is also carried out. For the prevention of endometrial cancer, any irregularities in the woman’s menstrual cycle should be promptly identified and treated.
Surgical treatment of endometrial hyperplasia
By scraping the uterine cavity, the doctor removes the hyperplastic endometrium with a curette under the visual control of a hysteroscope.Polyps are removed with special scissors or forceps, under visual control, they are ‘unscrewed’ or cut off. Surgery to remove a polyp is called a ‘polypectomy’. Further, after receiving the results of histological examination, depending on the type of hyperplasia, the patient’s age and concomitant diseases, hormonal therapy is selected (except for fibrous polyps that do not require hormonal treatment). The goal of hormone therapy is to suppress further proliferation (overgrowth) of the endometrium and to regulate hormonal imbalances.
For the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, the following groups of hormones are used:
– COC – combined oral contraceptives (Regulon, Zhanin, Yarina) are prescribed for six months according to the contraceptive scheme. The drugs are suitable for women of reproductive age up to 35 years old, as well as adolescent girls with heavy and / or irregular menstruation with glandular and glandular cystic types of hyperplasia or polyps.
COCs can be used for ‘hormonal hemostasis’ (high doses of hormones) in girls in emergencies to stop bleeding so as not to have to curettage.COCs are prescribed 2-3 tablets per day, then the dose is reduced, bringing to 1 tablet per day. The course of treatment is 21 days. With the ineffectiveness of hormonal hemostasis – if the bleeding continues and threatens the child’s life, they resort to scraping the uterine cavity.
– gestagens (Dyufaston, Utrozhestan) from 16 to 25 days of the menstrual cycle are prescribed for 3-6 months. Suitable for women of any age with any type of hyperplasia. The progestogen-containing contraceptive intrauterine device ‘Mirena’ is successfully used, which has a local effect on the endometrium, in contrast to progestogens used by the oral route, which have a systemic effect.The spiral is placed for 5 years. The downside of the spiral is that quite often there is a side effect in the form of intermenstrual bleeding within 3-6 months after the post-packing of the spiral. In addition, many patients are embarrassed by the smearing nature of menstrual flow against the background of Mirena and the presence of a foreign body in uterine cavity;
– GnRH agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Zoladex, Buserelin) are the most effective group of hormones. It is used in women after 35 years of age and during the period of perimenopause from 3 to 6 months with any form of hyperplasia.An unpleasant side effect of drugs in this group is the symptoms of early menopause (hot flashes). Gonadotropic releasing hormones are formed in the nerve cells of the anterior and middle hypothalamus and regulate the synthesis and release of gonadotropic hormones of the pituitary gland, indirectly – the formation of sex hormones in the ovaries. The mechanism of action of GnRH agonists (as well as natural ones) consists in binding to receptors of pituitary cells that secrete gonadotropic hormones. As a result, a picture develops similar to that observed in hypogonadotropic amenorrhea.This phenomenon is also called ‘medical castration’. The process is reversible: after the cessation of the administration of GnRH-a, the function of the entire hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system in women of reproductive age is restored after 14-21 days. GnRH-a drugs are widely used in gynecological clinics, primarily in estrogen-dependent pathology: endometrial hyperplasia, uterine myomas, endometriosis, breast cancer. The drugs are injected every 28 days for 3-6 months, depending on the nature of the pathological process.
Patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia require special dynamic observation by a gynecologist. Control ultrasound should be performed 3.6 and 12 months after curettage and the start of hormone intake to assess the effectiveness of treatment. With repeated recurrence of adenomatosis, removal of the uterus is indicated.
With recurrence of endometrial polyps, glandular and glandular-cystic forms of hyperplasia, with ineffectiveness of hormone therapy – if the patient is not interested in childbirth – ablation (resection) of the endometrium is indicated – complete destruction of the endometrium.For this purpose, electrosurgical (with a cutting loop) and laser ablation methods are used under the control of a hysteroscope. The operation is performed under general intravenous anesthesia.
After curettage of the uterine cavity and / or resection of the endometrium, the patient can be discharged home on the day of surgery or the next day. Within 3-10 days after the manipulation, there may be an abundant bleeding from the genital tract. After ablation, the remnants of the resected tissue usually come out with the secretions.Such discharge is the norm and should not be embarrassing. In parallel with hormone therapy for a quick recovery, the intake of vitamins is shown: ascorbic acid, B vitamins, iron preparations for anemia (Sorbifer, Maltofer). Sedative therapy is prescribed (tinctures of valerian or motherwort). Physiotherapeutic procedures (electrophoresis) and acupuncture are useful. Nutrition should be complete, it is necessary to observe the mode of work and rest. Sexual abstinence is also recommended for 2 weeks after curettage.
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90,000 causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment methods on the website “Alpha Health Center”
Benign proliferation of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus, accompanied by a violation of the menstrual cycle, anovulatory uterine bleeding, infertility
Signs of endometrial hyperplasia are observed in 5-25% of women. This term denotes a pathological increase in the endometrium – the inner mucous layer of the uterine cavity.Normally, it grows every monthly cycle. Thickening under the influence of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, the mucous membrane prepares to receive the egg. If conception does not occur, then the decrease in hormone levels causes tissue rejection. After menstruation, the process starts over. With hormonal failure, the level of estrogen rises, which triggers the process of pathological growth of the epithelium.
Causes and symptoms of endometrial hyperplasia
Forms of hyperplasia are distinguished:
- glandular – the glandular tissue of the mucous membrane thickens;
- glandular cystic – benign cysts are formed;
- focal – glandular and fibrous polyps appear;
- atypical (adenomatous) – altered cells appear, it is dangerous to degenerate into an oncological form (adenocarcinoma).
The main causes of the disease are hormonal disruptions. The likelihood of encountering signs of endometrial hyperplasia during puberty and at the beginning of menopause, when hormonal changes occur in the female body. A number of related problems increase the risk of pathology:
- inflammation in the genitourinary system;
- abortions, gynecological operations on the uterus;
- endocrine diseases;
- diseases of poppies and appendages – fibroids, polycystic ovaries;
- unfavorable environmental conditions;
- hormone therapy.
It is difficult to determine the pathology only by the patient’s complaints. Many gynecological diseases manifest themselves in a similar way. The main symptoms of endometrial hyperplasia include:
- irregular, frequent (more often than 21 days), prolonged menstruation, with smearing discharge between them;
- pains of cramping type in the abdomen;
- spotting during menopause.
The disease may be asymptomatic, especially with menopause.
How to treat endometrial hyperplasia
Treatment begins with an accurate diagnosis. This will require:
- gynecological examination;
- Ultrasound to assess the size, thickness, structure of the uterine mucosa, cysts, polyps;
- histological examination of tissue;
- hysteroscopy – examination of the uterus with a special sensor;
- laboratory tests for hormones.
How endometrial hyperplasia is treated is decided by the doctor. For simple forms, hormonal treatment is effective using:
- gestagens – hormones of the ovaries and adrenal glands;
- intrauterine device;
- hormone therapy for menopause.
90,051 oral contraceptives that normalize cyclical growth and tissue rejection;
If the form is focal, then endometrial hyperplasia will have to be treated surgically to remove polyps. In adenomatous form, the uterus is removed due to the risk of a cancerous tumor.
Treatment of endometrial hyperplasia is not effective using alternative methods. Postponing therapy until “later” can lead to irreversible consequences: infertility, anemia, oncology. With early detection and adherence to the recommendations, the chances of recovery are high.
90,000 IRON HYPERPLASIA ENDOMETRY.DIAGNOSTICS, CLINIC, TREATMENT | Pushkarev
1. Akhundova S.S., Kirikova Yu.M., Miller A.P., Karachentseva I.V. Immediate and long-term results of the use of bipolar hysteroresection for the treatment of various types of intrauterine pathology in patients of different age groups // Bulletin of the Russian State Medical University. – 2008. No. 3 (62). S. 9-11.
2. Breusenko V., Golova Yu.A., Kappusheva LM, Mishieva OI, Kirikova Yu.M., Tsechoeva TS .. Modern approach in the treatment of proliferative processes in postmenopausal women // Selected lectures. – M .: Publishing house “MEDpressinform”, 2007. – S. 315-323.
3. Bereka J. Gynecology according to Emil Novak / J. Bereka, I. Adashi, P. Hillard. M .: Praktika, 2002.892 p.
4. Bohman J.B. Guidelines for gynecological oncology. SPb .: Foliant, 2002.-540 p.
5. N.V. Bochkareva Combination of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer with uterine myoma: the role of sex hormones, their receptors and enzymes of estrogen metabolism / N.V. Bochkareva, L.A. Kolomiets, I.V. Kondakova // Vopr. Oncology. 2005. T. 51. No. 4. S. 427-433.
6. Kondrikova N.I., Silakova A.V. Hyperplastic changes and precancerous conditions of the endometrium: questions of terminology and classification // Archives of pathology. – 2010. – T. 72. No. 1. – S. 60-62.
7. Klinyshkova T.V. Clinical and morphological substantiation of optimization of treatment of patients with endometrial hyperplasia / T.V. Klinyshkova, N.B. Frolov, S.I. Brain // Russian Bulletin of Obstetrician-Gynecologist. 2010. – No. 3. S. 16-20.
8.Kuznetsov R.E., Sokolova L.M. The use of outpatient hysteroscopy in elderly patients // Military Medical Journal. – 2009. -T. SSSXXX. No. 7. P.69.
9. Martirosyan K.A. Modern methods of treatment of endometrial hyperplastic processes in postmenopausal patients / Solomatina A.A., Mishieva O.I., Martirosyan K.A. // Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference “Topical Issues of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology”, Sudak, 2012.S. 331-332.
10. Modern methods of diagnostics of endometrial hyperplastic processes / O.S. Lobachevskaya, L.S. Gulyaeva, O.V. Sasina [and others] // Medical panorama. 2005. No. 8. P.24-25.
11. Solomatina A., Martirosyan K., Tikhonov D. Influence of the receptor gene expression of the reproductive hormones at patients with endometrium pathology in postmenopause // XX FIGO World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics.Rome, 2012.
12. Simsek T. Impact of different hormone replacement therapy regimens on the size of myoma uteri in postmenopausal period: tibolone versus transdermal hormonal replacement system / T. Simsek, C. Karakus // Vaturitas. 2002. Vol. 42. P. 243-246.
90,000 what is it? Causes, signs, symptoms and treatment
Hyperplasia is understood as a change in the structure of tissues, accompanied by an increase in the number of their constituent cells.At the same time, the number of internal structures in the cellular elements increases. This proliferation of tissues is associated with a tendency to accelerated cell division under the influence of physiological (natural) or pathological causes. It can lead to an enlargement of an organ or part of it in size, which resembles a benign tumor.
Hyperplasia may be a precancerous condition. With a further increase in the number of cells, mutations characteristic of tumor growth appear in them, and the shape changes.Therefore, it is necessary to timely recognize this process and treat the corresponding diseases.
Classification of hyperplasia
Hyperplasia is primarily affected by cells, which normally divide quickly enough. Most often, they line mucous membranes (endothelium), form glands (glandular hyperplasia), or are part of the immune system (lymphoid hyperplasia).
Depending on the prevalence of the pathological process, focal hyperplasia differs, diffuse, and similar cells can form limited formations – nodes and polyps.
An example of a physiological process is breast hyperplasia during pregnancy and breastfeeding. At the same time, milk-secreting cells grow. This process is reversible, subsequently the glandular tissue is gradually replaced by adipose tissue.
Benign hyperplasia develops in the initial stage of disease under the influence of pathological stimuli. It manifests itself only by an increase in the number of cells in the tissue without changing their properties. Subsequently, structural changes occur in such cells, and the process acquires the features of a precancerous one.This is how, for example, atypical endometrial hyperplasia occurs.
Causes and signs of hyperplasia
Main causes of hyperplasia:
- excessive mechanical, physical, chemical effects on the epithelium or endothelium, which leads to accelerated cell renewal of these tissues;
- chronic inflammation;
- Enhancement of hormonal effects on receptors of the cell membrane, for example, an increase in the level of estrogen;
- certain regimens of physical training, leading not to an increase in the size of muscle fibers (their hypertrophy), but to an increase in their number, which increases the power of muscle contraction.
Hyperplasia is considered the body’s natural response to a stimulus, such as a hormone. With the elimination of the provoking factor, the symptoms of hyperplasia gradually disappear. This is how it differs from the neoplastic processes that underlie cancer and benign tumors, which do not respond to the termination of the harmful factor. However, pathological hyperplasia can gradually transform into neoplasia.
Symptoms and diagnosis of hyperplasia
The diagnosis of this condition is based on the morphological characteristics of the tissues, that is, on the detection of an increased number of cells when examined under a microscope.For this, different types of biopsy are used – smear, scraping from the surface of the endothelium, puncture, pinch, brush biopsy, and so on. If pathological changes are detected, a preliminary diagnosis of the disease is made and its further diagnosis is carried out – blood tests for hormones, ultrasound of organs and other necessary studies.
The most common clinical forms are:
- prostatic hyperplasia – an enlargement of the organ, causing men to have difficulty urinating and sexual dysfunction;
- endometrial hyperplasia – the proliferation of its cells in response to excessive exposure to estrogen, for example, with polycystic ovary; in the future, atypical hyperplasia, which is a precancerous condition, may form;
- hyperplasia of the stomach, namely its glands, endothelium, lymphoid tissue, often accompanying gastritis and peptic ulcer disease;
- hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, resulting from a compensatory increase in the number of organ cells with insufficient intake of iodine; it helps maintain normal levels of thyroid hormones, but with a significant increase in the gland, it leads to symptoms of goiter;
- lymph node hyperplasia is another example of the adaptive nature of this process; it occurs with a variety of inflammatory, autoimmune or tumor diseases and is accompanied by an increase in the number of immune cells in the lymph node;
- cervical hyperplasia occurs due to an increase in the number of glands in it, which occurs under the influence of infection, hormonal disorders; against its background, precancerous processes can develop.
These morphological changes in tissues can result in:
- to an increase in the organ and compression of the surrounding structures;
- to the development of a precancerous process.
Treatment of hyperplasia depends on which organ it is formed in and how pronounced it is. For example, if the endometrium is damaged, consultation with a gynecologist is necessary, and the therapy itself includes the prescription of drugs, curettage for bleeding, or other surgical methods.
In case of hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, it may be sufficient to restore the intake of iodine into the body. If the resulting knot is too large and compresses the trachea, interferes with breathing and swallowing, it is removed surgically.
Prostatic hyperplasia is treated with drugs, and if they are ineffective, an operation is prescribed – resection of the gland.
Only a doctor can determine how to treat hyperplasia in each individual case. Traditional methods in this case will be ineffective, and the lack of timely assistance can cause malignant degeneration of hyperplastic tissues.
Benefits of the clinic for the whole family “Mom Dad I”
The network of family clinics “Mama Papa Ya” invites you for examination and treatment for hyperplastic processes of any localization:
- our branches are located in Moscow and other cities;
- we offer consultations of specialists in various fields – gynecologist, urologist, endocrinologist and others;
- we monitor the effectiveness of treatment using modern laboratory and instrumental studies;
- offer affordable prices for clinic services.
To make an appointment, we invite you to call the phone number listed on the website, or fill out the appropriate application.
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Hyperplasia of the mammary glands – treatment of hyperplasia of the mammary glands in Kiev, hyperplasia of the mammary glands treatment in the clinic
Synonymization of concepts
The name “hyperplasia of the glandular tissue of the mammary glands” is familiar to very few people. This is explained by the fact that the disease has many synonyms that are heard. The most recognizable:
|Dyshormonal hyperplasia||Glandular dysplasia of the breast||Hyperplasia of the mammary gland epithelium|
|Diffuse dyshormonal fibrocystic prototypic disease 9033-cystic disease||Nodular fibrocystic changes||Lobular hyperplasia of the mammary gland|
|Fatty hyperplasia||Benign tumors|
Symptoms of the disease
If with the question “What is hyperplasia?” we figured it out, we need to understand how to diagnose the disease.As a rule, it proceeds secretly and for a long time the woman does not even know about the problem. A mammologist can diagnose the disease after palpation and examination using an ultrasound scanner or mammography. On self-examination, the following symptoms may become a cause for concern:
- the presence in the mammary glands of fixed nodular seals ranging in size from 0.5 to 1.5 mm in diameter;
- Hypersensitivity and tenderness of the breast in the first days of the menstrual cycle;
- an increase in the size of the bust for no apparent reason, swelling in certain areas;
- Clear, watery or milky nipple discharge that is not associated with pregnancy or lactation;
- enlarged lymph nodes near the chest, pain in the shoulder and armpit.
Please note that these are common features that accompany the deformation of breast tissue. Each form of the disease has its own symptoms. For example, glandular dysplasia of the breast is accompanied by a painless course, and tumor neoplasms are disc-shaped and mobile.
Appointment to a mammologist for examination
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Causes of hyperplasia
The disease occurs in women over 20 years of age.Predisposing factors for the development of the inflammatory process are considered hormonal disorders in the body, genetic predisposition, stressful experiences and diseases of the endocrine system. Also, the disease develops against the background of a long period of breastfeeding, contact with harmful chemicals, due to mechanical trauma to the chest and taking hormonal drugs.
The indicated reasons for the development of mammary gland hyperplasia to the patient at first glance do not seem to be related and serious breast diseases.In practice, this is a cause for concern on the part of the mammologist. Treatment of hyperplasia of the mammary glands of varying complexity will not be effective if the root cause is not qualitatively eliminated. Otherwise, a relapse is possible.
Photo 1. Well recognized – well treated
Risk of developing oncology
Most types of hyperplasia do not require radical treatment. Taking into account the type and stage of the disease, the doctor draws up a plan of action.If this is an early phase, it identifies and eliminates the causes of the appearance of a lump in the chest. If a large neoplasm is found in the mammary gland or a woman has atypical hyperplasia, surgery may be needed.
At the Specialized Breast Center, we provide all treatment services: from diagnostics and diagnosis to operations and postoperative follow-up. We tell each patient of the blade in detail about the results of the study, explain in simple words the complex medical terminology and answer the questions of interest.
The medical center employs doctors of the highest category, who annually improve their skills at specialized conferences, forums and symposia. In addition to mammologists and diagnosticians, we have an endocrinologist who has 10+ years of experience in solving hormonal problems in women. To make the only correct diagnosis and determine the right treatment, they can gather for a medical advice.
Hardware inspection is carried out using expert class equipment. It allows us to see the slightest changes in breast tissue at an early stage.
Every woman should be examined by a mammologist at least once a year. If you have not been to a doctor for a long time, make an appointment at 044-344-65-28 or leave a request on the website.
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symptoms, causes, treatment and diagnosis
Hormonal disorders in the female body (excess estrogen) often lead to serious pathology. The tissues of the lining of the uterus begin to grow.Due to the growth of glandular cells, the tissue thickens and increases in size. Doctors diagnose glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium. The disease is quite dangerous and fraught with the threat of the onset of a precancerous state. Medical treatment is aimed at preventing cancer of the inner lining of the body of the uterus. At the same time, it is imperative to preserve the patient’s reproductive function.
Types of pathology
The essence of the disease is to change the structure of the endometrial glands. The main thing is to correctly and timely diagnose the type of pathology.This will ensure the optimal choice of treatment course. Glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium can manifest itself in several forms.
- Simple form of pathology. The architecture of the structure of the glands is preserved. No atypical changes in cells are observed. It just happens that the glandular cells of the endometrium grow. The overgrowth of this type of hyperplasia into a malignant process is only 1% out of a hundred possible.
- Complex hyperplasia. In this case, clinical manifestations are found in the form of an accumulation of glands on the surface.Moreover, the structure of such growths is heterogeneous. The risk of a woman getting cancer is 3%.
- Simple hyperplasia with atypical cells. Endometrial tissue grows and contains cancer progenitor cells.
- Atypical cystic pathology of the endometrium. It is a very dangerous disease. The thickness of the mucous membrane of the body of the uterus increases markedly. Structural rearrangement and polymorphism of nuclei are observed. Cells multiply by dividing.The structure of their nuclei is disrupted and atypia appears. She is diagnosed under a microscope. The probability of a woman getting cancer is very high and amounts to 29% out of 100 cases.
Endometrial pathology is fraught with serious complications. A woman with active glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium may in the future acquire chronic anemia, endometrial oncology, infertility or loss of reproductive function in full. A relapse of the disease may occur with many complications.Doctors recommend preventive measures to prevent this disease.
Any woman should be examined by a gynecologist at least once every six months. As medical practice shows, patients do not notice the development of this disease on their own. Only during the examination do they learn about their illness.
An effective preventive method will be the cure of all gynecological diseases and the elimination of infections. Avoiding abortion will play a particularly important role in prevention.Only the woman herself is able to prevent the onset of the disease. If the first signs of endometrial pathology are detected, she should immediately consult a gynecologist. The best gynecological clinics are at the service of clients.
Causes and signs of the disease
Endometrial glandular hyperplasia can be found in women of any age. Most often, however, adolescent girls and older women suffer the sad fate. The risk group consists of patients in transition periods.After all, it is then that the female body undergoes hormonal changes.
Among the most obvious reasons for the onset of pathology, doctors state:
- if the patient has uterine fibroids;
- disease of a woman with endometriosis or endometritis;
- ovarian problems (specifically polycystic ovary syndrome;
- too late onset of menopause;
- refusal to take hormonal contraceptives;
- absence of childbirth;
- availability of gynecological surgical interventions,
- abortion and curettage.
Aggravating factors that can provoke the disease, along with the above reasons, are hypertension and endocrine system problems, obesity and liver disease, diabetes mellitus and mastopathy.
In most cases, endometrial hyperplasia does not differ in a pronounced clinical picture. However, a carefully collected history of patients helps to establish characteristic symptoms. Menstruation is irregular. After a delay in menstruation, profuse uterine bleeding is observed.Menstrual bleeding is very intense and may last for more than 7 days. The volume of discharge is much higher than the norm. As a result, weakness, dizziness, nausea appear, and anemia develops. Contact bleeding may occur when spotting occurs during intercourse. With endometrial hyperplasia, a woman cannot get pregnant. Quite often, patients show blood secretion not during menstruation and during menopause.
Methods for detecting pathology
The clinical manifestations of this disease are similar to those of other pathologies.In order to prevent more serious complications of this dangerous ailment, it is important to timely and correctly identify it.
- Gynecological examination. Considered an effective diagnostic method. It includes not only examining the patient on a chair, but also obtaining additional information regarding heredity and childbirth. Clarifies information about the menstrual cycle, methods of contraception, existing diseases of a woman or girl.
- Ultrasound examination. Performed transvaginal ultrasound can detect polyps, determine the thickness of the mucous membrane of the body of the uterus. To clarify the feasibility of an aspiration biopsy, doctors use ultrasound screening instead of separate curettage.
- Hysteroscopy. An effective diagnostic method. It involves examining the uterine cavity using a hysteroscope (a type of endoscopic equipment). According to indications, it is used for curettage during menstruation. The entire pathological endometrium must be removed.The obtained scrapings are sent for histological examination. It is able to clarify the type of pathology and diagnose the disease correctly. In comparison with transvaginal ultrasound, the efficiency of hysteroscopy approaches 94.5%.
Along with the listed diagnostic methods, doctors use radioisotope scanning, where isotopes help to recognize the nature of the disease. If necessary, patients are prescribed hysterography, injecting a contrast agent into the uterine cavity.With its help, an x-ray gives a clear picture of the state of the uterus. Quite often, the level of estrogen and progesterone is examined. Their indicators are very important for detecting endometrial hyperplasia.
When carrying out diagnostics, medical specialists pay special attention to patients who have had cases of ectopic pregnancy, have polyps, cervical erosion or neoplasms (myoma or uterine cancer).
Treatment of endometrial pathology
The course of treatment of glandular hyperplasia of the uterine mucosa consists of several stages.
- Cessation of abundant discharge from the uterus. Achieved by carrying out the procedure for scraping the walls of the uterus. The examination of the scraping will clarify the degree of endometrial damage and help the doctor decide on the tactics of treatment.
- Restoration of the patient’s menstrual cycle. Here it is important to find out the reasons for the failure: hormonal type, medication with only estrogen intake, anatomical, when the egg cannot leave the ovary due to an obstacle.
- Taking medications.Usually, Regulon, Janine, Yarina, Dyufaston and Utrozhestan are shown to patients for 3-6 months. If a woman’s age exceeds 30 years, in some cases, medications are used for the onset of temporary artificial menopause.
A positive result of treatment is provided by the installation of the Mirena intrauterine hormonal device. Vitamin therapy and physiotherapy sessions bring a certain effect. At the end of the full course of treatment, a biopsy is done. After 3-6 months, women undergo control ultrasound.If a relapse of the disease is detected, endometrial resection and ablation are resorted to. The procedures are performed using a laser and electrosurgical instruments.
With the disappearance of ovulation, a number of diseases may appear that the doctor will have to eliminate. Among them: rheumatism, polycystic ovaries, mental overexcitation, metabolic syndrome, neoplasms in the pituitary gland.
The treatment of glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium allows patients to become a mother. The reproductive function of a woman is preserved.The main thing is that there is no violation of the menstrual cycle. The scraping procedure will not negatively affect conception. A woman is able to become pregnant, bear and give birth to a baby.
If the patient has suffered the fate of a relapse of the disease, the doctor determines the cause. Most likely, it is associated with disorders of the endocrine system of the body.
Treatment of pathology can be carried out in a hospital and on an outpatient basis. However, in the event of unforeseen complications in the patient’s condition, she will be able to provide timely emergency assistance only in stationary conditions.
Cytological examination of scrapings of the cervix and cervical canal with a description according to the Bethesda System (TBS)
Method of determination
Cytological examination is carried out in accordance with the “Nomenclature of clinical laboratory tests used for the diagnosis and monitoring of the condition of patients in the institutions of the Russian Federation”, approved by order of the Ministry of Health of Russia dated 02.21.No. 64 and “An approximate list of laboratory tests for the clinical diagnostic laboratory of medical institutions” dated 25.12.1997, No. 380.
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International method of timely recognition of probable oncological pathology of the uterus.
Oncological diseases of the cervix are a serious public health problem, are widespread, have a reliably recognizable preclinical phase and a long developmental period. For reliable verification of the diagnosis and selection of effective treatment methods, a reliable screening test is used – a cytological examination of smears taken from the cervix and cervical canal.
The cytological method of research is very sensitive in the diagnosis of precancer (dysplasia) and initial preclinical cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, microinvasive and latent invasive cancer).Cytological screening allows identifying patients in the preclinical phase of the disease, using sparing methods of treatment, shortening its time, and reducing the incidence of disability and mortality. Screening cytological examination of the cervix is recommended annually for all women over the age of 21 (or one year after the onset of sexual activity), regardless of clinical indications. In the presence of clinical changes, the frequency of cytological examination is determined by a gynecologist.
For the emergence and development of many pathological processes, the peculiarity of the anatomical structure of the cervix and, in particular, the state and relationship of the epithelial layers of the vaginal part of the cervical canal is essential.As a rule, precancerous changes, and then malignancy, occur at the site of the transition of the stratified squamous epithelium of the vaginal portion of the cervix into the cylindrical epithelium of the cervical canal (transformation zone), located (at a fertile age) in the area of the external pharynx. Under the influence of hormonal factors, trauma, inflammatory processes, diathermocoagulation, the transformation zone (joint zone) can vary significantly. During the period of wilting of the ovarian-menstrual function in connection with the processes of atrophy, the level of the joint rises high into the cervical canal.
In 95-97% of cases, malignant transformation occurs in the cells of the squamous epithelium, in the rest – in the cells of the columnar epithelium of the cervical canal.
The founder of diagnostic cytopathology is G.N. Papanicolaou, who in 1928 described cancer cells in vaginal smears. He developed a widely used classification of changes in the cells of the vagina and cervical canal of the cervix. But this classification does not take into account cytological changes caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).Therefore, the World Health Organization currently recommends the system developed at the Bethesda clinic (USA).
Bethesda Terminology System (TBS, 2001)
was developed to unify the descriptions of the results of cytological examination of the cervical epithelium (in order to present them in a convenient form for clinicians), with the allocation of finds of different clinical significance to separate groups and assessment of the adequacy of the material under study.
The Bethesda system includes 3 categories of smears: normal, swabs of undetermined value (ASCUS) and intraepithelial (precancerous) lesions of low (LSIL) and high (HSIL) degrees.
According to TBS, the initial component of the interpretation of cervical smears is to assess the adequacy of the sample, since its quality affects the sensitivity of the cytological method. TBS 2001 assumes two categories of samples: “satisfactory” and “unsatisfactory”.
Terminology of the Bethesda system (revised 2004).
NILM – intraepithelial changes and malignant processes are absent. This group includes cytological conclusions about the normal state of the epithelium, as well as the presence of various non-neoplastic conditions (diseases).Clarify their nature and, if possible, the reason:
- atrophic changes;
- Presence of glandular epithelial cells after hysterectomy;
- reactive changes associated with inflammation, including typical regeneration, radiation therapy, use of intrauterine contraceptives;
- also indicate the presence of microorganisms:
- Trichomonas vaginalis;
- fungi corresponding to Candida spp.;
- coccobacillary microflora characteristic of bacterial vaginosis;
- cellular changes corresponding to the defeat of the Herpes simplex virus.
90,051 bacteria corresponding to the morphological structure of Actinomyces spp .;
In women 40 years and older, in the absence of squamous intraepithelial changes, the presence of endometrial cells is also indicated.
ASCUS – cells of squamous epithelium with unclear atypia.
ASC-H – squamous epithelial cells with unclear atypia, which do not exclude the presence of a high degree of intraepithelial changes.
LSIL – low-grade intraepithelial lesions of squamous epithelium, including lesions associated with HPV and CIN I.
HSIL – high grade intraepithelial squamous epithelial changes, including CIN II, CIN III, carcinoma in situ and cases suspected of invasion.
Squamous cell carcinoma.
AGC – cells of the cervical (glandular) epithelium with atypia of unclear significance.
AGC, favor neoplastic – cells of the cervical (glandular) epithelium, possibly neoplasia.
Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
Other malignant tumors.
Material for research:
smear of cervical epithelium (see instructions for taking biomaterial).
Instructions for taking material:
Smears are taken before bimanual examination and colposcopy. The instruments used must be sterile and dry, since water and disinfectant solutions destroy cellular elements.
During a preventive examination of women (cytological screening), it is advisable to obtain cellular material from the surface of the vaginal part of the cervix (ectocervix) and the walls of the cervical canal (endocervix), in the presence of pathological changes in the cervix – sighting.
As a tool for taking material from the cervix during a prophylactic examination, modified Ayr-type spatulas or Cervix-Brash, Papette brushes are used. For diagnostic purposes, the material is obtained separately: with spatulas from the ectocervix, brushes of the Cytobrash type from the endocervix.
The obtained biological material is applied in a thin layer on a glass slide and dried in air. The glass must be marked with the name / code and the place of taking the cell material (cervix, cervical canal).The markings on the slide and in the direction for cytology must match.
Please note that for girls under 16 years of age, gynecological tests are taken only in the presence of their parents. Medical offices do not scrape and swab the cervical canal for pregnant women who are 22 weeks old or more, as this procedure can cause complications. If necessary, you can contact your attending physician to take the material.
In the direction of cytological examination of biological material, clinical data, diagnosis, characteristics and place of obtaining the material, data on the menstrual cycle must be indicated.
The smear should be applied in a thin layer to the glass and completely dried.
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- Wright T.C. Jr., Cox J.T., Massad L.S. et al. 2001 Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities // JAMA. – 2002.