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Mild symptoms of dehydration: Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention


Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention

Dehydration happens when your body doesn’t have as much water as it needs. Without enough, your body can’t function properly. You can have mild, moderate, or severe dehydration depending on how much fluid is missing from your body.


It’s normal to lose water from your body every day by sweating, breathing, peeing, and pooping, and through tears and saliva (spit). Usually you replace the lost liquid by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water. If you lose too much water or don’t drink and eat enough, you can get dehydrated.

You can lose more water than usual with:

You may not replace the water you lose because:

  • You’re busy and forget to drink enough.
  • You don’t realize you’re thirsty.
  • You don’t feel like drinking because you have a sore throat or mouth sores, or you’re sick to your stomach.


Signs of mild or moderate dehydration include:

Signs of severe dehydration include:

  • Not peeing or having very dark yellow pee
  • Very dry skin
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Rapid breathing
  • Sunken eyes
  • Sleepiness, lack of energy, confusion or irritability
  • Fainting

Symptoms for babies and young children can be different than for adults:

  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • No tears when crying
  • Dry diapers for 3 hours
  • Sunken eyes, cheeks, soft spot on the top of the skull
  • Sleepiness, lack of energy, or irritability

Severe dehydration is a medical emergency and needs to be treated immediately.

Who’s at Risk?

Anyone can get dehydrated, but the odds are higher for some people:

  • Babies and young children are the most likely to have severe diarrhea and vomiting, and they lose the most water from a high fever. The youngest can’t tell you they’re thirsty or get their own drink.
  • Older adults often don’t realize they’re thirsty. If they can’t get around very well anymore, they may not be able to get a drink easily or may not be able to take in enough fluids due to medical conditions.
  • People who are ill with a cold or sore throat may not want to eat or drink.
  • People with a chronic disease such as type 2 diabetes can pee a lot if the disease is uncontrolled. They also may take medicines such as water pills, which make them go more often.
  • People who are active outside in hot and humid weather sometimes can’t cool down effectively because their sweat doesn’t evaporate. This can lead to a higher body temperature and need for more water.

6 Unusual Symptoms of Dehydration and Tips to Stay Hydrated

Becoming extremely dehydrated — defined by the World Health Organization as losing more than 10 percent of your body weight in fluid — can lead to injury or fatal complications, and it requires an ER visit. Seizures, cardiac arrhythmia, or hypovolemic shock can occur because your blood volume is too low.

Yet it rarely comes to that. Most of the time, you can easily replenish your fluid stores and fend off dehydration. The truth is you can lose 3 to 4 percent of your body weight through dehydration without feeling any real symptoms, says Alp Arkun, MD, the chief of service for emergency medicine at the Kaiser Permanente Fontana and Ontario Medical Centers in Southern California. Yet, once you have lost 5 to 6 percent, you’ll start to feel the symptoms of mild dehydration, notes MedlinePlus. Thirst, fatigue, dizziness, or constipation are sure signs it’s time to reach for water or a sports drink that’s low in sugar and high in electrolytes.­­

RELATED: Thirsty? 9 Refreshing Alternatives to Soda

But the signs of dehydration aren’t always so obvious. Here are six surprising signs and symptoms of dehydration.

1. Bad Breath Is a Possible Warning Sign of Dehydration

Saliva has antibacterial properties, but dehydration can prevent your body from making enough saliva.

“If you’re not producing enough saliva, you can get bacterial overgrowth in the mouth, and one of the side effects of that is bad breath,” says John Higgins, MD, a professor of medicine at the University of Texas in Houston and the chief of cardiology at Lyndon B. Johnson General Hospital in Houston.

It’s the same reason you may wake up with “morning breath”: Saliva production slows down during sleep, notes the Mayo Clinic, leading to an unpleasant taste in the mouth as bacteria grow. So the next time your mouth seems dry and your breath smells less-than-fresh, it may be time to rehydrate.

RELATED: What Is ‘Raw’ Water, and Should You Drink It?

2. Dry or Flushed Skin Could Be a Symptom of Dehydration

“A lot of people think that people who get dehydrated are really sweaty, but in fact, as you go through various stages of dehydration, you get very dry skin,” Dr. Higgins says, adding that skin may appear flushed as well.

Another key skin-related symptom of dehydration is skin that remains “tented” after being pinched and takes some time to return to its normal, flat appearance (more on that below).

RELATED: 10 Surprising Causes of Dry Skin

3. Muscle Cramps Are a Dehydration Symptom, Likely From Heat Illness

When your body loses enough fluid, it’s unable to cool itself off adequately, leading to heat illness, notes OrthoInfo. One symptom to look out for is muscle cramps, which can happen while exercising, particularly in hot weather.

“The hotter you get, the more likely you are to get muscle cramps, and that’s from a pure heat effect on the muscles. As the muscles work harder and harder, they can seize up from the heat itself. Changes in the electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, can lead to muscle cramping as well,” says Higgins.

Bear in mind that when it comes to rehydration after exercise, all drinks may not be created equal. A study published in March 2019 in the BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine found that when participants rehydrated with a drink containing electrolytes after exercise, they were less likely to develop muscle cramps. Participants who drank plain water, on the other hand, were more likely to have cramps. The study was small, so its findings may not apply to you, but the next time you feel a muscle cramp coming on after exercise, opting for an electrolyte-filled sports drink may help.

Even in cooler weather, dehydration is possible if you don’t drink enough fluids while working out. Higgins says symptoms may be milder or come on slower, but dehydration carries the same risks, regardless of the temperature outside.

4. Fever and Chills Are Symptoms of Heat Illness, Which Causes Dehydration

Other symptoms of heat illness include fever and chills. You may sweat profusely while your skin is cool to the touch.

Fever can worsen dehydration. The higher the fever, the more dehydrated you may become. Unless your body temperature decreases, your skin will lose its cool clamminess and then become hot, flushed, and dry to the touch. At this point, it’s important that you cool yourself down immediately and see a medical professional, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises. Applying ice and cool, wet cloths, and moving to a cool area are short-term strategies until you can see a medical professional.

According to the Mayo Clinic, children and infants lose more of their body fluid to fever, and they are more likely to experience severe diarrhea and vomiting from illness. Any fever in an infant or toddler is cause for concern. Ask your pediatrician for guidelines on when to call for help.

The CDC urges adults with fever to seek medical help if their temperature reaches 103 degrees F.

RELATED: 6 Smart Tips for Staying Hydrated Throughout the Day

5. Food Cravings, Especially for Sweets, May Just Mean You’re Thirsty

“When you’re dehydrated, it can be difficult for organs such as the liver, which uses water, to release glycogen [stored glucose] and other components of your energy stores, so you can actually get cravings for food,” Higgins says.

While you can crave anything from chocolate to a salty snack, cravings for sweets are more common because your body may be experiencing difficulty breaking down glycogen to release glucose into the bloodstream to use as fuel, he says.

6. Headaches Could Be a Sign You Need to Drink More Water

As MedlinePlus points out, even mild dehydration can cause a dehydration headache and trigger a migraine headache. Although various factors besides dehydration can cause headaches, drinking a full glass of water and continuing to sip more fluids during the day is an easy way to ease your pain if, in fact, dehydration is a culprit.

RELATED: What Is Alkaline Water and Does It Offer More Benefits Than Plain H2O?

How to Tell if You’re Dehydrated or if It’s Something Else

If you’re thirsty, you’re already dehydrated. But lack of thirst doesn’t necessarily mean you’re well hydrated. Here are two other ways to check whether your body is dehydrated:

Try this skin test. Use two fingers to pinch up some skin on the back of your hand, and then let the skin go. The skin should spring back to its normal position in less than a couple of seconds. Higgins says that if the skin returns to normal more slowly, you might be dehydrated.

Check your urine. If you’re well hydrated, your urine will be mostly clear with a tinge of yellow (the color of light lemonade before it hits the bowl). Darker yellow or orange are the “warning” colors to watch for, per UC San Diego Health. If you see those colors, start drinking fluids.

RELATED: 8 Foods High in Water That Can Help Prevent Dehydration

Tips for Staying Hydrated

When it comes to daily water intake, hard-and-fast rules are difficult to apply because it depends on so many variables, including your age, gender, whether you’re pregnant or breast-feeding, and whether you have any underlying medical conditions.

Yet 2004 guidelines from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine — the most recent available — advise that getting 2.7 liters per day for women and 3.7 liters per day for men. You can reach this amount by consuming foods and fluids.

Here are some tips for getting all the fluids you need and avoiding dehydration:

Keep Your Water Bottle Handy at All Times

“If it’s right next to you, you’ll likely get into the habit of sipping it without even realizing it,” says Johannah Sakimura, RD, an outpatient oncology dietitian at Overlook Medical Center in Summit, New Jersey.

RELATED: The Best Water Bottles to Keep You Hydrated

Try Spicing Up Plain Water

“If you don’t love plain water, jazz it up by adding a splash of fruit juice or chunks of fresh or frozen fruit,” says Sakimura. “Or try naturally flavored, calorie-free seltzers — their fizz and fruit flavor makes them more appealing than plain, flat water.”

RELATED: LaCroix Lawsuit: Is Sparkling Water Good or Bad for You?

Turn to Sugar-Free Herbal Tea or Coffee

Sakimura recommends drinking unsweetened teas, which are available in lots of different flavors. “Sip fruity iced teas during the day (with lots of ice if it’s hot out), or cozy up with a mug of hot peppermint or chamomile tea at night — they all count toward your daily fluid goal.” And if your beverage of choice is coffee rather than tea, that works, too: While caffeinated drinks may have a diuretic affect, increasing your need to urinate, one crossover study of 50 men found that there were no significant differences in total hydration when the men drank four cups of coffee daily compared with four cups of water. The results of the study, which were published in the journal PLoS One in January 2014, suggest that coffee hydrates similarly to water when consumed in moderation by regular coffee drinkers.

RELATED: Is Filtered Coffee Healthier Than Unfiltered Coffee?

Swap Your Packaged Snacks for Fresh Options 

“Swap dry snacks, like chips, pretzels, and crackers — which have a very low water content — with refreshing munchies, like fresh or frozen fruit, yogurt, healthy smoothies, celery with peanut butter, and cut veggies with hummus,” recommends Sakimura.

Pile on the Produce 

In the same vein, know that those veggies and fruits are hydrating, just like beverages. “Aim to make half your plate produce at meals. All those vegetable and fruit servings will supply water as well as a hearty dose of vitamins, minerals, and fiber,” says Sakimura. “In fact, some fruits and vegetables are more than 90 percent water — including cantaloupe, strawberries, watermelon (of course), cucumber, celery, lettuce and leafy greens, zucchini, tomatoes, and bell peppers.”

Sip More Fluid During Meals

“Sipping water with meals will help you eat more slowly, pace your eating, and, of course, stay hydrated,” Sakimura says. Drinking water before eating may furthermore help with weight loss, as it did for participants of a study published in the journal Obesity in August 2015. During a small randomized controlled trial involving 84 subjects, participants who drank 500 milliliters (ml) of water 30 minutes before eating lost an average of 1.3 kilograms (kg) at the 12-week follow-up.

RELATED: 5 Tricks for Getting Enough Fruit and Veggies

A Final Note on the Importance of Preventing Dehydration if You’re Elderly

Elderly people may be at higher risk for dehydration for a number of reasons, per the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Some elderly people become chronically dehydrated if they take certain medicines, such as diuretics, have a diminished sense of thirst, are not able to get themselves a glass of water easily, or forget to drink because of dementia. Chronic dehydration in an elderly person may lead to confusion, low blood pressure, dizziness, and constipation.

If you have an elderly relative with mobility limitations or cognitive problems, be sure to watch him or her for signs of dehydration, or ask their caregivers to do so. Certain prescriptions can be costly, so make sure to know your Medicare coverage options.

As for your own well-being, remember that healthy bodies are composed of at least 60 percent water, notes the U.S. Geological Society. Keep that healthy balance, and drink up!

Additional reporting by Sheryl Huggins Salomon and Laura McArdle.

Winter Dehydration: What You Need to Know

Let’s say you’re out on a run in the hot July afternoon heat. Or you’re out gardening or weeding in August. You know that you need to drink before, during, and after the activity to stay hydrated.

Sneakier, though, is cold-weather dehydration. “There’s a false perception that hydration needs drop so dramatically in winter that dehydration can never be a problem,” says New York City–based sports dietitian Lauren Antonucci, RDN.

3 Factors That Can Contribute to Dehydration in the Winter

There are several frigid factors that can prompt a parched status:

1. Indoor Heat Is a Sneaky Source of Dehydration

All the heat pumped into your office or home keeps the building warm, but “indoor air is really dry,” says Antonucci. This is counter to summertime humidity, which leaves you sticky from all the moisture in the air. Spending time inside working, sleeping, and hanging out keeps you exposed to this dry heat for much of your day, and you can lose fluids and become dehydrated. (Hence why right now you’re constantly grabbing for moisturizer to slather on cracked skin, she says.)

RELATED: 6 Unusual Signs of Dehydration You Should Know

2. Bundling Up Can Be a Sweaty Affair

When the temperature drops, sticking with outdoor exercise is good for your mind and body. But if you’re someone who doesn’t like to feel cold, you might overdress on purpose. “Many people layer up and sweat through their clothes, but because they don’t feel hot, they don’t realize that they’re losing as much sweat as they are,” says Antonucci.

3. You’re Not Carrying Around Water Anymore

When it’s warm, you’re always within reaching distance of a water bottle. In the cold, you’re not as thirsty and perhaps feeling chilly, and it can feel less desirable to carry a water bottle with you, says Antonucci.

As for how much you should aim to drink, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recommends that men consume approximately 125 ounces (oz) of total fluid from beverages and food (about 16 cups of fluid), and women consume 91 oz of fluid (just over 11 cups).

A good way to check for dehydration, says Stella Volpe, PhD, RDN, a professor and department head of human nutrition, foods, and exercise at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg is to do the pee test. If your urine is pale yellow, it’s healthy. “That’s a measure that anyone can use at any time of the year to test their hydration status,” she says.

RELATED: What Your Urine Says About You and Your Health

Signs of Dehydration Can Be Sneaky — and Dangerous, Too

Severe dehydration can lead to confusion, fainting, rapid heartbeat and breathing, and even shock, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. It’s unlikely you’ll naturally get to that point just by sitting at your desk indoors, but you can suffer some of the consequences of mild dehydration, such as:

  • Headaches They can be a symptom of dehydration but also a trigger for migraines, says the National Headache Foundation. Past research also suggests that increasing daily water intake helped improve migraines in migraine sufferers better than a control group.
  • Dry mouth
  • Dry skin
  • Dizziness
  • Lack of Energy Many people refer to this as a “midday slump.” “This can happen for other reasons, such as not eating a good breakfast or you didn’t have time to eat lunch, but you might also be dehydrated,” says Antonucci.
  • Problems Concentrating A meta-analysis of 33 studies found that cognitive performance, including attention, executive function, and motor coordination, were impaired in those who were dehydrated. The authors published their findings in November 2018 in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
  • Increase in Injuries If you’re an athlete or highly active recreationally, you might notice that you’re starting to get injured more often. Your cells are full of water, and hydration also impacts blood flow and muscle contraction. “Nothing works as well when you’re dehydrated. Your body has to cut corners,” says Antonucci.
  • You’re not going to the bathroom regularly. If you go more than two hours without peeing or your pee is the color of apple juice, you’re not drinking enough h3O, says Antonucci.

RELATED: 8 Common Medications Linked to Dehydration

6 Tips for Prioritizing Hydration in the Winter

“Even if you’re spending much of the day in your home because of [COVID-19] or sitting a lot because you’re working from home, you still need to hydrate,” says Volpe. Here’s how to make it more of a habit:

1. Grab a Portable Water Bottle

Take your water bottle everywhere you go, suggests Antonucci. This is actually easier if you’re staying home all the time now. All you have to do is take one from room to room.

2. Have a Designated Water at Your Desk

Fill up a pitcher of water and keep it on your desk as a reminder to keep sipping and filling up your glass, says Antonucci.

3. Infuse Your Water With Flavor

Drop pieces of fruit, like diced apples, in plain water. If you really want to get creative, says Volpe, brew water with an unsweetened iced tea bag and add pieces of fruit.

4. Eat Water-Rich Foods

“It’s the totality of water from fluids and food that counts toward hydration,” says Volpe. Fruit and vegetables generally supply water (such as celery, tomatoes, and watermelon, she says), but other foods like soup will also help your body meet its needs.

5. Practice the 1:1 Rule

That is, for every non-water drink, pair with a glass of water. In the morning Antonucci will fill a large mug with coffee and another large mug with water. At lunch, it’s another large mug with water, plus a mug of a beverage like seltzer or herbal tea.

6. Trade Booze for a Hydrating Mocktail at Happy Hour

For your next Zoom happy hour, swap dehydrating alcohol for a DIY mocktail. You can mix flavored, no-added-sugar seltzer water with a few raspberries or slices of lime for an easy, healthy drink. If mocktails aren’t your thing, or if you’re more of a hot-beverage person, try adding lemon to hot water for a comforting evening drink.

RELATED: 10 Mocktail Recipes So Good You Won’t Believe They’re Booze-Free

8 Common Medications Linked to Dehydration

Thirsty much? You’re always on the lookout for side effects like dizziness, headaches, constipation, and nausea when you start a new medication, but also consider that some meds may directly or indirectly lead to dehydration.

Certain medications may pull water from the body, increase the amount you urinate, or cause fluid loss via side effects like vomiting or diarrhea, explains Aaron Emmel, PharmD, the founder of PharmacyTechScholar.com in St. Augustine, Florida.

RELATED: 6 Unusual Signs of Dehydration You Should Know About

If your medication lists dehydration as a possible side effect, you should not stop taking the drug. Talk to your doctor about any concerns and how best to deal with possible dehydration. For the most part, making an effort to drink more water — but not overdoing it — will be key.

Signs and symptoms of severe dehydration include tremors, weakness, and blurry vision, says Jessica Nouhavandi, PharmD, the co-CEO and cofounder of Honeybee Health, in Culver City, California. In extreme cases, dehydration can be fatal, so it’s always important to hydrate appropriately, pay attention to any signs and symptoms of dehydration, and alert your doctor. While it’s good to always get a complete rundown of common side effects from your pharmacist when you start a new medication, here are tips on eight drugs that have a track record of contributing to dehydration.

1. Laxatives for Constipation

If you have constipation, laxatives can help bring back regular bowel movements (BMs). They’re safest if taken for a short period of time, notes the Mayo Clinic. Laxatives are readily available over-the-counter, but you can also get prescription laxatives, such as plecanatide (Trulance), which treats irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation. By speeding up bowel movements, laxatives can cause your body to flush out too much water. “Laxatives stimulate bowel movements, and increased BMs to the point of diarrhea may cause the body to become dehydrated due to the loss of fluids,” says Dr. Nouhavandi. That’s why laxative abuse is dangerous. Always use these as prescribed, she says.

RELATED: What the Color of Your Poop Says About Your Health

2. Oral Medications for Type 2 Diabetes

If you have type 2 diabetes, you may take a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, an oral tablet that controls glucose and hemoglobin AIC (HbA1C) levels and helps prevent diabetes-related complications. Options include Invokana (canagliflozin), Farxiga (dapagliflozin), and Jardiance (empagliflozin), according to the Johns Hopkins Patient Guide to Diabetes. SGLT2 inhibitors work in your kidneys, ultimately causing more sugar to escape into your urine, explains Mitchell Howard, PharmD, a clinical assistant professor in the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. As a result, your kidneys will pull water from your body in order to dilute your urine, he says. This diuretic effect may have an upside: If you have hypertension, your blood pressure may drop, he says, and lower your risk of heart disease.

Metformin is another common oral medication for type 2 diabetes; it’s associated with GI upset and diarrhea, and may contribute to dehydration, according to a May 2017 article published in the Journal of the American Geriatric Society. The risk of this side effect is particularly high in individuals who are just starting out with metformin, those who are taking high doses, and those on non-long-acting formulations. The NHS recommends taking small sips of water if you’re on metformin and feeling ill, and to avoid taking any medications to treat GI upset unless your doctor has okayed it.

3. Excedrin Migraine for Migraine

An over-the-counter migraine medication, Excedrin Migraine contains a combination of acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine. The caffeine is designed to provide another layer of pain relief and enhances the effects of acetaminophen, according to the Mayo Clinic, but it can also have a mild diuretic effect, says Ashley Ellis, PharmD, CDCES, the director of clinical operations at Compwell in Collierville, Tennessee. It’s important to treat migraine promptly, as there’s no reason to try to last through the pain, but keep in mind that you may want to hydrate while you do.

RELATED: 8 Natural Hangover Remedies

4. Potassium-Sparing and Thiazide Diuretics for High Blood Pressure

There are a few different classes of diuretics (also called “water pills”), including thiazide and potassium-sparing diuretics. Both types of diuretics are common drug treatments for high blood pressure, says the Mayo Clinic. Diuretics in general trigger your kidneys to release sodium in your urine, which then takes water from your blood, helping you urinate out excess water. With less fluid in your veins, your blood pressure decreases, the medical center explains. As such, these can also contribute to dehydration. Continue to drink water normally to balance hydration levels (rather than under- or overconsuming H20).

5. Loop-Acting Diuretics for Heart Failure

If you have heart failure, you may be prescribed a diuretic, and one type is a loop diuretic. Furosemide (Lasix) and bumetanide (Bumex) are two popular loop diuretics, says Dr. Howard. These work by flushing built-up fluid in your body to relieve stress on your heart. Though these drugs may cause fluid loss, that’s the point, so you should not consciously drink more fluid to make up for what you may have lost. But that doesn’t mean you should become parched. “Continue to drink your healthy, normal amount that maintains your hydration,” he recommends. Because this medication increases urination, take it in the morning so you’re not up all night going to the bathroom, adds Howard. Talk to your cardiologist and primary care doctor about how to best monitor your hydration (clinically called fluid/volume status). They may ask you to weigh yourself daily to look for trends that suggest dehydration or a need to adjust your medication dosage.

RELATED: How to Prevent and Treat Heart Disease

6. Apremilast for Plaque Psoriasis

Apremilast (Otezla) is a tablet that improves moderate-to-severe psoriasis by targeting a specific enzyme that reduces inflammation. One of the most common side effects is diarrhea, which can become severe enough to send patients to the hospital, the drug manufacturer notes. In their clinical studies, 17 percent of patients reported diarrhea compared with 6 percent in a placebo group. Nonetheless, diarrhea should go away in the first two weeks. Ask your doctor about what your plan should be if this side effect happens to you. And, if you have symptoms of dehydration in addition to diarrhea, talk to your doctor about the best way to rehydrate.

7. Chemotherapy Drugs for Cancer

Chemotherapy is frequently used to treat cancer, and these drugs come with a host of side effects, including nausea and vomiting. “The degree of vomiting that some of these drugs cause can be substantial,” says Dr. Emmel. There are many different factors that determine if your course of treatment will lead to these side effects, including type of drug, how it’s given to you, dose, and more, says the American Cancer Society (ACS). You may be given anti-emetic medication, which will help control nausea, the ACS points out. Other strategies include keeping a fluid diary to track hydration, prioritizing water-rich foods like soups, fruits, and vegetables or popsicles, and trying ice chips, suggests the organization.

RELATED: What Are Some Signs and Symptoms of Cancer?

8. Lithium for Bipolar Disorder

According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), lithium (Eskalith, Eskalith CR, Lithobid) is a mood stabilizer that treats bipolar disorder. “Lithium can cause an increase in urination,” says Emmel. If you find that you have an insatiable thirst and you’re drinking way more than usual, notify your doctor. This drug can lead to diabetes insipidus, a rare condition in which you urinate a large volume of diluted urine; certain medications can treat it, but you’ll also want to drink enough to offset this urination, recommends the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

Dehydration: MedlinePlus

What is dehydration?

Dehydration is condition caused by the loss of too much fluid from the body. It happens when you are losing more fluids than you are taking in, and your body does not have enough fluids to work properly.

What causes dehydration?

You can become dehydrated because of

Who is at risk for dehydration?

Certain people have a higher risk of dehydration:

  • Older adults. Some people lose their sense of thirst as they age, so they don’t drink enough fluids.
  • Infants and young children, who are more likely to have diarrhea or vomiting
  • People with chronic illnesses that cause them to urinate or sweat more often, such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, or kidney problems
  • People who take medicines that cause them to urinate or sweat more
  • People who exercise or work outdoors during hot weather

What are the symptoms of dehydration?

In adults, the symptoms of dehydration include

  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Dry mouth
  • Urinating and sweating less than usual
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Dry skin
  • Feeling tired
  • Dizziness

In infants and young children, the symptoms of dehydration include

  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • Crying without tears
  • No wet diapers for 3 hours or more
  • A high fever
  • Being unusually sleepy or drowsy
  • Irritability
  • Eyes that look sunken

Dehydration can be mild, or it can be severe enough to be life-threatening. Get medical help right away if the symptoms also include

  • Confusion
  • Fainting
  • Lack of urination
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Rapid breathing
  • Shock

How is dehydration diagnosed?

To make a diagnosis, your health care provider will

  • Do a physical exam
  • Check your vital signs
  • Ask about your symptoms

You may also have

  • Blood tests to check your electrolyte levels, especially potassium and sodium. Electrolytes are minerals in your body that have an electric charge. They have many important jobs, including helping to keep a balance of fluids in your body.
  • Blood tests to check your kidney function
  • Urine tests to check for dehydration and its cause

What are the treatments for dehydration?

The treatment for dehydration is to replace the fluids and electrolytes that you have lost. For mild cases, you may just need to drink lots of water. If you lost electrolytes, sports drinks may help. There are also oral rehydration solutions for children. You can buy those without a prescription.

Severe cases may be treated with intravenous (IV) fluids with salt in a hospital.

Can dehydration be prevented?

The key to preventing dehydration is making sure that you get enough fluids:

  • Drink enough water every day. Each person’s needs can be different, so ask your health care provider how much you should be drinking each day.
  • If you are exercising in the heat and losing a lot of minerals in sweat, sports drinks can be helpful
  • Avoid drinks that have sugar and caffeine
  • Drink extra fluids when the weather is hot or when you are sick

10 warning signs of dehydration. And staying hydrated while wearing a mask.

What do you think is more essential: Food or water? While we tend to focus a lot of our time and energy on food — deciding what to eat for lunch or make for dinner — water is essential. In fact, we can go up to 3 weeks without food but wouldn’t last more than 3 or 4 days without water.

“Hydration is necessary for survival,” explains Ronald A. Navarro, MD, Kaiser Permanente’s coordinating chief of orthopedic surgery for Southern California. “The cells in our bodies contain water and are surrounded by water. When we’re dehydrated, these cells are less permeable, which means they have trouble absorbing nutrients and removing waste.”

The benefits of hydration

When you drink enough water, you’re helping your body function at its best. You may even experience some impressive health benefits, which can include:

  • Keeping cool
    When you overheat — whether it’s because of a sunny day, an intense workout, or a fever — your body produces sweat to cool down. Sweat is mostly made of water, so your body needs to stay hydrated to help you stay nice and cool.
  • Getting muscles and joints to work at peak performance
    Because your cells work better when fully hydrated, it can increase your body’s ability to perform. Water also helps lubricate your joints, making it easier to move.
  • Helping control weight
    “We often mistake thirst for hunger,” says Dr. Navarro. “Drinking enough water may help us avoid misplaced urges that tell us to eat when we don’t need to.”

Preventing constipation
People who are well-hydrated usually have regular bowel movements. Hard bowel movements or constipation can be a sign that you aren’t getting enough water — or fiber.

So how much water do you need to drink per day? The short answer: It depends.

“The most common recommendation is to drink 8 ounces of water 6 or 8 times a day, every day,” explains Dr. Navarro. “However, some adults may need more or less, depending on their overall health. Factors like illness and medications can affect how much water you may need. You should also take into account how much you exercise, the level of intensity, and how hot and dry the weather is.”

Warning signs of dehydration

Not sure if you’re dehydrated? One of the easiest ways to tell is by checking the color of your urine. If it looks clear or pale yellow, then you’re drinking enough water. But if your urine is a darker yellow or an amber color, then it’s time to hydrate.

Other warning signs of dehydration can include:

  • Bad breath
  • Decreased amount of urine
  • Dry mouth and swollen tongue
  • Sluggishness and fatigue
  • Sugar cravings

And if you’re feeling any of the following more severe dehydration symptoms, seek medical attention right away:

  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Heart palpitations

Causes of dehydration

How do we get dehydrated? The most common cause is not drinking enough water throughout the day — but things like hot weather, drinking too much caffeine or alcohol, and working out are other factors. There are also less common causes of dehydration to keep an eye out for — like stress, certain medications, aging, high altitudes, and burns (including sunburns).

Does wearing a mask cause dehydration?

To slow the spread of the coronavirus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends wearing a face covering when in public. Wearing a mask does not cause dehydration, but you may drink less water when you’re wearing one. When you wear a face covering for long periods of time, it’s important to be mindful of how much water you drink. Bring a water bottle with you when you leave the house and set reminders on your smartphone to take frequent water breaks. Check in with your body throughout the day for signs of thirst or dehydration. If you’re wearing a mask while working out, for example, and start to feel fatigued or overheated, stop what you’re doing. Find a spot away from people, remove your mask, and drink water.

Note: It’s important to keep your mask dry, as wearing a wet mask can make it difficult to breathe. Always take your mask off before drinking water or other liquids. If you spill on your mask, let it dry before putting it back on. You shouldn’t wear a mask when swimming — just practice physical distancing while in the water.

Are you drinking enough water?

Find out how to keep your body in balance and hydrated. And talk to your doctor if you have any questions.


Dehydration: Symptoms, causes, and treatments

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Dehydration occurs when more water and fluids leave the body than enter it. Even low levels of dehydration can cause headaches, lethargy, and constipation.

The human body is roughly 75 percent water. Without this water, it cannot survive. Water is found inside cells, within blood vessels, and between cells.

A sophisticated water management system keeps our water levels balanced, and our thirst mechanism tells us when we need to increase fluid intake.

Although water is constantly lost throughout the day as we breathe, sweat, urinate, and defecate, we can replenish the water in our body by drinking fluids. The body can also move water around to areas where it is needed most if dehydration begins to occur.

Most occurrences of dehydration can be easily reversed by increasing fluid intake, but severe cases of dehydration require immediate medical attention.

Fast facts about dehydration

  • Around three-quarters of the human body is water.
  • The causes of dehydration include diarrhea, vomiting, and sweating.
  • Individuals more at risk of dehydration include athletes, people at higher altitudes, and older adults.
  • Early symptoms of dehydration include dry mouth, lethargy, and dizziness.

Dehydration is easy to remedy but can be serious if left unchecked.

The first symptoms of dehydration include thirst, darker urine, and decreased urine production. In fact, urine color is one of the best indicators of a person’s hydration level – clear urine means you are well hydrated and darker urine means you are dehydrated.

However, it is important to note that, particularly in older adults, dehydration can occur without thirst. This is why it is important to drink more water when ill, or during hotter weather.

As the condition progresses to moderate dehydration, symptoms include:

  • dry mouth
  • lethargy
  • weakness in muscles
  • headache
  • dizziness

Severe dehydration (loss of 10-15 percent of the body’s water) may be characterized by extreme versions of the symptoms above as well as:

  • lack of sweating
  • sunken eyes
  • shriveled and dry skin
  • low blood pressure
  • increased heart rate
  • fever
  • delirium
  • unconsciousness

Symptoms in children

  • in babies – a sunken fontanel (soft spot on the top of the head)
  • dry tongue and mouth
  • irritable
  • no tears when crying
  • sunken cheeks and/or eyes
  • no wet diaper for 3 or more hours

The basic causes of dehydration are not taking in enough water, losing too much water, or a combination of both.

Sometimes, it is not possible to consume enough fluids because we are too busy, lack the facilities or strength to drink, or are in an area without potable water (while hiking or camping, for example). Additional causes of dehydration include:

Diarrhea – the most common cause of dehydration and related deaths. The large intestine absorbs water from food matter, and diarrhea prevents this from happening. The body excretes too much water, leading to dehydration.

Vomiting – leads to a loss of fluids and makes it difficult to replace water by drinking it.

Sweating – the body’s cooling mechanism releases a significant amount of water. Hot and humid weather and vigorous physical activity can further increase fluid loss from sweating. Similarly, a fever can cause an increase in sweating and may dehydrate the patient, especially if there is also diarrhea and vomiting.

Diabetes – high blood sugar levels cause increased urination and fluid loss. Tips for handling summer heat for people with diabetes.

Frequent urination – usually caused by uncontrolled diabetes, but also can be due to alcohol and medications such as diuretics, antihistamines, blood pressure medications, and antipsychotics.

Burns – blood vessels can become damaged, causing fluid to leak into the surrounding tissues.

Although dehydration can happen to anyone, some people are at a greater risk. Those at most risk include:

Older adults commonly become dehydrated.

  • People at higher altitudes.
  • Athletes, especially those in endurance events, such as marathons, triathlons, and cycling tournaments. Dehydration can undermine performance in sports, as this article explains.
  • People with chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, kidney disease, cystic fibrosis, alcoholism, and adrenal gland disorders.
  • Infants and children – most commonly due to diarrhea and vomiting.

Dehydration in older adults is also common; sometimes this occurs because they drink less water so that they do not need to get up for the toilet as often. There are also changes in the brain meaning that thirst does not always occur.

If dehydration is not checked, it can lead to serious complications; these can include:

Low blood volume – less blood produces a drop in blood pressure and a reduction in the amount of oxygen reaching tissues; this can be life threatening.

Seizures – due to an imbalance of electrolytes.

Kidney problems – including kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and eventually kidney failure.

Heat injury – ranging from mild cramps to heat exhaustion or even heat stroke.

A doctor will use both physical and mental exams to diagnose dehydration. A patient presenting symptoms such as disorientation, low blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, fever, lack of sweat, and inelastic skin will usually be considered dehydrated.

Blood tests are often employed to test kidney function and to check sodium, potassium, and other electrolyte levels. Electrolytes are chemicals that regulate hydration in the body and are crucial for nerve and muscle function. A urine analysis will provide very useful information to help diagnose dehydration. In a dehydrated person, urine will be darker in color and more concentrated – containing a certain level of compounds called ketones.

To diagnose dehydration in infants, doctors usually check for a sunken soft spot on the skull. They may also look for a loss of sweat and certain muscle tone characteristics.

Dehydration must be treated by replenishing the fluid level in the body. This can be done by consuming clear fluids such as water, clear broths, frozen water or ice pops, or sports drinks (such as Gatorade). Some dehydration patients, however, will require intravenous fluids in order to rehydrate. People who are dehydrated should avoid drinks containing caffeine such as coffee, tea, and sodas.

Underlying conditions that are causing dehydration should also be treated with the appropriate medication. This may include medication available to purchase over-the-counter or online, such as anti-diarrhea medicines, anti-emetics (stop vomiting), and anti-fever medicines.

Prevention is really the most important treatment for dehydration. Consuming plenty of fluids and foods that have high water content (such as fruits and vegetables) should be enough for most people to prevent dehydration.

People should be cautious about doing activities during extreme heat or the hottest part of the day, and anyone who is exercising should make replenishing fluids a priority.

Since the elderly and very young are most at risk of being dehydrated, special attention should be given to them to make sure they are receiving enough fluids.

Video: Signs of dehydration – how to prevent it

Read the article in Spanish.


Addresses of clinics in Kazan

Address: st. Gavrilova, 1, stop. “Gavrilova” (Yamashev Ave.)

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: 8.00-14.00

Bus: 10, 10а, 18, 33, 35, 35а, 36, 44, 45, 46, 49, 55, 60, 62, 76

Trolleybus: 2, 13

Tram: 5, 6

Address: st.T. Minnullina, 8a, (Lukovsky) stop. “Puppet Theatre”

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: 8.00-14.00

Bus: 1, 2, 31, 37, 47, 74

Trolleybus: 6, 8, 12

Metro: Sukonnaya Sloboda

Address: st. Syrtlanova, 16, st. metro Prospect Pobedy, stop st. Syrtlanova (Victory Avenue)

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: 8.00-14.00

Bus: 5, 34, 37, 62 77

Tram: 5

Metro: Victory Avenue

Address: st. Nazarbayev, 10, art. Sukonnaya Sloboda metro station, stop”Metro Sukonnaya Sloboda”

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: closed

Bus: 1, 4, 25, 43, 71

Metro: Sukonnaya Sloboda

Address: st. Decembrists, 180, Art. metro station “North Station”, stop. “Gagarina”

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: closed

Bus: 6, 18, 29, 33, 37, 40, 43, 53, 62, 76, 78, 89

Trolleybus: 13

Tram: 1, 6

Metro: North Station

Address: A. Kamaleeva Ave., 28/9, (residential complex “XXI century”), stop. “New hippodrome”

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: 8.00-14.00

Trolleybus: 3

Address: Derbyshki, st. Mira, 20, stop. “Shop Komsomolsky”, “Carnation”

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: 8.00-14.00

Bus: 1, 19, 25, 34, 44, 60, 84

Address: st. Serov, 22/24, stop. “St. Serov ”

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: 8.00-14.00

Bus: 10, 10а

Address: st. Belomorskaya, 6, st. metro station “Aviastroitelnaya”, stop. “St. Leningradskaya ”

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: 8.00-14.00

Bus: 6, 18, 33, 37, 40, 42, 43, 53, 60, 78, 89, 93

Trolleybus: 13

Tram: 1

Metro: Aircraft

Address: st.Zakieva, 41a, stop. “Cable TV”

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: 8.00-14.00

Bus: 5, 18, 30, 31, 34, 45, 46, 62, 63, 77, 89

Trolleybus: 3, 5, 9, 12

Address: st. Kul Gali, 27, stop. “St. Kul Gali “(st. Gabishev)

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: closed

Bus: 46, 90

Address: st. Richard Sorge, 95, metro “Dubravnaya”, stop. “St. Julius Fucik ”

Mon-Fri: 7.00-20.00, Sat: 7.30-16.00, Sun: 8.00-14.00

Buses: 5, 18, 30, 31, 33, 34, 45, 68, 74, 77

Trolleybuses: 5, 9, 12

Tram: 4

Metro: Dubravnaya

90,000 Signs of dehydration of the human body | Aquascale

Dehydration or dehydration is a condition characterized by a water content below the required norm, which leads to metabolic disorders, disruption of life support systems and the risk of serious irreversible changes. Dehydration is a stressful condition for the body in which normal life is impossible. Constant or long-term water deficit in the body does not go unnoticed and leads to serious health problems and chronic diseases.

Water constantly leaves our body with urine, through the skin and even through the lungs along with the exhaled air. Many drinks from such popular ones as tea and coffee are actually not fully used to replenish fluid losses in the body, but on the contrary, they can accelerate the process of dehydration.Prolonged contact with dry air or in an environment with elevated temperatures leads to a multiple acceleration of fluid loss. Below we have collected the main symptoms of dehydration, which will help you understand that your body is at the limit and asks for help.

Dry mouth is one of the first signs of dehydration and is most easily tracked. This also applies to all mucous membranes, including the nose and eyes. A small amount of saliva, excessively thick, stretching saliva, insufficiently hydrated eye cornea, a feeling of dryness and sand in the eyes, an unpleasant astringent feeling in the nasopharynx, dryness in the nose up to mucosal bleeding, all these are sure signs of a lack of water in the body.

Bruises under the eyes. Yes, it turns out that the so-called blue circles can appear not only from lack of sleep and poor nutrition. Many also associate the appearance of bruises under the eyes with the consumption of alcoholic beverages on the eve, but just alcohol can cause severe dehydration and bruises under the eyes, its faithful companion.

A decrease in skin elasticity is a fairly accurate indicator of a lack of free fluid in the body and the initial stages of dehydration.Do a simple test: take the skin of your hand and make a thin fold with your fingers, as if you would like to pinch yourself harder, the fold should not be too thick, test where the skin is thin and does not have a thick layer of fat underneath, for example, on the back of the palm . .. Hold the fold for half a minute and release, if the skin immediately returned to its normal state without traces, then everything is in order, if it smoothes slowly, then the skin has lost its elasticity due to dehydration.

Urinary disorders.This includes not only long intervals between urination and low volume, but also the shade and clarity of urine. If it is of a rich dark color and cloudy consistency, then this may indicate an insufficient amount of water in the body, if it is always so, regardless of the volume of water consumed, then this may indicate diseases of the urinary system. Most often, as soon as the water balance is restored and dehydration has passed, the urine regains its normal color and consistency.

Constipation, for which dehydration is one of the main causes of occurrence, can serve as a fairly accurate signal of a lack of water in the body. Moreover, they can appear even with a slight shortage of water, when all other signs of dehydration have not yet appeared. One or two glasses of water half an hour before going to the bathroom can help soften the stool and speed up the elimination process. You should not immediately start drinking drugs that help with defecation disorders, you should first check if you have any initial signs of dehydration.

Increased fatigue, rapid fatigue, drowsiness and a slight feeling of malaise are also manifestations of dehydration in more advanced stages. Such symptoms may seem uncharacteristic for water shortages, but this is a defensive reaction of the body, in which it tries to save energy and remaining resources.

In more severe stages of dehydration, symptoms such as rapid heart rate and respiratory rate, mood swings, feelings of anxiety, and even clouding of consciousness may be added.It would seem difficult to bring yourself to such a state without being in a critical situation and having access to drinking water, but with the modern rhythm of life and high physical and psycho-emotional stress, you can imperceptibly take into the background the initial symptoms of dehydration, as well as other manifestations of the body’s needs. The bad habit of having rare and quick meals is familiar to everyone, the problem with the regularity of replenishing fluid in the body is even more acute. All the more dangerous is dehydration when it comes into contact with dry warm air, be it a stuffy room or summer heat in the street.

Effects of dehydration – AquaMarket

Why does dehydration harm the brain?

All organs need water. However, the human brain begins to feel the shortage of water most quickly. It uses water microtubes to transmit its “messages” – nerve impulses. With a lack of water, brain cells begin to dry out and shrink, impulse transmission between nerve endings is disrupted. As a result, memory deteriorates and the ability to concentrate decreases, a person quickly gets tired during mental work or study.Studies confirm that with the loss of 2% of the liquid, it becomes more difficult for a person to solve math problems, to concentrate on a computer screen or a piece of paper.

Nerve cells in the brain do not reproduce like all other cells in the body. So, dehydration (not drinking enough water or drinking water of poor quality) harms the brain cells. Yet nature is wiser than we think. To obtain all the necessary substances, including water, the brain, which makes up about 2% of the total body weight, is secreted up to 20% of the circulating blood!

The brain works around the clock.He puts the body to sleep, while he continues to control all processes in the body, processes incoming information, coordinates the work of the heart, lungs, circulatory system, etc. Therefore, the body needs water around the clock. Regular drinking of water is the key to the proper functioning of the brain and all organs.

Why is dehydration dangerous?

Addictive! The body lives in a mode of constant water shortage, includes a system of emergency redistribution of resources, and we no longer have the desire to drink.

When we do not drink enough water, the supply of water to the organs occurs on a first come, first served basis: first the most important, then the rest. The body has learned to compensate for the lack of water at the expense of its hidden reserves, and this reserve is the intracellular fluid. That is, the cell will suffer from a lack of water, and the person will not feel it.

The body compensates for the lack of water by 66% – from the cell, by 26% – from the intercellular fluid, by 8% – from the blood. Only then can a person detect thickening of the blood according to the test results.And at this time, every cell of the body has turned from a juicy fruit into a dried fruit. It is much easier for the body to get rid of excess water than to suffer from a lack of it and give it drop by drop to vital organs, sacrificing the interests of less important body functions.

When the turn comes to more important organs, for example, the stomach, intestines, liver, the organs begin to send distress signals in the form of pain. And there is a simple explanation for this: the cells do not have enough water to flush out their waste products.

A special hormone is involved in the economical redistribution of water in the body. It is he who, in excessive quantities, leads to breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men.

The attitude of doctors towards chronic dehydration is also unpleasant. They rarely recommend drinking more water, but prescribe medications to relieve symptoms or alleviate illness, so everyone has to fight dehydration on their own.

How to recognize dehydration?

Dehydration is easily recognized by urine.When enough water is consumed, the urine is light yellow and odorless. The darker the urine, the more effort the body makes to store water, concentrating it, the harder it is for your kidneys and brain to work.

There are a number of other symptoms of dehydration:

– fatigue for no reason, lethargy and lack of energy in the body. This is due to the fact that the body does not receive hydropower, which feeds the brain, and also does not have enough water to break down food and convert it into energy.Anything that enters the stomach settles in the form of fat stores or passes in transit.

– Irritability, impatience, lack of concentration due to lack of energy for the brain.

– Depressed state, sadness and even depression.

– Insomnia. The body reminds the owner that it is not too late to drink water. During sleep, a person loses a glass of water through breath and sweat. At night, the brain continues to work, as it controls breathing, heartbeat and other processes, while spending energy.Therefore, drinking a glass of water at night will help your night watchman.

– Flushing of the face when the blood circulation in the brain is accelerated to improve the circulation of water and oxygen. All of these indicators show that dehydration has distressed some of the brain’s functions. If these signals are not received and no water is supplied, dehydration alarms are triggered. It is already more localized chronic pain:

– Heartburn, heaviness, stomach pain, bad breath.

– Rheumatic pain in joints and back.

– Headache.

– Pain with colitis and constipation.

– Pain in the heart.

And a few more types of pain that no one associates with dehydration, although they have a direct connection. This is a hangover headache, pain in women on critical days. This is all the cry of the body about the catastrophic lack of water at the time of its need.

It is very easy to explain the occurrence of such pain: some organ does not have enough water to clean it from toxic waste and metabolic products.Nerve endings register these chemical changes and transmit information to the brain. By causing pain, the brain tries to draw attention to the problem. If the drought continues further, it can cause irreversible changes in tissues, like rectal cancer, which is a consequence of persistent constipation.

Effects of dehydration

In the case of persistent dehydration, the body enters into water saving programs that are considered serious incurable diseases.Among these diseases:

– asthma and allergies;

– high blood pressure;

– diabetes and hormonal disorders;

– overweight and obesity;

– neurological diseases;

– arthritis and rheumatism;

– stomach and duodenal ulcer;

– various types of cancer.

All these diseases tie a person to the regular use of drugs, and sometimes even to a hospital bed. However, their course becomes easier as soon as a person begins to compensate for dehydration.And for the prevention of these diseases, it is important to regularly consume water in sufficient quantities.

Dehydration during the hike. Causes, symptoms and consequences for the tourist.

While gathering more information on dehydration for this post, I came across Nick Gallop’s excellent site – Skills For Wild Lives. I recommend visiting this site to anyone who speaks English. The site contains many interesting tips and articles.

Nick has done a lot of research on dehydration and has posted information in several articles on his website.With Nick’s permission, I will use some of his materials to better describe the topic of the note.

So why do we need water?

In the human body, water is used as a solvent and takes part in metabolic processes. Thanks to water, nutrients are distributed, waste products are removed, and body temperature is maintained. If there is no water, then all processes in our body will stop. And this is the end.

The body of an adult man contains about 65% of water, in the body of a woman it is slightly less – about 55%.In absolute terms, this is 45.5 liters of water in the body of a 70 kg man and 27.5 liters in a 50 kg woman.

How dehydration occurs on a hike.

During physical exertion, the release of moisture from the body occurs a little differently than when we are not tense.

During the hike, we constantly move, while carrying food and equipment. The muscles are working actively and the body temperature rises. To get rid of excess heat and restore normal temperature, our body is actively sweating.And then we lose precious moisture.

In the winter hike, water losses due to evaporation during breathing are added. Air at temperatures below 0 ° C is always dry. Once in our lungs, it heats up and gains the ability to retain moisture. On the way out of the lungs, the air picks up moisture and leaves the body with it. Plus, in winter we often want to go to the toilet “in a small way”, and this is also an additional loss of fluid.

If the liquid is not replenished in proportion to the losses, then dehydration begins to develop.

When I speak of liquid, I mean not only water. In addition to water, electrolytes are excreted from the body (the main ones are sodium and potassium). But on short hikes, lasting several days, the volume of electrolytes cannot fall to a critical level, since most of the losses are compensated for with food. An exception is poisoning accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting. In this case, the loss of water and electrolytes occurs extremely rapidly . Therefore, it is very important to monitor the quality of food and water while hiking.

Burns are another contributing factor to dehydration. Including solar ones. At the same time, the body gets very hot and the body tries to cool itself, releasing more and more sweat.

Symptoms of dehydration.

The first symptoms of dehydration appear when the body loses 2% of water. Converting this into absolute values, we get 910 ml for a man weighing 70 kg and 550 ml for a woman weighing 50 kg. This means that when you feel the first symptoms, the fluid deficiency in your body will be about a liter if you are a man and more than half a liter if you are a woman.

The first symptoms of dehydration are thirst and discomfort; headaches like a hangover; loss of appetite and dry skin. In addition, facial flushing, loss of stamina, heart palpitations, fever and fatigue may occur.

If nothing is done at this stage and dehydration continues to develop, the following symptoms will be: decreased urine volume, unusually dark urine, cloudy urine, burning sensation when urinating, unreasonable fatigue, irritability, dry mouth, low blood pressure and dizziness in position standing.In addition, vision can play with you too, showing white snow.

The next stage of dehydration is characterized by severe drowsiness, loss of consciousness, convulsions, and sunken eyes. At this stage, there may be a complete lack of urine. These symptoms tell you that your life is in danger, but the situation can be corrected by drinking water and rehydration solutions.

Greater moisture loss in the body (more than 10%) cannot be compensated by oral water intake. Intravenous fluids are required.For this, the victim must be urgently taken to the hospital.

Liquid losses in excess of 15% are usually fatal.

Consequences for the tourist.

Even the first symptoms of dehydration negatively affect the traveler’s mood. Admiring nature with a headache is not what you dream about when going to the mountains.

Any manifestation of dehydration after the initial one can seriously harm the traveler, because during the trip you need to make decisions, navigate the terrain, and use cutting objects.

In addition, dehydration is one of the causes of hypo- and hyperthermia. A sufficient volume of plasma in the blood is a key condition for effective thermoregulation in the body, and plasma contains 90% water.

Mistakes due to minor symptoms can worsen dehydration. For example, distraction caused by mild dehydration can cause inadequate control of food and water intake, which in turn can cause diarrhea.

Already scared to go camping? Do not be afraid.Dehydration is easy to avoid if you learn to understand your body and take the right measures in time. You can learn how to prevent dehydration in the next article.

Stay connected 🙂

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90,000 So how much water should you drink every day? And for what?

  • Jessica Brown
  • BBC Future

Photo Credit, Getty Images

You often hear this advice: Drink plenty of water.And when you are tired, and when your skin is too dry … But this advice is very many years old. Does it have a scientific basis?

At the beginning of the 19th century, water was given to those who were near death. As the father of hydropathy (hydrotherapy) Vincenz Priessnitz wrote, only those who were on the verge of complete exhaustion were allowed to quench their thirst.

And we continue to be bombarded with revelations that, they say, drinking a certain amount of liters of water a day, we open a secret door to excellent health. That it gives us more energy, makes our skin beautiful, helps in losing weight and avoiding cancer.

In London, those who use the underground every day are advised to always have a bottle of water with them. Schoolchildren are advised to bring water to lessons. And a rare office meeting is complete without a jug of water towering majestically in the center of the table.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

Many believe that it is necessary to drink at least eight glasses of water a day.

The appetite for water is fueled by an unofficial rule: drink eight glasses (240 ml each) a day, which is in general, it gives a little less than two liters per day, and not counting any other drinks.

This “rule”, however, is not backed up by scientific research – and neither the British nor the European-wide official guidelines say that we should drink so much.

Where did it come from? Most likely from a misinterpretation of two different instructions drawn up decades ago.

In 1945, the American Food and Nutrition Commission of the National Research Council recommended that adults consume one milliliter of liquid for each recommended calorie of food – which equals two liters for women on a 2000 calorie diet and two and a half liters for men consuming 2500 calories. calories.

Let us emphasize: it was not just about water, but about any type of drinks. And also about fruits and vegetables, which consist of up to 98% of water.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

The recommendations that some are so fond of referring to, in fact, were not only about pure water.

Also, in 1974 in the book “Nutrition for Good Health “, written by nutritionists Margaret McWilliams and Frederick Stear, recommended that the average adult should drink six to eight glasses of water a day.

However, as the authors wrote, this could include fruits and vegetables, coffee and sodas. And even beer.

Hope for thirst

Of course, water is important. The human body is two-thirds of it. Water carries nutrients through it and removes toxins, regulates body temperature, acts as a lubricant and protects joints from excessive stress. It participates in most of the chemical reactions inside our body.

We constantly lose moisture by sweating, urinating, and breathing.Providing your body with enough water is the right task. Avoiding dehydration is very true.

The symptoms of dehydration appear when we lose 1-2% of the moisture in our body, and until we make up for this loss, our condition will worsen. In rare cases, this is even fatal.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

A healthy body, thirsty, draws our attention to the threat of dehydration

Years of instilling in us the rule of eight glasses a day have led to what we believe: thirst means that our body is dangerously dehydrated.

However, most experts agree that we do not need more water than our body asks for – when it asks for it.

“Hydration control is one of the most complex mechanisms that the human body has evolved over the course of evolution. (..) We have a myriad of sophisticated tricks to maintain hydration levels,” says Irwin Rosenberg of the Tufts University Neurology and Aging Lab. in Massachusetts.

In a healthy body, the brain detects when the body begins to dehydrate and creates a feeling of thirst for us to start drinking.In addition, it sends a hormone into the body that signals the kidneys to retain moisture, increasing the concentration of urine.

“If you listen to your body, it will signal you to drink by itself,” says Courtney Kipps, sports consultant and trainer and medical director for triathlon competitions in London and Blenheim.

Photo author, BBC / Getty

Photo caption,

Water is the healthiest option, but tea, coffee and even alcoholic drinks can also help you stay hydrated

Water does not contain extra calories, so it is the healthiest option, but other drinks also help hydration (including tea and coffee).

Drink to Health

There is little evidence that drinking more water than your body requires will provide any benefits and help you stay hydrated.

However, research suggests that there are some important benefits to preventing even the early stages of dehydration.

For example, several experiments have shown that drinking enough water to keep you from mild dehydration helps support brain function and our ability to perform simple tasks.

Several studies show that fluid intake can help fight obesity.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University professor Brenda Davey has done some research on this topic.

In one, she divided the participants into two groups. Both groups followed a healthy diet for three months, but one was asked to drink 500 ml of water half an hour before any meal. As a result, this drinking group lost more kilos than the other.

Members of both groups were also asked to strive to walk 10,000 steps a day, and those who drank the water did better.

Davey suggests that this was because mild dehydration (1-2%) is quite common, and many do not even feel it. But even this degree of dehydration can affect our mood and energy levels in the body.

But Barbara Rolls, professor of intensive care medicine at University College London, believes that any weight loss attributed to drinking water is likely to be due to plain water being substituted for sugary drinks.

“Drinking water by itself is quickly excreted from the stomach,” she notes. “But if you consume more water with food (such as soup), it helps to feel full, since in this case the water stays with food in the stomach longer. “.

Now about the effect of drinking water on the color and quality of your skin. There is no scientific evidence for the benefits here.

Is Too Much Bad?

Those of us who want to drink eight glasses a day won’t hurt ourselves.But the belief that we need to drink even when the body does not send us the appropriate signals can lead us into dangerous territory.

Drinking too much fluid sometimes causes a decrease in the sodium concentration in the blood. This can lead to swelling of the brain and lungs as the body tries to restore sodium levels.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

Many of us are often moderately dehydrated and do not notice it

Over the past ten years, Courtney Kipps has witnessed the death of at least 15 athletes from overhydration – this happened during sports competitions.

She believes that such cases are partly the result of our disbelief in our own body, in its ability to self-regulate.

“Nurses and doctors in hospitals can see severely dehydrated patients who have been without water for a long time. But this is not at all what happens to marathon athletes,” she emphasizes.

Joanna Pakenham ran the 2018 London Marathon, the hottest in terms of weather. However, she simply does not remember most of the distance, since she drank so much water that she developed overhydration, hyponatremia.On the same day she was taken to the hospital.

“My girlfriend and my partner thought I was dehydrated and they gave me a huge glass of water to drink. I fainted, my heart stopped. I was taken by helicopter to the hospital and I was unconscious from Sunday evening until Tuesday.” – she recalls.

Photo author, BBC / Getty

Photo caption,

We rarely think about it, but too much fluid is also dangerous for the body

Pakenem, who plans to run the marathon again this year, says that the only advice that she heard from friends and read on the posters of the marathon, it was like – drink more water.

“All I had to do was take a few electrolyte tablets, which raise the sodium level in the blood,” she says. “I’ve been in several marathons and I didn’t know that.”

“I want people to know that even something so simple can be deadly.”

So how much?

“The maximum that in the worst heat in the middle of the desert can leave the human body with sweat is two liters per hour, but this is very difficult to achieve,” says Hugh Montgomery, director of research at the Institute of Sports, Exercise and Health in London.

“As for the idea of ​​always carrying a half liter bottle of water with you for a 20 minute ride on the London Underground, you never get so hot that you need all that water. Even if you run out of sweat in streams.”

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

The British National Health Service advises drinking six to eight glasses of liquid a day, including coffee or tea (but preferably unsweetened)

It is also important to remember that the mechanisms of thirst in our body after 60 years begin to lose sensitivity.

“As we age, our natural thirst mechanism becomes less sensitive. We are more susceptible to dehydration than we are young. As we get older, we need to be more mindful of our fluid intake to stay hydrated,” says Davey. …

Most experts agree that our fluid needs depend on age, weight, and gender — and on environmental conditions and levels of physical activity.

“One of the misconceptions of the eight-glass rule is to oversimplify how our bodies react to their environment,” says Rosenberg.

Most experts agree that we don’t have to worry too much about drinking randomly assigned amounts of water every day.

At the right time, our bodies will send us a signal in the form of a feeling of thirst. Just like they do it when we are hungry or tired.

The only thing that can be good for your health when you drink more water than you need is you use up extra calories by running to the toilet more often.

To read the original of this article in English, visit BBC Future .

Causes and Signs of Skin Dehydration and How to Avoid It


Dehydrated skin is a problem faced by 90% of women worldwide. It is associated with a violation of the natural water balance in the body, in which the skin is experiencing a large moisture deficit.

Cellular moisture is an indispensable participant in many important physiological processes, in particular, such as the synthesis of collagen, elastin and hiarulonic acid. Lack of moisture leads to loss of elasticity and firmness of the skin, dull complexion, fine wrinkles and premature aging.

Do not confuse dry and dehydrated skin. Dry skin is a genetic trait, it is deficient in nutrients and sebum and needs nourishment in addition to being hydrated. While dehydrated skin can be of any type (normal, dry, oily), which needs mainly moisture.

Signs of skin dehydration

When our skin is deficient in moisture, it is very stressful for it. The following signs indicate dehydration of the skin:

  • painful, dull complexion
  • thinning of the skin
  • disruption of the sebaceous glands
  • early loss of elasticity and firmness
  • feeling of dryness and “tightness” of the skin
  • fine wrinkles that disappear immediately after applying the cream
  • peeling, itching and redness in certain areas of the skin
  • the face looks tired and much older than its age

Symptoms of dehydration of the facial skin can also indicate any diseases and a painful state of the body.

Causes of dehydration of the skin

Loss of moisture reserves vital for maintaining cell activity can be caused by both external and internal factors. External factors include:

  • Environmental influences – extreme weather conditions, temperature extremes, prolonged exposure to the sun, wind
  • Dry indoor air
  • Sunbathing and tanning enthusiasm
  • Improper care

to internal factors, such as:

  • Drinking a little water
  • Frequent stress
  • Hormonal disruption
  • Smoking and alcohol
  • Improper diet
  • Age-related skin changes
  • Lack of vitamins and minerals
  • Face vitamins and minerals

    in no case should be left unattended.

    How to restore the moisture balance of the skin?

    To permanently eliminate the problem of dehydration of the skin, follow these rules.

    Rule 1.

    It is necessary to establish the correct drinking regime. You should drink 1. 5-2 liters of clean drinking water per day.

    Rule 2.

    If you spend a lot of time in rooms with air conditioning and central heating, it is recommended to install a humidifier in them.

    Rule 3.

    Exclude from the face care products those that dry the skin – soaps, harsh scrubs, alcohol lotions and tonics, clay masks.

    Rule 4.

    Find the right care. For dehydrated skin, choose moisturizing emulsions or fluids rich in nutrients, acids and vitamins such as hyaluronic acid, collagen, elastin, glycerin, vitamins C and E, light healthy oils and herbal extracts. Day cream must be UV-protected, i.e. contain with an SPF of at least 15.

    Moisturizers GiGi Vitamin E are well suited for daily care.They have a rich, light texture, contain antioxidants, and prevent the development of dehydration and the appearance of age spots.

    For dry, dehydrated skin, care should contain both moisturizing and nourishing ingredients. Dehydrated oily skin requires a light cream that will not only replenish moisture, but also retain it. GiGi moisturizers for oily skin are presented in several lines – Nutri-Peptide, Lotus Beauty, Acnon, Lipacid, etc.

    Light moisturizing cream GiGi Lipacid has an antibacterial and healing effect, normalizes the water-lipid balance, so it is ideal for problem skin.

    GiGi Solar Energy Moisturizer nourishing and moisturizing cream creates a breathable film that prevents the development of dehydration of the epidermis, while not clogging the pores.

    Rule 5.

    Additional care products will help to protect the skin from drying out. GiGi moisturizing serums should be applied before applying the cream, they will enhance its effect and help to quickly restore the moisture level in the epidermis.

    GiGi moisturizing masks activate the internal reserves of the skin, prevent dehydration, increase firmness and elasticity, and eliminate wrinkles.

    Observe these rules and remember that dehydration is a temporary specific condition caused by a lack of moisture. With proper care and restoration of the moisture balance of the skin, it regains freshness and elasticity.

    COVID-19 – Your Questions Answered by Respiratory Health Specialist | European Lung Foundation


    Do people with asthma have more serious complications and need ventilation?

    So far, we have no evidence that asthma patients develop severe complications with COVID-19.In the UK, the first ICU admissions report was released in mid-March, and of 196 patients, only three had severe lung disease. This is lower than expected, and it is assumed that most people presenting with severe complications are not currently lung patients.

    Are people with asthma who have had COVID-19 recovering?

    Yes. To date, there have been very few cases of severe COVID-19 infection in people with asthma, and those who have been infected are recovering.

    I have asthma and use a prophylactic inhaler. I know these are steroids and I was told that it could make the symptoms of COVID-19 worse. What should I do?

    This information is invalid. Patients with asthma should never stop using a prophylactic inhaler unless told to do so by a healthcare professional. Stopping your steroid inhaler may increase your risk of COVID-19 complications due to your asthma worsening.There is currently no evidence that steroids exacerbate the effects of COVID-19, and research in China suggests steroids can reduce the severity of COVID-19. A British study is currently testing whether steroids work as a treatment in this case.

    Are patients using anti-IL5 or similar eosinophil-lowering drugs at higher risk? Should they stop taking or change their dosage?

    Do not stop taking or adjust your asthma medication dosage out of concern about COVID-19.There is a risk that this can lead to poor control of asthma and the need for medical attention or hospitalization.

    Anti-IL 5 drugs should not affect the risk of COVID-19 infection and, by continuing to take them, theoretically, you can reduce the risk of an asthma attack in case of infection.

    I work in health care and have to wear a mask; I started showing asthma symptoms. Is there any evidence that mask wearing can trigger asthma symptoms?

    No, there are no specific studies showing that wearing a mask worsen the course of asthma.However, the triggers of asthma symptoms are not always obvious and not always possible to identify. If you think something is making your asthma worse at work, you should discuss it with your doctor or health care professional.


    Is there any specific information I should know about COVID-19 and my illness?

    People with bronchiectasis may be at increased risk of complications if you become infected with COVID-19, so here are some tips to reduce your risk of infection and complications if you are infected:

    • Avoid contact with sick people.Ask friends or family members with symptoms not to come to you and keep a distance of at least 2 meters from any sick person you may encounter in public.
    • Whenever possible, do not touch your mouth, nose, or eyes with unwashed hands.
    • Wash your hands thoroughly after touching surfaces that may have the virus. Wash your hands with warm water and soap for 20 seconds.
    • Make sure you continue to take all your prescribed medications and follow all prescribed treatments to keep your lungs as healthy as possible.
    • For bronchiectasis, regular airway clearance exercises should be ensured to help remove mucus from the lungs and reduce the risk of flare-ups (seizures).
    • If you have a cough or fever but are feeling well, try increasing the frequency of airway clearance exercises and take paracetamol to lower your fever. If you feel unwell, seek medical attention.If you have a supply of antibiotics at home, as is the case with many bronchiectasis patients, only take them if the phlegm (mucus) increases or changes color. Antibiotics will not work against the virus, but they will work against a bacterial infection.

    I have bronchiectasis. Should I self-isolate? And am I at greater risk of serious illness?

    Bronchiectasis is very varied, from severe to mild, and therefore it is impossible to give one recommendation that covers all.

    People with severe bronchiectasis, which means frequent lung infections and / or taking long-term prophylactic antibiotics, should practice isolation by staying at home for the next 12 weeks.

    Patients with mild bronchiectasis, mild coughs who do not suffer from frequent lung infections can stay in order by maintaining a social distance, which means they need to stay at home as long as possible, but can still go outside for necessary purchases or activities sports.

    We do not know if patients with bronchiectasis have complications, but we would recommend avoiding the risks.

    Are people with bronchiectasis cured of COVID-19?

    I am currently aware of only one patient with bronchiectasis who has been confirmed to have COVID-19 and has recovered, but none of the published studies so far have included people with bronchiectasis. I hope no one else gets it!


    I have been diagnosed with cancer, have received chemotherapy and radiation some time ago, am I at increased risk for COVID-19?

    Difficult to comment on such special cases.The vast majority of people, even if they become infected with COVID-19, and they have any underlying diseases, will carry the infection in a mild form, similar to the common cold or flu. Severe heart and lung disease is associated with a worse outcome, especially in patients over 80 years of age. Cancer, if successfully treated, is usually not a risk factor for poor outcomes for respiratory infections, which include COVID-19.

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    I have concerns that I regularly take medications for lung infections (prednisolone and doxycycline for any lung infection), as I have been told that they may worsen the effects of COVID-19.

    What should I do?

    This information is unreliable – there is no evidence that prednisone and doxycycline can aggravate the effects of COVID-19. The World Health Organization says steroids should still be used for people with COPD who have an exacerbation with COVID-19.Antibiotics are part of standard treatment when patients are admitted to hospital with COVID-19.

    Therefore, if you have an exacerbation, you must follow your doctor’s advice and take medication.

    What are the risks of COVID-19 for people with severe emphysema?

    Patients with severe COPD and emphysema belong to the group of patients with an increased risk of complications caused by COVID-19. This is because COVID-19 affects the lungs, and if the lungs are already slightly damaged, they have less ability to fight the virus.

    Cystic fibrosis

    Is there anything I should not do because I have cystic fibrosis?

    Follow directions from healthcare providers and local COVID-19 response authorities.

    • We do not recommend self-isolation for all people with cystic fibrosis, but it would be appropriate to stay at home as much as possible.
    • Avoid areas with a high risk of contact with an infected person, such as crowds, especially in areas with poor ventilation.
    • There are currently no general guidelines for school attendance. It depends on the circumstances of your place of residence and the individual recommendations of your local cystic fibrosis center.
    • If you are employed, we recommend that you contact your employer and consider making reasonable changes to your working conditions to ensure your protection. Your local CF center may be able to provide guidance and support.

    The above information has been obtained from the Cystic fibrosis Trust.https://www.cysticfibrosis.org.uk/news/COVID-19-qa

    Cystic Fibrosis Medical Association Recommendations UK

    Lung transplant

    I had a lung transplant.

    Are there any special recommendations for my case?

    The transplant specialists or other specialists you are seeing may already have an action plan, in which case you should follow their recommendations.

    In general, if you develop symptoms that are characteristic of a viral infection, it would be wise to isolate yourself at home and contact your supervising transplant surgeon.If you have difficulty breathing, you need to urgently seek medical attention, just like at any other time.


    I am generally healthy, but have had several pneumonias in the past. Does this mean that the disease will be more severe?

    No, prior infections do not increase the risk of more severe infections in the future, unless the previous complications were caused by other medical conditions (such as severe heart or lung disease, diabetes, or medication that suppresses the immune system).

    Tuberculosis (TB)

    I have tuberculosis; the treatment is going well, but should I self-isolate?

    You must follow the national regulations in your country. In the UK, this would mean social distancing as distinct from self-isolation. You should stay at home as long as possible, but you can go out once a day for shopping and / or exercise. You must stay away from anyone who is not a member of your family (keep a distance of at least 2 meters when you are away from home).

    What is known about TB patients taking anti-TB drugs if they become infected with COVID-19? Are there any instructions or recommendations for treatment?

    Even if you do not feel well, it is important to continue your TB treatment. Take your medications until your healthcare provider recommends otherwise. TB should not affect the severity of COVID-19 infection. Treating COVID-19 infection can be complicated by interactions between anti-TB drugs and other medicines, so it is important that you discuss this with your pharmacist or doctor before taking any medicines.

    I had tuberculosis, I was treated and recovered, but I still have long-term damage to one of my lungs. Am I at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 because of this?

    Possibly. Lung damage from TB often increases your risk of contracting lung infections, so the risk may be slightly higher if you are infected with COVID-19. However, it is important to emphasize that most people experience either mild symptoms or no symptoms at all, even if you have lung disease.

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

    Do you recommend that patients on enhanced alpha-1-antitrypsin replacement therapy continue to visit the hospital for treatment, or should they go without it for several weeks / months until the risk of infection diminishes?

    You should discuss this with your doctor, who will know if your treatment is necessary or may be delayed until the incidence begins to decrease where you are.

    Pneumothorax (collapsed lung)

    I have had pneumothorax, does this increase my risk if I become infected with COVID-19? Am I more likely to get pneumonia?

    Not unless you have other predisposing factors. Pneumothorax can occur in a completely healthy person, in which case you are not at greater risk of coronavirus than anyone else. If your pneumothorax was a complication of COPD, cystic fibrosis, or other pulmonary disease, then this is a predisposing factor.

    I had pneumothorax, will it happen again if I am infected with COVID-19?

    There is no evidence that this is the case. Pneumothorax is a rare complication of viral infections, and there is no evidence that a previous pneumothorax puts you at greater risk unless you have another lung disease predisposing

    idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)

    I suffer from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), am I at greater risk if I become infected with COVID-19?

    Yes, this disease causes a decrease in the functional parameters of the lungs, we believe that IPF is a high-risk state, and patients with IPF should pay special attention to the rules of social distancing and stay at home as long as possible.

    Other states

    I have the flu, should I be more worried about it?

    If you have a confirmed flu virus, then no, you don’t need to worry more than usual. Infection with one virus does not increase the likelihood of contracting another infection.

    I have a thickened pleura, am I at increased risk of COVID-19 infection because of this?

    No, thickening of the pleura does not affect the risk of contracting COVID-19 and does not increase the risk of complications unless other heart or lung conditions are present.

    I have pleurisy, am I more vulnerable when exposed to COVID-19?

    Not unless pleurisy is associated with another underlying lung disease. Lung diseases that put you at greater risk are those that affect the airways or cause decreased lung function, such as COPD, severe asthma, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, or lung cancer.

    I have a part of my lung removed, how can COVID-19 affect me?

    If you are otherwise healthy, there is no reason to believe that this condition could complicate the course of the disease caused by COVID-19, or increase the likelihood of infection.

    This information also applies to healthy people with smaller lungs caused, for example, by scoliosis or kyphosis. This can lead to some decrease in lung size, and the risk depends on the extent of this decrease, but overall, you probably do not have a significant increase in the risk of complications.

    I have a pulmonary embolism, how might COVID-19 affect me?

    Pulmonary embolism, if treated with blood-thinning drugs and your oxygen level is normal, is unlikely to have any impact on your risk of complications from COVID-19.

    I am over 70 years old and have been diagnosed with chronic thromboembolic disease and have been taking warfarin all my life. What are the risks and should I stay at home for 12 weeks?

    Recommendations vary from country to country, but currently in the UK (for example) you are not asked to stay at home for 12 weeks. You will be asked to “socially distance”, which means:

    • Avoid contact with people showing symptoms of coronavirus (COVID-19).These symptoms include high fever and / or recurrent and persistent cough
    • Avoid, if possible, the use of public transport without special need
    • Work from home whenever possible.
    • Avoid gatherings large and small in public places, given that bars, restaurants, entertainment centers and similar places are currently closed, as infections can easily spread in enclosed spaces where people gather together.
    • Avoid gathering with friends and family. Keep in touch using remote technologies such as telephone, internet and social media
    • Use telephone or online services to contact your GP or other required services

    Only those with serious underlying medical conditions such as immune problems, lung cancer or severe COPD, asthma and other lung conditions are asked to stay at home for 12 weeks.Chronic thromboembolic disease is not one of these diseases.

    I have a chronic cough; Am I at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 because of this?

    No, unless your chronic cough is due to a serious lung condition such as COPD or cystic fibrosis, you will not be considered at increased risk.

    I have had video-assisted thoracic surgery and pleurodesis, does this increase the risk of serious illness?

    No, video-assisted thoracic surgery and pleurodesis refer to the pleura – the mucous membrane of the lungs.There is no evidence that COVID-19 affects the lining of the lungs, and therefore there is no reason to believe that this will increase the likelihood of developing a serious illness.

    I have low immunoglobulin M levels, what are the current risks for me and my family?

    Low levels of immunoglobulin M, unless they are associated with low levels of immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin A, or another medical condition, should not be expected to significantly increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection.

    My mother was diagnosed with esophageal paralysis, how could COVID-19 affect her? Is she a high-risk group?

    It is difficult to comment on individual cases, but in itself it does not sound like a risk factor for complications of COVID-19.

    Is a previous pneumothorax a high risk condition?

    Not if the pneumothorax resolves on its own or by pleural drainage. You are not at a greater risk of complications than other people if your lungs are otherwise healthy.

    I suffer from primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), am I at greater risk if I become infected with COVID-19?

    Yes, we believe that because primary ciliary dyskinesia impairs lung drainage, COVID-19 may be more severe. For this reason, in many countries, PCD patients are advised to stay at home, pay particular attention to hand hygiene, social distancing, and avoid home visits.

    I have more than 50% trachea stenosis, am I at greater risk in case of COVID-19 infection?

    It is very difficult to comment on this individual case.You may be at greater risk if this condition is associated with frequent lung infections or decreased lung function. But it’s important to remember that even though the risk is slightly higher, most people who have had COVID-19 recover completely.

    I have had whooping cough, am I at greater risk if I get COVID-19?

    No, except for those cases when irreversible changes in the lungs developed after whooping cough, such as bronchiectasis.

    I have cysts in my lungs, am I at greater risk if I get COVID-19?

    Probably not, except in cases where lung cysts lead to a decrease in lung function and a low level of oxygen in the blood.

    I suffer from benign metastatic leiomyoma, am I at greater risk if I become infected with COVID-19?

    This is a fairly rare disease, and currently there is no specific information regarding this disease and COVID-19.