Good peanuts: The request could not be satisfied
Are Peanuts Good For You? This Is What Science Has To Say.
If you’re a fan of peanuts, then you may have heard the occasional peanut myth here and there. Then, when you grow up, it takes some convincing to finally realize that there’s more to peanuts than what your family would tell you. So if you’ve been told that peanuts make you fat, or that peanut butter isn’t as healthy as their almond-based alternative, you’re in for quite a surprise.
Peanuts are notorious for having lots of calories and fat, but very rarely are they praised for their health benefits.
Botanically a legume, peanuts are a popular food in its various forms, whether in a dessert, salad, roasted or churned into creamy (or chunky) butter. When you like a certain food, you want to know if it’s healthy, and who better to ask than your doctor, right?
According to a survey from March 2017, over 750 New Zealand-based general practitioners, nurse practitioners, and dieticians answered that they would recommend patients to eat tree nuts rather than peanuts. The reason? Most respondents rated peanuts as being less healthy compared to their tree-based counterparts.
Luckily, these beliefs are heavily misguided and peanuts are quite healthy. Yes, they have many calories and they’re rich in fat, but its unsaturated fat, which is good for your body. Unfortunately, this doesn’t mean that everyone can enjoy the nutty legume; a large percentage of people have an allergy to peanuts and for some, the reaction can be severe.
What are the Big Benefits?
Despite being a legume in nature, the USDA classifies them as a nut because of the nutrition that peanuts and their products provide. They’re a delicious source of protein for vegan eaters, and they’re packed with fiber, antioxidants, and minerals like magnesium and iron.
Most of the fat that’s found in peanuts are mono and polyunsaturated fats that help lower harmful LDL cholesterol. Plenty of evidence links back to peanuts being beneficial for the heart.
A 2017 study in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology proves this. It found that compared to people who didn’t eat peanuts, people who ate at least two servings of peanuts every week had a reduced risk of developing the cardiovascular disease by 13 percent.
The results from other studies show that eating peanuts as part of a balanced diet contributes to a slimmer waistline. The European Journal of Nutrition proves this with a study from 2017, which looked at the health trends of people who ate peanuts versus those who didn’t, for five years. It found that people who ate more nuts (including peanuts) gained fewer pounds and reduced their risk of obesity by 5 percent.
In addition, an observational study even shows that women with an intake of peanut butter that was at least 5 times per week had a decreased risk of type-2 diabetes by 21 percent. Although peanuts contain a lot of calories, you can feel fuller without eating too many because they have fiber and protein.
Compared to Other Nuts
Eating an ounce of nuts throughout the week is a step towards a healthier lifestyle. Since each nut has its own advantages, it’s in your best interest to eat a variety of them.
With regard to the number of calories they contain, peanuts, walnuts, cashews, and almonds are all equal. Conversely, peanuts win in the protein category with a whopping 7 grams per ounce; for instance, they contain twice the amount as walnuts. In terms of fiber, peanuts are a solid second with 2.4 grams per ounce compared to almonds – which have 3 grams per ounce.
Walnuts boast properties like omega-4 fatty acids that are good for the heart while peanuts have plenty of arginines, these amino acids that relax constricted blood vessels thereby improving your blood flow.
Growing peanuts is easier than growing tree nuts because they need less water, which makes them more affordable. For scale, a serving of two tablespoons of peanut butter contains almost 14 percent of a daily magnesium intake.
Does it Matter How I Eat Them?
You may be thinking that whether they’re roasted, raw or crushed into butter, peanuts are peanuts. However, the way you eat them can affect the associated health benefits. A peanut’s skin is what contains helpful phytochemicals and antioxidants so eating them raw will boost the nutritional profile.
Be careful of peanut foods that contain added sugars because eating too much of such foods can lead to health concerns like heart disease. Salted versions contain sodium so if they make the taste better and make you likely to give up a harmful option like French fries, go for it. On the other hand, lay off the salted variety of you have health issues like high blood pressure.
Retaining Health-Boosting Properties
You can improve peanuts’ nutritional profile by mixing them into your dishes, adding them salads to enhance texture, and using them in sandwiches and granola bowls. As for peanut butter, you can whisk it into a dip, soup, milkshake, or sauce.
You can swap out other parts of your diet, such as red meat, for peanuts. You can choose peanut butter as a sandwich ingredient instead of processed meat. You can also swap processed snacks for peanuts.
Most importantly, you should read the labels on packaging to avoid buying peanut food varieties that contain too much salt or sugar. Not every peanut butter is made the same, so avoid the type that’s made using hydrogenated oils because they increase the risk of developing type-2 diabetes and heart disease. Don’t fall for reduced fat varieties because all you do is miss out on healthy unsaturated fat.
An evidence-based article written and reviewed by our experts at Wellnessincheck.
Peanuts as functional food: a review
Peanut is an important crop grown worldwide. Commercially it is used mainly for oil production but apart from oil, the by-products of peanut contains many other functional compounds like proteins, fibers, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals which can be added as a functional ingredient into many processed foods. Recently it has also revealed that peanuts are excellent source of compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols that block the absorption of cholesterol from diet. It is also a good source of Co-enzyme Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest amount of arginine. These bioactive compounds have been recognized for having disease preventive properties and are thought to promote longevity. The processing methods like roasting and boiling have shown increase in the concentration of these bioactive compounds. In the present paper an overview on peanut bioactive constituents and their health benefits are presented.
Keywords: Peanut, Functional ingredients, Health benefits
Peanuts or “groundnuts” as they are known in some parts of the world are the edible seeds of a legume. India is second largest producer of peanuts in world, with total production of approximately 7.131 million metric tons per year (USDA, PS&D database 1996–2000). Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is technically considered as pea and belongs to the family (fabaceae) of bean/legume. Although a legume; it is generally included amongst the oilseeds due to its high oil content. Peanuts are rich in protein, oil and fibers (Suchoszek-Lukaniuk et al. 2011). Apart from oil, peanuts are widely used for production of peanut butter, confections, roasted peanuts, snack products, extenders in meat product formulation, soups and desserts.
There are thousands of peanut cultivars around the world. Certain cultivars groups are preferred for particular uses because of differences in flavor, oil content, size, shape, and disease resistance. For many uses the different cultivars are interchangeable however, the most popular cultivars are Spanish, Runner, Virginia and Valencia. Most peanuts marked in the shell are of the Virginia type, along with some Valencias selected for large size and the attractive appearance of the shell. Spanish peanuts are used mostly for peanut candy, salted nuts, and peanut butter. Most Runner cultivars are used to make peanut butter (Woodroof 1983). China leads in production of peanuts, having a share of about 45 % of overall world production, whereas India has (16 %) share and the United States of America has (5 %) (USDA 2015)
Peanuts are consumed all over the world in a wide variety of forms, most of which are traditional cuisine. Peanuts are being used as the complete dietary source for people on expeditions to diverse areas like Antarctica, space and trekking. It has notably been the source of elimination of malnutrition amongst the population in many African countries in the recent years (Guimon and Guimon 2012).
History of peanuts
The history of peanuts dates back to the times of the ancient Incas of Peru. They were the first to cultivate wild peanuts and offered them to the sun God as part of their religious ceremonials. They used to call peanuts as ynchic. The modern history of peanut popularization began with the civil war of the 1860s in America. George Washington Carver who is known as the “father of peanut industry” as he developed more than three hundred products derived from the peanut (Carver 1925).
Peanut butter was created in the 1890s by the St. Louis physician as the soft protein substitute for people with poor teeth. In 1895, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg patented a “Process of preparing nut meal” and used peanuts to serve the soldiers. According to John Mariana’s ‘Encyclopedia of American food and drink,’ a process for roasting shelled peanuts in oil was developed in the early 1900s and packed in the airtight bags under the “Planters” label. Rosenfield J licensed his invention to the pond company, the makers of peter pan peanut butter, in 1928, Rosenfield began making his own brand of peanut butter, this was the beginning of commercialization and popularization of peanut butter in the America which gradually spread all over the Europe and Asia.
Recent developments on peanut based products
Peanut consumption all over the world varies in large proportions hence the commercial products too are variant and generally localized. Peanuts have been developed into a variety of products like roasted peanuts, peanut butter, peanut oil, peanut paste, peanut sauce, peanut flour, peanut milk, peanut beverage, peanut snacks (salted and sweet bars) and peanut cheese analog. Raw peanuts are consumed all over the world. Roasted peanuts are processed by heating the peanuts up to 180 °C for around 12–15 min or at 160 °C for 40–60 min depending on the moisture content. Effect of addition of peanut skin into peanut butter on antioxidant and total phenolic content was studied by Yuanyuan et al. (2014). They observed a significant increase in the fiber, phenolics and antioxidant content of butter prepared.
Peanut oil is obtained by different extraction methodologies and is mainly consumed in the Asian subcontinent especially India. Maximum amount of the peanut production around the world is utilized for oil production. The world production of peanut oil has risen from 4.53 million metric tons in 2000 to 4.91 in 2010. Production across the countries of the world, where China (44 %), Indian (20 %), and Nigeria (11 %) are the largest producers, is expected to account for almost 75 % of the world’s peanut oil (USDA 2015).
Peanut snacks (salted/unsalted) are consumed mainly in the Asian subcontinent, particularly India. These are prepared mainly by frying and coating of the peanut kernel (Varela and Fiszman 2011). Peanut flour, generally produced by grinding the defatted peanut meal after oil extraction is generally used in other preparations like soup, cookies, curries (Tate et al. 1990) due to its emulsifying properties and as a composite flour (Singh and Singh 1991). It is also used for coating meat products. Peanut flour can be used for making composite flours with non-wheat cereals or supplementing its flour with protein-rich sources, such as legume flours, especially in countries in which the production of wheat is insufficient, can improve the nutritional value of bread (McKEE and Latner 2000). Peanut bars are consumed all over the world in different forms. They are prepared after coating the partially ground peanuts with sugar or jaggery after blanching and demoisturizing the kernels. In India, it is popularly called as “chikki”.
Other peanut products like peanut milk, fermented peanut products, cheese analogs, peanut beverages are still not very popular to be utilized for their production and commercialized for e.g. according to Chandrashekhara et al. (1971), peanut milk is made from sludge produced by grinding one volume of raw peanuts with 6 volumes of water for 30 min. The pH is adjusted to 9.0, and using a cream separator, the fat is removed from the starch and fiber. This process provides a yellow liquid nearly fat free and constitutes high proteins milk. Salunkhe and Kadam (1989), showed peanut milk which can be fermented by lactic acid bacteria and methodology to prepare beverage from the filtrate of the soaked, blanched and grinded peanut (Table ).
Popular peanut based branded products available in the local market (Mumbai)
|Peanut product||Brand and company details||Price in Rs/100 g|
|Bhikharam Chandmal Bhujiawala (Plain peanut)||25|
|Haldirams (Salted nuts)||25|
|Peanut snacks||Haldirams tasty nuts||42|
|Gardens fried nuts||38|
|Snackup Masala peanuts (MTR)||40|
|Peanut butter||Skippy (Unilever)||78|
|Peterpan (ConAgra Foods)||68|
|Savoury (Bajaj foods)||58|
|American Garden Foods||68|
|Navadarshanam handmade peanut butter||60|
|Sundrop creamy peanut butter||35|
|Peanut caramel bars||Paypals (Hersheys)||100|
Peanut nutrition profile
Protein, fats, and fiber are the major components that make up peanuts (Table ). All these components are present in their most beneficial forms. The protein is plant-based: the fat is unsaturated, and the fiber is complex carbohydrate which are all proved to be the best for human nutrition.
Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), All types, Nutritional value per 100 g
|Principle||Nutrient value||Percentage of RDA|
|Total Fat||49.24 g||165|
|Dietary Fiber||8. 5 g||22|
|Pantothenic acid||1.767 mg||35|
|Vitamin A||0 IU||0|
|Vitamin E||8. 33 mg||55.5|
|Selenium||7. 2 μg||13|
According to the American peanut council, peanut fat profile contains about 50 % monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), 33 % Paraformaldehyde (PFAs) and 14 % saturated fatty acids which is a heart friendly combination of fatty acids (Feldman 1999). The amount of trans fat in peanut butter with 2 % stabilizer is 156 times less than what is needed to reach the 0 g trans fat cut-off on food labels (Sanders 2001).
Peanut products (raw, butter and oil) are more beneficial to heart health when compared to the low fat diets. The high monounsaturated fat peanut diets lowered their total body cholesterol by 11 % and bad LDL cholesterol by 14 %, while their good HDL cholesterol was maintained with reduction in triglycerides (Pelkman 2004). The benefits of the peanut diets on cholesterol were comparable to the olive oil diet. There is strong evidence supporting an association between monounsaturated fat as well as overall nut intake and reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease (Matilsky et al. 2009).
Emerging data clearly shows that type of fat can impact health in various ways at different stages of life. The fat in peanuts and peanut butter provides healthy calories to malnourished infants and children at their time of need (Fig. ).
Fat Profile of Peanuts. Source: Modified figure from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,1999
Peanuts are actually a legume and have more protein than any other nut with levels comparable to or better than serving of beans. After the peanut oil is extracted, the protein content in the cake can reach 50 % (Zhao et al. 2011). Peanuts contain all the 20 amino acids in variable proportions and is the biggest source of the protein called “arginine” (USDA 2014). According to Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) peanut proteins and other legume proteins such as soy proteins are nutritionally equivalent to meat and eggs for human growth and health (FAO 2002). The amino acid profile of the peanut meals shows that it can be an ingredient for protein fortification (Yu et al. 2006). Since the proteins in peanuts is plant based, it carries with it additional components that have positive health benefits like fiber and unique bioactive components, unlike animal protein. The peanut proteins have been found to have good emulsifying activity, emulsifying stability, foaming capacity, excellent water retention and high solubility, and can also provide a new high protein food ingredient product formulation and protein formulation in food industry (Wu et al. 2009). Based on these observations, recently peanut protein has been incorporated into noodles (Wu et al. 2007) and infant formula, (Nimsate et al. 2010). There is a renewed interest in the studies related to the flavors in the peanut kernel and skin (Fig. ).
Total Protein in Various Grains and Legumes Per Half Cup. Source: Modified figure from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,1999
The components in peanuts are highly digestible. The true protein digestibility of peanuts is comparable with that of animal protein (Singh and Singh 1991). The limiting amino acid in peanuts varies based on the study i.e. lysine, methionine or threonine, (Venkatachalam and Sathe 2006). Protein quality is defined based on the amino acid pattern and percent of digestibility of proteins. The PDCAAS for peanuts has been estimated to be about 0.70 out of 1 where as for whole wheat PDCASS is 0.46 (Table ).
Percent digestibility and average PDCAAS for peanuts and other grains
|Food item||True digestibility||PDCAAS||References|
|Peanuts||94||0.70||Suárez López (2006)|
|Soy||86||0. 91||Schaafsma (2000)|
|Whole wheat||86||0.46||Schaafsma (2000)|
|Maize||85||0.43||Gibney et al. (2013)|
Fat digestibility varies based on the structure of different fatty acids. Peanuts contain over 50 % monounsaturated fats, which are easily digested due to single unsaturated hydrogen bond which is easily broken (Feldman 1999). Since peanuts are legumes, they contain phytic acid which is associated with decreasing the bioavailability of other nutrients due to their binding properties, but the amount in peanuts is lower than compared to other legumes such as soybean (Schlemmer 2009). The fiber in peanuts is mainly insoluble, with lower amounts of soluble fiber (Higgs 2003). It contributes to daily intake, but has not been shown to bind nutrients and restrict their absorption. In fact, the small amount of soluble fermentable fiber may improve adsorption of some minerals (Greger 1999).
Peanuts are also a good source of fiber, according to the Food and Drug Administration. Sucrose and starch constitute the major while reducing sugars form the minor proportion of the peanut carbohydrates (Tharanathan et al. 1975). This may contribute to the fact that peanut have a low glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) (Foster and Powell 2002). On a 100 –point scale, the GI of peanuts is 14, and the GL of peanuts is one. Additional research has shown that when peanuts or peanut butter are added to a high glycemic load meal, such as with a bagel and a glass of juice, they actually keep the blood sugar stabilized so that it does not rise too high too quickly (Johnston et al. 2007). Peanuts contain carbohydrates, and all foods that contain carbohydrates elevate blood-glucose levels. Some carbohydrates, such as simple sugars, have a swift, dramatic effect on your blood sugar. Carbohydrates that contain fiber or starch, these two types of carbohydrates have a slower, less pronounced effect on blood sugar. The American Diabetes Association ranks peanuts and other nuts as diabetes superfoods. To make the list, foods must supply important nutrients such as fiber, calcium, potassium, magnesium and vitamins A, E and E. Foods on the list must also rank low on the glycemic index. Peanuts make the list because they contain magnesium, fiber and heart-healthy oils and do not overly affect your blood glucose.
Table provides the detail regarding the amounts of vitamin present in 100 g of peanuts and their levels as per the RDA.
According to the Table , 100 g peanuts consumption is capable of providing up to 75 % RDA of Niacin, 60 % RDA of folate, 53 % RDA of thiamin, 10 % RDA of Riboflavin, 35 % RDA of pantothenic acid, 27 % RDA of pyridoxine, 55.5 % RDA of vitamin E.
It has been recognized as a great source of niacin, which is important for functioning of the digestive systems, skin, nerves, helps in conversion of food to energy and supposed to protect against Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline (Morris 2004). Peanut is an excellent source of vitamin E is considered a hard-to-get nutrients as it was shown that over 90 % of men and women were not meeting the recommendations for intake (Gao et al. 2006). Vitamin E consumption in low quantities can lead to benefits against coronary heart disease (Bramley et al. 2000). Peanut also contains good amounts of folate which is especially important in infancy and pregnancy, in production and maintenance of cells.
Table illustrates that small amounts of peanut consumption can meet the most part of RDA of many minerals which are crucial for health and proper functioning of the body. It is clear from the dates that 100 g of peanut can provide RDA levels of 127 % copper, 84 % manganese, 57 % iron, 54 % phosphorus, 42 % magnesium intake is associated with reduced inflammation (King 2005: Song et al. 2005) and a decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (Song et al. 2005) and type II diabetes (Larsson and Wolk 2007).
Compact source of energy
Peanuts provide high energy levels for lesser consumptions level (Kirkmeyer and Mattes 2000; Burton-Freeman 2000). They are also referred to as energy-dense (Alper and Mattes 2002). Peanuts contains about 50 % fat (Table ), which at 9 cal per gram, contribute more calories than traditional foods used in humanitarian relief such as milk, corn, soybean, wheat and other grains. The majority of fat in peanuts is heart healthy monounsaturated fat, with balanced levels of polyunsaturated and saturated fats (Feldman 1999).
Peanuts are rich in multiple natural micronutrients (Table ) including vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds such as resveratrol that are beneficial to health, making them a viable option for improving the nutrition status of those who are malnourished, developing, growing, or in need of critical nutrients in peanuts are integral to growth, development, metabolism, and immunity (Geulein 2010). It is likely that the individual nutrients in peanuts work by multiple mechanisms and that they have synergistic effects toward improving towards improving health status. In more than 15,000 people who consumed peanuts and peanut products, it was found that levels of vitamin A, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, zinc, iron, calcium, and dietary fiber were higher than those who did not consume peanuts (Griel et al. 2004).
Recent focus is on the proper utilization of the by-products from peanut processing. It has been found that peanut hull, peanut skin, peanut leaves, and stems are all nutrients rich parts of the crop with their own functional component. It has been reported that for 1000 kg of peanut for the cold procedure can generate 700 kg of peanut meals, while the hot crushing procedure can produce 500 kg. Usually, only a little peanut skin are utilized to extract polyphenolic compounds or make the cattle feed, most of the skins are as the wastes of peanut processing industry and discarded (Sobolev and Cole 2003). While peanuts skins can provide an inexpensive source of polyphenols for use as functional ingredients in food or dietary supplements, and make a positive contribution to nation’s health (Yu et al. 2006). An estimated 35–45 g of peanut skin is generated per kg of shelled peanut kernel. Over 0.74 million metric tons of peanut skins are produced annually worldwide as a by-product of the peanut processing industry (Sobolev and Cole 2003). The production of peanut hull has been estimated to be 230–300 g of peanut hull per kg of peanut. The production of peanut vine from harvested peanut has been estimated to be 60−65 %of the peanut production peanut vines are rich in dietary fibers and flavonoid components (Du and Fu 2008). The peanut vines include roots, stem, leaves and flowers.
Peanut as a functional food
Research has identified numerous compounds in peanuts and in their skins that may have added health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Peanuts have been touted as a functional food with numerous functional components like Coenzyme Q10 which protects the heart during the period of lack of oxygen example high altitudes and clogged arteries. peanuts are also a good source of dietary fiber and provide a wide range of essential nutrients, including several B group vitamins, vitamin E, minerals such as iron, zinc, potassium and magnesium, antioxidant minerals (selenium, manganese and copper), plus other antioxidant compounds (such as flavonoids and resveratrol) (Geulein 2010). These bioactive components have been recognized for having disease preventative properties and some are antioxidants while other is to promote longevity. The antioxidant capacity in peanut is due to the total biological matters in peanut seed such as vitamin E in oil or chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, flavonoids and stilbene (resveratrol) (Yu et al. 2006). Fermented peanut meal (Zhang et al. 2011) has been used to study the antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity.
Bioactive components in peanuts
Arginine or L-arginine is an amino acid that is needed to keep the liver, skin, joints, and muscles healthy. Arginine helps to strengthen the body’s immune system, regulates hormones and blood sugar and promotes male fertility. In addition, research has shown that this amino acid may improve circulation and treat impotence and heart disease. Arginine is also considered as a semi-essential amino acid because, although the body manufactures its own supply, there are times when dietary supplementation may be required, such as in the case of severe wounds or illness. Arginine stimulates the immune system by increasing the output of T lymphocytes (T- cells) from the thymus gland. Recent studies have focused on the potential of arginine in treatment of AIDS, cancer, and other diseases linked to a depressed immune system. Arginine helps to detoxify the liver by neutralizing the effects of ammonia and other toxic substances in the body. Peanuts have the highest level of arginine among foods (USDA SR-21). Arginine is an amino acid that is a precursor to nitric oxide that helps to keep the arteries relaxed, improving blood flow and healing time in tissues in the body (Moncada and Higgs 1993). In context of functional activity, Duggan et al. (2002) claimed arginine to be one of the protective nutrients for the gastro intestinal tract.
Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) belongs to a class of polyphenolic compounds called stilbenes. Some types of plants produce resveratrol and other stilbenes in response to stress, injury, fungal infection, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Jeandet et al. 2012). Resveratrol is a fat-soluble compound that occurs in a trans and a cis configuration. Both cis- and trans-resveratrol also occur as glucosides (bound to a glucose molecule). Resveratrol-3-O-beta-glucoside is called piceid. Scientists became interested in exploring potential health benefits of resveratrol in 1992 when its presence was first reported in red wine, leading to speculation that resveratrol might help explain the “French Paradox” (Fig. ).
Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene). Source: Sarfaraz S BSE and Arora R MD (2009)
Peanuts are excellent source of resveratrol, a polyphenol antioxidant (Geulein 2010) which have been found to have protective function against cancers (Gagliano et al. 2010), heart disease (Juan et al. 2002), degenerative nerve disease, Alzheimer’s disease (Chen 2005), tumor (Bishayee et al.2010) and inflammation (Kang et al.2010) This bioflavonoid is believed to improve blood flow in the brain by much as 30 %, thus reducing the risk of stroke (Fazel Nabavi et al. 2014). Besides the antioxidant properties that provide protection against cardiovascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis, it has been demonstrated that resveratrol acts as chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer by modulating tumour initiation, promotion and progression phases (Delmas et al. 2006). Moreover, resveratrol seems to extend the lifespan of diverse species including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and mouse (Baur et al. 2006).
All parts of the peanut contain resveratrol from the roots to the skin and even the shell (Francisco and Resurreccion 2008). Resveratrol content in peanut butter is very close to grape juice with about three times more resveratrol than roasted peanut with skins (Sobolev and Cole 2003). Studies are now showing that stressing peanut in various ways, resveratrol content can be increased (Rudolf and Resurreccion 2006).
Phytosterols (referred to as plant sterol and stanol esters) are a group of naturally occurring compounds found in plant cell membranes. Because phytosterols are structurally similar to the body’s cholesterol, when they are consumed they compete with cholesterol for absorption in the digestive system. As a result, cholesterol absorption is blocked, and blood cholesterol levels reduced.
As part of a heart-healthy eating plan, consuming phytosterols in recommended quantities has been shown to lower total cholesterol up to 10 % and LDL or “bad” cholesterol up to 14 %. There is increasing evidence that the reintroduction of plant foods providing phytosterols into the modern diet can improve serum lipid (cholesterol) profiles and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Peanuts, peanut butter, peanut flour, and peanut oil are all filled with phytosterols (beta sitosterol, campesterols and stigmasterol) that block the absorption of cholesterol from the diet (Lopes et al. 2011). Emerging evidence is showing that they also decrease the inflammation and reduce the growth of various cancers i.e. lung, stomach, ovarian, prostrate, colon and breast cancer (Woyengo et al. 2009) in addition to the healthy fats, proteins and fibers in peanuts, phytosterols may also be contributing to the decrease risk of heart disease that has been shown in population groups who eat a small amount of peanut daily (Awad et al. 2000).
Phenolic acids and flavonoids
Research clearly shows that peanuts and their skin are exceptional sources of functional compounds, including phenolic acids (Francisco and Resurreccion 2008). Research studies have been shown that peanuts contains high concentrations of polyphenolic antioxidants, primarily in p-coumaric acid levels, boosting it overall antioxidant content by as much as 22 % (Duncan et al. 2006). They further elaborated that roasted peanut skin has greater antioxidant capacity than the roasted whole peanut Lopes et al. (2011) have also described the role of phenolic acids as antioxidants. Flavonoids are in all parts of the peanut plants. A high intake of flavonoids is thought to be protective against heart disease and cancer by various mechanisms. Research in emerging as to how these bioactive compounds are benefiting health peanuts and peanut butter are considered a major food source of flavonoids and contain same types found in green and black tea, apples red wine, and soybeans (Francisco and Resurreccion 2008)
Health benefits of peanuts
The consumption of either peanuts or processed peanuts has been shown to be beneficial to health, due to their desirable lipid profile, which is higher in unsaturated fatty acids than in saturated fatty acids peanut oil is naturally trans- fat-free, cholesterol-free, and low in saturated fats. It shows many positive biological effects, which are mostly connected with its high oleic acid content. Many studies have revealed that consumption of peanuts or peanut oil is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and may improve serum lipid profiles, decrease LDL oxidation, and exert a cardio-protective effect. Frequent intake of peanut and its products may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Some people have allergic reactions to peanuts (Woodroof 1983).
Apart from the daily nutrition peanut consumption leads to long term health benefits. Compared to well-known foods like green tea and red wine, peanuts have higher antioxidant capacity (Halvorsen et al. 2006). Peanut skins contain potent rich antioxidants. It has been noted that the when peanuts are consumed with their skins, their antioxidant capacity doubles and roasting can at times actually increase this capacity as well (Craft et al. 2010; Yu et al. 2006). Recent research studies suggest that boiling enhances antioxidant concentration in the peanuts. It has been found that boiled peanuts have two and four fold increase in isoflavone antioxidants biochanin A and genistein content, respectively (Craft et al. 2010).
As much as 40 % reduction in mortality due to any factor has been reported when peanuts were included as an integral part of the routine diet (Fraser et al. 1992). Reduction in deaths due to cardio vascular diseases in particular was found in population who consume peanut or peanut butter regularly (Fraser et al. 1992). It has been reported that peanut consumption reduces the risk factors of heart diseases amongst all ages, across both genders and even in patients who have multiple risk factors including diabetes (Fraser et al. 1992). High blood pressure is associated with greater risks of heart disease and stroke . Scientists have learned that the dietary choices we make can have an impact on the blood pressure . Peanuts and peanut butter contain health monounsaturated fatty acids, plant proteins, magnesium, potassium , fiber arginine , and many bioactive components, each of which could be contributing to lowering blood pressure. Population studies consistently showed the risk of heart disease when peanuts were consumed in small amounts on a daily basis (Sabate and Ang 2009).
Diabetes and inflammation
Jiang et al.(2002) have reported reduced risks of diabetes by a quarter when peanuts were incorporated in diet on a daily basis . Magnesium (King et al. 2007) and dietary fibers (Gartside et al. 1998) have been attributed as the main contributory factors for improved health status. Inflammatory factors in the blood like C-reactive proteins (CRP) have been identified as predictors of cardiovascular disease. Dietary factors may play a role in reducing inflammation (Nettleton et al. 2006). Certain fats, antioxidants, dietary fiber, arginine, and magnesium are components that have been showed to help regulate inflammation (Salas-Salvadó 2008).
Unsaturated fats, certain vitamins and minerals, and the bioactive components have shown to have cancer-preventive effects, which are all packaged into a peanut kernel (Gonzalez and Salvado 2006) In particulars, the phytosterols in peanuts that have been studied in regards to cancer (Woyengo et al. 2009), they have been reported to reduce prostrate tumor growth by over 40 % and cut the occurrences of cancer spreading to other parts of the body by almost 50 % (Awad et al. 2000). Like phytosterols, resveratrol has also been shown to cut off the blood supply to growing cancers and to inhibit cancer cell growth (Fazel Nabavi et al. 2014).
Alzheimer’s and gallstone disease
Peanuts have a high content of niacin and are an excellent source of vitamin E (Table ), both of which have been shown to protect against Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline In almost 4000 people 65 years or older, niacin from food slowed the rate of cognitive decline (Morris 2004). It has also been found that the consumption of vitamin E from supplements had no effect on the incidence of Alzheimer’s, vitamin E intake from food has been was protected (Morris 2002). In those who were in the top fifth of intake, incidence of Alzheimer’s disease was reduced by 70 %. Resveratrol has also been recognized as beneficial in Alzheimer’s disease and other nerve degeneration disease (Chen 2005). It has been found that those who eat peanuts and peanut butter five times a week or more have a reduced risk of gallbladder disease by as much as 25 % (Tsai et al. 2004).
Peanuts and weight management
Considerable evidences show that incorporating peanut and peanut butter into the diet does not lead to weight gain or higher body weight (Mattes et al. 2008). In the research related to the weight loss, diets incorporated with peanuts, peanut butter and peanut oil have more acceptability amongst the subjects of all age groups and have shown to provide long term weight maintenance (McManus et al. 2001). In another research exclusively on school children it was found that there was weight loss in peanut fed group whereas the control group gained weight in a span of 2 years (Johnston et al. 2007). Similar data has been published in many more epidemiological studies where it was found that peanuts reduced the total and LDL cholesterol (Pelkman 2004).
Research data show that peanut and peanut butter consumption improved the feeling of fullness and satisfied the consumers better than the carbohydrates snacks like rice cakes in equal quantities (Kirkmeyer and Mattes 2000). Another study showed that peanut consumption curbed the appetites of the subject due its fullness effect (Alpher and Mattes 2002). Emerging evidence is also showing that the type of healthy monounsaturated fat in peanuts may stimulate a hormone that helps to feel satisfied after consumption (Schwartz et al. 2008).
Body mass index (BMI)
Peanut and peanut butter eaters tend to have a lower body mass index (BMI) (2007). Alpher and Mattes (2002) showed that despite being energy dense, peanuts have a high satiety value and chronic ingestion evokes strong dietary compensation and little changes in energy balance . The mechanism behind this conversation could be enhanced satiety (Kirkmeyer and Mattes 2000; Burton-Freeman 2000) the hunger and energy compensation, inefficient absorption of whole peanuts or increased resting energy expenditure (Kirkmeyer and Mattes 2000).
Peanut milk although not very popular is used extensively in cases of emergencies and malnutrition for rapid recovery and gain of health. In the past Peanut based product like “Plimpy-nut”, a RUTF (Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food) has been formulated to overcome severe malnourishment in the African nations. It is a lipid based mix containing ground, roasted peanuts. In addition, vegetable oil, powdered milk, vitamins, minerals, and sugar are added. Peanuts as the basis for RUTF enable better delivery of a full range of balanced lipids, essential amino-acids, minerals and vitamins required by developing children. African nations like Malawi, Sudan and Haiti, treatment with RUTF in children has repeatedly shown superior recovery rates and shorter duration to reach weight-to-growth goals compared to standard World Health Organization (WHO) therapies for malnutrition rehabilitation (Patel et al. 2005) in 2003, Diop (2003) showed that moderately malnourished RUTF-users had higher intake of energy, fat, iron and zinc compared to a group consuming corn/soy therapy because the consumption of staple foods fell in the corn/soy group. Both therapies resulted in modest weight pain, but the effect lasted longer for the RUTF group.
Issues related to peanut consumption
Peanut proteins have been customarily classified as albumins (water soluble) or globulins (saline soluble). Most of the storage proteins are globulins, which make up 87 % of the total protein (Johns and Jones 1916). The globulins are made up of two major proteins, arachin and conarachin. Barnett et al. (1983) tested the allergenicity of different peanut kernel. They cotyledons (kernels) are probably the major source of allergen for most individuals, as the skins and hearts are often removed during processing. This is because the heart contains saponins that impart a bitter flavor, and skin contains catechol tannins and related compounds, which give finished products an undesirable color (Woodroof 1983).
The exact cause of the allergy is unknown. Since terms of peanuts allergy are related to the action of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and other anaphylatoxins, which act to release histamine and other mediator substances from mast cells (degranulation). In addition to other effects, histamine induces vasodilatation and construction of bronchioles in the lungs, also known as bronchispasm. Symptoms can include vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema (swelling of the lips, face, throat and skin), exacerbation of atopic eczema, asthma, anaphylactic shock. (Anderson 1996).
Peanut being a nutrient dense product can be utilized for nutrition to all only if the allergy is dealt with some new techniques. Recently many techniques have been emerging like oral desensitization, Anti IgE Therapy, use of probiotics, Chinese Medicines, Soy-Based Immunotherapy, Cellular Mediator, Engineered allergen Immunotherapy, Plasmid DNA Immunotherapy, Bacterial adjuvant, Immunostimulatory Sequence and Oligodeoxynucleotide- Based Immunotherapy (Nowak et al. 2011). All these are still at initial stages and have a long way to go for regular and approved practical application.
Greater focus is needed to develop better techniques for increase in overall efficiency of extraction of specific functional components for the preparation of nutraceuticals which can benefit to those who suffer from metabolic disorders and allergies and are not able to consume peanuts directly.
Peanuts and food poisoning
Peanuts are frequently contaminated by the fungal species Aspergillus flavus, which can produce the aflatoxin. This infection can occur during transportation or storage of peanut meals. Aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites of concern in food safety (Achar et al. 2009). Infection and aflatoxin concentration in peanut can be related to the occurrence of soil moisture stress during pod-filling when soil temperatures are near optimal for A. flavus. These relations could form the basis of a decision-support system to predict the risk of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts in similar environments (Craufurd et al. 2006).
A survey was carried out to assess the mycotoxin (aflatoxins) contamination in locally grown peanuts. A total of 72 samples of raw, roasted and salty peanuts were collected randomly from the Pothohar Plateau of Pakistan. The results indicated that aflatoxins were present in almost 82 % of the samples tested, with levels ranging from 14.3 to 98.8 μg/kg. This reflects that optimal conditions for fungal growth and mycotoxin contamination are frequent in peanut crop fields as well as in storehouses (Abbas et al. 2013).
Preservation of peanut
Oxidation of the lipid fraction of peanut meals is a major cause of deterioration in fatty peanuts due to the high degree of fatty acid unstauration (Talcott et al. 2005). Polyunsaturated fatty acids, specially linoleic and linolenic acid, are very susceptible to oxidation even under mild ambient conditions and are easily incorporated into the chain mechanism of lipid peroxidation, to yield free and peroxy radicals (Talcott et al. 2005). Lipid oxidation is usually implicated as a primary cause of a decreased shelf life, adverse tastes loss of nutrients and generation of undesirable aromas during extended storage of peanut meals (Reed et al. 2002). Also peanuts tend to be contaminated with aflatoxin due to fungal growth. So, it is important to develop preservation methods for the peanut meal. Although recently a research successfully claimed for minimizing oil migration through coating with protein based isolate (Han et al. 2009) but its contribution to the overall long term preservation of peanut was found questionable also the effect of coating on further processing needs to be evaluated.
Peanut Nutrition Facts and Health Benefits
Peanuts (scientific name Arachis hypogaea) are one of the most popular nuts to eat. Interestingly, however, peanuts are not actually nuts at all. Almonds, cashews, and walnuts grow on trees, while peanuts grow underground in pods. This makes peanuts more closely related to legumes like peas and soybeans than to tree nuts.
If you’ve been wondering whether peanuts are a nutritious snack, the answer is yes. While peanuts should be consumed in moderation, they have a lot of benefits to offer.
Peanut Nutrition Facts
A serving of peanuts is equal to 1 ounce (28g) or roughly 28 peanuts. The following nutrition information is provided by the USDA for a serving of raw, unsalted peanuts.
- Calories: 161
- Fat: 14g
- Sodium: 5mg
- Carbohydrates: 4.6g
- Fiber: 2.4g
- Sugars: 1.3g
- Protein: 7.3g
An ounce of raw peanuts has just under 5 grams of carbohydrates, translating to a low glycemic index (GI) of 14. A serving of peanuts is less likely to affect your blood sugar than higher-GI foods like white bread (which has a GI of 75) or a bowl of corn flakes (which has a GI of 81).
Of the carbs in peanuts, about 2 grams come from dietary fiber and a little over 1 gram is from natural sugars.
Although 14 grams of fat per serving may seem like a lot, 80% of the fats in peanuts are considered heart-healthy. These include monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat.
Raw and dry-roasted peanuts are better for you than oil-roasted, seasoned, or sugar-coated peanuts. Coatings, flavoring, and seasonings can multiply saturated and trans fat content.
Peanuts offer over 7 grams of protein per ounce, making them a filling and nutritious snack. All 20 amino acids are present in peanuts, with particularly high levels of arginine.
Vitamins and Minerals
Peanuts are nutrient-dense and can help you meet the reference daily intake (RDI) of several vitamins and minerals. An ounce of peanuts provides 25% of niacin, 20% of vitamin E, 21% of copper, and 26% of manganese needs.
Peanuts also contain some folate, choline, magnesium, zinc, iron, and selenium. Unlike many tree nuts, peanuts don’t offer any vitamin A or C.
Beyond their nutritional value, peanuts offer certain nutrients that improve metabolism and aid in the prevention of certain diseases.
Aids Blood Sugar Control
Although almonds have a reputation as a health food, it turns out that peanuts produce similar benefits when it comes to blood sugar control. The natural fats in peanuts are effective at reducing the glycemic index of other foods being consumed at the same time. Peanuts help control both fasting blood sugars and post-postprandial levels (after a meal).
Supports Weight Loss
There are multiple mechanisms by which peanuts can support weight loss. The fiber and protein in peanuts promote feelings of satiety. Although peanuts are high in calories, some of the fat in peanuts is resistant to digestion and not fully absorbed by the body.
Consumption of peanuts also may result in higher resting energy expenditure, increasing overall calorie burn. Including peanuts in a meal plan for weight loss may make it easier to reach your goals.
May Reduce Risk of Heart Disease
According to a 2016 review of studies, resveratrol (an antioxidant present in peanuts) helps reduce cardiovascular inflammation and relax blood vessels, increasing circulation and lowering blood pressure. Furthermore, increased resveratrol concentrations were associated with a decrease in LDL oxidation, the condition of which can lead to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and coronary artery disease.
The fiber and healthy fats in peanuts are also beneficial for heart health. Choose unsalted peanuts to avoid the added sodium if you are watching your blood pressure.
May Lower Risk of Gallstones
Peanuts exert beneficial effects on blood cholesterol level which, in turn, can influence the development of gallstones. Gallstones are hardened lumps of fluid that develop inside the gallbladder, comprised many of undissolved cholesterol. Consuming peanuts or peanut butter five times per week is associated with a 25% reduction in gallbladder disease.
May Reduce Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease
Peanuts are high in vitamin E and the B vitamin, niacin. In large population studies, niacin from food has been shown to reduce the rate of cognitive decline in adults over age 65. Although supplements are not as helpful, high intake of vitamin E through foods like peanuts may reduce Alzheimer’s disease by up to 70%. Peanuts provide a winning combination for brain health.
Peanut allergies are one of the most common and potentially dangerous food allergies, affecting at least 1% of the U.S. population and anywhere from 2% to 5% of children (the percentage shifts depending on the definition of the allergy). Year after year, peanut allergies continue to climb, particularly among children previously unexposed to peanuts.
Because of this, the FDA has instructed food manufacturers to prominently list peanuts—along with any of the seven other common allergens (milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, wheat, and soybean)—on product labels. Some manufacturers may include wording like “may contain peanuts” if the product is produced in a facility that uses nuts in other food products. This can help you avoid hidden nuts if you are especially allergic.
Peanut allergies can range from mild to life-threatening. In rare instances, it can lead to an all-body reaction known as anaphylaxis, characterized by a severe rash or hives, shortness of breath, wheezing, rapid heart rate, the swelling of the face or throat, and a “feeling of impending doom.” If left untreated, anaphylaxis can lead to shock, coma, heart or respiratory failure, and death.
Although many parents are terror-struck by the very notion of a peanut allergy, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology recommends that peanuts be introduced into a child’s diet early—as early as four to six months—to sensitize them to peanuts and avoid the development of an allergy.
The resveratrol in peanuts can inhibit blood clotting if consumed in excess. This can amplify the side effects of blood thinners like Coumadin (warfarin), causing nosebleeds, easy bruising, abdominal pain, blood in the urine (hematuria), and heavy menstrual bleeding.
Resveratrol can potentially interact with other drugs, increasing their toxicity. These include:
- Antihistamines used to treat allergy
- Benzodiazepines used to treat anxiety and insomnia
- Calcium channel blockers used to treat high blood pressure
- Erectile dysfunction drugs
- HIV protease inhibitors used to treat HIV infection
- Statins used to treat high cholesterol
Red wine, which also contains resveratrol, can further amplify this effect. Tell your doctor about any usual side effects you experience after eating peanuts, peanut butter, or red wine, especially if consumed in excess.
There are several varieties of peanuts used to make various products. Runner peanuts make up 80% of the peanuts grown in the United States and are typically used to make commercial peanut butter. Virginia peanuts, also known as ballpark peanuts, are the largest and used in gourmet snacks. Spanish peanuts have red skins are popular for use in candy. All-natural peanut butter is usually made with Valencia peanuts, which can also be boiled and eaten as is.
You can find peanuts sold in various forms, including in-shell, shelled, raw, dry-roasted, oil-roasted, or coated. Peanut butter is sold salted or unsalted, chunky or creamy. Some brands of peanut butter contain added sugar or hydrogenated fats for flavor and to keep the spread from separating. Natural peanut butters, which contain only the natural oil found in peanuts, tend to separate; oil rises to the top and needs to be manually mixed in before eating.
Storage and Food Safety
Unshelled and shelled peanuts stored in a cool, dry pantry should last for 1 to 2 months, but their shelf life can be extended to 4 to 6 months if kept in the refrigerator. Opened peanut butter lasts 2 to 3 months in the pantry and 6 to 9 months in the fridge.
If buying tinned, sealed peanuts, try to consume them by no later than the “use-by” date (as opposed to the “sell-by” date). If kept beyond the expiration date, peanuts can go rancid and turn bad, even in sealed containers. Once the container is open, keep the peanuts in the refrigerator to maintain their flavor and freshness.
You can tell a peanut is rancid if it either has a slightly fishy, moldy, or sour-milk smell. If the peanuts are shriveled, black, or have evidence of mold, toss them out. If unsure, you can take a bite; a rancid peanut will taste bitter or sour.
Moldy peanuts are especially problematic as they can produce a toxin known as aflatoxin. Eating rancid peanuts can lead to aflatoxin poisoning, a condition that can impair liver function and lead to jaundice, fatigue, loss of appetite, and liver damage. It has even been linked to liver cancer.
How to Prepare
Peanuts can be eaten as a snack. Some people like steam unshelled peanuts with salted water. Unshelled nuts can be warmed in the oven to enhance their flavor. A handful of peanuts go nicely with an apple or other sliced fruits. Peanuts are also often used in cooking and can be found in stir-fries, curries, and vegetarian wraps as well as for toppings on ice cream and yogurt.
Peanuts are an especially useful food for people with protein deficiency or those trying to gain weight. Add chopped peanuts to desserts, salads, sandwiches, and cereal.
Healthy Peanut Recipes to Try
Are Peanuts A Prebiotic? : Boosting Good Gut Health
A healthy gut is a secret to a healthy life.
A healthy gut contributes to weight loss, control of cholesterol levels, protect against cold, and boost immunity. People are now becoming aware of the importance of taking care of the gut. With the increase in consciousness, there is also an increase in search of foods to increase gut health. Now the question is, what are the gut boosting foods? The answer lies in probiotics, live organisms in food and prebiotics, dietary fibers that help nourish probiotics.
One of the best prebiotic foods for vegans is peanuts. It is strange, but a lot of people are still not aware of the advantages of peanuts and think it as a high-calorie food to be avoided. A more in-depth look at peanut reveals much more than allergies and high-calorie content.
Peanut Butter is a Healthy Choice?
Firstly, according to research conducted by the University of Georgia, USA, and Peanut Collaborative Research Support Program, peanut butter, as a prebiotic, helps protect the probiotics bacteria. In simple terms, the research concluded that peanut butter protects the good bacteria and boosts gut health. So, if you consume a reasonable amount of peanut or peanut butter, then it will contribute to improving your gut biome, which will lead to a healthy gut in the long run.
Peanuts, one of the best prebiotics nuts, have several other health benefits too. It is a rich source of protein, nutrients, fibers, and helps in reducing cholesterol. Peanuts help to reduce the risk of gall bladder disease, diabetes, heart disease, and colorectal cancer. You would be surprised to know that this food that increases good gut bacteria also has antiaging properties. Peanuts, along with peanut butter, form part of the DASH diet eating plan, which helps control blood pressure. Even peanut oil and fat-free peanut flour are being considered healthy now.
This video explains a little more about how prebiotics help you.
How Much Peanut Butter or Peanuts Should You Take?
Yes, peanuts are one of the best prebiotic foods. But it is also rich in calories and fat. Firstly, peanut contains heart-healthy fat. Then, a little peanut or peanut butter is quite filling, so you don’t need to consume it in large amounts. A handful of peanuts or a tablespoon of peanut butter should be part of your daily diet and not more. You could also consume a handful of mixed prebiotic nuts. Along with peanuts, you could include chestnuts, pistachios, and almond butter Remember, moderation is the key, so consume it in moderate amounts.
Before you choose to include peanut or peanut butter in your diet, make it a point to check for allergies. Stop consuming it, if you notice any peanut allergy symptoms. Also, remember, too much of anything becomes unhealthy. Peanuts are, of course, healthy. It forms a part of foods to improve your gut health. But that does not mean you can hoard on it. Consume it daily without any hesitation but in a moderate amount to boost your gut health and lead a healthy life.
Fast Facts About Peanuts
The Health Benefits of Peanuts & Peanut Butter
► Peanuts and peanut butter are naturally cholesterol-free.
► Peanuts and peanut butter are protein powerhouses, containing more protein than any other nut, and providing approximately 15% of your protein needs daily (more than 7 g per 1 oz of peanuts or 2 Tbsp of peanut butter).
► Current research shows that a diet rich in plant foods can offer protectionfrom chronic diseases like heart disease and cancer. Peanuts can be substituted for animal proteins which are high in saturated fats and increase heart disease risk. Peanuts also contain bioactive compounds that may stop cancer cells from growing.
- Resveratrol, which is a powerful antioxidant found in peanuts, protects against several types of cancer and heart disease and may also extend lifespan.
- P-coumaric acid, a polyphenol contained in peanuts, may protect against cellular damage and has shown potential for defending against cancer.
- Phytosterols in peanuts have been associated with lower risk of cancer and heart disease in many studies. Peanut oil contains 38-43% more phytosterols than olive oil.
► Peanut consumption offers protection against diabetes.
► Nutrient-dense peanuts and peanut butter contain many vitamins and minerals that are often lacking in the American diet.
- Peanuts are an excellent source of niacin, providing approximately 25% of your daily needs (4mg per 1oz). A high intake of niacin from foods may lower Alzheimer’s disease risk by 70%.
- Peanuts are a good source of magnesium, which is important for bone health and reducing the risk of fractures and osteoporosis. Peanuts provide 12% of your daily magnesium needs (50mg per 1oz).
- Peanuts also contain vitamin E, biotin, and copper, along with a host of other nutrients. In fact, eating peanuts may increase blood levels of nutrients including vitamin E, niacin, and magnesium in diabetics.
► Peanuts contain approximately 80% unsaturated fat, which is considered the “good” fat. This beneficial plant fat can help lower cholesterol and reduce inflammation, which is often a precursor for chronic diseases.
► Each 1 oz serving of oil-roasted peanuts contains 2.7 g of dietary fiber.
► Results from the Portfolio Diet study have shown that a plant-based diet that emphasizes heart-healthy foods like peanuts is as effective for lowering cholesterol as statin drugs. It may also reduce 10-yr coronary heart disease risk by 13%. (Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 2018)
Peanuts… A Superfood
For additional health and nutrition information, visit The Peanut Institute website: www.peanut-institute.com
The Versatile Peanut
► Peanuts are classified both as a legume botanically and as a nut nutritionally. This means they enjoy the best of both worlds, containing key nutrients found in both the legume and nut families.
► Peanut butter, which by law must be 90% peanuts, is the leading use of peanuts produced in the U.S.
► Half of the top 10 selling candy bars in the U.S. contain peanuts or peanut butter.
► Peanut oil is valued as a premium cooking oil by cooks and chefs worldwide. Tasteless and odorless, peanut oil does not transfer food flavors, has a high smoke point (440-460 F), and is high in monounsaturated fats.
► Peanuts are available in powder form. Partially defatted peanut powder is high in protein, lower in fat, and has a long shelf life. Peanut powder can be used in smoothies, shakes, breads, and other baked goods.
► Peanuts are the #1 snack nut consumed in the U.S., accounting for 2/3 of the snack nut market.
► One of the many great advantages of peanuts and peanut butter is long shelf life. Peanuts and peanut butter can be stored for months, and even longer if refrigerated.
► Dr. George Washington Carver, a research scientist at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, found over 300 uses for the peanut plant in the early 1900’s. He has been called the “peanut wizard” and the “father of the modern peanut industry.”
U.S. Peanut Production
► U.S. Peanut farmers produce around 3 million tons of peanuts annually on approximately 1.5 million acres.
► The major peanut producing states are: Georgia, Texas, Alabama, North Carolina, Florida, Oklahoma, Virginia, New Mexico, Arkansas, Mississippi, and South Carolina.
► Peanuts grow in sandy, loamy soils from April to October, depending on the variety, and require 120-160 frost free days.
► The four types of peanuts produced in the U.S. are:
- Runner, used primarily for the manufacture of peanut butter.
- Virginia, marketed mainly as snack peanuts and in-shell peanut products.
- Spanish, with rounder and smaller kernels, used for snack nuts, peanut butter, and confections.
- Valencia, which contains three to five kernels per shell, marketed mostly in the shell for roasting and boiling.
Can Dogs Eat Peanuts? Are They Good For Dogs?
Peanuts are one of the world’s favorite snacks. They’re sold at almost every sporting event, carnival, and concert you can imagine, and peanut butter is of course a main ingredient in one of the all-time sandwich greats: the PB&J.
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Dog’s got nuts (pun intended) for peanut butter, but are nuts good for them? For both humans and dogs, how the nuts are prepared goes a long way to determining their benefits and risks.
Can Dogs Eat Peanuts?
Peanuts are healthy for dogs for the same reason that they’re healthy for humans: They’re chock-full of valuable vitamins and minerals. Vitamins E and B6, protein, niacin, and healthy fats are the key players. Since peanut butter is made from, well … peanuts, it can give your dog many of these same nutrients (especially protein).
Many dog parents use peanut butter as an easy way to give their pooch medicine in pill form. Since most dogs love the taste of peanut butter, it’s useful for masking the taste of the medication. Of course, it’s best to check with your veterinarian before using peanut butter, since some medications aren’t meant to be given with food.
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So, peanuts and peanut butter can offer dogs some benefits. But peanuts aren’t safe to give to your dog unless the peanuts are raw, unsalted, small enough, and have the shells removed. Let’s cover some of the risks of feeding your dog peanuts.
Our Wild Earth Peanut Butter treats have all the benefits of peanuts without any of the issues. Dogs love the crunch, but they go down smooth (there we go again with the pun…).
Risks of Feeding Your Dog Peanuts
If you do feed your dog peanuts or peanut butter – that aren’t our treats – here’s what you want to consider.
If you’re eating peanuts as a snack, they’re probably either salted or flavored. These added ingredients aren’t good for your dog. If he or she ingests too much sodium from salted peanuts, a dangerous case of sodium ion poisoning could occur.
Artificial sweeteners added to peanuts can also be harmful, as dogs’ systems aren’t meant to process those chemicals. Those honey- or caramel-flavored peanuts might be delicious, but they’re not safe for your four-legged friend.
When it comes to peanut butter, there is one reason why it might be extremely dangerous for your dog: xylitol. Xylitol is a sugar substitute that’s now being used in hundreds of products, including many types of peanut butter. It’s fine for humans to consume, but it’s very toxic for pets.
Even small amounts of xylitol can cause a sudden drop in your dog’s blood sugar level (a condition known as hypoglycemia) and cause side effects like disorientation, collapse, and seizures. Small dogs are at an even greater risk, because it takes even less of the toxic substance to start causing problems. If you plan on feeding your dog peanut butter, check the ingredients carefully to see if the product uses this dangerous artificial sweetener.
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Peanuts themselves can be hard for your dog to chew and swallow, and some dogs will simply swallow them whole — this presents a choking hazard. Choking is even more likely if shells are left on the peanut. Plus, peanut shells are difficult for your dog’s digestive system to handle.
If you give your dog peanuts, always remove the shells first. Dispose of them immediately so your dog doesn’t scarf them up while you’re not looking. Don’t let your dog gobble the peanuts in rapid succession, because that increases the risk of choking.
You probably know someone who suffers from a nut allergy, possibly even to peanuts themselves. Did you know that our canine companions can also have peanut allergies?
In dogs, a peanut allergy can range from mild to severe. The signs of an allergic reaction to peanuts include:
- Swelling, especially around the mouth and face
- Trouble breathing
If you see these symptoms in your dog after feeding them peanuts, don’t give them any more, and call your veterinarian right away to find out what to do next. Mild reactions may simply be treated with an oral antihistamine like Benadryl, but anything more serious requires veterinary attention.
Other Dangerous Nuts
It turns out that of all nuts, peanuts are one of the safest for your dog — when they’re plain, de-shelled, and don’t contain additives or sweeteners, of course. Tree nuts such as walnuts, pistachios, almonds, and cashews can also cause allergic reactions in your dog. Walnuts, hickory nuts, and pecans can contain a dangerous mold that secretes mycotoxins, a big no-no for Fido. Macadamia nuts are one of the most dangerous nuts of all. The toxic agent in these nuts hasn’t been definitively identified, but it’s believed to be a neurotoxin. That means that a dog who eats macadamia nuts might suffer from lethargy, joint stiffness, hind-limb weakness, vomiting, and seizures. Avoid giving your pooch macadamia nuts at all costs.
How to Feed Your Dog Peanuts
We’ve seen that peanuts can offer your dog some valuable nutrition, but they also come with risks. So how do you go about feeding your dog peanuts safely?
First, always make sure the peanuts you’re giving your dog are unsalted and unflavored, with the shells removed. To reduce the chance of choking, have your dog eat peanuts one at a time. And remember not to overdo it, since the high fat content in peanuts can cause pancreatitis when too many are eaten.
If your dog seems to develop side effects after eating peanuts, he or she may be allergic. Stop giving your dog peanuts right away and call your vet. If you want to give your dog peanut butter, always check the ingredients list. There are several common peanut butters on the market that contain xylitol.
Final Thoughts on feeding your dog peanuts
Here’s the rule of thumb to follow when feeding peanuts to your dog: Offering an unsalted peanut as a treat is perfectly fine.
Peanut butter works as a tasty treat for dogs, as long as it’s given in small quantities – or as a treat – and doesn’t contain artificial sweeteners like xylitol.
Remember that some dogs are allergic to peanuts and other types of nuts, just like humans are. If you think your dog is having an adverse reaction after eating peanuts or peanut butter, call your vet right away.
Otherwise, feel free to give your dog the occasional plain peanut as a tasty snack. Your pooch will thank you.
Vitamin Supplements for Dogs
Why do dogs need supplements? Age, environment, pollutants, and the stressors of daily life can all lead to less than optimal health for your dog. We’ve created a family of supplements to provide support in the areas your dog needs it most. Learn about Wild Earth’s dog supplements.
What Are The Best Companions To Peanuts
We know peanuts as the central ingredient in the childhood favorite, peanut butter, but do you know how to grow them? Peanuts are ground nuts and scramble low about the earth. Their particular growing requirements mean any plants grown nearby must also like full sun, well-drained soil and deeply fertile sandy loam. This begs the question, what are good companions to peanuts. The answer is quite extensive and may surprise you. Numerous food crops are perfect peanut companion plants.
What to Plant with Peanuts
Peanuts are pleasant plants with pretty little yellow flowers and a spectacular method of nut production. Nuts grow from pegs or stems that insert themselves into the ground and develop into peanuts. Needing as much sun as possible during the day, companion planting with peanuts should not include tall plants, which will shade the ground nuts.
Companions to peanuts must enjoy the same soil and sun conditions but also a high amount of calcium, a nutrient that promotes the formation of healthy plants and ground nuts.
Ideal plants with peanut crops might be other in-ground crops like beets and carrots. Potatoes are another good in-ground plant with similar growing needs. In-ground crops to avoid are onions and other members of the Allium family.
Very tall crops, like pole beans and corn, should be avoided, as they will shade the peanut plants and can inhibit nut formation. Food crops such as cabbage and celery enjoy the same site conditions but are not so tall as to create shade.
Short season or fast producing crops like lettuce, snow peas, spinach, and radish are excellent plants that grow well with peanuts. Their production will be finished long before peanut plants flower and begin to peg into the soil.
Many herbs offer unique pest deterrent capabilities as well as increase pollinators during their flowering period. Certain flowers also offer these benefits when planted in proximity to food crops. Marigolds and nasturtiums are two classic examples of flowering companions with pest repellent properties and pollinator charm.
Herbs like rosemary, savory and tansy will draw in pollinating insects and have some ability to attract beneficial insects while sending the bad bugs running. Much of this is thought to be attributed to the potently scented oils in the leaves of the plants, but whatever the reason, they have the same growing requirements as peanuts and will thrive in the same garden bed. Many more herbs are great plants that grow well with peanuts.
Herbs that produce profuse flowers are especially welcome as their colors and scents will bring in important insects that will pollinate the peanut flowers.
Using Groundcover Companion Planting with Peanuts
Any companion plants near peanuts should ideally not cover up the plants and reduce their sun exposure. However, a unique companion combo with strawberries offers both beauty and double duty in the same garden space. Strawberry plants with their runners will gradually take over an area. However, in their first year they provide a nice ground cover that will prevent many weeds and help conserve soil moisture by preventing evaporation.
Both peanuts and strawberries have the same soil and site requirements. The berries grow lower than the 12-inch (30.5 cm.) peanut plants and will not suffocate them. Care should be taken to prevent berry runners from rooting within 3 inches (7.5 cm.) of the peanut plant as this could interrupt the pegging process.
Peanuts GOOD FOOD Mixbar Roasted salted peanuts 45 g
The best deals on Peanuts GOOD FOOD Mixbar Roasted Salted Peanuts 45 g
Name is hidden, 04/29/2020
Commentary: Nuts class
Name hidden, 29.12.2019
No harmful additives. Almost odorless, the nuts are not hard and are easy to chew. There is almost no salt, so it is exactly the taste of nuts that is felt.
Name is hidden, 12/23/2019
Tasty, moderately salty
Name hidden, 05.12.2019
Commentary: Good peanuts, very convenient packaging for a quick snack, I recommend
Advantages: Price, ratio price = quality, moderately salty, tasty, not stony in taste
Disadvantages: I did not find
Comment: Of all peanuts, these are the most delicious, fried taste adds piquancy, I buy from more than 3 years, go especially well with beer.
Name is hidden, 02.10.2019
Commentary: Great nuts! I always take them to beer, and just peck them like that!)
Name hidden, 11.08.2019
Name is hidden, 07/07/2019
Commentary: The tastiest peanuts I’ve tasted.
Name is hidden, 05/12/2019
Commentary: Excellent inexpensive peanuts.
Name hidden, 08.05.2019
Commentary: In my opinion, this peanut is not the standard of taste among all products of this kind. I think it makes sense to take only on the stock.
Name is hidden, 02/06/2019
Commentary: Delicious kernels, thank you to this world for kernels
Calories GOOD MIX Sunny peanuts.Chemical composition and nutritional value.
Chemical composition and nutritional analysis
Nutritional value and chemical composition
“GOOD MIX Sunny peanuts” .
The table shows the content of nutrients (calories, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals) per 100 grams of edible part.
|Nutrient||Quantity||Norm **||100% of the norm|
|Calories||461 kcal||1684 kcal||27.4%||5.9%||365 g|
|Proteins||9.1 g||76 g||12%||2.6%||835 g|
|Fat||21 g||56 g||37.5%||8.1%||267 g|
|Carbohydrates||59 g||219 g||26.9%||5.8%||371 g|
Energy value GOOD MIX Solar peanuts is 461 kcal.
Main source: Created in the application by the user. More details.
** This table shows the average norms of vitamins and minerals for an adult. If you want to know the norms taking into account your gender, age and other factors, then use the application
“My Healthy Diet”.
How to roast peanuts correctly recipe
Peanuts are very easy to roast.This requires only nuts and vegetable oil. Peanuts can be fried in their husks, or you can try to remove them before roasting.
The most important thing in roasting peanuts is to choose high quality nuts. While you can use peanuts that have been pre-cooked or baked, the tastiest are those taken raw. You can grow peanuts yourself if you live in the southern regions, bought in a store or at the market. Nuts grown in their own gardens are believed to have a higher palatability.
Using good vegetable oil will make the peanuts even tastier. Sunflower oil, soybean oil or rapeseed oil can be used for roasting nuts. These oils do not affect the taste of the peanuts, but they do improve the flavor. Peanut butter can also be used. Then the nuts will be the most delicious and aromatic. Garlic or pepper flavored vegetable oils can also be used if desired.
So, let’s start frying the peanuts. To do this, take a frying pan and about 2.5 cm.fill it with vegetable oil. If you have a deep fryer, you can use one instead of a frying pan. Heat the oil to 150 ° C and add the nuts to the skillet. How do you know if the pan is at the correct temperature? Place one nut on it. If it sizzles, it means the oil has warmed up and the rest of the nuts can be added.
During frying, care must be taken that the nuts are not burnt. To do this, they must be stirred regularly. The whole process of roasting nuts takes only 5-10 minutes.Therefore, it is important not to go far from the stove. When the nuts are golden brown in color, they are done.
Place the peanuts on a paper towel to remove any excess oil. If you want to add flavor to the nuts, you can sprinkle them with salt or spices.
Oil should not be thrown away after roasting peanuts. It can be used to make a wonderful spicy seasoning for dishes. To do this, add salt, ground pepper and your favorite dried spices to it.90,000 Food and nutritional substitutes for athletes and weight loss So Good! Peanut paste. butter crunchy Fitness Authority
So Good peanuts. butter crunchy from Fitness Authority
So Good Cashew butter crunchy from Fitness Authority is a delicious and nutritious cashew nut butter with a crunchy texture. This dietetic food product was created for those looking to diversify their sports diet. Healthy is not necessarily bland, and the Cashew butter Fitness Authority proves it.
Benefits of So Good Cashew butter crunchy:
- Completely natural product
- 100% without palm oil added
- Contains no sugar and salt
- GMO is not used in production
The butter is made by grinding freshly harvested roasted nuts to a crispy consistency. The production technology does not use artificial colors, sugar and salt, due to which the product is completely natural and retains all its useful properties.
Cashew nuts contain valuable protein, about 18 grams per 100 grams of product. At the same time, it is perfectly absorbed in combination with other plant and milk proteins, so the oil can be used in a joint complex of taking sports nutrition.
But cashews are famous, first of all, for their vitamin and mineral composition. It has almost everything you need to maintain the body and protect the immune system – vitamins PP, B1, B2, E, minerals potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, calcium, iron.Only 100 grams of the product contains 35% of the RDA for vitamin B1, which plays an important role in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, as well as providing oxygen transport to muscle fibers, feeding the nervous and cardiovascular systems.
Cashew helps in recovery after heavy physical exertion, improves immunity, stabilizes hormones in men and women, has anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity, not to mention the powerful support of the bone structure of the body.
It is difficult to overestimate its benefits, especially the taste in the velvety, crunchy structure of Cashew butter, an oil specially formulated to meet the needs and preferences of athletes following a strict professional diet.
So Good Cashew butter crunchy from Fitness Authority is a gourmet product.
Stir before use.
The product is not a medicine.We do not recommend using the products for persons under 18 years of age. Before you start taking any product, be sure to consult a specialist!
benefits and harms, how much to eat, pasta, butter, tips for choosing
Peanuts are the most “folk” nuts that you can buy in any supermarket. They say that Americans and elephants love him most of all. Let’s tell you which of this is true. And also how are peanuts useful, how many nuts you can eat per day, how to choose the right product, and much more.In one article, we have collected everything you need to know before buying and using.
How and where it grows
The second name for peanuts is peanut. From a botanical point of view, this name is incorrect. Peanuts belong to the legume family – in composition they are closer to beans than, for example, to almonds or hazelnuts. However, almost the whole world calls him a nut. We have nothing against it.
Peanuts, like other beans, grow on bushes from 20 to 60 cm high. Under the thin shell of its swollen fruits, 2 to 4 nuts are hidden.The homeland of peanuts is South America. From there, he scattered all over the world. Peanuts grow well when warm. On the territory of the former USSR, culture took root only in the regions of the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Peanuts are an amazing product. This is not a nut, but I can’t even call it a bean. Here are 10 fun facts about peanuts that you might not know:
- It was originally thought to be the food of the poor. At the beginning of the 20th century, more than 300 varieties of products and products based on peanuts were introduced in the United States.This is how the world recognized its value.
- Peanuts gained popularity in the United States after an invasion of insects that once destroyed other crops. Farmers averted a famine year and people appreciated the sweet and nutritious product.
- At the beginning of the 20th century, Europeans used peanuts instead of coffee.
- When harvesting, the bushes are completely pulled out of the ground.
- About 80% of the peanuts grown in the United States go to peanut butter.
- Peanut allergy is most common in Americans.Experts suggest that this is due to the high popularity of peanut butter.
- There are several dozen varieties of peanuts. The most valuable experts consider the American species.
- Today, China is the leader in the production of peanuts. This country was also the first to use the nut to fight hunger during major disasters.
- Spanish sailors brought peanuts to Europe. They satisfied their hunger, and at the same time raised their immunity.
- Many are convinced that peanuts are the favorite delicacy of elephants.In fact, animals do not eat it.
Peanuts are rich in vitamins C, E, PP, group B. They contain useful fatty acids, as well as potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, copper, selenium and other important elements. The human body absorbs protein well from these nuts.
10 reasons to include peanuts in your diet today:
- Strengthens the immune system . Peanuts are good for children who often get colds.And also for adults – for the prevention of viral and infectious diseases.
- Normalizes sugar . Experts advise consuming peanuts to prevent diabetes. And if you have a disease, small doses can help cope with surges in blood sugar.
- Improves liver function . The nut is indicated for the prevention of cirrhosis and other diseases.
- Strengthens bones . Peanuts will benefit children because they help form strong bones and teeth.It is also indicated for the elderly to prevent the fragility of the skeleton.
- Improves the appearance of . Peanuts are rich in biotin, which helps women grow long, strong hair. Its useful for nails. And vitamin E in peanuts is responsible for the beauty and youthfulness of the skin.
- Helps to lose weight . With moderate consumption of peanuts, cravings for sweets are reduced. The nut is rich in dietary fiber, so it keeps you full for a long time.
- Useful for women .It normalizes hormones, and due to its high iron content, it helps restore hemoglobin levels during menstruation.
- Useful for men . Peanuts are rich in zinc, which helps in the formation of testosterone, increases potency.
- Normalizes the digestive tract . Fiber cleanses the intestines, and healthy fats help the body absorb nutrients from food.
- Improves body function . Peanuts are rich in choline, which is essential for building cells.It also contains vitamin E, a natural antioxidant. Substances from peanuts are able to bind and remove toxins from the body.
Harm and daily rate
The calorie content of peanuts is about 550 kcal per 100 grams. It is 50% fat and rich in protein. Experts advise eating no more than 30 grams of peanuts per day. A good dose is about 20 nuts a day.
With constant overeating, peanuts will harm the body. Walnut is a potent allergen and should not be consumed by children under 3 years of age.For a healthy person, exceeding the intake can result in poisoning, painful bloating, constipation or diarrhea. And sometimes intestinal obstruction.
Why soak and peel
Brown peanuts should be soaked before eating. Nature has protected the beneficial kernels with a thin skin with a protective pigment. It is poisonous only for insects, but in large quantities it can cause gastrointestinal problems or poisoning. If the peanuts have already been peeled, this risk can be eliminated.
You can free peanuts from the skin in a dry frying pan. It is enough to keep it on low heat for 15-20 minutes. Then the cooled roasted peanuts can be wrapped in a towel and rubbed together so that most of the husks fly off by themselves.
Peeled peanuts should be soaked to prevent bloating. Similar to other legumes. Also, peanuts can be germinated. In this form, it will be sweeter, refreshingly crisp and as healthy as possible.
How to choose and store
Experts advise buying raw or dried peanuts to roast on your own.Because unscrupulous manufacturers sometimes add low-quality oil to the product. And at home you can do without it – peanuts are easy to fry in a dry pan.
Before buying, check the nuts for 3 signs:
- Appearance . Make sure there are no dark spots on the shell and skin. As well as visible cracks and chips.
- Odor . The aroma of bitterness is unacceptable. Mold on peanuts is one of the most dangerous for the human body.
- Taste . Fresh peanuts are light sweet and not bitter at all. If there are unpleasant shades of taste, you should not buy such a product.
The shelf life of peanuts is 1 year. Store it in the freezer, then defrost it a little at a time and brown it or soak it.
Peanuts should not be eaten on an empty stomach, because they will put a lot of stress on the digestive system. It is best to add it to a ready-made hot dish, salad, or dessert.You should also pay attention to peanut butter, paste and urbech. When pounded, the body will better absorb the nut.
3 iHerb peanut butter you should try:
- classic peanut butter with good composition – here;
- the same pasta, but with dark chocolate – here;
- Peanut Butter Powder – Follow this link.
Be sure to include peanuts in your diet and stick to it. Then you will only benefit from it.And if you travel often, always try the national dishes of different countries, which include nuts. And also food dressed with peanut sauce.
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90,000 good yields in four main producing countries / continents
Completion of the harvesting season. More and more crops seem to be peanut. In 2016, the combined crop of the four main peanut-producing countries / continents was 26 million.tons, this year it is expected that it will be at least 30 million tons.
Thanks to dry weather conditions, harvesting began early. Removed Bold (Runners) in some areas of Gujarat, for java (Spanish) it will take a few more weeks for the peanuts to get to condition. So far, no alarming news of the crop related to infectious diseases or bad weather has emerged from Gujarat and Rajasthan.
Java (Spanish) peanut production is boosted by the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andra Karnataka.A new crop from these states will be able to cover the demand for 40/60, 50/60 and 80/90 peanuts. The total sown area of the winter harvest in 2017 reached 4,153,000 hectares, which is significantly higher than the 5-year average of 4,149,000 hectares.
In Shandong, Henan, peanuts from the previous harvest continue to be sold at consistently low prices. And in Jiangsu, Hebei and Jiangxi, a new crop of peanuts appeared on the market, which began to be harvested in Shandong province. After a period of prolonged rains, the weather is favorable for harvesting in China.In the Henan market, new crop peanuts are offered at $ 1,150 per ton, including a 10 percent tax. Export prices are in the range of US $ 1000 – 1050 per ton. Bold (Runners) 24/28 peanuts are in the range of US $ 1200 – 1300 per ton. Shandong peanuts are generally higher than peanuts from Shandong from Henan province.
Current prices have not yet reached the bottom and may sink even lower. At the moment, prices for European quality peanuts in the size 40/50 are at the level of $ 1,530.USD per ton, and by 50/60 – 1480 USD per ton (FOB).
The market is drifting. Recent hurricanes have proven to be very beneficial to the peanut crop. They contributed to the good yield of peanuts. This year, 80% of all the acreage planted with peanuts was in excellent condition before harvesting, last year it was only 64%. The average output of peanuts per hectare in 2017 was 4758 kg, which is 649 kg. higher than last year’s output. So this year the output of peanuts will be a record in the history of the industry.Peanut yields are highest in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi. European Quality Runners Peanuts, 40/50 Sizes, are at $ 1,450 / MT
An unprecedented harvest. Production costs and peanut prices have gone so far that peanuts have become a favorite crop of African farmers. Due to the rains, deliveries of new crop peanuts from Sudan will not begin until December.
World Peanut Markets
The trend in the global peanut market is determined by the size of crops in four countries / continents, namely: India, China, Africa and America.In doing so, China usually plays the role of “big brother” for India and Africa in terms of creating demand and developing the peanut industry in these countries.
Recently, India and China have been competing in some of the world’s peanut markets, notably SEA (Southeast Asia), Europe and Japan. This confrontation between India and China began at the beginning of 2017 due to the implementation of the carry-over remnants of the previous harvest. The main ally in this struggle on the side of India could be the growing domestic demand for peanuts in China.With the dominance of China and India, there is only one option for Africa – low prices. So far, there are no ideas how events will develop in connection with the large crop of peanuts in the United States.
The conditions in the Chinese market have recently become somewhat more difficult, after crushing plants announced a reduction in purchase prices from $ 1007 per tonne to $ 992 per tonne. Moreover, they also tightened requirements for the level of aflatoxin in purchased peanuts – anything above 10 ppb will deflect.
Tough competition can be expected even in the highest segment of demand – the EU and Japan – between China and India. How much are competitors willing to give in prices? Historically, in this game, India, as a rule, has always outplayed China – let’s see what happens this time.
Indian Peanut Market
Processors in India rush to meet peanut supply commitments. At that time, there were almost no buyers on the export market. Bold (Runners) 50/60 peanut prices are very attractive and range from $ 850.Up to $ 1050 per ton (FOB) – no buyers. Usually, in the last 2 years by this time there were already 200-600 containers of forward contracts with buyers from Vietnam and China, with deliveries in 1-3 months. In this situation, the local peanut market also fell into a drowsy state. The export market for peanuts in India is 20-30%, the rest is consumed in the domestic market, but these 20% of exports set trends and speed in domestic sales.
Graph 1. Peanuts: Post-harvest risks of aflatoxin contamination
90,000 Benefits of peanuts for women: what is good about peanuts? Useful properties and possible harm of peanuts for the female body – Kotelkoff.Net
Peanuts are not only a tasty product, but also very healthy. In folk medicine, it is used to treat diseases of the throat and bronchi, relieve fever, and eliminate dizziness. A decoction of peanuts is used to treat chronic lung diseases.
Chemical composition and benefits of peanuts for women and men
Despite the fact that peanuts are more like nuts, they still belong to legumes.It is 45% fat and 26% protein. It is not recommended to get carried away with peanuts due to their high calorie content. In 100 g of product 552 kcal.
Consuming peanuts in reasonable doses is beneficial for women’s health. The fruits are rich in phosphorus, iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Peanuts contain mono- and disaccharides, antioxidants, saturated fatty acids.
To maintain health and well-being, it is enough to eat up to 10 pieces of roasted nuts per day, or no more than 100 g of unroasted nuts.If you get too carried away, you can seriously strain your stomach and put on weight.
So, what are the benefits of peanuts for women’s health:
• dilates blood vessels and helps to normalize blood pressure during racing;
• accelerates cell regeneration and slows down their destruction;
• activates the work of brain neurons;
• lowers cholesterol levels;
• Tones the vessels;
• regulates blood sugar;
• improves the intestinal microflora, cleanses the stomach of toxins;
• strengthens bones, nails, hair, teeth;
• improves mood, helps to fight stress and depressive conditions.
Women’s health benefits of peanuts
The benefits of this product for women are worth mentioning separately. Women need to include peanuts in their diet for a number of reasons. The first and foremost reason is to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Scientists from the Harvard School of Public Health have deduced a pattern: women who regularly consume peanuts and peanut butter are much less likely to experience benign neoplasms in the mammary glands. On the one hand, such tumors do not pose a mortal danger, but they increase the risk of developing a malignant tumor several times.
An experiment was conducted in which several thousand girls aged 9 to 15 years participated. One group regularly (at least twice a week) received peanuts and butter, the second group ate these foods from time to time or did not eat at all. A few years later, scientists concluded that the group that had peanuts in their diet had a 39% lower risk of developing breast cancer! The results are impressive and make sure that peanuts in moderation are able to protect women’s health.
Peanuts are rich in vitamins and minerals. Manganese in its composition has a beneficial effect on the nails, skin and hair of women. They become strong and healthy looking. Also, the manganese in peanuts is responsible for regulating metabolism. In moderation with this product, you can lose extra pounds.
For those who frequently dye their hair and expose it to high temperatures and styling products, there is good news: biotin is present in peanuts.This substance strengthens the hair at the very bulbs, making them stronger several times.
Everyone knows three periods in every woman’s life when hormones are raging: adolescence, pregnancy and menopause. The substances in peanuts help to cope with these conditions and not get nervous about every occasion. Peanuts strengthens the reproductive system, improves hormones and prevents the failure of the female cycle.
Women’s Health Benefits and How to Use Peanuts
In order to make the most of all the beneficial properties of peanuts, it is important to take them correctly.
Peanut liqueur for raising the immune system
This recipe is especially useful during periods of seasonal epidemics. To protect yourself from frequent colds, you need to take care of your immunity.
For tincture you will need:
• 1 tsp peanut husks;
• 60 ml of vodka.
How to cook:
The husk is poured with vodka, removed to a dark place and insisted for 2 weeks.
Then the tincture is filtered and taken.You need to drink no more than 7 drops of tincture per day. To enhance the effect of taking it, you must drink it with warm milk.
Peanut milk for ulcer treatment
Success in the treatment of any disease depends both on the prescribed medications and on the use of traditional methods. For diseases of the stomach and duodenum, you can take peanut milk.
What you need for this:
• peanut kernels;
• warm boiled water.
How to cook:
First you need to turn all the kernels into flour.
Then it is mixed with warm boiled water until smooth.
The resulting milk is drunk daily. No more than 200 ml of peanut milk is allowed per day.
Important: during periods of exacerbation of these diseases, it is prohibited to eat peanuts in any form!
When are peanuts harmful for women and men
First of all, you need to remember that only fresh peanuts are allowed for consumption.If it has mold or smells bad, throw it away immediately. It may have been improperly stored or transported. Such peanuts are not only not beneficial, but can be harmful. Aflatoxins begin to form in these nuts. They often lead to an allergic reaction.
It is forbidden to eat peanuts for diseases such as gout, arthrosis, arthritis, varicose enlargement of the stomach, as well as for existing problems with the pancreas.
Excessive consumption of peanuts leads not only to obesity, but also to the development of liver disease.Also, the bitterness from nuts, which appears due to improper storage, negatively affects the liver.
To avoid possible digestive problems, eat only peeled nuts.
The benefits of peanuts for women and how to store them correctly
Even if you come across absolutely beautiful peanuts, without damage and mold, with a pleasant smell, you need to know the rules for storing this product. Otherwise, you already know where this can lead. In addition, when stored improperly, peanuts begin to secrete oil.It spoils not only the appearance, but also the taste of the product.
So, the rules for storing peanuts:
1. The product is stored in a container that does not allow moisture to pass through and is tightly closed. Do not store peanuts in plastic containers or plastic bags. So he will quickly lose his taste and useful qualities. If peanuts were purchased not by weight, but in their original packaging, then they can be stored until the date indicated on it, but provided that the integrity of the packaging is not violated.
2. To avoid the appearance of mold on the peanuts, before storing them, carefully sort and throw out the trash and shells.