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Complete Blood Count (CBC) | Labcorp

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Sources Used in Current Review

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(December 23, 2014) Salvagno G, et al. Red blood cell distribution width: A simple parameter with multiple clinical applications. Critical Reviews in Laboratory Science 52 (2): 86-105. Available online at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/10408363.2014.992064. Accessed January 2020.

Wintrobe’s Clinical Hematology. 14th ed. Greer J, editor. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer: 2019, Section 2: The Erythrocyte, Pp 1512-1516, 1522-1524.

Harmening, D. Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of Hemostasis, Fifth Edition, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 2009, Chapter 3 and pp 305-328.

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Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 290.

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Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007, Chap. 31, Pp 477-478, 545-560, 730, 754-757.

Wintrobe’s Clinical Hematology. 12th ed. Greer J, Foerster J, Rodgers G, Paraskevas F, Glader B, Arber D, Means R, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 2009, Pp 170-402, 1512-1516, 1522-1524, 1528-1533.

Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL eds, (2005). Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Edition, McGraw Hill, Pp 329-336, 340-341, 673-675.

Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006, Pp 409-412, 447-448.

(Updated May 10, 2010) Inoue S, et al. Leukocytosis, Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/956278-overview. Accessed May 2012.

(February 1, 2011) National Heart Lung Blood Institute. What is lymphocytopenia? Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/lym/. Accessed May 2012.

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(January 6, 2010) Naushad H. Leukocyte Count (WBC). Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2054452-overview#aw2aab6b2. Accessed May 2012.

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(May 24, 2011) Godwin J. Neutropenia. Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204821-overview. Accessed May 2012.

(August 25, 2011) Liss M. Eosinophilia. Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/199879-overview. Accessed May 2012.

(March 1, 2011) National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. What is Polycythemia vera? Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/poly/. Accessed May 2012.

(May 18 2012) National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Anemia. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/anemia/. Accessed May 2012.

(November 4, 2011) Maakaron J. Anemia. Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/198475-overview. Accessed May 2012.

(April 19, 2012) Dugdale D. RBC Count. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003644.htm. Accessed May 2012.

Riley R, et.al. Automated Hematologic Evaluation. Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University. Available online at http://www.pathology.vcu.edu/education/PathLab/pages/hematopath/pbs.html#Anchor-Automated-47857. Accessed May 2012.

(August 1, 2010) National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. What are thrombocythemia and thrombocytosis? Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/thrm/. Accessed May 2012.

(Aug 1, 2010) National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. What is thrombocytopenia? Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/thcp/. Accessed May 2012.

(July 16, 2010) Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions, Thrombocytosis. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/thrombocytosis/DS01088. Accessed May 2012.

Bain B J. The peripheral blood smear. In Goldman L, Schafer AI. (© 2012). Goldman’s Cecil Medicine 24th Edition: Elsevir Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. Pp 1024-1031.

Pagana, Kathleen D., Pagana, Timothy J., and Pagana, Theresa N. (© 2015). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 12th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 497-501, 786-789, 991-995.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2012 May 18 Updated). Anemia. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/anemia. Accessed 4/8/2015.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2013 December 30 Updated). Lymphocytopenia Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/lym. Accessed 4/8/2015.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2012 31 July Updated). What is thrombocytopenia? Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/thcp. Accessed 3/20/2015.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2012 31 July Updated). What are thrombocythemia and thrombocytosis? Available online at http://www. nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/thrm/. Accessed 3/20/2015.

Inoue S. (7 February 2014 Updated) Leukocytosis. Medscape Reference Article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/956278-overview. Accessed 4/5/2015.

(January 14, 2015) Curry C. White Blood Cell Differential. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2085133-overview#a2. Accessed July 10, 2015.

Yuko, S. et. al. (2013 October). Examination of the Percentage of Immature Platelet Fraction in Term and Preterm Infants at Birth. J Clin Neonatol. 2013 Oct-Dec; 2(4): 173–178. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3883212/. Accessed 07/18/15.

Hoffman, J.J. (2014). Reticulated platelets: analytical aspects and clinical utility. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2014; 52(8):1107-17. Available online at http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/cclm.2014.52.issue-8/cclm-2014-0165/cclm-2014-0165.xml. Accessed 07/25/15.

Szigeti, R. and Curry, C. (2014 September 5, Updated). Reticulocyte Count and Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2086146-overview. Accessed 07/18/15.

Peerschke, E. (2014). Using the Hemoglobin Content of Reticulocytes (RET-He) to Evaluate Anemia in Patients With Cancer. Medscape News & Perspective. Am J Clin Pathol. 2014;142(4):506-512. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/833778. Accessed 07/18/15.

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How to Understand Blood Test Results

Blood panels are a common part of physical exams, but to the layperson, they’re almost meaningless in their complexity. With every metric – red blood cell count, cholesterol, iron levels, and so many more – measured completely differently and independently from one another, it’s not easy to know what the random numbers you receive mean. It’s also not always clear why tests are ordered or what they mean for your overall health. When not involved in medicine, it’s common for test results to seem like gibberish, particularly if you receive results electronically via email or app without a sit-down or summary with your doctor.

While your doctor will likely notify you if there are any major issues you should know about, knowledge is power. Understanding how tests are used can help you look for red flags in your results or identify how to make changes for the better.

Common Blood Tests

Blood tests exist in many forms and functions but most basic blood tests include three separate panels: a complete blood count, a lipid panel, and a metabolic panel.

Complete Blood Count

A complete blood count concentrates on the makeup of the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, as well as the components within, like hemoglobin. While CBC panels include many different tests, these are the most common and most influential.

  • White blood cell count: As the name implies, this screening assesses the number of white blood cells in the blood. A high count can indicate infection, while low counts can indicate a compromised immune system. Screenings also look the proportions of certain forms of white blood cells, including the distribution of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophiles, and basophils.
  • Red blood cell count: Much like white blood cell counts, this test looks at the number of red blood cells found in the blood.
  • Hematocrit test: This test evaluates the portion of the blood made up of red blood cells. It is useful in supporting a diagnosis of conditions like anemia.
  • Hemoglobin test: A hemoglobin test evaluates hemoglobin levels. Low levels of hemoglobin can indicate iron deficiency. Doctors can also evaluate the average amount of hemoglobin in each cell via a mean corpuscular hemoglobin test.
  • Platelet count and mean platelet volume: A platelet count evaluates platelet levels while a MPV test checks the distribution of platelets in the blood. A high platelet level can mean anemia or cancer, while a low platelet volume indicates a higher risk for heart attack or stroke.

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

A metabolic panel is focused primarily on tests that indicate the state of metabolic functioning, including glucose levels and kidney function. The most common components of these panels include:

  • Alanine aminotransferase test: An ALT test evaluates levels of the ALT enzyme in the liver, in which high levels can indicate liver disease.
  • Albumin test: Albumin is a substance produced by the liver and abnormal levels can be caused by kidney or liver problems.
  • Alkaline phosphatase test: Evaluating alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme produced in bone cells and in the liver, this test can indicate bone problems, like rickets, or liver damage.
  • Aspartate aminotransferase test: An enzyme found in the blood cells, muscle tissue, the heart, the pancreas, and the kidneys, high levels on this test can indicate cancer, organ damage, or heart disease.
  • Calcium test: A test screening for calcium levels, low readings in this test can point to conditions like cancer, tuberculosis, and hyperparathyroidism, while high levels can be indicative of rickets or malnutrition.
  • Chloride and creatinine tests: Tests that measure levels of these substances in the blood, both exams are commonly used to evaluate kidney function.
  • Fasting blood sugar test: A way to evaluate blood sugar without the effects of food consumption, this test is particularly important in diagnosing diabetes.
  • Phosphorus test: By measuring phosphorus, doctors can look for signs of kidney disease, malnutrition, and alcohol abuse.
  • Potassium test: Potassium is an important mineral within the body that plays a role in heart and muscle function. This test looks at the levels of potassium within the body and the implications to the muscles if low levels are found.
  • Sodium test: A screening that looks at sodium levels, abnormal readings can indicate kidney and liver disorders.

Lipid Panels

Lipid tests are most commonly used to evaluate cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and often are comprised of tests like:

  • HDL cholesterol test: HDL cholesterol, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is commonly known as “good” cholesterol. Low levels present in the body can indicate an increased risk of heart disease.
  • LDL cholesterol test: LDL cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is also known as “bad” cholesterol. High levels of this form of cholesterol can also mean an increased risk of heart disease.
  • Total cholesterol test: This test looks at both LDL and HDL cholesterol. When HDL and LDL are looked at proportionately to total cholesterol, it’s easier for doctors to properly assess heart disease risk.
  • Triglycerides test: A triglycerides test looks at levels of fats, or triglycerides within the blood. Unusual levels can also be indicative of heart disease risk.

Blood tests can seem overwhelming, but regular screening is an important part of staying healthy. Knowing more about the tests performed and what results can indicate can improve awareness of personal health, helping to guide medical decisions.

Capstone Healthcare is a renowned resource for processing blood tests, providing medical professionals and researchers with accurate results to a wide range of sample testing, including standard blood panels.

Understanding Blood Counts | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society of Canada

Blood cell counts give your doctor important clues about the state of your health before, during and after treatment. Blood counts alone can’t determine whether you have a blood cancer, but they can alert your doctor if further testing is needed.

Your blood count (the number and types of cells circulating in your blood) is measured using laboratory tests that require a small blood sample.

Blood is composed of several types of cells:

  • Red cells, sometimes referred to as erythrocytes, pick up oxygen as blood passes through the lungs and release it to the cells in the body.
  • White cells, sometimes referred to as leukocytes, help fight bacteria and viruses.
  • Platelets help your blood clot in response to a cut or a wound.

A CBC also tests hemoglobin and hematocrit:

  • Hemoglobin is a protein used by red cells to distribute oxygen to other tissues and cells in the body.
  • Hematocrit refers to the amount of your blood that’s occupied by red cells.

 

Normal Blood Counts

Normal blood counts fall within a range established by testing healthy men and women of all ages. The cell counts are compared to those of healthy individuals of similar age and sex. Nearly all lab reports include a “normal” range or high and low “values” to help you understand test results.





Normal Ranges of Blood Cell Counts for Healthy Adults and Children


  Red Blood Cells 

(per litre tera/L)
White Blood Cells 

(per litre of blood giga/L)
Platelets 

(per litre of blood giga/L)
Hematocrit1;

(% of blood composed of red cells)
Hemoglobin1

(Substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen) (grams per litre of blood g/gL)
 
Men

4.7 to 6.1 million

5.0 to 10

150 to 400

42% to 52%

140 to 180

Women2

4. 2 to 5.4 million

4.5 to 11.0

150 to 400

37% to 47%

140 to 180

Children3

4.5 to 5.0 million

5.0 to 10.0

150 to 400

32% to 44%

95 to 55

1The ratio of hematocrit to hemoglobin is about 3 to 1.
2Normal ranges for women who are pregnant differ from these ranges.
3These ranges are for children from infancy to adolescence; speak with your doctor to find out specific values for infants and young children.

 

White Cell Differential

Differential count, sometimes referred to as a “diff,” is a breakdown of the different types of white cells. A white cell (WBC) differential also checks whether white cells appear normal. The five types of white cells and the approximate percentage they make up in the blood are:

  • Neutrophils (55% to 70%)
  • Band neutrophils (0% to 3%)
  • Lymphocytes (20% to 40%)
  • Monocytes (2% to 8%)
  • Eosinophils (1% to 4%)
  • Basophils (0.5% to 1%)

Until children are more than 4 years old, they have a higher percentage of lymphocytes in their blood than adults do.

 

How Blood Cancers Affect Blood Counts

Blood cancers can affect blood cell counts in a number of ways, either lowering or increasing measurements. If you’re currently receiving cancer treatment such as chemotherapy, drug therapy or radiation, your blood counts will be affected. Blood counts usually return to normal after treatment is complete.

 

Should You Keep Track of Your Blood Counts?

Some people want to know the results of their blood count tests so they can take preventive measures to protect their health or to what’s causing their symptoms. For example:

  • If you have anemia as a result of low red cell counts, you’ll understand why you have low energy levels or are unable to carry out everyday tasks.
  • If you have low white cell counts and develop a fever, you’ll know to contact your doctor promptly.
  • If your platelet counts are too low, you can bleed or bruise easily, so you may choose to avoid activities that have a risk of injury.

 

Noncancerous Conditions

About 5 percent of healthy people will have test results outside of the “normal” range. If one or more of your blood cell counts is higher or lower than normal, your doctor will try to find out why. Many noncancerous conditions can contribute to low or high blood cell counts, such as those in the table below.




  Red Cells White Cells Platelets
High counts

  • Smoking
  • Carbon monoxide exposure
  • Chronic lung disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Certain forms of heart disease
  • Alcoholism
  • Liver disease
  • Conditions that affect the body’s fluid level

  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • Severe physical or emotional stress (such as fever, injury or surgery)
  • Burns
  • Kidney failure
  • Lupus
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Malnutrition, thyroid problems
  • Certain medicines

  • Bleeding
  • Mild to moderate iron deficiency
  • Problems with bone marrow function
Low counts

  • Anemia from too little iron, folic acid or vitamin B12
  • Bleeding
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Other diseases that might cause malnutrition
  • Certain drugs

  • Infection
  • Chemotherapy and other medicines
  • Malaria
  • Alcoholism
  • AIDS
  • Lupus
  • Enlarged spleen

  • Pregnancy
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome
  • Autoimmune diseases

 

Complete Blood Count (CBC) | aidsinfonet.

org

Fact Sheet 121

THE COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC)
RED BLOOD CELL TESTS
WHITE BLOOD CELL TESTS

 


 THE COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC)

The most common laboratory test is the complete blood count (CBC). It examines the components of blood, including red and white blood cells and platelets. Most test results are reported as amounts in a sample of blood (for example, cells per milliliter) or as a percentage. Other laboratory tests are discussed in Fact Sheets 122 and 123.

All blood cells are made in the bone marrow, the center of large bones. Some medications or diseases can damage the bone marrow. This can reduce the numbers of different types of red or white blood cells.

Every laboratory has its own “reference range” or normal values for the results of each test. Most lab reports show the normal range and highlight any test results outside the normal range.

For more information on laboratory test results, see Fact Sheet 120 or Lab tests online at http://www. labtestsonline.org/

 


 RED BLOOD CELL TESTS

Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to cells throughout the body. This is measured by three main tests. The Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) is the total number of red blood cells. Hemoglobin (HGB) is a protein in red blood cells that actually carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Hematocrit (HCT) measures the percentage of blood volume taken up by red blood cells.

A high RBC is common for people who live at high altitude. It’s a way the body adjusts to thinner oxygen.

Very low readings for RBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit can indicate anemia. With anemia, the cells do not get enough oxygen to function normally. People with anemia feel tired all the time and might look pale. See Fact Sheet 551 on fatigue and Fact Sheet 552 on anemia.

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) measures the average volume (size) of individual red blood cells. A low MCV means that the cells are smaller than normal. This is usually caused by an iron deficiency or chronic disease. A high MCV can be caused by HIV medications. This is not dangerous. However, a high MCV can indicate megaloblastic anemia, where red blood cells are large and pale. This is caused by a shortage of folic acid.

While the MCV measures the average size of red blood cells, the RDW (Red Blood Cell Distribution Width) measures the range of red blood cell sizes. RDW can help diagnose anemia or some vitamin deficiencies.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) measure the amount and concentration of hemoglobin in the average cell. The MCH is calculated by dividing total hemoglobin by the total number of red blood cells.

Platelets (PT) help stop bleeding by forming clots and scabs. If you don’t have enough platelets, you might get internal bleeding or you could bruise easily. People with HIV disease sometimes have a low platelet count, also called “thrombocytopenia. ” Taking HIV medications usually corrects this problem. Platelets are almost never so high that they cause health problems.

 


 WHITE BLOOD CELL TESTS

 White blood cells (also called leukocytes) help fight infections in the body.

White Blood Cell Count (WBC) is the total number of white blood cells. A high WBC usually means that the body is fighting an infection. A very low WBC can be caused by problems with the bone marrow. This condition, called cytopenia or leukopenia, means that your body is less able to fight off infections.

The Differential counts five types of white blood cells: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. These are reported as a percentage of the WBC. The percentages are multiplied by the WBC to get “absolute” counts. For example, with 30% percent lymphocytes and a WBC of 10,000, absolute lymphocytes are 30% of 10,000, or 3,000.

Neutrophils or polymorphonuclear cells (Polys) fight bacterial infections. They normally account for 55% to 70% of WBCs. If you have a very low count, you could get a bacterial infection. This condition is called neutropenia. Advanced HIV disease can cause neutropenia. So can some medications including ganciclovir, a drug used to treat cytomegalovirus (see Fact Sheet 504) and the anti-HIV drug AZT.

There are two main types of lymphocytes (lymphs). “T cells” attack and kill germs, and help regulate the immune system. “B cells” make antibodies, special proteins that attack germs. Lymphocytes are normally 20% to 40% of WBCs. A regular CBC does not give T-cell counts. Most people with HIV infection get special T-cell tests (see Fact Sheet 124). However, the results of a CBC are needed to calculate T-cell counts, so both tests are done at the same time.

Monocytes or Macrophages (Monos) make up 2% to 8% of WBCs. They fight infections by “eating” germs and telling the immune system what germs they have found. Monocytes circulate in the blood. When monocytes settle in various tissues they are called macrophages. A high count usually indicates a bacterial infection.

Eosinophils (Eos) are normally 1% to 4% of WBCs. They are involved with allergies and reactions to parasites. Sometimes, HIV disease can cause a high eosinophil count. A high count, especially if you have diarrhea, gas or stomach bloating, may indicate the presence of parasites.

Basophils (Bas) are not well understood, but they are involved in long-term allergic reactions such as asthma or skin allergies. They are usually less than 1% of WBCs.

 


 

Red Blood Cell Count

Does this test have other names?

RBC count, erythrocyte count

What is this test?

This test measures the number of red blood cells, or erythrocytes, in your blood. Red blood cells play a critical role in moving oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body and returning carbon dioxide to your lungs to be exhaled.

A red blood cell (RBC) count is typically done as part of a complete blood count. This is a screening test to check for a variety of medical conditions.

Why do I need this test?

You may need this test if you have symptoms such as weakness or tiredness during a general checkup. You may also have this test to look for specific health problems, such as internal bleeding, anemia, kidney disease, and certain cancers. You may also need this test if your healthcare provider wants to watch any of these health problems. Your healthcare provider may also want this test done to determine if your RBC count is too high. 

What other tests might I have along with this test?

A red blood cell count is often part of a complete blood count (CBC). This means that other components of your blood are also measured. These include white blood cells, hemoglobin level, and platelets.

If your healthcare provider suspects you have a particular illness, they may also order other tests needed for making a diagnosis.

What do my test results mean?

Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you. 

An RBC count is measured in millions per cubic millimeter (million/mm3). Normal values may vary slightly among different labs. One example of normal values is:

Your healthcare provider can supply normal reference values.

An RBC count that’s lower than normal can be a sign of many health problems, including:

An RBC count that is higher than normal can be a sign of many health problems, including:

  • Dehydration

  • Lung diseases

  • Heart diseases

  • Kidney diseases

  • Blood disorders 

How is this test done?

The test is done with a blood sample. A needle is used to draw blood from a vein in your arm or hand. 

Does this test pose any risks?

Having a blood test with a needle carries some risks. These include bleeding, infection, bruising, and feeling lightheaded. When the needle pricks your arm or hand, you may feel a slight sting or pain. Afterward, the site may be sore. 

What might affect my test results?

Your RBC count could be affected by:

How do I get ready for this test?

Your healthcare provider may suggest that you not:

  • Exercise heavily

  • Be stressed

  • Become dehydrated

  • Drink alcohol

  • Take certain medicines

Tell your provider about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don’t need a prescription and any illegal drugs you may use. 

Point-of-care testing of plasma free hemoglobin and hematocrit for mechanical circulatory support

Device for point-of-care measurement

To develop a portable and stand-alone device for use in MCS environments, we designed a device that integrates the centrifuge and the main control part (Fig. 1a and Supplementary Fig S1). The centrifuge part consists of: (1) a BLDC motor, which is the main part of the centrifuge system; (2) a holder to help fix the customized channel cartridge, and to facilitate the acquisition of microchannel images; (3) a light source that provides a constant light intensity inside the device; and (4) a camera module (Pi camera ver.2.1) that is compatible with the Raspberry Pi 3. The main control part of the device consists of (1) a user-friendly touch screen to operate the device, and (2) a Raspberry Pi3 to control the motor, camera module, and image processing24. The overall dimensions of the device are 290 mm (L) × 115 mm (W) × 130 mm (H), and 1.1 kg in weight, and the entire housing was fabricated using a 3D printer (Stratasys F123 Series, Stratasys, Israel) (Fig. 1b,c). The channel cartridge is designed for centrifugation and imaging for a small amount of blood (Fig. 1d). To operate the device, first the chip is mounted on the holder, and the user presses the start button on the touch screen, whereupon the centrifugation, acquisition of the image, and the image processing from the camera are sequentially performed by custom software. The software includes a motor control algorithm for centrifugation, and an image processing algorithm for analysis. This integrated system allows the analysis to be performed in a short time, without complicated procedures.

Figure 1

Point-of-care device for hematological analysis. (a) Schematic of the device, which is separated into two parts (main control system and centrifuge system). (b) The prototype of the device. (c) Top view of the device. The left side shows the touch screen of the main control system. The centrifuge system is on the right side, and the camera module is placed on a cover above the centrifuge system to obtain a channel image of the cartridge. (d) The centrifuge system consists of motor, motor holder, rotor, and cartridge holder. A customized channel cartridge is fitted to the cartridge holder.

Image processing algorithm for blood analysis

Figure 2 shows the operating flowchart of the entire system. The image analysis process begins with the segmentation of the region of interest (ROI) in the acquired image after the centrifugation. Afterwards, the PFHb measurement process and the Hct measurement process are performed simultaneously in the program.

Figure 2

Operation flow chart. After inserting the cartridge, the custom software program starts the centrifugation. At the end of centrifugation, the cartridge holder is stopped by magnetic coupling with the housing at the specified location for image capture. Image analysis is performed simultaneously with the color space analysis of PFHb, Hct, and Hb. The analyzed result is printed on the touchscreen, and all of this process is completed within only 4 min.

The ROI at the initial step of image processing is segmented to cover the entire channel of the cartridge. Red, green, and blue (RGB) values are extracted for each pixel, and the channel is divided into the region of red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma based on the specific threshold of red color. In order to measure the PFHb level, the second ROI (2nd ROI) with the size of (20 × 100) pixels is segmented from the previously distinguished plasma region. RGB values are extracted from this 2nd ROI, and then converted to CIELab values. The CIELab is a color space defined by the International Commission of Illumination, which makes it possible to closely match the color difference that the human eye can detect, and the color difference expressed in numerical values in the color space25. {2}}$$

(1)

where, \({a}_{m}\) and \({b}_{m}\) are the CIELab components of the region of black markers, and \({a}_{s}\) and \({b}_{s}\) are the CIELab components of the region of the plasma in the 2nd ROI. To exclude the change of the color components caused by the brightness, the difference between the average brightness value (L) of the black marker obtained from the calibration images and the brightness value of the black marker obtained from each sample image was added as an offset value to the chroma difference.

To measure the Hct, the coordinate values of the lowest and the highest row in the pixels of the RBCs region are obtained, and the distance between the rows (L1) represents the volume of the RBCs. The distance between the highest row of the plasma region and the lowest row of the red blood cell region is expressed as the length (L2), which represents the total blood volume in the channel of the cartridge. The Hct level is calculated as the ratio of L1 and L2 as in Eq.  (2):

$$\mathrm{Hct }\left(\mathrm{\%}\right)=\left(\frac{{L}_{1}}{{L}_{2}}\right)*100$$

(2)

where, Hct is the percentage of the RBCs volume in the whole blood volume, which is generally the same as three times the levels of the hemoglobin level. Therefore, we used the Hct method to calculate the hemoglobin level (Eq. 3):27

$$\mathrm{Hct }\left(\mathrm{\%}\right)=3*Hb$$

(3)

Standard curve for the quantification of plasma color

The method to measure the level of PFHb is based on the phenomenon that as the hemolysis becomes more severe, the redness of the color of plasma increases. To obtain a change of the color intensity according to the degree of hemolysis, we induced a severe hemolysis to the blood sample of swine. The stressed blood was centrifuged to collect only the plasma, and we adjusted different levels of the PFHb by diluting the collected plasma to obtain the required range in the clinical setting. Images of each diluted plasma sample were obtained using our device, and a relationship was obtained by comparing the color intensity of the plasma extracted from the image with the PFHb level measured by the actual lab test. Figure 3a shows the change of intensities in RGB channels according to PFHb levels. It shows that the intensity of the red channel is higher than that of the green and blue. Also, Fig. 3b shows the change of intensities in L,a,b color space according to the PFHb levels. The intensity of light is similar to that of the RGB channel, but a * and b * spaces show a different graph of change, compared to the RGB channel. Therefore, because the intensity of the light can be interpreted to have a significant effect on the RGB channel, the chroma difference that reflects only the changes in a* and b* spaces is adopted as a standard curve, to exclude the change of light. As shown in the results, since the gradient change of the color channel does not have linearity, and varies based on the specific level of PHFb (20 mg/dL), different calibration curves were obtained based on this. Figure 3c,d show the results of the PFHb levels according to the chroma differences calculated in the developed device, show two different calibration curves based on the chroma difference value of − 3, and both have R-squared values that are greater than 0.98.

Figure 3

Standard curves of the PFHb levels. (a) Intensities of the RGB color channels according to PFHb levels. (b) Intensities of the L.a.b. color spaces converted from RGB. (c,d) Standard curves as measured by the proposed device. (c) Calibration curve in a region where the saturation difference (∆C) is greater than − 3, and (d) calibration curve in a region where the ∆C is less than − 3.

Validation of the PFHb, Hct, and Hb values

To validate the performance of the device in the MCS environment, we performed the evaluation of the device during ECMO animal experiments with the swine model. Blood samples of about 10 mL were obtained through an artery line, and from the sample, the amount 35 µL required for the developed device was extracted, and the rest of the blood was used to get the gold standard level of CBC, PFHb, etc. Figure 4a is an image of the channel cartridge obtained after centrifugation and the analysis algorithm started using this image according to the procedure in Fig. 2.

Figure 4

In vitro validation of the hematological analysis during in vivo study of the Venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) system using swine model. (a) Obtained image from the camera module after centrifugation. (be) Comparison results between our device and lab test results. (b) Linear regression analysis of PFHb levels with slope of 0.958, intercept of 0.366, and R of 0.999. (c) Bland–Altman analysis of PFHb levels, showing a mean bias of − 0.38 mg/dL and a 95% confidence interval of (− 2.44 to 1.12) mg/dL. (d) Linear regression analysis of Hct levels with slope of 0.669, intercept of 9.812, and R of 0.739. (e) Bland–Altman analysis of Hct levels, showing a mean bias of − 0.38% and a 95% confidence interval of (− 4. 35 to 3.60) %.

Blood samples were obtained at one hour intervals during ECMO experiments, and collected blood samples (n = 12) were compared with the developed device and the lab test results. Our device took about 5 min to get the results of the analysis. Also, we found that the results measured by our device were very similar to those of the lab test. Regression analysis and Bland–Altman analysis were performed on the PFHb and Hct to verify the reliability of our device28. The results of PFHb measured by our device and lab test correlated well (R value of 0.999, n = 12) (Fig. 4b). In addition, Bland–Altman analysis of the PFHb (Fig. 4c) showed the mean bias is -0.66, a 95% confidence interval of (− 2.44 to 1.12) %. The correlation coefficient for Hct is 0.739 (Fig. 4d), and the result is also shown in the 95% confidence interval of all data in the Bland–Altman analysis (Fig. 4e). These results show that more than 95% of the difference between the results of the device and the lab test is within this performance criterion. Table 1 also showed the comparison result of Hb levels in our device with those of the lab tests. Also, the detection limit (LOD) of the developed device was obtained from the regression curve, and the LODs were 0.75 mg/dL for PFHb, 2.14% for Hct.

Table 1 Comparison results of Hb levels between lab test and the proposed device.

The precision was quantified by measuring each blood sample three times repeated, and each blood sample corresponding to the value of PFHb (14.5 mg/dL, 53 mg/dL) and Hct (30%) was measured separately by our device and the reference methods. Table 2 shows the precision results, our device measured 15.13 mg/dL (for PFHb value of 14.5 mg/dL), and the standard deviation (SD) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were 1.44 mg/dL and 9.49%, respectively. For PFHb value of 53 mg/dL, the device measured 53.08 mg/dL, and SD and CV were 1.36 and 2.56, respectively. In addition, for Hct 30%, an average 29.13% were measured, and SD and CV were 1. 24% and 4.26%, respectively. Therefore, from these results, the proposed device showed that it is possible to measure various blood parameters with in precision in the MCS environment.

Table 2 Precision results of the proposed POCT device.

An Ultimate CBC Test Cheat Sheet You Should Check

The Complete Blood Test or CBC test is one of the most anticipated and a complete blood count test. To analyze the CBC test, you should keep in mind that there are two important parts of blood – cellular and plasma elements. Plasma is the liquid part of the blood which enables the smooth flow of blood. Blood cells are other parts of your blood.

Fig: The CBC cheat sheet

In our blood, red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets are the major cells. Each of these cells conducts major and specific functions. The amount of various types of blood cells is measured in complete CBC test. Even, the one can also get some important insight into other parameters in each blood cell.

Complete Blood Count is conducted to assess the overall health of a patient and it is one of the most common tests. It helps physicians to diagnose autoimmune disorders, infections, anemia, and other diseases. Here are some of the common abbreviations in CBC test –

Red Blood Cell (RBC)

The main function of red blood cells is to provide your lungs with much-needed oxygen through body tissues and remove carbon dioxide from the body. Here are the recommended normal RBC values –

Infant – 4.1 to 6.1 million/µlt

Children – 3.8 to 6 million/µlt

Men – 4.5 to 5.5 million/µlt

Women – 4 to 5 million/µlt

High Level – The high level is It indicating smoking, dehydration, pulmonary fibrosis, congenital heart disease, renal cell carcinoma, pulmonary fibrosis, and polycythemia vera.

Drugs increasing RBC levels – Gentamicin, Methyldopa

Low Level – Anemia, Bleeding, overhydration, malnutrition, hemolysis, deficiency of erythropoietin, multiple myeloma, leukemia, thalassemia, porphyria, sickle cell anemia

Drugs which lower RBC level – Hydantoins, quinidine, chloramphenicol, and drugs for chemotherapy

Hemoglobin (Hgb)

The Red blood cells contain a protein named hemoglobin. Our blood is made bright red by hemoglobin due to the presence of iron. People living thousands of meters above sea levels and smokers are more likely to have high hemoglobin levels. It is because their body produces it more to fulfill the need of oxygen.

However, low amount of hemoglobin leads to different types of blood diseases like thalassemia and sickle cell disease.

Recommended range

Pregnancy – 10-15 g/dL

Male – 13.5-16.5 g/dL

Female – 12-15 g/dL

High Level – Reasons for high level are due to smoking, dehydration, tumors, polycythemia vera, lung disease, erythropoietin abuse, blood doping

Drugs causing high hemoglobin count – Iron supplements, erythropoietin

Low Level – The low level is due to blood loss, lack of nutrients, sickle cell anemia, renal problems, leukemia, bone marrow suppression, etc.

Drugs causing low hemoglobin count – Antibiotics, aspirin, sulfonamides, anti-neoplastic drugs, trimethadione, doxapram, indomethacin, primaquine, and rifampin.

Hematocrit (Hct)

Also called as PCV or packed cell volume, Hematocrit refers to the percentage of a volume of RBCs in the blood. Hence, the result you will get varies by structure, size, and total RBC value. It is important to determine Hct to assess and diagnose a lack of nutrition, blood diseases, and hydration level.

Recommended range

Men – 41% to 50%

Children – 36% to 40%

Women – 36% to 44%

Infant – 55% to 68%

High level – Some of the common causes include smoking, dehydration, hypoxia, tumors, polycythemia vera, lung diseases, erythropoietin abuse, cor pulmonale, and blood doping.

Drugs which increase levels – Iron supplements

Drugs which reduce levels – Antibiotics, aspirin etc.

White Blood Cell

There are, generally five different types of white blood cells – lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and basophils.

Recommended Range – 5000 to 10000 per microliter

High Level – Some of the common causes include smoking, infections, inflammatory diseases, leukemia, severe mental or physical stress, tissue damage

Drugs causing high level – Heparin, Corticosteroids, epinephrine, beta-adrenergic agonists, lithium, and granulocyte colony-provoking drugs

Low Levels – It may caused due to deficiencies in bone marrow, autoimmune disorders, liver problems, viral diseases, spleen issues, radiation therapy, and extreme bacterial infections

Drugs causing low levels – Chemotherapeutic medicines, Diuretics, captopril, histamine-2 blockers, antibiotics, quinidine, anti-thyroid medications, terbinafine, chlorpromazine, etc.

Platelet Count

Also known as thrombocytes, platelets bind together and circulate in the blood to clot over the blood vessel which is damaged. Also, it is very important to assess platelet count to diagnose the risk of thrombosis in patients.

Recommended range – 150,000 to 400,000 per Micro-liter

High Level – Some of the common causes of high level are:

  • Allergy
  • Cancer
  • The recent removal of the spleen
  • Polycythemia Vera
  • Inflammation
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia
  • Secondary thrombocytosis

Drugs causing high platelet – Steroids, romiplostim, immunosuppressants, human IgG

Low Level – Some of the common causes of low levels are:

  • Leukemia
  • Viral infection
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Alcoholism
  • Deficiency of folic acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Hemolytic uremic condition
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy
  • HELLP syndrome,
  • Sepsis
  • Vasculitis
  • Cirrhosis etc.

Drugs causing low platelet – Some of the common drugs include aspirin, chemotherapeutic drugs, anagrelide, hydroxyurea, ranitidine, statins, quinidine, vancomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamides, valproic acid, etc.

Reference Ranges In Blood Tests

In blood tests, reference ranges are, basically, sets of values used to figure out a set of test results by a health professional from blood samples.

Therefore, the reference ranges are assessed using clinical chemistry, pathology and statistics. As such, blood test results are analyzed with the reference range that comes from the laboratory.

Simply put, a reference range is the set of values, which is 95% prediction based off of mass statistical data.  Lab Me is working hard to rethink this out dated methodology and create ranges that are specific to you.

A simple explanation of all CBC test markers

Do you get a fasting blood test every year? have you asked for markers like thyroid, vitamin C- or D-reactive protein, and hormones? You get a copy of test results to compare your files year by year? Are you familiar with the meaning of blood markers?

Therefore, you should look for the following markers when your blood test is being done along with regular ones –

  • Ferritin Iron
  • B12
  • Cortisol
  • DHEA
  • Vitamin D
  • Insulin
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • T4 TSH
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc
  • Vitamin A, C, B7 (Biotin), B3 (Niacin)

Androstenedione and Dihydrotestosterone Testosterone

When it comes to hair loss, hormones that are discussed mostly are a group of hormones named as androgens. DHT is the combined term which describes three categories of androgen hormones.

If a woman is having hair loss, it is wise to evaluate her thyroid health because hyper or hypothyroidism could be at the root of the hair.

According to the experts, your hair indicates your overall health. So, whatever you do for your health may lead to a direct impact on hair.

Here are some of the blood test markers you should include when CBC test is conducted by the doctor –

  •         ESR or Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
  •         CRP or C-Reactive Protein
  •         Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and other tests – in case of symptoms like CFS due to hypothyroidism
  •         EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus) antibody test
  •         Cortisol – In the case of low adrenal gland functions and/or low cortisol concentrations are found.
  •         Rheumatoid Factor
  •         Lyme Antibodies Test

Here Are The Blood Markers Belong To Extended CBC test Panel –

  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin D
  • Ferritin (Iron)
  • Magnesium
  • Homocysteine

Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) test to detect LUPUS and other autoimmune problems

So checking out blood test report seem boring to you? Add more than just regular markers to know more about your health and make it more interesting.

Now consider the CBC test apart from the test result in Organic Acid test. You can get to know about the imbalances in your body, how your body is working, lack of nutrition, and pathways to detoxifications. Also, order the Organic Acid Test and get CBC test from the physician to get a complete insight.

What A High Or Low-Value May Represent?

Levels going below or above the normal CBC values in the following areas are the indicators of a certain problem–

White Blood Cells (Leukopenia)

Low WBC count represents a medical condition like bone marrow problems, cancer or autoimmune disorder which removes white blood cells. There are some medications that may lower the WBC counts.

On the other side, higher WBC count represents inflammation or infection. It could also be a sign of bone marrow disease or immune system disorder. Reaction to a certain medication is the major cause of high WBC count.

RBC Count (Hematocrit and Hemoglobin)

Hematocrit and hemoglobin are related to Red Blood Cell count as your red blood cells are determined by each measure. In these areas, if readings are lower, it is the sign of anemia, which causes weakness and fatigue.

There are many causes of anemia, such as low levels of iron or vitamins or blood loss. Higher RBC count than normal or erythrocytosis or high hematocrit or hemoglobin levels could be the cause of heart disease.

Platelet count – Higher or lower platelet count may represent a common medical condition or side effects of a drug. If platelet count goes beyond the recommended range, you may need other tests to determine the cause.

Clearly Defined Ranges for Each Biomarker

The Common CBC test Panels

CBC with Differential

It determines the percentages and numbers of several types of blood cells in a sample. CBC lab test is one of the widely-used tests to keep track of overall health.

BMP (Basic Metabolic Panel)

  • It measures the functioning of the kidney, electrolyte levels, and blood sugar levels.
  • This is one of the most common tests conducted by healthcare professionals.
  • BMP has 7-8 biochemical tests.
  • The BMP helps monitor and assesses overall health, medical therapies, response to medication, and it determines the functioning of metabolism.

Lipids panel

It determines fatty elements in your blood because high cholesterol and triglyceride levels are responsible for high risk of heart diseases.

CMP (Comprehensive Metabolic Panel)

  • It tests functioning of liver, kidney, parathyroid and diabetic status, fluid and electrolyte balance.
  • CMP consists of a panel including 14 blood results and it expands as BMP or basic metabolic panel, including liver tests.
  • It is also called as CMP 14 or Complete Metabolic Panel 14 or Chemical Screen.

Here is some detail about the CBC Biomarkers

RBC (Corpuscles)

  • Red Blood cells are split inside liver and spleen and are made in bone marrow.
  • It may increase due to high testosterone levels and dehydration.
  • It may be lower because of the lack of nutrients (for eg. Vitamin B6, iron, Vitamin B12, and folate), chronic inflammation, kidney dysfunction, blood loss, and anemia.

Hematocrit

  • It includes the percentage of blood volume having RBCs.
  • Dehydration, smoking, increased testosterone levels, poor oxygen levels, lack of thiamin, and insulin resistance.
  • These are some of the common causes behind increased levels. On the other side, liver disease, anemia, lack of arginine, hypothyroidism, lack of protein, inflammation caused due to lack of nutrients.

Hemoglobin

This type of protein in your blood delivers oxygen to the cells. It may increase due to poor oxygen, dehydration, increased testosterone levels, lack of thiamin, and insulin resistance.

Here are some of the common causes of a reduced level of Hemoglobin:

  • Hypothyroidism,
  • Liver disease,
  • Anemia,
  • Lack of arginine,
  • Lack of protein,
  • Inflammation caused by a deficiency of nutrients like magnesium,
  • Vitamin E,
  • Copper, zinc, etc.

Platelets

  • These are nucleated, small cell fragments vital for vascular integrity and clotting.
  • It may increase because of deficiency of iron, anemia, hemolytic, collagen problems, stress, blood loss, inflammation, and infection.
  • It may reduce because of liver dysfunction, alcoholism, bacterial/viral infections, bleeding, and pernicious anemia.

Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)

  • This is a measure of the average platelets size. It increases because of the increment in the production of platelets.
  • This is often the case because of destruction or loss of platelets. Increased MPV value can be associated with mortality and vascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, and thyroiditis.
  • The main causes of lower MPV include the conditions related to under-production of platelets, including cytotoxic drug therapy or aplastic anemia.

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)

  • It determines the average weight of hemoglobin in each red blood cell.
  • It may increase because of the lack of nutrients like folate, vitamin B12, and Vitamin C, lack of thiamin, alcohol consumption, and hyperlipidemia.
  • The major causes of lower MCH include deficiency of iron and nutrients like copper, vitamin B6, zinc, vitamin C and vitamin A.

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

  • It estimates the average size of the red blood cell.
  • It may increase because of a lack of nutrients (folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin C), deficiency of thiamine, and alcoholism.
  • The main causes of lower MCV value are the deficiency of iron and nutrients (copper, zinc, Vitamin B6, vitamin A, and C).

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)

  • It measures the average value of hemoglobin in RBCs.
  • It may increase due to deficiency of nutrients (folate, vitamin B12, and Vitamin C), thiamin deficiency, consumption of alcohol and hyperlipidemia.
  • The major causes of low MCHC levels are a deficiency of iron and nutrients (copper zinc, vitamin B6, A, and C)

RBC Distribution Width (RDW)

It measures the variation in the size of the red blood cell. The main causes of increased levels are anemias related to deficiency of nutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc, copper, vitamin B6).

Absolute Lymphocytes

It is a type of white blood cell, including T-cells, B-cells, and Natural Killers. The main causes of its high level are viral infections, auto-immune diseases like Crohn’s disease, and hypoadrenalism. Major causes of its lower levels include a spike in white blood cells and zinc deficiency.

Absolute Neutrophils

This is a kind of most abundant WBC which controls pathogens. However, it may increase because of inflammation or bacterial infection. Also, It may reduce because of deficiencies of nutrients (B12, copper folate) and a spike in other WBCs.

Absolute Eosinophils

These are the immune cells which activate in last stage inflammation. Hence, Allergies, parasitic infection, asthma, skin diseases like ulcerate colitis, eczema etc. Also, aspirin sensitivity is the major causes of its increased levels. Elevated cortisol may be the major cause of its lower levels.

Absolute Monocytes

These are basically white blood cells which turn into macrophages and leave the circulation. It may increase due to collagen problems, inflammation, recovery after a trauma, and ulcerative colitis.

Absolute Basophils

These are white blood cells related to hypersensitivity and inflammation. It may increase due to allergies, inflammation, hypothyroidism and hemolytic anemia.

Analyzing A CBC

  • For a Complete Blood Count, the blood sample is assessed in our partner laboratory. There are several automated machines which conduct the analysis of your blood sample with precision and reliably.
  • A small sample of your blood is collected from your body and is extracted into the machine.
  • The values of components are determined and display within a few minutes. Later on, the technicians will do QA for review.
  • Your results are digitized and sent to Lab Me anonymously and encrypted.
  • Lab Me aggregates your data and compiles it into your dashboard.
  • In the past, a small sample of the blood was collected and placed on a glass slide for visual tests on a microscope to analyze such data. A doctor or a well-trained lab technician was responsible for this test.
  • Now with advancements in technology and techniques since 2018, the accuracy of micro-sampling techniques are now as reliable as going to the lab.

The Usage of CBC Test

  • A Complete Blood Count analysis is widely using test. It can conduct usually as part of the general screening and routine health exam by a doctor.
  • In case anemia or infection is suspect, it may order. It is asked even when it comes to assessing unusual bleeding.
  • One of the major causes of inflammation or infection may be the abnormality of white blood cell differential or increased white blood cell count.
  • The Low or high WBC count may also be the sign of cancer, including lymphoma or leukemia.
  • Low level of hemoglobin or red blood cell count is usually the sign of low blood (anemia).
  • Usually, anemia is seen when hematocrit or hemoglobin is low on the CBC. It may be a sign of disease but not a disease.

CBC test For Anemia Test

There is a long list of anemia causes. These are simply a few of the widespread causes. Due to the constant loss of blood, the CBC test report may suggest anemia. However, we can use this test to diagnose colon cancer and other types of cancers also. Usually, RDW and MCV indicate some clues if anemia is found.

The Low platelet count may also be one of the common problems found in the CBC test report.

The major causes of it include:

  • Some medications,
  • Bone marrow problems, or alcoholism,
  • Genetic or immunologic problems,
  • Cancers like leukemia, and advanced liver disease.

MPV can show the frequency of making platelets in the bone marrow and how it is releasing into your blood. Also, the blood malignancy or inflammation may also be the cause of high platelet count.

Why Lab Me?

Lab me is the first in the USA to offer an at-home CBC test.  Our lab is CAP & CLIA accredited, and use the same technology that your hospital or clinic would use.  We then use proprietary technology to turn your results into something that is visually appealing, simple & easy to understand.

  • To review your overall health. Your doctor may recommend a complete blood count as part of a routine medical examination to monitor your general health and to screen for a variety of disorders, such as anemia or leukemia.
  • To diagnose a medical condition. Your doctor may suggest a complete blood count if you’re experiencing weakness, fatigue, fever, inflammation, bruising or bleeding. A complete blood count may help diagnose the cause of these signs and symptoms. If your doctor suspects you have an infection, the test can also help confirm that diagnosis.
  • To monitor a medical condition. If you’ve been diagnosed with a blood disorder that affects blood cell counts, your doctor may use complete blood counts to monitor your condition.
  • To monitor medical treatment. A complete blood count may be used to monitor your health if you’re taking medications that may affect blood cell counts.

Also, you can use this application for different types of tests, including

  • Detect infections
  • Provide historical tracking to your MD
  • Monitor disease
  • Track drug efficacy

As the result, you can start using Lab.me today and start interpreting your complete blood test reports at home. It works on machine intelligence which gives accurate measurements of your blood reports.

Lab Me can explain what your blood test report has to say in easy and simple language. Hence, it can help avoid confusions and gives detailed and in-depth insight into your future.

Plus, never have to drive to the MD to get the prescription, or to the lab for the test, or sitting in a waiting room – ever again.You’ll Never Regret Using Us & If You Do We Will Give You Your Money Back! Track your most important biomarkers for heart disease, diabeties, fatigue and thyroid risk.  Start now with a trial one-off test.  If it didn’t provide value to you – tell us and we will refund you within 30 days.  No questions asked.

  1. https://laboratorytests.net/laboratory-tests/abbreviations-of-complete-blood-count.html
  2. https://nancyguberti.com/cbc-complete-blood-count-markers/
  3. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/complete-blood-count/about/pac-20384919
  4. https://www.markwk.com/biomarkers.html
  5. https://www.emedicinehealth.com/complete_blood_count_cbc/article_em.htm#why_are_complete_blood_count_tests_used
  6. https://www.nursebuff. com/laboratory-values-for-nurses/

Explanation of the general blood test

RBC Erythrocytes Normal erythrocytes: from 4.2 to 5.6
HCT Hematocrit (V erythrocyte / V blood)

Normal ( HCT ): men 42% -52%, women – from 36% to 48%

PLT Platelets

Norm ( PLT ): 150,000 – 450,000 (per microliter of blood)

WBC Leukocytes

Rate ( WBC ): 4. 50 to 11.0

HGB Hemoglobin Hemoglobin is normal: 11.7 – 17.0 g.\ dl. (g per 100 ml of blood)
LYM Lymphocytes Norm ( LYM \ LYMPH ): from 20% to 40%
GRAN Granulocytes

GRA% 47 – 72%

MID Monocytes

MID 0.2-0.8 x 10 90 150 9 / l

CBC (Complete Blood Count) – general blood count.A complete blood count is an important tool in the diagnosis of diseases of the general functioning of the human body. A complete blood count (CBC) provides quantitative and qualitative information about the conditions for a decrease in red blood cells, which indicates anemia, infection, and various disorders.

Red blood cells (RBC) – red blood cells that carry hemoglobin. The main function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen from the lungs to all tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.Few red blood cells – little hemoglobin. Little hemoglobin – few red blood cells. They are interconnected.

Normal red blood cells: from 4.2 to 5.6 (number of cells per microliter of blood)

A lack of red blood cells is one of the signs of anemia (anemia). Iron deficiency can be the cause of anemia. An excess of red blood cells is called polycythemia. Polycythemia can be caused by a malfunction in the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow.

Hemoglobin (HGB) – A protein found in red blood cells and is responsible for the transfer of oxygen molecules to the cells of the body.Hemoglobin is an iron-containing complex that surrounds protein. The hemoglobin level is not constant and depends on age, gender, ethnicity, disease, smoking, in women – on pregnancy, etc.

Hemoglobin is normal: 11.7 – 17.0 g / dl. (g per 100 ml of blood). There are options depending on gender and age.

Decreased hemoglobin level – severe anemia. Anemia can be caused by a significant lack of red blood cells, acute or chronic blood loss.This is due to a lack of folic acid B9 and vitamin B12. Hemolysis (increased destruction of the membranes of red blood cells) from autoimmune conditions, infections and hereditary diseases of blood formation.

Hematocrit (HCT) – shows the percentage of the index of the volume of red blood cells to the volume of the entire blood sample.

Norm (HCT): men 42% -52%, women – from 36% to 48%

Exception: Decreased hematocrit indicates anemia (polycythemia). Increased hematocrit – erythremia.

Leukocytes (WBC) – white or colorless blood cells of various sizes. The main function of leukocytes is to resist infections, viruses, bacteria, etc. Leukocytes are divided into 5 types: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils.

Rate (WBC): 4.50 to 11.0 (from 4,500 to 11,000 cubic cells per μL of blood)

Exception: A significant increase or a significant decrease in leukocytes indicates an inflammatory process. The nature of the infection is indicated by the type of leukocytes.

Neutrophils (NEUT) – The percentage of neutrophils in the blood. Neutrophils are generated in the bone marrow. Their service life in the blood lasts several hours. Neutrophils kill germs (phagocytosis).

Norm (NEUT): 40% -75% (the number of neutrophils in 100 leukocytes). Normal values ​​depend on age.

Exception: Elevated neutrophil counts indicate inflammation and infection.

Lymphocytes (LYM) are the main cells of the human immune system.Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is produced in the lymphatic system and bone marrow. According to their functions, lymphocytes are divided into B – lymphocytes, which produce antibodies, T-lymphocytes, which fight infections, and NK lymphocytes, which control the quality of the body’s cells.

Norm (LYM \ LYMPH): from 20% to 40% (the number of lymphocytes in 100 leukocytes). The normal value varies with age (especially in children).

Exception: Elevated lymphocyte counts can be caused by various diseases, especially viral infections.

Eosinophils (EOS \ EOSIN) – white blood cells, characterized by a specific orange color. They take part in the immune system. Increased with parasite infections. There is a tendency to appear with allergies and asthma.

Norm (EOS): from 0% to 6% (the number of eosinophils in 100 leukocytes)

Exception: An increase in the percentage of eosinophils is a sign of allergy or helminthic factors.

Monocytes (MONO ) – one of the types of phagocytes, the largest type of leukocytes.Monocytes are formed in the bone marrow. These cells are involved in the regulation and differentiation of hematopoiesis, then go to the tissues of the body and turn into macrophages there. Monocytes are of great importance, as they are responsible for the initial activation of the entire human immune system.

Norm (MONO): 3% to 7% (of total white blood cells)

Exception: An increase in the percentage of monocytes is a sign of the development of various viral diseases.

Basophils (BASO) – one of the largest forms of leukocytes in the blood related to the immune system.Its main function is to dilate blood vessels during infection.

Rate (BASO): 0% to 2% (of total white blood cells)

Exception: An increase in the percentage of basophil cells is a sign of infection or various viral infections.

Platelets (PLT) – Cells that affect the processes of blood coagulation. Platelets are responsible for hemostasis, wound healing, and stopping bleeding. Analysis of platelets is important in diseases of the bone marrow, in which they are formed.The largest cells in the bone marrow are called megakaryocytes.

Rate (PLT): 150,000 – 450,000 (per microliter of blood)

Exception: Low values ​​(less than 50 thousand) may indicate a risk of bleeding or viral infection. Sometimes a decrease in platelets can lead to blood clots.

Clinical blood test (complete blood count + leukocyte differentiation + ESR)

A clinical blood test is a study that is included in the list of annual preventive examination of children and adults, and is also prescribed by a doctor if there are any complaints about the state of health.The analysis is a quantitative determination of the main blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets), their specific indicators (hemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, average volume and distribution) as well as the percentage and number of 5 subpopulations of leukocytes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils , basophils).

The study allows to identify an acute inflammatory process and exacerbation of a chronic process, acute and chronic intoxication, to determine such blood diseases as anemia and leukemia.Evaluation of the indicators of the clinical analysis of blood allows you to determine the plan for the necessary further laboratory and instrumental examination of the patient, monitoring the indicators in dynamics allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.

Defined Parameters:

  • Complete blood count
  • WBC-leukocyte count
  • RBC-number of erythrocytes
  • HGB-hemoglobin
  • HCT-hematocrit
  • MCV-average erythrocyte volume
  • MCH-average hemoglobin content in erythrocyte
  • MCHC-average concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocyte
  • RDW-SD-width of distribution of erythrocytes by volume, standard deviation
  • RDW-CV-width of distribution of erythrocytes by volume
  • PLT-platelet count
  • MPV-mean platelet volume
  • PCT-thrombocrit

Leukocyte differentiation:

  • NEU -% of neutrophils
  • LYM -% of lymphocytes
  • MON -% of monocytes
  • EOS -% of eosinophils
  • BAS -% of basophils
  • NEU # – number of neutrophils
  • LYM # – number of lymphocytes
  • MON # – the number of monocytes
  • EOS # – number of eosinophils
  • BAS # – number of basophils


-IMG% – Percentage of immature granulocytes
-IMG # -number of immature granulocytes

ESR – erythrocyte sedimentation rate

“Complete blood count: full decoding” – Yandex.Kew

There is hardly anyone who has never donated blood from a finger for tests. A general blood test is taken for almost any disease. So what is its diagnostic value and what diagnoses can it suggest? We disassemble in order.

Research value

The main indicators that a doctor pays attention to when decoding a general blood test are hemoglobin and erythrocytes, ESR, leukocytes and leukocyte formula.The rest are rather auxiliary.

Most often, a complete blood count is prescribed to understand if there is inflammation and signs of infection in the body, and if so, what is the origin – viral, bacterial or other.

Also, a complete blood count can help establish anemia – anemia. And if there are signs in the blood, additional tests are prescribed to establish the causes.

Another general blood test is prescribed if there is a suspicion of an oncological process, when there are a number of alarming symptoms and clues are needed.In this case, the blood can indirectly tell in which direction to move on.

Other indications are usually less common.

If after this article you still have questions – you can consult our

therapists online


and ask them any questions that concern you, after sending the results of your analyzes to the chat.

Abbreviation

Now on forms with the result of analyzes, English is mainly used.abbreviations. Let’s go through the main indicators and understand what they mean.

  • WBC
    – white blood cells – white blood cells – Leukocytes;
  • RBC – red blood cells – red blood cells – Erythrocytes;
  • HGB – hemoglobin – Hemoglobin;
  • HTC – hematocrit – Hematocrit;
  • MCV – mean corpuscular volume – Average volume of erythrocytes;
  • MCH – mean concentration hemoglobin – Mean concentration of hemoglobin in an erythrocyte;
  • MCHC – mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration – Average concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte;
  • RDW – red cell distribution – Red blood cell distribution index;
  • PLT – platelets – Platelets;
  • MPV – mean platelets volume – Mean platelets volume
  • PTC – Thrombocrit – Thrombocrit.

A separate block is the leukocyte formula

This is more detailed information about the same WBC from the previous block.

The leukocytes in the blood are very different. All of them are generally responsible for immunity, but each separate species for different directions in the immune system: for the fight against bacteria, viruses, parasites, nonspecific foreign particles. Therefore, the doctor always looks first at the general indicator of leukocytes from the list above, and then at the leukocyte formula in order to understand which link of immunity is impaired.

Please note that these indicators usually come in two dimensions: absolute (abs.) And relative (%).

Absolute show how many pieces of cells fell into the field of view, and relative show how many of these cells make up of the total number of leukocytes. This can be an important detail – for example, in absolute numbers, lymphocytes seem to be within normal limits, but against the background of a general decrease in all leukocytes, their relative number is much higher than normal. So, the leukocyte formula.

  • NEU
    (% and abs.) – Neutrophil – Neutrophils;
  • LYMP (% and abs.) – Lymphocyte – Lymphocytes;
  • MONO (% and abs.) – Monocytes – Monocytes;
  • EO (% and abs.) – Eosinophils – Eosinophils;
  • Baso (% and abs.) – Basophil – Basophils.

Decoding

Now let’s go through each of these indicators and analyze what they mean.

HGB – hemoglobin – Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen throughout the body and delivers it to the desired tissues. If it is not enough, the cells begin to starve and a whole chain of symptoms develops: weakness, fatigue, dizziness, hair loss and brittle nails, sticky lips and others. These are the symptoms of anemia.

Iron is included in the hemoglobin molecule, and vitamin B12 and folic acid also play an important role in its formation.If there are not enough of them, the synthesis of hemoglobin is disrupted in the body and anemia develops.

There are also hereditary forms of anemia, but they occur much less frequently and deserve a separate analysis.

Normally, hemoglobin is 120-160 g / l for women and 130-170 g / l for men. You need to understand that in each case, the norms depend on the laboratory. Therefore, you need to look at the reference values ​​of the laboratory in which you passed the analysis.

Elevated hemoglobin numbers most often occur due to thickening of the blood, if a person sweats excessively during a heat, or takes diuretics.Climbers and people, who are often in the mountains, can have an even higher hemoglobin – this is a compensatory reaction to a lack of oxygen. Hemoglobin can also increase due to diseases of the respiratory system – when the lungs do not work well and the body does not have enough oxygen all the time. In each case, you need to understand separately.

Decreased hemoglobin is a sign of anemia. The next step is to figure out which one.

RBC – red blood cells – Erythrocytes

Erythrocytes are red blood cells that transport hemoglobin and are responsible for metabolic processes in tissues and organs.It is hemoglobin, or rather its iron, that paints these cells red.

Norms for men – 4.2-5.6 * 10 * 9 / liter. For women – 4-5 * 10 * 9 / liter. Which again depends on the laboratory.

Erythrocytes can increase due to loss of fluid with sweat, vomiting, diarrhea, when the blood thickens. There is also a condition called erythremia, a rare bone marrow disorder in which too many red blood cells are produced.

A decrease in indicators is usually a sign of anemia, more often iron deficiency, less often other.

MCV


– mean corpuscular volume – Average volume of erythrocytes

The norm is 80-95 for men and 80-100 for women.

The volume of red blood cells decreases with iron deficiency anemia. And it rises – with B12 deficiency, with hepatitis, decreased thyroid function.

MCH – mean concentration hemoglobin

This indicator rarely rises, but a decrease is a sign of anemia or a decrease in thyroid function.

MCHC – average concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes

An increase in values ​​almost always indicates a hardware error, and a decrease in iron deficiency anemia.

HTC – hematocrit – Hematocrit

This is the percentage of blood formed elements to its total volume. The indicator helps the doctor to differentiate what is associated with anemia: loss of red blood cells, which indicates a disease, or excessive blood thinning.

PLT – platelets – platelets

These are blood elements responsible for the formation of a thrombotic clot during bleeding. Exceeding normal values ​​may indicate physical overstrain, anemia, inflammatory processes, and may indicate more serious problems in the body, including cancer and blood diseases.

A decrease in platelet levels in recent years often indicates the constant use of antiplatelet agents (for example, acetylsalicylic acid) in order to prevent myocardial infarction and ischemic cerebral stroke.

And a significant decrease in them can be a sign of hematological blood diseases, up to leukemia. In young people, signs of thrombocytopenic purpura and other blood diseases. It can also appear against the background of taking antineoplastic and cytostatic drugs, hypothyroidism.

WBC – white blood cells – leukocytes

These are the main defenders of our body, representatives of the cellular link of immunity.An increase in the total number of leukocytes most often indicates the presence of an inflammatory process, mainly of a bacterial nature. It can also be a sign of the so-called physiological leukocytosis (under the influence of pain, cold, exercise, stress, during menstruation, sunburn).

Norms for men and women usually range from 4.5 to 11.0 * 10 * 9 / liter.

Decrease in leukocytes is a sign of immune suppression. The reason is most often the transferred viral infections, taking certain medications (including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and sulfonamides), weight loss.Much less often – immunodeficiencies and leukemias.

Leukocyte formula

NEU – neutrophils

The largest pool of leukocytes, accounting for 50 to 75% of the total leukocyte population. This is the main link of cellular immunity. The neutrophils themselves are divided into stab (young forms) and segmented (mature). An increase in the level of neutrophils due to young forms is called a shift in the leukocyte formula to the left and is characteristic of an acute bacterial infection.A decrease can be a sign of a viral infection, and a significant decrease is a sign of blood diseases.

LYM – lymphocytes

The second pool of leukocytes after neutrophils. It is generally accepted that during an acute bacterial infection, the number of lymphocytes decreases, and during and after a viral infection, it rises.

A significant decrease in lymphocytes can be observed with HIV infection, with leukemia, immunodeficiency. But this happens very rarely and is usually accompanied by severe symptoms.

EOS – eosinophils

Rare representatives of leukocytes. An increase in their number occurs with allergic reactions, including drug allergies, and is also a characteristic sign of helminthic invasion.

BAS – basophils

C is the smallest population of leukocytes. Their increase can indicate allergies, parasitic diseases, chronic infections, inflammatory and oncological diseases.Sometimes the temporary increase in basophils cannot be explained.

MON – monocytes

The largest representatives of leukocytes. These are macrophages that eat bacteria. An increase in values ​​most often indicates the presence of an infection – bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal. And also about the recovery period after them and about specific infections – syphilis, tuberculosis. In addition, it can be a sign of systemic diseases – rheumatoid arthritis and others.

ESR – erythrocyte sedimentation rate

If you draw blood into a test tube and leave it for a while, blood cells will begin to precipitate. If after an hour we take a ruler and measure how many millimeters of erythrocytes have precipitated, we get the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

Normally, it ranges from 0 to 15 mm per hour in men, and from 0 to 20 mm in women.

May increase if erythrocytes are burdened with something – for example, proteins that are actively involved in the immune response: in case of inflammation, an allergic reaction, autoimmune diseases – rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and others.May increase with cancer. There is also a physiological increase due to pregnancy, menstruation, or old age.

In any case, a high ESR always requires additional examination. Although it is a non-specific indicator and can at the same time speak about a lot, but not much about anything in particular.

In any case, it is almost impossible to make an accurate diagnosis based on a general blood test, so this analysis is only the first step in diagnosis and some beacon to understand where to go next.Do not try to look for signs of cancer or HIV in your analysis – most likely they are not there. But if you notice any changes in the blood test, do not postpone your visit to the doctor. He will assess your symptoms, take a history and tell you what to do with this test next.

If after this article you still have questions about the test results – you can consult our

therapists


online and ask any questions that concern you, having previously sent the results of your analyzes to a chat with a doctor.Consultations are paid, but health is worth it. For consultation go to

link.

90,000 How to find out what the test results mean.

In Austrian medicine, a special place is given to diagnostics. The results of blood and urine tests obtained in the laboratory based on the study of samples presented by the patient help the doctor to diagnose diseases in any person early.

There are many reasons that can lead to results outside the so-called “norm”.These results help identify potential health problems for the patient.
The information below on the critical (limiting) values ​​of the parameters of urine and blood, which play an important role in the early diagnosis of diseases, will help an ordinary person to roughly navigate a complex system of laboratory tests.
Results of a general blood test
Short designations of the main concepts in the test results:
RBC – erythrocytes (red blood cells), carry oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body.
WBC – leukocytes (white blood cells) that protect the body from bacteria, viruses and fungi.
PLT – platelets (plaques), are involved in the creation of blood clots and stop bleeding.
Hb – concentration of hemoglobin.
Hct – hematocrit number (the ratio of the volumes of formed elements and blood plasma).
MCV – average erythrocyte volume.
MCHC is the average concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells.
RDW – the width of the distribution of erythrocytes by their size.
MTV – average platelet volume.

NORMAL BLOOD VALUES
Erythrocytes (red blood cells) – normal: 3.8 – 5.8 xE12 per liter (E12 = 10 to the 12th degree)
• Low values ​​are usually a sign of anemia or blood loss from – for bleeding.
• Higher values ​​may be found in healthy people.
Leukocytes (white blood cells) – normal: for adults 3.8 – 10 x E9 per liter, for children 5 – 13xE9 per liter.
• A result below normal is often a sign of a viral infection, and above normal is a sign of a bacterial infection.
Platelets (responsible for blood clotting) – Normal: 150-400 xE9 / L
• An increase in the number of platelets above normal can lead to the formation of blood clots in the cardiovascular system.
• Decrease below the norm – after chemotherapy, with malignant blood diseases, hepatitis C. ..
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate – normal: 2-12 mm / h
• Increased speed – acute and chronic diseases, malignant neoplasms, a large number of diseases, inflammations …
• Low values ​​are diagnostic.
Blood – Biochemistry
Serum Color – Normal: Light Yellow
• May be very dirty in appearance, indicating an increase in blood fat. Often this result is a consequence of the fact that the patient does not follow the basic rule – not to eat for 12 hours before donating blood.
• Serum may be red due to hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells with release of hemoglobin into the environment of red blood cells) or jaundice due to elevated bilirubin values.
Sugar – normal: 3.5-6.1 mmol / l
• Values ​​above the limit are found in diabetics, and below 3.5 is hypoglycemia, which occurs for various reasons, including after physical work, while the body lacks nutrients substances (glucose) for normal activity.

STATE OF KIDNEYS
Urea – norm 1.7-8.3 mmol / l
Creatinine – norm: 62-106 μmol / l for men, for women 44-80 μmol / l
• Increased values ​​of urea and creatinine in the blood occur with kidney disease, but may also be due to the following reasons: protein-rich diet, increased physical activity, steroid intake.
• Decreased values ​​are found in women, especially in pregnant women.

MINERALS
Sodium – normal: 139-154 mmol / l
• Reduced blood sodium levels – in renal patients.
Potassium – normal: 3.8-5.3 mmol / l
• Increased potassium – in renal patients.

CONDITION OF JOINTS
Uric acid – normal: 200-420 µmol / l for men, 140-340 µmol / l for women
• Increased values ​​of uric acid concentration in the blood occur in gout (deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints).
• Decreased uric acid concentrations are not diagnostic.

BLOOD LIPIDS
Cholesterol – 6.2 mmol / L recommended
HDL (good cholesterol) – recommended> 1.54; low HDL cholesterol <1.0 mmol / L
• Low HDL cholesterol is diagnostic, with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
• The higher your blood levels of HDL cholesterol, the better, because it “cleans” the blood vessels.
LDL (bad cholesterol) – 4.1 mmol / L recommended
• High LDL cholesterol levels are usually associated with poor diet and stress.Increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, primarily atherosclerosis.
Triglycerides – 2.3 mmol / L recommended
• High values ​​are usually due to less than 12 hours elapsed between meals and blood collection.
• Low triglyceride values ​​are not diagnostic.

LIVER STATE
ALT (alanine aminotransferase) – normal: 8-41 IU / L
• High ALT values ​​indicate acute liver damage, usually caused by antibiotic treatment, the use of low-quality soft drinks, juices …
AST (asparagine transferase) – Normal: 7-38 IU / L
• High values ​​indicate significant liver damage and other diseases
Gamma GT (gamma glutamyl transferase) – Normal: men 8-4 0 IU / L; women 5-35 IU / L
• High values ​​are usually found in alcoholics and are a sign of liver damage.
Total bilirubin – normal: 1.1-18.8 µmol / l
• Increased values ​​are in case of liver damage and obstruction of the biliary tract.
• Low values ​​are not diagnostic.

STATE OF BONE TISSUE
Alkaline phosphatase – norm: 0-270 IU / L for adults, up to 810 IU / L for children. One form of alkaline phosphatase is involved in building bones.
• Elevated blood alkaline phosphatase values ​​may indicate increased bone degradation and the possibility of osteoporosis.In children, the value of this parameter is usually increased.

PANCREAS
S alpha-amylase – normal: 28-100 IU / l
U alpha-amylase – normal: 0-450 IU / l
• An increased level of these parameters indicates a dysfunction of the pancreas.

BONE MARROW
Iron in the blood – normal: 10.6-28.3 μmol / L for men, 6.6-26.0 μmol / L for women
Together with hemoglobin, red blood cells and parameters that determine the morphology of erythrocytes (MCV, MCH and MCHC), the level of iron in the blood gives an idea of ​​the state of the bone marrow.A blood iron test alone does not make any difference in diagnosing anemia.

OTHER BLOOD PARAMETERS
Fibrinogen – norm: 2-4 g / l
This is a non-specific parameter.
• Increased values ​​of this parameter occur in acute and chronic diseases, malignant neoplasms, a large number of diseases, inflammations …
• Low values ​​have no diagnostic value.
Proteins – normal: 66-87 g / l
• A decrease in protein levels is a sign of impairment of the liver’s synthetic function, with the exception of pregnancy, when low values ​​of this parameter are often observed.
Urinalysis results
Normal urine is clear, yellow, with an acidic reaction. If deviations from these characteristics appear, then they are a possible symptom of the disease.
• cloudy urine – indicates an increase in the number of leukocytes in some inflammatory processes, moreover, fungi, bacteria, mucus and other elements can be found in the urine sediment.
• Dark brown urine indicates an increase in bilirubin, which is usually a sign of liver damage or jaundice.Some people have a normal high bilirubin, so this kind of urine is normal for them.
• Red urine – indicates the presence of hemoglobin in it, which usually indicates kidney damage – stones or sand in the kidneys, the result of injury or various inflammatory processes.
Acidity of urine – normal: acid reaction
• An alkaline reaction usually indicates a bacterial infection.
Relative density of urine – normal: (for adults) 1.012 – 1.025
• Increased density can be a sign of diabetes, hypertension, adrenal dysfunction, kidney damage.An increase in urine density occurs due to an increase in water loss during vomiting, diarrhea and high fever.
• Density usually decreases with increased excretion of urine from the body.
Proteins in urine – normal: absent
• May appear in urine with increased physical activity or during pregnancy, then this is not a sign of pathological changes. The appearance of proteins in the urine in all other cases is a sign of an inflammatory process.
Glucose (sugar) in the urine – normal: no
• The appearance of glucose in the urine is mainly associated with its increase in the blood (above 10 mmol / l), which is usually the case with diabetics.
Urobilinogen – normal: absent
Bilirubin – normal: absent
• Their appearance in the urine may be a sign of liver damage.
Acetone – normal: absent
• found in the urine of diabetics.
Urine sediment
Fresh red blood cells – normal: absent
• Their appearance in the urine is usually a sign of stones or sand in the kidneys and urinary tract.
Altered red blood cells – normal: absent
• Their presence in large numbers is a sign of infection or chronic kidney disease.
Leukocytes – normal: up to 5 leukocytes per field of view
• leukocyte count up to 50 or more – as a rule, a sign of an inflammatory process.
Squamous Epithelial Cells – Normal: Low
• These cells line the walls of the urethra. Their appearance in the urine is of little diagnostic value.
Round epithelial cells – normal: absent
• Their presence in urine indicates extensive kidney damage.
Bacteria in urine – normal: absent (sterile)
• Bacteria in urine are usually signs of a bacterial infection and may also result from improper storage of the urine sample (non-sterile vessel).
Amorphous urates – normal: absent
• Finding them in urine has no diagnostic value.
Calcium oxalate crystals – normal: small amounts in urine
• Large amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in urine do not necessarily indicate disease, but may be a sign of kidney sand.
Uric Acid Crystals – Normal: Absent
• The presence of uric acid crystals indicates kidney disease.