Healthy diet for diabetes type 2: Slide show: The Mediterranean diet
Types, Side Effects, Chart & Benefits
Medically reviewed by Martin E Zipser, MD; American board of Surgery
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Recipes & Nutrition | ADA
When you’re managing diabetes and prediabetes, your eating plan is a powerful tool.
But figuring out what to eat can feel like a hassle, right? Well, it doesn’t have to because there are easy things you can do to add flavor to your daily routine—including healthy twists on your favorite foods.
One key to feeling your best lies in the food you eat. You can start by working with a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN/RD) to make an eating plan that works for you. In it, be sure to include the foods you like—and don’t be afraid to try something new.
Most importantly, remember that eating well—and adding activity to your daily routine by moving more—are important ways you can manage diabetes. And we’re here to help you every step of the way.
Let’s get started.
What does the science say?
“What can I eat?” is one of the top questions asked by people with diabetes when they are diagnosed—and our goal is to help answer that question. A panel of scientists, doctors, endocrinologists, diabetes educators and dietitians reviewed over 600 research articles over the course of five years to see what diets—or eating patterns—work well for people with diabetes. The results were published in our Nutrition Consensus Report.
The main finding? Everyone’s body responds differently to different types of foods and diets, so there is no single “magic” diet for diabetes. But you can follow a few simple guidelines to find out what works for you to help manage your blood sugar.
Get the key takeaways
Introducing the Diabetes Plate Method
No matter which eating pattern works best for you, it can still be hard to know where to start when it comes to building healthy meals that help you manage your blood sugar—while still being tasty.
That’s where the Diabetes Plate Method comes in. Using this method, you can create perfectly portioned meals with a healthy balance of vegetables, protein and carbohydrates—without any counting, calculating, weighing or measuring.
And once you’ve got the Plate Method down, check out these tasty plates for some meal planning inspiration! Find articles like this and more from the nutrition experts at the American Diabetes Association’s Diabetes Food Hub®—the premier food and cooking destination for people living with diabetes and their families.
What to Eat With Type 2 Diabetes
When you have type 2 diabetes, what you eat can help keep the disease in check. Foods can also protect you from problems caused by diabetes, like heart disease, obesity, and high blood pressure. They should provide nutrients and energy, and help you stay full and satisfied.
Tools like carb counting and the glycemic index can help you choose what to eat and how. That, in turn, will help keep your blood sugar level in a healthy range.
What Is Carb Counting?
Carbohydrates are the sugar, starches, and fibers found in many foods, such as grains, fruits, and dairy products. Your body turns carbs into the sugar it uses for energy. This means carbs affect your blood sugar level more than other kinds of foods.
Carb counting is a way to plan your meals. It keeps you aware of the amount of carbs you’re eating. That information can help you control what you’re eating and keep it within a healthy range for people with type 2 diabetes. This helps you manage your blood sugar levels. Doctors often suggest carb counting for people with diabetes who take insulin. It lets you match your insulin dose to the amount of carbs you’re getting.
Carbs are measured in grams. To count your carbs, find out how many carbs are in the foods you eat. Add up the grams to figure out your total for each meal and snack. In general, you should get 45 to 60 grams of carbs with each meal and 15 to 20 grams for each snack.
But remember, not all carbs are created equal. Fresh fruits, veggies, whole grains, and low-fat milk are the best sources of carbs. Your dietitian or diabetes educator can make a specific plan for you.
What Is the Glycemic Index?
Along with a number of carbs, foods also have a glycemic index (GI). This number measures how fast a food raises your blood sugar. The index goes from 0 to 100. Your body turns some carbs, like refined sugars, into glucose quickly. These have a high glycemic index. Low-GI foods take longer to digest and release glucose more slowly. They’re usually high in fiber, protein, and fat.
Choosing low-GI foods can keep your blood sugar levels steady. And while the glycemic index can be a helpful tool, it isn’t perfect. It doesn’t rank a food’s nutrition. For example, a low-GI food can still be high in calories or unhealthy fat. It also doesn’t factor how a food is prepared or what you combine it with. Your body absorbs carbs slower, for example, if they’re paired with a protein or fat.
Which Foods Fight Diabetes?
These foods are high in the nutrients, such as fiber, vitamins, and minerals, that protect against diabetes and other diseases.
Dark green leafy vegetables. They’re low in calories and carbs, and high in nutrition. They also have a low glycemic index, so they’ll help keep your blood sugar under control. And they contain magnesium, a mineral that helps your body’s insulin work like it should. Add spinach, kale, or collard greens to your salads, soups, and stews.
Berries. To satisfy your sweet tooth, pick berries. They’re loaded with fiber, antioxidants, and vitamins. Research shows that eating low-GI fruit as part of a low-glycemic diet can lower blood pressure and heart disease risk.
Fatty fish. Aim to eat fish twice a week. Fatty fish, like salmon, tuna, mackerel, and sardines, are packed with healthy omega-3 fats, which lower inflammation. They protect against heart disease and an eye condition called diabetic retinopathy. For the biggest benefit, skip fried, breaded fish and serve it broiled, baked, or grilled.
Nuts. Research shows that eating nuts makes people with diabetes less likely to get heart disease. They’re full of healthy fats, protein, and fiber to keep you full and your blood sugar steady. Whether you prefer peanuts, almonds, or walnuts, snack on a handful of nuts at least three times a week.
Whole grains. When you’re shopping for bread, pasta, and cereal, look for the word “whole” in the first ingredient on the label. Whole grains are higher in fiber than refined carbs like white bread. They have a lower glycemic index than refined carbs, and that helps keep your blood sugar steadier. They also contain vitamins and minerals, like heart-healthy magnesium. Whole oats, farro, brown rice, and quinoa are whole grains.
Sweet potatoes. Potatoes can be a part of a healthy diabetes diet. Pick sweet potatoes for extra fiber and vitamin A, which keeps your eyes healthy. They also have vitamin C and potassium. Try serving them with a sprinkle of cinnamon. Not only does this spice add sweetness, but some research suggests that it may help your body use insulin better.
Beans. They’re good for your heart — and your diabetes. Research shows that, as part of a low-glycemic diet, they can lower your blood sugar level. They serve up vitamins, fiber, and protein without saturated fat. Beans do contain carbs; a half-cup of cooked beans counts as a starch serving. If you used canned, drain and rinse them to remove extra salt.
Milk and yogurt. Dairy products provide vitamin D, which may help your insulin work better. They’re also a good source of bone-building calcium. Dairy products do have carbs, so look for low-sugar brands of yogurt. Also choose nonfat or low-fat products to cut back on fat and calories.
Citrus fruits. Snack on a grapefruits, tangerines, or oranges to get a dose of vitamin C. They’re also high in heart-healthy folate and potassium. Have the whole fruit instead of juice. It has fiber that will slow digestion, so it won’t cause a spike in blood sugar.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet | Healthy Eating
Medication for diabetes, whether in tablet or injection form, is definitely not the only way to control your blood sugar (glucose) levels. In fact, there is evidence that many people who lose weight and adopt a low-carbohydrate diet can control their blood sugar enough to be able to reduce or even stop their medication.
How does type 2 diabetes affect your weight?
Dr Partha Kar
The food you eat on a daily basis plays an important role in managing your diabetes, as well as ensuring you keep well and have enough energy for your daily activities. The same healthy-eating principles apply whether you have diabetes or not. In fact, getting the whole family to eat this sort of balanced diet if you have diabetes can benefit their health as well as yours.
See also the separate leaflet called Healthy Eating.
Fruit and vegetables
Rich in fibre, vitamins and minerals. Low in calories and fat.
- Aim to eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day.
- Potatoes are very high in carbohydrates, so don’t ‘count’ as a vegetable in terms of your five a day.
- Try to ‘eat a rainbow’ – combine several different vegetables or fruits of different colours to get the maximum vitamins and minerals.
- These can be fresh, frozen, canned or dried (remember 30 g is a portion of dried fruit – some people can find it easy to eat too much).
- Remember that on the whole, vegetables have less impact on your blood sugar (glucose) than fruits.
- Limit your intake of fruit juice or smoothies to 150 ml per day, as these drinks have their fibre and carbohydrates already broken down. This means they can cause your blood sugar (glucose) to rise more quickly. They are also very easy to drink so you can end up having too much, which means extra calories, carbohydrate and sugar!
- Try to avoid the more sugary (high glycaemic index – see below) tropical fruits like bananas, oranges or pineapples (particularly in juiced form). Instead, eat lower glycaemic index fruits like blueberries, strawberries or raspberries.
- Instead of eating a banana, snack on an apple, which has less impact on your blood glucose.
It can be helpful to consider how much food affects your blood sugar (glucose) compared to eating table sugar. You can see some examples below:
Fruit & vegetables impact on blood sugar compared to table sugar
Infographic reproduced with permission from author (Dr David Unwin) – from https://phcuk.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Vegetables-vs-Fruits-13.05.2019.pdf
Various fruits impact on blood sugar compared to table sugar
Infographic reproduced with permission from author (Dr David Unwin) – from
One portion is:
- Three heaped tablespoons of cooked vegetables, beans or pulses.
- One medium onion or tomato.
- A small bowl of salad.
- One piece of medium-sized fruit (banana, apple, orange, etc).
- Two pieces of small fruit (satsumas, plums, kiwi fruit, etc).
- One handful of grapes.
- Prepare some chopped vegetables for an afternoon snack – for example, carrot, pepper or celery.
- Add sliced fruit or berries to porridge oats for breakfast.
- Choose 2-3 vegetables to add to each meal you cook – for example, onions and pepper to a stir-fry or curry.
- Replace rice or pasta with raw spinach leaves or cauliflower rice (easy to make at home and much cheaper than shop-bought versions).
Sugar and junk food
The good news is you can usually reduce the level of your blood glucose and HbA1c if you improve your diet. Because the central problem in diabetes is high levels of sugar (glucose) in your system, it is logical to make a significant cut in the amount of sugar in your diet.
Sugar is ’empty’ calories – it has no nutritional value at all. Highly processed food, sometimes called ‘junk’ food, is also high in sugar as well as ‘refined’ carbohydrates, which are rapidly absorbed into your system and raise your blood sugar.
You should try to cut out as much sugar and junk food as you can from your diet. There are lots of ideas in this leaflet for tasty, healthier alternatives which do not need to be much more expensive.
What many people don’t realise is that starchy carbs like bread, potatoes or breakfast cereals digest down into a surprisingly large amount of sugar. For example:
- A small (30 g) slice of white bread has the same impact on your blood sugar as almost four teaspoons of table sugar.
- A 150 g bowl of rice affects your blood sugar to the same extent as ten teaspoons of table sugar.
- 150 g of boiled potato raises your blood sugar as much as nine teaspoons of table sugar.
- By contrast, 150 g of broccoli or cabbage have less impact on your blood sugar than half a teaspoon of sugar.
- A breakfast of plain yoghurt and berries or a cheese omelette will represent far less glucose than toast or cereals.
Common foods impact on blood sugar compared to table sugar
Infographic reproduced with permission from author (Dr David Unwin) – taken from https://phcuk.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Common-Foods-13.05.2019.pdf
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends that healthcare professionals should “Encourage high-fibre, low-glycaemic-index sources of carbohydrate in the diet, such as fruit, vegetables, whole grains and pulses.”
Where you do include carbohydrates in your diet, always opt for wholemeal or wholegrain ‘complex’ carbohydrates. These are absorbed more slowly into your system than refined carbs (white flour, bread, pasta, etc) and do not tend to cause the same spikes in your blood sugar. In addition, they provide dietary fibre, which is important for gut health.
Dairy and dairy alternatives
Rich in calcium and other vitamins and minerals. Full-fat versions are higher in calories but may help keep you feeling full for longer.
- Choose semi-skimmed or skimmed milk rather than full-fat milk.
- Top fresh fruit with natural or low-fat Greek yoghurt for a healthy breakfast or snack idea.
- Top baked potatoes or wholegrain crackers with cottage cheese instead of a regular hard cheese.
- Grate cheese rather than using slices, as you tend to eat smaller amounts this way.
Meats, fish, eggs, beans, pulses, nuts and other proteins
High in protein for building and repairing processes in the body. A source of iron. One portion of meat or fish is about the size of your palm.
- Include this food group daily.
- Eat two portions of oily fish per week to promote heart health.
- Reduce intake of processed meat; choose leaner cuts of meat and try to replace meat with beans, pulses and lentils on some days. This will reduce fat and boost fibre intake.
- Whether you’re vegetarian or not, try substituting tofu for meat in stir-fries and stews.
- Eggs any way are a great way to start the day – boiled, scrambled, poached, dry fried or in an omelette.
- Grill meat (including poultry), fish or meat alternative and serve with mixed vegetables for dinner.
- Snack on a handful of nuts and seeds if feeling hungry, or sprinkle them on salads.
- Add extra beans and pulses to meals to add bulk or replace meats – for example, kidney beans, lentils, chickpeas.
Keeps you hydrated.
- Aim to drink at least 6-8 glasses of fluid per day. Include plenty of non-fizzy and no-added-sugar drinks – water is best and is calorie-free!
- Caffeinated drinks up to 400 mg caffeine a day (about eight cups of tea or four cups of coffee) don’t carry health risks and can contribute to your daily fluid intake. If you’re pregnant, you shouldn’t have more than 200 mg caffeine a day.
- Beware the calorie count of your favourite full-fat latte!
- Always carry a bottle of water with you.
- Switch from full-sugar fizzy drinks to sugar-free alternatives – or better still, water.
- Drink 1-2 glasses of water 15 minutes before a meal to help with hydration and portion control.
- Lowering your intake can reduce blood pressure and risk of stroke and heart disease.
- Reduce intake of processed foods and ready meals, which tend to have a high salt content.
- Prepare foods freshly where possible, as this gives you control of the amount of salt in the foods.
- Remove the salt from the table to resist the temptation to add extra to foods before eating.
- Use other flavourings in cooking, such as dried herbs and spices – for example, paprika, cumin seeds, chilli flakes.
- Try to cook from fresh and make home-made sauces and marinades where possible.
- Limit your intake of processed meats like bacon and salami, which are high in salt.
- Choose low-salt stock cubes to use in soups and in gravy, and for cooking.
- Because it is the sodium in salt which raises your blood pressure, consider a reduced-sodium alternative to traditional table salt. Consult with your doctor before switching if you have kidney problems.
Foods high in fat and sugar
While we all need some fat in our diets, most of us get far more than we need. High-sugar and high-fat food and drink can contribute to weight gain, and sugary foods can cause sharp rises in your blood glucose levels. If you do eat these foods, keep them as an occasional treat.
- Reduce amount and swap type of fat to unsaturated alternatives such as vegetable, rapeseed or olive oil in cooking.
- Try swapping butter for an olive-based spread.
- Try using a spray oil instead, as you generally use less and some can be as low as 1 kcal per spray.
- Start looking at food labels and choose lower-fat varieties (less than 3 g total fat per 100 g and less than 1.5 g saturated fat per 100 g).
What is the glycaemic index?
The glycaemic index (GI) of a food tells you how quickly the food is digested and absorbed, and how quickly your blood sugar (glucose) levels rise (low GI = slowly, high GI = quickly).
Foods with a lower GI release energy more slowly, helping you to feel fuller for longer. They also help reduce sharp fluctuations in blood glucose levels.
Healthy lower GI foods include pulses, beans, lentils, fruit and vegetables. The GI of foods should not be the only focus of your diet.
This is because unhealthy low GI options do exist – chocolate being an obvious example. You probably won’t be surprised to hear that if you eat these in large quantities, lower GI foods will still cause a large rise in your blood glucose levels. The focus should remain on general healthy eating principles and portion control.
Why is food portion size important?
Controlling your portion size can be a really helpful way to stabilise or lose weight. It can also help you to manage your blood sugar (glucose) levels better. Top tips for portion control include:
- Use smaller-sized plates.
- Measure out portion sizes.
- Fill your plate with low-calorie food, such as salads and vegetables, before adding other types of food.
- Drink a glass or two of water about 15 minutes before a meal.
- Eat slowly. It takes about 20 minutes for your brain to register how much you’ve eaten, so if you eat fast you may have overeaten long before your brain tells you you’re full.
- Don’t do anything else while you’re eating. Research shows we all tend to eat more if we’re distracted (for example, watching television or playing on a computer).
- Resist the temptation to return for seconds.
Example portions: 30 g cheese, a palm-sized piece of meat/fish/poultry, 2-3 tablespoons rice, pasta or cereals, 1 slice of bread. You can find fruit and vegetable portions above.
What are the benefits of weight loss if you’re overweight?
Losing weight if you’re overweight can greatly improve your blood sugar (glucose) levels. Losing weight can also help reduce your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. This in turn helps to reduce risk of stroke and heart disease.
Weight loss of 5-10% of your current body weight is enough to gain significant health benefits. Whether you lose weight through diet, physical activity or a combination of both, it doesn’t matter. The key to success is finding out what works for you and sticking to it.
Do ‘diabetic foods’ need to be included in your diet?
Foods labelled as ‘suitable for people with diabetes’ on the supermarket shelves do not provide you with any special benefit above that of ordinary foods and so are not recommended. These foods are often more expensive, high in calories and still able to cause your blood sugar (glucose) levels to rise.
Five take home messages
- Carbohydrates, whether sugary or starchy, raise your blood sugar (glucose) more than any other foods.
- Your diet should be high in fibre with plenty of fruit and vegetables, low in fat (particularly saturated fat), low in sugar and low in salt.
- Be mindful of the portion size of foods you eat – portions which are too large can contribute to weight gain and lead to poorer management of blood glucose levels.
- If you’re overweight, aim for 5-10% weight loss – using a method you are likely to stick to.
- ‘Diabetic foods’ offer no additional benefit above ‘normal’ foods and so are not advised.
Simple Steps to Preventing Diabetes | The Nutrition Source
Keeping weight in check, being active, and eating a healthy diet can help prevent most cases of type 2 diabetes.
If type 2 diabetes were an infectious disease, passed from one person to another, public health officials would say we’re in the midst of an epidemic. This difficult disease is striking an ever-growing number of adults, and with the rising rates of childhood obesity, it has become more common in youth, especially among certain ethnic groups (learn more about diabetes, including the other types and risk factors).
The good news is that prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are largely preventable. About 9 in 10 cases in the U.S. can be avoided by making lifestyle changes. These same changes can also lower the chances of developing heart disease and some cancers. The key to prevention can be boiled down to five words: Stay lean and stay active.
Guidelines for preventing or lowering your risk of developing type 2 diabetes are also appropriate if you currently have a diabetes diagnosis. Achieving a healthy weight, eating a balanced carbohydrate-controlled diet, and getting regular exercise all help to improve blood glucose control. If you are taking insulin medication, you may need more or less carbohydrate at a meal or snack to ensure a healthy blood glucose range. There may also be special dietary needs for exercise, such as bringing a snack so that your blood glucose does not drop too low. For specific guidance on scenarios such as these, refer to your diabetes care team who are the best resources for managing your type of diabetes.
Simple steps to lowering your risk
Control your weight
Excess weight is the single most important cause of type 2 diabetes. Being overweight increases the chances of developing type 2 diabetes seven-fold. Being obese makes you 20 to 40 times more likely to develop diabetes than someone with a healthy weight. 
Losing weight can help if your weight is above the healthy-weight range. Losing 7-10% of your current weight can cut your chances of developing type 2 diabetes in half.
Get moving—and turn off the television
Inactivity promotes type 2 diabetes.  Working your muscles more often and making them work harder improves their ability to use insulin and absorb glucose. This puts less stress on your insulin-making cells. So trade some of your sit-time for fit-time.
Long bouts of hot, sweaty exercise aren’t necessary to reap this benefit. Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study suggest that walking briskly for a half hour every day reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 30%. [3,4] More recently, The Black Women’s Health Study reported similar diabetes-prevention benefits for brisk walking of more than 5 hours per week.  This amount of exercise has a variety of other benefits as well. And even greater cardiovascular and other advantages can be attained by more, and more intense, exercise.
Television-watching appears to be an especially-detrimental form of inactivity: Every two hours you spend watching TV instead of pursuing something more active increases the chances of developing diabetes by 20%; it also increases the risk of heart disease (15%) and early death (13%).  The more television people watch, the more likely they are to be overweight or obese, and this seems to explain part of the TV viewing-diabetes link. The unhealthy diet patterns associated with TV watching may also explain some of this relationship.
Tune Up Your Diet
Four dietary changes can have a big impact on the risk of type 2 diabetes.
1. Choose whole grains and whole grain products over refined grains and other highly processed carbohydrates.
There is convincing evidence that diets rich in whole grains protect against diabetes, whereas diets rich in refined carbohydrates lead to increased risk . In the Nurses’ Health Studies I and II, for example, researchers looked at the whole grain consumption of more than 160,000 women whose health and dietary habits were followed for up to 18 years. Women who averaged 2-3 servings of whole grains a day were 30% less likely to have developed type 2 diabetes than those who rarely ate whole grains.  When the researchers combined these results with those of several other large studies, they found that eating an extra two servings of whole grains a day decreased the risk of type 2 diabetes by 21%.
Whole grains don’t contain a magical nutrient that fights diabetes and improves health. It’s the entire package—elements intact and working together—that’s important. The bran and fiber in whole grains make it more difficult for digestive enzymes to break down the starches into glucose. This leads to lower, slower increases in blood sugar and insulin, and a lower glycemic index. As a result, they stress the body’s insulin-making machinery less, and so may help prevent type 2 diabetes.  Whole grains are also rich in essential vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals that may help reduce the risk of diabetes.
In contrast, white bread, white rice, mashed potatoes, donuts, bagels, and many breakfast cereals have what’s called a high glycemic index and glycemic load. That means they cause sustained spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels, which in turn may lead to increased diabetes risk.  In China, for example, where white rice is a staple, the Shanghai Women’s Health Study found that women whose diets had the highest glycemic index had a 21% higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, compared with women whose diets had the lowest glycemic index.  Similar findings were reported in the Black Women’s Health Study. 
More recent findings from the Nurses Health Studies I and II and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study suggest that swapping whole grains for white rice could help lower diabetes risk: Researchers found that women and men who ate the most white rice—five or more servings a week—had a 17% higher risk of diabetes than those who ate white rice less than one time a month. People who ate the most brown rice—two or more servings a week—had an 11% lower risk of diabetes than those who rarely ate brown rice. Researchers estimate that swapping whole grains in place of even some white rice could lower diabetes risk by 36%. 
2. Skip the sugary drinks, and choose water, coffee, or tea instead.
Like refined grains, sugary beverages have a high glycemic load, and drinking more of this sugary stuff is associated with increased risk of diabetes. In the Nurses’ Health Study II, women who drank one or more sugar-sweetened beverages per day had an 83% higher risk of type 2 diabetes, compared with women who drank less than one sugar-sweetened beverage per month. 
Combining the Nurses’ Health Study results with those from seven other studies found a similar link between sugary beverage consumption and type 2 diabetes. For every additional 12-ounce serving of sugary beverage that people drank each day, their risk of type 2 diabetes rose 25%.  Studies also suggest that fruit drinks— powdered drinks, fortified fruit drinks, or juices—are not the healthy choice that food advertisements often portray them to be. Women in the Black Women’s Health study who drank two or more servings of fruit drinks a day had a 31% higher risk of type 2 diabetes, compared with women who drank less than one serving a month. 
How do sugary drinks lead to this increased risk? Weight gain may explain the link. In both the Nurses’ Health Study II and the Black Women’s Health Study, women who drank more sugary drinks gained more weight than women who cut back on sugary drinks. [13,15] Several studies show that children and adults who drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages are more likely to gain weight than those who don’t. [15-17] and that switching from these to water or unsweetened beverages can reduce weight.  Even so, weight gain caused by sugary drinks may not completely explain the increased diabetes risk. There is mounting evidence that sugary drinks contribute to chronic inflammation, high triglycerides, decreased “good” (HDL) cholesterol, and increased insulin resistance, all of which are risk factors for diabetes. 
What to drink in place of the sugary stuff? Water is an excellent choice. Coffee and tea are also good calorie-free substitutes for sugared beverages (as long as you don’t load them up with sugar and cream). And there’s convincing evidence that coffee may help protect against diabetes; [20,21] emerging research suggests that tea may hold diabetes-prevention benefits as well, but more research is needed.
There’s been some controversy over whether artificially sweetened beverages are beneficial for weight control and, by extension, diabetes prevention.  Some studies have found that people who regularly drink diet beverages have a higher risk of diabetes than people who rarely drink such beverages, [23,24] but there could be another explanation for those findings. People often start drinking diet beverages because they have a weight problem or a family history of diabetes; studies that don’t adequately account for these other factors may make it wrongly appear as though the diet soda led to the increased diabetes risk. A long-term analysis on data from 40,000 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study found that drinking one 12-ounce serving of diet soda a day did not appear to increase diabetes risk.  So, in moderation diet beverages can be a sugary-drink alternative for adults.
3. Choose healthy fats.
The types of fats in your diet can also affect the development of diabetes. Healthful fats, such as the polyunsaturated fats found in liquid vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds can help ward off type 2 diabetes.  Trans fats do just the opposite. [1,27] These harmful fats were once found in many kinds of margarine, packaged baked goods, fried foods in most fast-food restaurants, and any product that listed “partially hydrogenated vegetable oil” on the label. Eating polyunsaturated fats from fish—also known as “long chain omega 3” or “marine omega 3” fats—does not protect against diabetes, even though there is much evidence that these marine omega 3 fats help prevent heart disease.  If you already have diabetes, eating fish can help protect you against a heart attack or dying from heart disease. 
4. Limit red meat and avoid processed meat; choose nuts, beans, whole grains, poultry, or fish instead.
The evidence is growing stronger that eating red meat (beef, pork, lamb) and processed red meat (bacon, hot dogs, deli meats) increases the risk of diabetes, even among people who consume only small amounts. A meta-analysis combined findings from the Nurses’ Health Studies I and II, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and six other long-term studies. The researchers looked at data from roughly 440,000 people, about 28,000 of whom developed diabetes during the course of the study.  They found that eating just one 3-ounce serving of red meat daily—say, a steak that’s about the size of a deck of cards—increased the risk of type 2 diabetes by 20%. Eating even smaller amounts of processed red meat each day—just two slices of bacon, one hot dog, or the like—increased diabetes risk by 51%.
The good news from this study: Swapping out red meat or processed red meat for a healthier protein source, such as nuts, low-fat dairy, poultry, or fish, or for whole grains lowered diabetes risk by up to 35%. Not surprisingly, the greatest risk reductions came from ditching processed red meat.
How meat is cooked may matter too. A study of three large cohorts followed for 12-16 years—including more than 289,000 men and women from the Nurses’ Health Studies and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study—found that participants who most frequently ate meats and chicken cooked at high temperatures were 1.5 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, compared with those who ate the least.  An increased risk of weight gain and developing obesity in the frequent users of high-temperature cooking methods may have contributed to the development of diabetes.
Why do these types of meat appear to boost diabetes risk? It may be that the high iron content of red meat diminishes insulin’s effectiveness or damages the cells that produce insulin. The high levels of sodium and nitrites (preservatives) in processed red meats may also be to blame. Red and processed meats are a hallmark of the unhealthful “Western” dietary pattern, which seems to trigger diabetes in people who are already at genetic risk. 
Furthermore, a related body of research has suggested that plant-based dietary patterns may help lower type 2 diabetes risk, and more specifically, those who adhere to predominantly healthy plant-based diets may have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who follow these diets with lower adherence:
- A 2019 meta-analysis that included health data from 307,099 participants with 23,544 cases of type 2 diabetes examined adherence to an “overall” predominantly plant-based diet (which could include a mix of healthy plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes, but also less healthy plant-based foods such as potatoes, white flour, and sugar, and modest amounts of animal products). The researchers also looked at “healthful” plant-based diets, which were defined as those emphasizing healthy plant-based foods, with lower consumption of unhealthy plant-based foods. They found that people with the highest adherence to overall predominantly plant-based diets had a 23% lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared to those with weaker adherence to the diets. The researchers also found that the association was strengthened for those who ate healthful plant-based diets 
Add type 2 diabetes to the long list of health problems linked with smoking. Smokers are roughly 50% more likely to develop diabetes than nonsmokers, and heavy smokers have an even higher risk. 
Light to moderate alcohol consumption
Evidence has consistently linked moderate alcohol consumption with reduced risk of heart disease. The same may be true for type 2 diabetes. Moderate amounts of alcohol—up to a drink a day for women, up to two drinks a day for men—increases the efficiency of insulin at getting glucose inside cells. And some studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption decreases the risk of type 2 diabetes. [1, 34-39], but excess alcohol intake actually increases the risk. If you already drink alcohol, the key is to keep your consumption in the moderate range, as higher amounts of alcohol could increase diabetes risk.  If you don’t drink alcohol, there’s no need to start—you can get the same benefits by losing weight, exercising more, and changing your eating patterns.
Beyond individual behavior
Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable by taking several simple steps: keeping weight under control, exercising more, eating a healthy diet, and not smoking. Yet it is clear that the burden of behavior change cannot fall entirely on individuals. Families, schools, worksites, healthcare providers, communities, media, the food industry, and government must work together to make healthy choices easy choices. For links to evidence-based guidelines, research reports, and other resources for action, visit our diabetes prevention toolkit.
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- Van Dam RM, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study in younger and middle-aged US women. Diabetes care. 2006 Feb 1;29(2):398-403.
- Bellisle F, Drewnowski A. Intense sweeteners, energy intake and the control of body weight. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2007 Jun;61(6):691.
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- Risérus U, Willett WC, Hu FB. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Progress in lipid research. 2009 Jan 1;48(1):44-51.
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- Djoussé L, Biggs ML, Mukamal KJ, Siscovick DS. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes among older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Obesity. 2007 Jul;15(7):1758-65.
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The contents of this website are for educational purposes and are not intended to offer personal medical advice. You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The Nutrition Source does not recommend or endorse any products.
What should I eat – Diabetes Australia
One part of living with diabetes everyone has to think about is what they eat. We believe there is no one-size-fits-all approach to food and diabetes and that’s why people should talk to a qualified health professional to develop an approach that suits them.
Eating the recommended amount of food from the five food groups, including lots of fruit and vegetables, will provide you with the nutrients you need to live a healthy life. The Australian Dietary Guidelines are a good starting point for basic health advice.
To help manage your diabetes:
- Eat regular meals and spread them evenly throughout the day
- Eat a diet lower in fat, particularly saturated fat
- If you take insulin or diabetes tablets, you may need to have between meal snacks
- It is important to recognise that everyone’s needs are different. All people with diabetes should see an Accredited Practising Dietitian in conjunction with their diabetes team for individualised advice. Read our position statement ‘One Diet Does Not Fit All‘
- If you’re interested in following a low carb approach read our position statement Low carb eating for people with diabetes
amount of food you eat with the amount of energy you burn through
activity and exercise is important. Putting too much fuel in your body
can lead to weight gain. Being overweight or obese can make it
difficult to manage your diabetes and can increase the risk of heart
disease, stroke and cancer.
Limit foods high in energy such as take away foods, sweet biscuits,
cakes, sugar sweetened drinks and fruit juice, lollies, chocolate and
savoury snacks. Some people have a healthy diet but eat too much.
Reducing your portion size is one way to decrease the amount of energy
you eat. Being active has many benefits. Along with healthy eating,
regular physical activity can help you to manage your blood glucose
levels, reduce your blood fats (cholesterol and triglycerides) and
maintain a healthy weight.
Learn more about exercise and maintaining a healthy weight.
Fats have the highest energy
(kilojoule or calorie) content of all foods. Eating too much fat can
make you put on weight, which may make it more difficult to manage blood
glucose levels. Our bodies need some fat for good health but the type
of fat you choose is important.
It is important to
limit saturated fat because it raises your LDL (‘bad’) cholesterol
levels. Saturated fat is found in animal foods like fatty meat, milk,
butter and cheese. Vegetable fats that are saturated include palm oil
(found in solid cooking fats, snack foods or convenience foods) and
coconut products such as copha, coconut milk or cream.
To reduce saturated fat:
- Choose reduced or low-fat milk, yoghurt, cheese, ice-cream and custard
- Choose lean meat and trim any fat off before cooking
- Remove the skin from chicken, duck and other poultry (where possible, before cooking)
- Avoid using butter, lard, dripping, cream, sour cream, copha, coconut milk, coconut cream and hard cooking margarines
- Limit pastries, cakes, puddings, chocolate and cream biscuits to special occasions
- Limit pre-packaged biscuits, savoury packet snacks, cakes, frozen and convenience meals
- Limit the use of processed deli meats (devon/polony/fritz/luncheon meat, chicken loaf, salami etc) and sausages
- Avoid fried takeaway foods such as chips, fried chicken and battered
fish and choose BBQ chicken (without the skin) and grilled fish instead
- Avoid pies, sausage rolls and pastries
- Rather than creamy sauces or dressings, choose those that are based on tomato, soy or other low fat ingredients
- Limit creamy style soups.
Polyunsaturated & monounsaturated fats
small amounts of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats can help
ensure you get the essential fatty acids and vitamins your body needs.
Polyunsaturated fats include:
- Polyunsaturated margarines (check the label for the word ‘polyunsaturated’)
- Sunflower, safflower, soybean, corn, cottonseed, grapeseed and sesame oils
- The fat found in oily fish such as herring, mackerel, sardine, salmon and tuna.
Monounsaturated fats include:
- Canola and olive oils
- Some margarines
Seeds, nuts, nut spreads and peanut oil contain a combination of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat.
Ideas for enjoying healthy fats
- Stir-fry meat and vegetables in a little canola oil (or oil spray) with garlic or chilli
- Dress a salad or steamed vegetables with a little olive oil and lemon juice or vinegar
- Sprinkle sesame seeds on steamed vegetables
- Use linseed bread and spread a little canola margarine
- Snack on a handful of unsalted nuts, or add some to a stir-fry or salad
- Spread avocado on sandwiches and toast, or add to a salad
- Eat more fish (at least three times a week) because it contains a special type of fat (omega-3) that is good for your heart.
- Do more dry roasting, grilling, microwaving and stir-frying in a non-stick pan
- Avoid deep fried, battered and crumbed foods
play an important role in our diet. They are the best energy source for
your body, especially your brain. When carbohydrates are digested they
break down to form glucose in the bloodstream. Insulin takes the glucose
out of the blood and puts it into the muscles, liver and other cells in
the body where it is used to provide energy. Most carbohydrate
containing foods are also very good sources of fibre, vitamins and
minerals which keep our body and bowels healthy.
Of the three key nutrients in our food – fat, protein and
carbohydrate, carbohydrate is the nutrient that will have the biggest
impact on your blood glucose levels. The effect of carbohydrate will
depend on i) the amount of carbohydrate you eat and ii) the type of
carbohydrate you eat.
Everyone’s carbohydrate needs are different depending on your gender,
how active you are, your age and your body weight. Anyone with
diabetes should see an Accredited Practising Dietitian to work out the
amount of carbohydrate to eat at each meal and snack.
For some people, a lower carbohydrate diet may help with diabetes management. If you are considering reducing the carbohydrate content of your diet, consult your healthcare team for individualised advice. You can read our position statement on low carbohydrate eating for people with type 2 diabetes here.
If you eat regular meals and spread your carbohydrate foods evenly
throughout the day, you will help maintain your energy levels without
causing large rises in your blood glucose levels. If you take insulin or
diabetes tablets, you may need to have between meal snacks. Discuss
this with your doctor, dietitian or Credentialled Diabetes Educator.
All carbohydrate foods are digested to produce glucose but they do so
at different rates – some slow, some fast. The glycemic index or GI is a
way of describing how quickly a carbohydrate food is digested and
enters the blood stream.
Low GI carbohydrate foods enter the blood stream slowly and have less
of an impact on blood glucose levels. Examples of low GI foods include
traditional rolled oats, dense wholegrain breads, lentils and legumes,
sweet potato, milk, yoghurt, pasta and most types of fresh fruit. The
type of carbohydrate you eat is very important as some can cause higher
blood glucose after eating. The best combination is to eat moderate
amounts of high fibre low GI carbohydrates.
A healthy eating plan for
diabetes can include some sugar. It is ok to have a sprinkle of sugar on
porridge or a scrape of jam on some low GI high fibre bread. However,
foods that are high in added sugars and poor sources of other nutrients
should be consumed sparingly. In particular, limit high energy foods
such as sweets, lollies and standard soft drinks.
Some sugar may also be used in cooking and many recipes can be modified
to use less than the amount stated or substituted with an alternative
sweetener. Select recipes that are low in fat (particularly saturated
fat) and contain some fibre.
mentioned above small amounts of sugar as part of a balanced meal plan
shouldn’t have a large effect on blood glucose levels. However
sweeteners such as Equal, Stevia, Sugarine and Splenda can be used in
place of sugar especially if they are replacing large amounts of sugar.
Foods and drinks that have been sweetened with an alternative
sweetener, such as diet soft drinks and cordials, sugar-free lollies
etc., are also best enjoyed occasionally, as they do not have any
nutritional benefit and may often take the place of more nutritious
foods and drinks, such as fruits, vegetables, dairy, nuts and water.
Protein foods are needed
by the body for growth and repair. Protein does not break down into
glucose, so it does not directly raise blood glucose levels.
The main protein foods are:
- Meats, chicken, fish, & tofu
- Nuts & seeds
There are some protein foods which also contain carbohydrate such as
milk, yoghurt, lentils and legumes which will have an effect on blood
glucose levels but these should still be included as part of a healthy
Water is needed for
most of the body’s functions and the body needs to be kept hydrated
every day. Water is the best drink to have because it contains no extra
kilojoules and won’t have an effect on your blood glucose levels.
Other good choices are:
- Tea, coffee, herbal tea, water, soda water, plain mineral water
- If you want a sweet drink occasionally products labelled ‘diet’ or ‘low joule’
- If you choose to drink alcohol limit your intake to no more than 2
standard drinks per day with some alcohol free days each week.
To find an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD) visit the Dietitians Association of Australia website www.daa.asn.au
Learn more about:
Best Diets For People With Diabetes Of 2021 – Forbes Health
Diabetes is a common—yet serious—disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, is too high. When you eat, the bulk of your food (mainly carbohydrates) is broken down into glucose, which is then distributed into the bloodstream. Your blood sugar rising signals your pancreas to release insulin, which allows glucose into your cells to be used as energy.
But when a person has diabetes, their body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively utilize the insulin it does make. As a result, glucose remains in their bloodstream, causing their blood sugar to rise.
High blood glucose levels can lead to a plethora of health problems over the long term, including:
- Heart disease
- Kidney disease
- Eye problems
- Periodontal disease
- Nerve damage
- Foot ulcers
While there is no known cure for diabetes, it can be effectively managed with the right diet and proper maintenance.
In addition to gestational diabetes—a type of diabetes that can develop in pregnant women— there are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes
This type of diabetes is considered an autoimmune reaction in which your body attacks the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed in children and young adults and requires the person to take supplemental insulin daily.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes typically develops in adults, although it can be diagnosed at any age. With this type of diabetes, your body simply doesn’t make or use insulin efficiently. Type 2 diabetes can typically be avoided with a healthy diet and active lifestyle, as obesity is the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In fact, research has found that women who have a body mass index of 30 kg/m have a 28 times greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than women of normal weight.
90,000 Diet in type II diabetes mellitus – symptoms, treatment, prevention, causes, first signs
This means that insulin cannot fully perform its function, because the sensitivity of tissues to the action of insulin is reduced. To maintain adequate regulation of metabolism in such conditions, more and more insulin is required, which the pancreas is no longer able to provide. Thus, the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus should be aimed primarily at lowering blood glucose levels and increasing the sensitivity of tissues to the effects of insulin.
The most common cause of type II diabetes is obesity and overeating. Therefore, normalizing dietary patterns will be the first step in normalizing blood glucose levels. Due to the peculiarities of metabolism and hormonal regulation of the body, adherence to a diet and regular physical activity also contribute to an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin.
Prescription of hypoglycemic drugs and even more so insulin preparations is required at later stages of the disease.
The diet largely depends on the individual characteristics of the organism of each patient. Once a diagnosis is made, your doctor will be sure to give you advice on diet and exercise. In this article, we will provide only general recommendations regarding dietary intake for this disease.
Patients with type II diabetes require a lifelong diet, so you should choose a diet that is tasty and varied, but at the same time will help to reduce weight and normalize blood glucose levels.The calorie content of the selected diet should contribute to weight loss. Restricting the intake of nutrients in the body leads to the fact that energy reserves, conserved in the form of adipose tissue, begin to be consumed, fat is “burned” and a person loses weight. The required daily amount of calories in food depends on weight, physical activity, nature of work and the drugs taken. The calorie content of the diet should be discussed with your healthcare professional. In most cases, it is recommended to reduce the daily calorie intake to 1000-1200 kcal for women and 1200-1600 kcal for men.
What is, what is not?
In the diet, you should limit the use of high-calorie foods and foods that greatly increase blood glucose levels.
The following are considered high-calorie: butter (including vegetable), sour cream, mayonnaise, margarine, lard, sausages, sausages, smoked meats, fatty meat, fatty fish, meat offal, poultry skin, cheeses (more than 30% fat), cream, fatty cottage cheese, nuts, seeds, etc.
The following products have a strong sugar-increasing effect: sugar, honey, chocolate, dried fruits, confectionery, jam, kvass, fruit juices and soft drinks (incl.h. “Cola”, “Fanta”, “Pepsi”, etc.).
The diet should be dominated by foods containing a lot of water and vegetable fiber, as well as low-fat types of meat and fish, low-fat dairy products. You can eat raw or cooked vegetables without restriction, with the exception of potatoes (cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, beets, turnips, radishes, cucumbers, tomatoes, herbs).
Drinks with non-nutritive sweeteners or sugar-free should be chosen. Non-nutritive sweeteners include aspartame, saccharin, cyclamate, stavioside (Sucrazide, Aspartame, Surel, SusLux, etc.). Unfortunately, most diabetic sweets nowadays contain high-calorie sugar substitutes. They do not raise blood sugar levels that much, but they do not differ in calories from glucose. They are strictly contraindicated in overweight patients. Carefully follow the composition of the purchased products in the “For diabetics” section.
Diabetes mellitus and alcohol
Patients with diabetes should limit their consumption of alcoholic beverages, as they are a source of additional calories (especially in overweight people).When taking hypoglycemic drugs, alcohol can provoke life-threatening hypoglycemic conditions (leading to an excessive decrease in blood glucose levels).
Delicious and healthy food
I believe that after reading the above, your mood has completely deteriorated, and you thought: “What am I going to eat? After all, practically everything is forbidden? ”
In fact, this is not the case at all. A diet for type II diabetes mellitus is almost tantamount to a diet for weight loss.This diet is followed by more than half of the girls and women who take care of their appearance and health. There are even cookbooks that contain hundreds of delicious and healthy recipes. Take some time to put together your menu. Do not eat “anything”. By following these recommendations, you will not only stop the development of a formidable disease, but also lose weight. People around you will surely notice the changes that have taken place. After all, beauty and health are the keys to success in the modern world.
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organization of medical nutrition – Medaboutme.ru
How to make a promising diet menu for a week
If the patient is diagnosed with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus and there are no special contraindications, he is advised to move more and eat right. The correct organization of therapeutic nutrition, as mentioned above, presupposes long-term planning. If a therapeutic and prophylactic diet is recommended, the menu for a week in advance allows you to:
- to exclude food violations;
- to stabilize blood glucose levels as much as possible;
- to reduce dangerous drops in sugar levels;
- improve psycho-emotional and general health;
- to reduce the risk of developing both diabetes itself and dangerous complications, including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiopathology, etc.d.
In addition, a promising menu allows you to reasonably plan an individual or family budget, saving on fast food, products of deep industrial processing, in particular, harmful confectionery, etc.
To begin with, any patient with suspected insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome should see a doctor and undergo a detailed diagnostic examination to confirm or deny possible concerns.
If the result is prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, don’t despair.Illness is not a sentence! You can and should fight with it, taking an endocrinologist as your allies.
It is the doctor who will give the necessary weapon – treatment and prophylactic recommendations. And it will help you develop an individual diet for your daily diet.
You should also arm yourself with the lists of prohibited and allowed foods that are usually given out in the clinic to every patient with type 2 diabetes. With their help, you can start drawing up a promising diet menu for the week ahead.
You can do this, for example, on Friday evening or Saturday, so that over the coming weekend you will have time not only to visit the shops and buy almost everything you need for dietary meals in the coming working days.
Why almost? Because there is always something that you have to buy on weekdays. For example:
- chilled fish and perishable seafood;
- fresh fruits, etc.d.
You should first plan an approximate menu, taking into account medical recommendations and your own taste preferences, so that the diet does not seem like a punishment, punishment, a burden. And then take another important step: make a rough estimate, calculating exactly what products will be needed, in what quantity and in what (approximately) amount will have to be met so that the individual or family budget remains in the surplus zone.
By the way, to help even one of your loved ones in the fight against diabetes, to support him morally and emotionally, you can turn boring planning into a fun game by suggesting to each family member:
- participate in the preparation of the menu and shopping list;
- independently create a family food ration for the week and plan related expenses.
The main thing is not to give up, but to combine all possible resources (your own strength and the help of relatives, friends) in order to stop the disease. And then “No pasaran” – diabetes will not go away!
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Scientists have named foods that reduce the risk of diabetes | News | Izvestia
Australian scientists from Edith Cowan University have found a link between the inclusion of fruits in the diet and a decrease in the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes.The results of the study were published June 2 in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Experts reviewed data from 7,675 participants in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab), conducted by the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute. The information collected contains information on the consumption of fruits and fruit juices by the interviewed citizens, as well as on the development of diabetes among them in the next five years.
For example, it was found that the risk of developing diabetes is lower in those participants who ate a sufficient amount of whole fruit.However, with respect to fruit juices, such a pattern was not revealed.
“We found that people who ate about two servings of fruit a day had a 36% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes over the next five years than those who ate less than half a serving of fruit a day,” the executive said. research by Dr. Nicolo Bondonno.
Fruit juice’s ineffectiveness in reducing the risk of diabetes is due to the fact that it tends to have more sugar and less fiber than whole fruits, he said.
Scientists have found a clear link between fruit consumption and markers of insulin sensitivity. Thus, people on a diet rich in fruits have to produce less insulin in order to lower their blood glucose levels.
“This is important because hyperinsulinemia – high levels of circulating insulin – can damage blood vessels and lead not only to diabetes, but also hypertension, obesity and heart disease,” Bondonno said.
However, the mechanism of the effect of fruit on insulin sensitivity has not yet been studied.The expert noted that the most beneficial in this regard are fruits and vegetables containing flavonoids.
“These results show that a healthy diet and lifestyle that includes whole fruit consumption is an excellent strategy for reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes,” the scientist concluded.
At the end of January, it became known that the Mediterranean diet could be the ideal type of diet for those who suffer from type 2 diabetes and do not yet need to take anti-hypoglycemic drugs.So, with the help of this diet, you can lower blood sugar levels, which helps to prevent the development of diabetes in healthy people.
Healthy Living With Diabetes
According to WHO, 422 million people had diabetes in 2014, with a global incidence of 8.5%. But on the positive side, fatal consequences can be prevented if you learn to identify the symptoms of the disease and take precautions. In addition, research shows that when lifestyle changes are made, you can feel comfortable without taking any medication.
What you need to know about diabetes
Diabetes is of two types, type 1 and type 2, with type 2 being more prevalent throughout the world. Type 1 diabetes occurs due to a deficiency of insulin in the body, while type 2 diabetes is used ineffectively. Insulin is a hormone responsible for converting glucose into energy for the body. If a person is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the doctor will recommend some medications and a healthy lifestyle to help control blood sugar.
What’s more, you can live comfortably with type 2 diabetes and overcome it by adjusting your diet and lifestyle. One study found that a healthy lifestyle and exercise effectively controlled blood sugar levels better than medication. The promise of this line of treatment lies in its ability to eliminate the need for diabetes medication.
The safety of healthy living and exercise is that they are tried and tested.For example, a randomized controlled study supervised by the National Institute for Health Research found that a healthy lifestyle and diet significantly improved blood sugar control in diabetes.
tips and tricks for a healthy lifestyle
Living with diabetes is not easy, but almost everyone can get used to a healthy lifestyle. This transition is possible because it does not require any special or costly actions on your part.It’s a matter of finding and staying committed to a path to a healthy lifestyle.
1. Feel free to ask for help
Once diagnosed, most people have no idea where to start or how to get help. If you have no idea what to do, first of all consult with your doctor. Your GP will refer you to other professionals who can help you develop healthy lifestyle habits. A dietitian will help you with dietary adjustments, who can recommend diet options and help you adjust your eating habits.
2. Consume carbohydrates wisely
Experts recommend reducing the amount per serving or meal and increasing the frequency of meals. This meal plan ensures that you eat small and frequent meals as opposed to large meals. In the long run, you will find yourself eating less than usual this way.
Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose in the body and are one of the most significant factors affecting the amount of glucose in the blood.When adjusting your diet, you should consume carbohydrates in a form that is as close to their natural form as possible. Healthy sources of carbohydrates are:
- Whole grains such as barley, buckwheat and brown rice
- Fresh fruit
- Fresh vegetables
- Low-fat dairy products such as Greek yogurt
- Legumes such as peas and beans
- Nuts such as peanuts, macadamia and hazelnuts
- Tuberous, such as yams and sweet potatoes
- Also need to reduce salt intake
When choosing carbohydrates, avoid highly processed foods that are low in fiber.These foods are often harmful and contain additives that have no nutritional value for the consumer. A diet low in fiber can affect blood sugar levels as well as cause digestive problems such as flatulence.
Foods such as breakfast cereals, white bread and white rice are low in fiber and should be avoided from your diet. As a rule, most products have a label that indicates the amount of fiber in the composition.You should pay attention to these labels and select products according to the information you receive from them.
3. Monitor your salt intake
Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease, including high blood pressure and stroke. Salt consumption also increases the risk of high blood pressure. Therefore, if you continue to consume excessive amounts of salt with confirmed diabetes, the likelihood of complications increases dramatically.
Ideally, you should ensure that the amount of salt consumed does not exceed 6 g per day.You can try using herbs or spices that add flavor to your food without adding salt.
Self-cooking or supervising the cooking process ensures that you are in control of your meals. Care should be taken when buying packaged or processed foods, as they tend to contain salt that is not recommended for people with diabetes.
4. Pay attention to healthy fats
Fats must be present in any diet.However, fat is found in many forms that have different effects on the human body. Excessive consumption of it leads to an increase in the level of fat in the blood and an increase in body weight. As a result, it becomes more difficult to maintain normal blood glucose levels.
Experts recommend using unsaturated fats as they provide more health benefits, especially for someone with diabetes. Healthy unsaturated fat is:
- Fish Oil
- Rapeseed oil
- Nuts, such as almonds
- Sunflower oil
- Avocado oil
Animal fats such as ghee, lard and butter are also beneficial.However, these foods contain extra cholesterol, which can put you at risk of developing cardiovascular problems. If you can cook your food without using fat, this is the best solution. Thus, steaming, baking, or grilling are some of the healthiest cooking methods available.
5. Reduce sugar intake
Sugar is one of the main catalysts for diabetes in adults and is therefore not recommended for consumption.The high nutritional value of sugar either increases the risk of developing diabetes or accelerates the progression of the disease. The hardest part about consuming sugar is quitting it, and it is very difficult for many people to switch to sugar substitutes.
But sugar ditching is easier if you gradually ditch soft drinks, energy drinks, and sweets from your regular diet. Instead, you should start drinking sugar-free tea, coffee, water, or plain milk.When you get rid of sugar in your diet, you get used to living without it for several weeks.
Reducing sugar intake not only helps your health but also keeps your weight in check. If you find that it is difficult to completely eliminate sugar, you can start using artificial sweeteners instead of sugar, as they are not harmful.
The only time you need to include sugar in your diet is if a treatment regimen is causing hypoglycemia.Fortunately, choosing a healthy lifestyle will gradually and significantly reduce your drug dependence.
6. Change your meat consumption habits
Eating a strict carbohydrate diet can sometimes be unhealthy. Therefore, you should consider eating more protein. According to research, red meat may be responsible for some types of cancer and cardiovascular problems. Therefore, processed meat is not well suited for a healthy lifestyle.These products are:
- Meat platter
Instead of these foods, you can try healthier protein alternatives:
- Lean beef
Fatty fish (sardine, herring, salmon and mackerel) are very healthy because fish are rich in a complex of omega-3 fats that are good for heart health.Eating fish 2-3 times a week can cover your body’s needs.
7. Eat more fruits and vegetables
Fruits are healthier than snacks because they do not have such negative health effects. Despite the fact that fruits contain sugar, they are completely safe as they are natural sugars. It is much easier to digest than the processed sugar found in soft drinks and energy drinks. It’s also helpful to eat one whole fruit at different times of the day rather than eating a lot of fruit in one sitting.
In addition, experts recommend eating fruit salads. Different fruits in the salad will provide different nutrients.
When it comes to vegetables, green and leafy vegetables are the healthiest in terms of nutrients, vitamins and fiber. Vegetables will not only balance your diet, but they will also reduce the health risks that diabetes entails. You can include the following vegetables in your diet:
8.Diabetic products are not worth your attention
There are unfounded opinions that “diabetic foods” are good for your health and can help you live a healthy life. However, there is no empirical evidence that they have any benefits. On the contrary, these foods are just as unhealthy as an uncontrolled diet, and it would be beneficial to stay away from them.
9. Get useful trace elements from food
Vitamins and dietary supplements have no significant effect on the course of diabetes.If you don’t have clear instructions from your doctor or dietitian to take them, then you don’t need to. All natural foods and meats in the right combination will contain the vitamin or mineral supplements you may need.
Some dietary supplements do not interact well with diabetes medications and can make the condition worse. Therefore, dieting is the best solution for maintaining health.
10. Glycemic index
The glycemic index (GI) is a measure of the level of glucose in the blood.A healthy lifestyle with diabetes involves maintaining a low glycemic index, which is facilitated by the consumption of foods with a low GI. Make sure the food you eat has a low GI, and also control your portion sizes. If you are consuming large, low-GI meals, the result is contrary to your healthy eating goals.
11. Just keep moving
Physical activity is an important aspect of diabetes management.A healthy diet with a sedentary lifestyle will seriously slow down progress, as glucose is not used optimally. Exercise and stress will help you:
- Maintain low blood glucose
- Maintain low blood cholesterol
- Maintain relatively low blood pressure
- Get a deep and quality sleep
- Increase bone and muscle strength
- Reduce anxiety and gain self-confidence.
On average, you should aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week. Shrinking the interval between exercises, as in the HIIT technique, may work for more experienced athletes.
You can also choose a vigorous aerobic workout that lasts thirty to forty-five minutes a day. This exercise should be done as many days per week as possible for optimal health benefits.
Alternatively, you can try a form of training known as endurance training. Endurance training is beneficial because it helps build muscle and increase bone strength. It also improves insulin sensitivity and lowers blood glucose levels. You may include in your activity:
- Weight exercises such as push-ups and squats
- Weight Lifting
- Use of dumbbells
The goal of regular exercise is to stay active and mobile.If training or equipment is too expensive, you can try different ways of doing your daily activities. For example, you could:
- Use ladder more often
- Walk or bike to work
- Drink water regularly
- Less use of vehicles
A healthy lifestyle for diabetes is undoubtedly just as good a treatment as medication. There is ample evidence that it works and is more cost effective and increases the chance of full recovery.
The best thing about choosing a healthy lifestyle is that you don’t have to deal with expensive specialists and medications. All that is needed is a doctor or nutritionist who will correct you periodically. Over time, you will find that your life becomes as fulfilling and even better than if you were constantly taking medication.
ALEENTA HEALTH STYLE PROGRAM
Aleenta Phuket, in partnership with Tonburi Hospital and Ayurah Wellness, offers an exceptional life-changing program during and after experiencing diabetes to reduce your addiction to hard medications.
The program is designed for 14, 21 or 30 days.
Because this wellness package is designed to transform lifestyle, longer stays will allow you to more confidently introduce new habits into your daily life and make them permanent. It’s so easy to start a new right life!
There is some uncertainty about the optimal dietary management of type 2 diabetes.In addition to energy balance, macronutrient composition, dietary fiber and glycemic load, there is growing evidence of the importance of direct endocrine effects of food. In this trial, the intervention is based on two diets. A healthy diet with grains and dairy products based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, eggs, nuts, and refined vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (this is called the “ Healthy Diet A ”).A healthy, cereal and dairy-free diet is based on fish, shellfish, lean meats, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs, and nuts other than cereals, legumes, refined vegetable oils, dairy products, and salt (this is called Healthy Diet B). Both diets have been classified as very healthy using proven nutritional software and are considered healthy in terms of macronutrients, fiber, minerals and vitamins, according to the official Spanish dietary guidelines.The macronutrient to micronutrient ratios, fiber content and glycemic load in healthy diet A and healthy diet B were set equal. The goal is to enroll 15 patients (> 18 years old) with a medical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, with or without medication and an increased waist circumference (≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men), to a crossover trial in over two periods of 4 weeks, separated by a 6-week washout period. Lunch will be served in the hospital kitchen to monitor nutrient intake, and the rest of the meal will be eaten at home according to specific guidelines.The working hypothesis of this study is that food choices have beneficial effects on glucose control beyond macronutrients / micronutrients, fiber content, glycemic load, and weight loss. This study will provide information on whether food choice and diet quality are better than macronutrient / micronutrient composition, fiber content, glycemic load and weight loss in glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes and the need for a long-term study to test our hypothesis.
90,000 Guidelines for a Vegan Diet for Diabetes: Is It Right?
A healthy diet plays a key role in diabetes management.
If you have this condition, you may wonder if a vegan diet can help you better cope with it. Alternatively, you may be on a vegan diet and recently diagnosed with diabetes.
If you are interested in following or continuing a vegan diet and you have diabetes, it is important to understand how to properly plan your meals, shop and exercise self-management to be successful.
While a vegan diet is not the only diet that can help manage diabetes, it can be managed by following a vegan diet.
This article provides guidance on a vegan diet for diabetes, its advantages and disadvantages, dietary guidelines, and a rough 3-day meal plan.
How the vegan diet works for diabetes
The vegan diet is completely free of meat, dairy and animal products.While this can be a nutritious way to eat, it requires careful planning to make sure you are meeting all of your nutritional needs.
For people with diabetes, following a vegan diet will require an extra level of planning.
In general, people with diabetes need to maintain a constant carbohydrate intake throughout the day, as carbohydrates affect blood sugar more than proteins and fats.
Foods and snacks should also be balanced with carbohydrates, protein, and healthy fats, as the inclusion of non-carbohydrate foods in your diet can help reduce the effect of carbohydrates on blood sugar.
All of this can be done using purely plant-based foods, although this can be a little tricky if you’re new to a vegan diet.
Here are some examples of carbohydrates, proteins and fats that can be used to prepare meals and snacks if you are on a vegan diet for diabetes:
- Carbohydrates: whole grain flour (bread, pasta), rice, potatoes, oats , cereals, quinoa, fruits (fresh, frozen or canned without sugar), corn.
- Proteins: soybeans and soy products (tofu, tempeh), beans, lentils, peas, peanuts, tree nuts, nut butter, seeds, plant-based meat substitutes.
- Fats: olive oil, avocado oil, avocado, nuts and seeds, coconut, vegetable based spreads.
Fortunately, many plant foods, such as beans and grains, contain a mixture of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, so they can serve a dual or triple function in meal planning.
In addition, fiber, a type of indigestible carbohydrate, is found in most plant foods. Fiber helps make these foods more satisfying and may also help lower your impact on blood sugar.
Depending on your diabetes type, physical activity level, age, gender, and a number of other factors, your healthcare team, including a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN), can help you determine the optimal amount of carbohydrates you need with each meal.
Summary: The vegan diet does not contain meat or animal products. The best way to stick to a vegan diet if you have diabetes is to ensure that every meal and snack contains a healthy balance of plant-based proteins, carbs, and fats.
Some of the potential, research-backed benefits of a vegan diet for diabetes include improved blood sugar control, insulin sensitivity, and weight control.
Blood Sugar Control
One 12-week study of 93 Koreans with diabetes compared the effects of a low-glycemic vegan diet with a traditional diet on diabetes. The researchers found that following a vegan diet slightly improved blood sugar control than following a traditional diet.
Another review noted that plant-based diets, including vegan, vegetarian, and Mediterranean diets, tend to lower hemoglobin A1C levels by 0.8.%.
Hemoglobin A1C is a measure of blood sugar control over the previous 3 months and is a good indicator of long-term blood sugar control.
However, these results are not unique to vegan diets. Several other dietary regimens can help improve blood sugar control. Some diets, including low-carb or Mediterranean diets, have better evidence to support their use for diabetes.
Insulin is a key hormone that helps maintain normal glucose levels.
Because type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance (when cells stop responding to the hormone insulin), increasing insulin sensitivity can help lower blood sugar and insulin levels and the need for insulin injections in some people with diabetes.
One way researchers measure insulin resistance is called the Homeostasis Model Assessment Index for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR).)
In one 16-week study of 244 overweight adults, researchers noted that those who switched to a low-fat vegan diet had more HOMA-IR reductions than those who followed a regular diet, which means that they became more insulin sensitive.
A similar study in 75 overweight adults showed that a vegan diet significantly reduced HOMA-IR, along with body weight and fat mass, compared to a control diet.
Researchers suggest that animal proteins may be more conducive to the development of insulin resistance than plant proteins. However, the overall quality of the diet is likely to play a larger role than the consumption or avoidance of animal protein.
Finally, a vegan diet can be beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes by helping them control their weight.
Weight loss can help improve insulin sensitivity, and vegan diets are generally lower in fat and calories than omnivorous diets, which can make weight loss easier.
Along with the improvements in insulin resistance seen in the aforementioned studies, the researchers also noted that a vegan diet led to increased body fat and weight loss.
In another 6-month study of 63 overweight adults, the researchers noted that those who followed a vegan diet experienced more than twice the weight loss than those who followed less restrictive plant-based dietary patterns such as vegetarian , pescatarian and semi-vegetarian diet.
Summary: There is some evidence that a vegan diet can help improve blood sugar and insulin sensitivity, and help people lose weight among overweight or obese people.
The vegan diet in general has some potential disadvantages, especially for people with diabetes. Fortunately, these disadvantages can be avoided with careful planning.
People who follow a vegan diet are at a greater risk of developing certain nutrient deficiencies than other people, especially deficiencies in vitamin B12, vitamin B6, niacin, iron, calcium, omega-3 fats, iodine and zinc. which are more common in animal products.
However, you can get all of these nutrients by supplementing or purposefully adding plant foods, which are good sources of these nutrients in your diet.
Here are some examples of vegan sources of these nutrients:
- Vitamin B12: fortified nutritional yeast, fortified cereals, tempeh
- Vitamin B6: chickpeas, potatoes, bananas, fortified cereals
- Iron: fortified cereals, white beans, dark chocolate, lentils, spinach, tofu.
- Calcium: fortified orange juice, tofu, fortified cereals, turnip greens, cabbage
- Omega-3 fats: chia seeds, flax seeds, canola oil, soybean oil, edamame.
- Iodine: algae, iodized salt, soy milk, almond milk.
- Zinc: fortified cereals, pumpkin seeds, cashews, chickpeas, almonds, beans
Vegan diets can also find it difficult to get enough protein and the right variety of amino acids (the building blocks of protein) to maintain optimal health.
Protein is needed to build new body tissues, and amino acids play a variety of roles in your health.
Again, this problem can be solved with a little planning. Great vegan sources of protein include:
- Soy: tofu, tempeh, soy nuts, black soybeans, soy milk.
- Legumes: chickpeas, black beans, beans, peanuts, peanut butter, lentils, peas.
- Nuts: almonds, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, nut butter, nut milk.
- Seeds: chia seeds, flax seeds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, sunflower oil.
- Grains: Quinoa, Oats, Teff, Amaranth
- Protein Powders: Pea Protein, Soy Protein
In addition, most vegan protein sources are considered incomplete – which means that, unlike animal protein sources, they do not contain all the essential amino acids in the right amounts.
To make sure you are getting all the amino acids you need, mix protein sources daily and get protein from a variety of plant sources.
The last vegan diet mistake that can affect people with diabetes in particular is that it is easy to overdo it with carbohydrates, which can affect blood sugar levels.
Plant foods tend to contain more carbohydrates than animal foods, so a vegan diet will naturally contain more carbohydrates than an omnivorous diet. If you eat a lot of highly processed vegan foods, you can easily eat more carbs than your medical team recommends.
While carbohydrates are generally not harmful to health and can certainly be part of a healthy diabetic diet, it is important to reduce your intake to maintain healthy blood sugar levels.
Summary: Some of the disadvantages of a vegan diet include an increased risk of being deficient in certain nutrients, having trouble getting enough protein, and being able to eat too many carbohydrates. With planning, all of these disadvantages can be avoided.
Tips for Success
Looking for Success on a Vegan Diabetes Diet? Here are some tips to help you stay strong and stay on track:
Here are 6 proven benefits of stinging nettle
- Plan ahead. Planning meals and having healthy snacks on hand will go a long way towards success. Also, be sure to check the menu ahead of time when dining out.
- Eat lots of non-starchy vegetables. Non-starchy vegetables are very low in carbohydrates, but they are rich in fiber and nutrients. They will have a minimal effect on your blood sugar levels, helping you feel full and satisfied.
- Balance every meal and snack. Make sure each meal and snack contains a healthy balance of carbohydrates, fat, and protein, and some non-starchy vegetables if possible.
- Add wisely. Vegan diets may be low in certain nutrients, so supplements are usually needed. To choose the right supplements, ask your doctor for a blood test to determine if you are lacking in nutrients such as iron, B12, and vitamin D.
- Mix proteins. Eat a variety of plant-based protein sources to get the amounts of essential amino acids you need for optimal health.
- Monitor your blood sugar regularly. If you have diabetes, even if you are not on a vegan diet, you should check your blood sugar regularly to stay informed of your blood sugar readings and notify your healthcare professional if you notice any alarming trends.
Summary: To be successful on a vegan diabetes diet, be sure to plan, balance every meal and snack, supplement as needed, vary protein, add lots of non-starchy vegetables to your meals, and check your blood sugar regularly …
Pitfalls to Avoid
Similarly, here are some pitfalls to avoid on a vegan diabetes diet.
Excessive consumption of processed foods
Highly processed foods, including vegan foods, often contain sugar and additives and are poor in fiber and protein. The same goes for drinks like sodas and fruit juices.
While you don’t have to completely avoid these foods, you should limit your intake of them, especially if you find it difficult to control your blood sugar.
Excessive consumption of UHT food is associated with weight gain and an increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure and certain cancers.
Meals low in fat and protein
At the same time, you should try to avoid meals and snacks that are mostly carbohydrate and low in protein or fat.
Protein can help reduce the effect of carbohydrates on blood sugar and increase satiety.
In addition, sources of fat such as olive oil can provide additional health benefits, such as improving heart health and assisting in the absorption of certain nutrients.
Summary: Avoid a lot of highly processed foods and make sure your meals and snacks contain a balance of fat, protein, and carbohydrates to maintain optimal health on a vegan diet.
A vegan diet can successfully manage diabetes. Research shows that vegan diets can help improve blood sugar and insulin sensitivity, and reduce body weight in overweight people.
However, you need to make sure that you are getting enough protein and nutrients that you need, avoiding excessive carbohydrates and dietary choices that are highly processed.
However, the vegan diet is not the only one supported by diabetes research. Other diets that are beneficial for people with diabetes include the Mediterranean diet and the low carbohydrate diet.
Whether you are new to veganism or veganism is an important part of your life, you can rest assured that you can stick to a vegan diet with some careful planning if you have diabetes.
Last update –
7 October 2021, last reviewed by an expert
September 7, 2021
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Traditionally in Russia, the treatment table No. 9 is used for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.
Diet N 9
Indications for use:
General characteristics of the diet:
Energy value: 2300-2500 kcal.
In this regard, a complete and balanced program