Why is my body producing so much mucus: The request could not be satisfied
6 Signs Your Body Is Producing Excessive Mucus and How to Stop It / Bright Side
Everyone has mucus, and according to studies, it is very important for our bodies because it acts as a barrier for particles and contains enzymes and proteins that help to get rid of stuff in the air making you sick. But sometimes with coughing, we can find mucus to be yellow or green, or our body produces too much of it which may indicate a problem.
At Bright Side, we decided to study the signs of too much mucus and the ways to treat this issue.
Why our body produces too much mucus
Our bodies produce mucus all the time, and if you start feeling discomfort, it likely happens because mucus has changed its consistency. It can get thicker and stickier and can start having a mass effect on you. The reasons for this could be allergies, an irritation of the nose, throat, or lungs; smoking tobacco or digestive conditions.
Normally, people with allergies have this problem. Allergies trigger your body to squeeze histamine, which is what causes the itching and sneezing. Your nose begins to run after producing leaking fluid from mucous membranes.
But there can be another serious reason. Mucus is a part of the lung’s native immune function, but you should pay attention to it because a hypersecretion and chronic cough are the signs of chronic bronchitis.
Signs of excessive mucus
At first glance, this problem may seem harmless, but when your sinuses are blocked, it causes lots of discomfort. How can you know if you may have excessive mucus? There are some signs and symptoms that are specific to this disease.
- Runny nose
- Sore throat
- Sinus headache
- Nasal congestion
Remedies and ways to get rid of excessive mucus
You can help yourself via the foods that you eat, through your overall habits, and by making changes to your lifestyle. These remedies and ways are good not only for reducing the problem, but also for helping you stay healthy in general:
1. Drink lots of fluids.
The more you drink, the more your mucus stays thin. It is very important for people with allergies. The first rule is to stay hydrated. Drink more water, but not juices or lemonades. It will help to get rid of mucus and clean your body in general.
2. Keep the air moist.
This rule follows the first. Dry air irritates the nose and makes it runny. Have you noticed that people with allergies start sneezing more if the air is not humid enough? Get a humidifier and put it on every night. You can also add some essential oils to the humidifier for a good aroma or better results.
3. Gargle with salt water.
It will help your throat and make it less irritated. Just put 1 tsp of salt in a glass of warm water and gargle it several times a day.
4. Blow the nose.
Blow your nose and don’t swallow mucus. Do it gently as not to harm mucous coats. By doing this procedure, you can help yourself with better mouth hygiene and as a result, prevent dental problems.
5. Use eucalyptus.
You can apply eucalyptus on your chest or drink water with a few drops of essential oil, or take a warm bath with eucalyptus. This remedy has antibacterial properties, helps with colds and respiratory problems, acts as dental care, and can also serve as insect repellent.
6. Follow a diet.
It doesn’t mean that now you are on an extreme diet and there’s nothing left to eat. To reduce mucus you can include in your daily ration products like:
- salmon, tuna, flounder, and sardines
- pumpkin, pineapple, apple, lemon, cucumber, ginger, onion, and garlic
- camomile and decaf tea
- olive oil
7. Make a honey wrap to combat chest mucus.
For the wrap, you’ll need to mix some flour with honey so the mixture won’t stick to your hands. Add a bit of olive oil and roll it in some flour again. Take a napkin and wrap it in cheesecloth. With the use of plaster, attach it to the chest or the back. You can leave it for a whole night. If you apply it to children, leave it on for 2-3 hours before sleeping.
8. Make a drink with baking soda and honey
This is a good home remedy for those who have the flu and for those who need to get rid of some excess mucus from the lungs.
You need 1 tsp of honey, 1/2 tsp of baking soda, 2-3 drops of lemon juice, and a glass of warm water. Mix all the ingredients in a glass letting the baking soda dissolve. Now you can sip the drink.
Make it regularly to clear your lungs and help you stop coughing.
Do you know any other effective ways to treat this problem? Write a comment below about how you fight against it.
Illustrated by Natalya Tylosova for Bright Side
Bronchiectasis symptoms & treatments – Illnesses & conditions
The damage to the lungs associated with bronchiectasis is permanent, but treatment can help prevent the condition getting worse.
In most cases, treatment involves a combination of medication, exercises you can learn and devices to help clear your airways. Surgery for bronchiectasis is rare.
There are a number of things you can do to help relieve the symptoms of bronchiectasis and stop the condition getting worse, including:
There are a range of exercises, known as airway clearance techniques, which can help to remove mucus from your lungs. This can often help improve coughing and breathlessness in people with bronchiectasis.
You can be referred to a physiotherpist, who can teach you these techniques.
Active cycle of breathing techniques (ACBT)
The most widely used technique in the UK is called active cycle of breathing techniques (ACBT).
ACBT involves you repeating a cycle made up of a number of different steps. These include a period of normal breathing, followed by deep breaths to loosen the mucus and force it up; then you cough the mucus out. The cycle is then repeated for 20 to 30 minutes.
Don’t attempt ACBT if you haven’t first been taught the steps by a suitably trained physiotherapist, as performing the techniques incorrectly could damage your lungs.
If you’re otherwise in good health, you’ll probably only need to perform ACBT once or twice a day. If you develop a lung infection, you may need to perform ACBT on a more frequent basis.
Changing your position can also make it easier to remove mucus from your lungs. This is known as postural drainage.
Each technique can involve several complex steps, but most techniques involve you leaning or lying down while the physiotherapist or a carer uses their hands to vibrate certain sections of your lungs as you go through a series of “huffing” and coughing.
There are also a number of handheld devices that can help to remove mucus from your lungs.
Although these devices look different, most work in a similar way. Generally, they use a combination of vibrations and air pressure to make it easier to cough out any mucus.
Examples of these devices include the flutter, the RC cornet and the Acapella.
However, these devices aren’t always available on the NHS, so you may have to pay for one yourself. They usually cost £45 to £60.
In some cases, medications to make breathing or clearing your lungs easier may be prescribed. These are discussed below.
Occasionally, medication inhaled through a device called a nebuliser may be recommended to help make it easier for you to clear your lungs.
Nebulisers are devices consisting of a face mask or mouthpiece, a chamber to convert the medication into a fine mist, and a compressor to pump the medication into your lungs.
A number of different medications can be administered using a nebuliser, including salt water solutions. These medications help to reduce the thickness of your phlegm so it’s easier to cough it out. Nebulisers can also be used to administer antibiotics, if necessary (see below).
However, while the medications used with a nebuliser can be provided on prescription, the nebuliser device itself isn’t always available on the NHS. In some areas, a local respiratory service may provide the device without charge, but if this isn’t an option, you may have to pay for a device.
If you have a particularly severe flare-up of symptoms, you may be prescribed bronchodilator medications on a short-term basis.
Bronchodilators are inhaled medications that help make breathing easier by relaxing the muscles in the lungs. Examples of this type of medication include beta2-adrenergic agonist, anticholinergics and theophylline.
If you experience a worsening of symptoms because of a bacterial infection (known as an “infective exacerbation”) then you’ll need to be treated with antibiotics.
A sample of phlegm will be taken to determine what type of bacteria is causing the infection, although you’ll be initially treated with an antibiotic known to be effective against a number of different bacteria (a broad spectrum antibiotic) because it can take a few days to get the test results.
Depending on the test results, you may be prescribed a different antibiotic, or in some cases, a combination of antibiotics known to be effective against the specific bacteria causing the infection.
If you’re well enough to be treated at home, you’ll probably be prescribed two to three antibiotic tablets a day for 10-14 days. It’s important to finish the course even if you feel better, as stopping the course prematurely could cause the infection to recur quickly.
If your symptoms are more severe (see symptoms of bronchiectasis for a detailed description) you may need to be admitted to hospital and treated with antibiotic injections.
If you have three or more infective exacerbations in any one year, or your symptoms during an infective exacerbation were particularly severe, it may be recommended that you take antibiotics on a long-term basis. This can help to prevent further infections and give your lungs the chance to recover.
This could involve taking low-dose antibiotic tablets to minimise the risk of side effects, or using an antibiotic nebuliser (see above for more information about nebulisers).
Using antibiotics in this way does increase the risk that one or more types of bacteria will develop a resistance to the antibiotic. Therefore, you may be asked to give regular phlegm samples to check for any resistance. If bacteria do show signs of developing a resistance, then your antibiotic may need to be changed.
Surgery is usually only recommended where bronchiectasis is only affecting a single section of your lung, your symptoms aren’t responding to other treatment and you don’t have an underlying condition that could cause bronchiectasis to recur.
The lungs are made up of sections known as lobes – the left lung has two lobes and the right lung has three lobes. Surgery for focal bronchiectasis would usually involve removing the lobe affected by the bronchiectasis in a type of operation known as a lobectomy.
Surgery won’t be used if more than one lobe is affected, as it’s too dangerous to remove so much lung tissue.
Catarrh – NHS
Catarrh is a build-up of mucus in an airway or cavity of the body.
It usually affects the back of the nose, the throat or the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the bones of the face).
It’s often temporary, but some people experience it for months or years. This is known as chronic catarrh.
Catarrh can be a nuisance and may be difficult to get rid of, but it’s not harmful and there are treatments available.
Symptoms associated with catarrh
Catarrh can lead to a:
- constant need to clear your throat
- feeling that your throat is blocked
- blocked or stuffy nose that you cannot clear
- runny nose
- feeling of mucus running down the back of your throat
- persistent cough
- headache or facial pain
- reduced sense of smell and taste
- crackling sensation in your ear and some temporary hearing loss
These problems can be frustrating to live with and may affect your sleep, making you feel tired.
Treatments for catarrh
Catarrh will often pass in a few days or weeks as the condition that causes it improves.
There are things you can try at home to relieve your symptoms, such as:
- avoiding things that trigger your symptoms, such as allergens or smoky places
- taking sips of cold water when you feel the need to clear your throat – constantly clearing your throat may make things worse
- using a saline nasal rinse several times a day – these can be bought from a pharmacy or made at home with half a teaspoon of salt in a pint of boiled water that’s been left to cool
- avoiding warm, dry atmospheres, such as places with air conditioning and car heating systems – placing plants or bowls of water in a room may help to keep the air humid
- staying well hydrated
- talking to a pharmacist about suitable over-the-counter medicines – including decongestants, antihistamines or steroid nasal sprays
There are also several remedies, such as herbal medicines, available from health shops and pharmacies that claim to treat catarrh.
Some people find these helpful, but there’s generally little scientific evidence to suggest they work.
When to see a GP
Speak to a GP if your catarrh persists and is becoming difficult to live with.
They may want to rule out conditions that could be causing it, such as nasal polyps or allergies.
This may mean you need to be referred to a specialist for tests.
If you’re diagnosed with a specific underlying condition, treating it may help relieve your catarrh.
For example, nasal polyps may be treated with a steroid nasal spray, or in some cases surgery.
Find out more about treating nasal polyps
If a cause for your catarrh cannot be found, the self-help techniques above may be recommended.
Unfortunately, however, chronic catarrh can be hard to treat and may last for a long time.
What causes catarrh?
Catarrh is usually caused by the immune system reacting to an infection or irritation, which causes the lining of your nose and throat to become swollen and produce mucus.
This can be triggered by:
It’s unclear what causes chronic catarrh, but it’s not thought to be the result of an allergy or infection.
It may be related to an abnormality in the way mucus travels within the nose or an increased sensitivity to mucus in the back of the nose and throat.
Page last reviewed: 16 November 2018
Next review due: 16 November 2021
Bronchiectasis | Cedars-Sinai
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What is bronchiectasis?
Bronchiectasis is a condition that
affects the airways to the lungs. It’s often caused by scarring that resulted from
infection or other inflammatory condition. You can be born with a condition that
it more likely to develop. Bronchiectasis harms the walls of the airways. Over time,
they become scarred, inflamed, and widened. They then can’t clear out mucus. This
can lead to serious lung infections and other major health problems.
The airways are made up of a series
of branching tubes. These are called the bronchi, and the smaller ones are bronchioles.
Through these tubes, the lungs bring oxygen into the body. They also remove carbon
dioxide from the body.
The airways often have a coating of
mucus. This sticky substance helps to remove dust, bacteria, and debris from the
airways. Tiny, hair-like structures (cilia) help move the mucus along. This process
clears away mucus. Over time, you then swallow or cough it up.
Different conditions, such as an
infection, can cause mucus to build up in the airways. This buildup creates an ideal
place for bacteria to grow. That can lead to more infections. Every infection hurts
airways a little more. They are then more likely to get another infection.
Over time, these repeated
infections can permanently damage the walls of the airways. The airways widen. They
become scarred and thickened. Over time, they may not be able to transfer oxygen in
air from the lungs to the body. Anyone can develop bronchiectasis. But it is more
in women. In children, it affects more boys than girls.
Bronchiectasis is not common in the
U. S. It is more widespread in parts of the world that have poor access to healthcare
a higher risk of lung infections.
How to say it
What causes bronchiectasis?
Anything that causes constant
damage to the airways can lead to bronchiectasis. Lung infections are also a major
cause. So, too, are diseases that either damage the lungs themselves or make lung
infections more likely. These include:
- Cystic fibrosis (leads to nearly 50 of
every 100 cases in the U.S.)
- Severe pneumonia infection
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Whooping cough or measles
- Fungal infections
- Immunodeficiency disorders
- Allergic bronchopulmonary
- Disorders that affect cilia
- Chronically inhaling food or liquids
into the lungs
- Certain autoimmune diseases, such as
- Airway blockage (such as from an
object breathed in as a child or from a tumor)
- Lung development problems that were
present at birth (congenital)
In many cases, the exact cause is unknown.
Who is at risk for bronchiectasis?
You are more likely to get
bronchiectasis if you have a condition that damages your airways or raises your chance
of a lung infection. Treating these health problems can lower your risk of
What are the symptoms of bronchiectasis?
Damage to the airways often starts in childhood. You may not have symptoms until months
or years after repeated infections. Common signs include:
- Persistent cough (may become bloody)
- Large amounts of mucus (sputum)
coughed up daily
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Thickening of the flesh under your fingernails and toenails (clubbing)
- Extreme tiredness (fatigue)
- Failure of a child to gain weight and
Some people have few or no symptoms. Others have daily symptoms that get worse over
How is bronchiectasis diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will first
ask you about your health history. They will also give you an exam. You may need tests
to help with the diagnosis. These tests may help figure out underlying causes that
need treatment. The tests may include:
This shows precise pictures of your airways. It is typically used to
make the diagnosis.
This provides information about your heart and lungs.
These are done to figure out if you have an underlying condition.
This is done to see if your sputum contains certain bacteria or
test or genetic testing.
This is done to rule out cystic fibrosis.
These are done to see if you have low levels of antibodies
(immunoglobulins) in your blood.
These can see how much lung damage you have.
Bronchoscopy. This looks inside the airways. It is done if you don’t respond
How is bronchiectasis treated?
Bronchiectasis is often treated with medicine. You may also need physical therapy.
You should stay hydrated, too. Drinking enough water can help prevent the mucus from
thickening, which can make it hard to cough up.
Some possible medicines you may take are:
- Antibiotics. These treat the repeated infections.
Bronchodilators. These relax your airway muscles and make breathing
These decrease the inflammation (often combined in the same inhaler
Expectorants and mucus thinners. These help loosen the mucus in the lungs and
make it easier to cough up.
- Decongestants. These help ease congestion.
Chest physical therapy is another
important part of treatment. It includes pounding your chest and back repeatedly to
loosen the mucus from your lungs. You may also learn special breathing methods. These
can move the mucus into the upper part of your airway so that you can cough it up.
healthcare provider may also advise using a handheld or wearable device. These help
and clear mucus from your lungs. Many devices are available. Your provider will tell
the options that are best for you.
Some people may need oxygen therapy. Oxygen levels in their blood may be too low.
Your healthcare provider may also advise surgery. It may be an option if other treatments
haven’t worked and the condition is isolated in one area of the lung. In rare cases,
you might need a lung transplant.
Your treatment plan will depend on
the severity of your symptoms, your other health conditions, and other factors. Early
diagnosis and treatment can stop the condition from getting worse.
What are possible complications of bronchiectasis?
Respiratory failure is one possible complication. It happens when not enough oxygen
passes from your lungs into your blood. It can cause severe shortness of breath. Your
skin may also turn a bluish color. You might need oxygen therapy or CPAP (continuous
positive airway pressure).
As the airways become damaged, it
may cause some of the blood vessels in the airways to have thinner walls. These are
likely to break open and cause bleeding from the lung. This is called hemoptysis.
If the mucus becomes thick and blocks the entire airway, a part of your lung may also
collapse. That can cause more shortness of breath.
What can I do to prevent bronchiectasis?
The following steps can help prevent bronchiectasis:
- Make sure you and your children have
had the vaccines for measles and whooping cough.
- Get annual flu vaccinations and advised pneumonia
- Stay away from harmful substances that
can damage your lungs, such as smoke, gases, and fumes.
- Seek treatment right away for any lung
- Watch children to make sure they don’t
breathe in small objects. Get medical care right away if that happens.
- Quickly treat any condition that can
How to manage bronchiectasis
Your healthcare provider will tell
you how to manage bronchiectasis. These instructions might include:
- Being vaccinated for the flu and pneumonia
- Washing your hands often
- Quitting smoking
- Eating a healthy diet
- Staying hydrated
- Staying physically active
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Call your healthcare provider right away if you have the following symptoms:
- Trouble breathing
- Other signs of an infection
If your symptoms get worse, plan to
see your healthcare provider soon.
Key points about bronchiectasis
- Bronchiectasis is a condition that affects the airways to the lungs. Over time, the
airways aren’t able to clear mucus as well as before. Infections are then more likely
- It’s often caused by an infection or
other inflammatory condition. You can also be born with a condition that makes it
more likely to develop.
- Over time, it can cause serious health problems in some people. These include heart
or respiratory failure.
- Early treatment of respiratory illnesses can help prevent bronchiectasis. It can also
keep it from getting worse.
- Treatment may include medicine and physical therapy. You may also need to make some
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
- At the visit, write down the name of a
new diagnosis and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new
instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment
is prescribed and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
Medical Reviewer: David A Kaufman MD
Medical Reviewer: Raymond Turley Jr PA-C
Medical Reviewer: Daphne Pierce-Smith RN MSN
© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.
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What to Eat and Not to Eat to Reduce Phlegm. Mucus Producing Foods
You know that feeling of a little something stuck at the back of your throat and nose when you’re sick? That is phlegm, produced by mucus membranes that line your mouth, nose, throat, sinuses and lungs. Avoiding certain mucus producing foods can help your healing process.
Phlegm isn’t all bad. In fact, it’s an essential part of protecting and supporting your respiratory system by trapping allergens, dust and viruses. Phlegm only becomes problematic when there is too much of it, or when it is too thick, which can make your throat feel irritated and uncomfortable.
Luckily, you can somewhat control the production of mucus by simply paying more attention to the foods you eat. Read on to find out about foods that cause phlegm, as well as those that help reduce its production.
Mucus producing foods
Below is a list of mucus causing foods. It’s not necessary to completely eliminate these from your diet, but knowing what to avoid or reduce, particularly when you are feeling ill, can make a big difference to your wellbeing.
It’s at the top of mucus producing food list for a reason. Milk and its derivatives like cheese, cream, butter and yogurt contain casein molecules which stimulate phlegm production. In addition, dairy contains a sugar called lactose which further increases mucus secretion.
We are lucky to live in a world with many dairy alternatives so why not opt for some delicious rice milk or coconut yogurt next time you’re craving something milky. An added benefit is that such alternations will also be better for the environment!
Gluten found in wheat products (like bread and pasta) can cause excessive mucus, especially for those with a gluten intolerance.
Deep fried foods
Excess saturated fat present in deep fried foods can not only clog the arteries by raising cholesterol levels but can also stimulate increased mucus production.
Foods which contain added sugars, such as candy, pastries and cookies are known to increase mucus production. Although they taste delicious, we all know there is very little benefit from eating these products.
Soy isn’t all bad but consuming too much of it can stimulate the production of unhealthy mucus in the body. Particularly if you are already feeling under the weather, it might be best to leave that soy milk and tofu off the menu until you are better.
Red meat is known to increase the buildup of mucus in the throat. This is particularly the case with high-fat and processed meats. Organic fish and poultry would be a much better option for those tackling excess phlegm.
Drinks containing caffeine, like black tea, coffee and soft drinks, accelerate mucus buildup. Swap these drinks for some caffeine-free alternatives (like decaf coffee and herbal teas) to reduce phlegm.
I know, sometimes it’s nice to wind down with a little tipsy drink. But if you are looking for ways to reduce mucus production, alcohol is definitely one to avoid.
Alcohol triggers the expansion of the blood vessels in your nose and sinuses and this increased blood flow can lead to nasal and sinus congestion. In addition, alcohol causes dehydration which can further increase mucus in the nose and sinuses.
Mucus reducing foods
It may seem like there’s not an awful lot left to eat after the long list of mucus forming foods. But that’s far from the truth. In fact, there are many foods which actually act as mucus-cleansers.
Fruits & vegetables
Leafy greens and herbs
Teas & spices
- Cayenne pepper
- Rose hips tea
- Chamomile tea
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7 Natural Foods That Help Cleanse the Body of Mucus
Just the simple term mucus grosses most of us out, right? Oddly enough, it’s actually a simple result of our body trying to protect itself. Sound strange? Check this out: the body produces mucus as a protection mechanism just like it does tears and saliva. Mucus (like other bodily fluids) contain an enzyme that helps break pathogens we encounter through the environment, our food, or when our immune systems sense they are under attack. This is why allergic foods produce mucus, and why when you’re sick you produce more. So while it’s not a very enchanting thought, that fluid we all see as gross is actually really good for us. The problem is if we’re consistently producing mucus all the time, which indicates the immune system consistently senses it is under attack. (This may also indicate our gut bacteria is weakened since it protects us from infection and unhealthy bacteria in which the body wouldn’t produce mucous in the first place.)
So, if we are producing too much mucus (post nasal drip after eating, constantly running nose, cystic white acne, or persistent mucus from the nose or eyes), we need to think about what we are eating, drinking, or encountering that is triggering the reaction. For many people, it’s the top allergenic foods: wheat, soy, dairy, tree nuts, eggs, and gluten (which wheat is part of). For others, it might be an autoimmune disease or a simple zinc or good bacteria deficiency. So the first step is to find out the offenders, remove it, and go on an elimination diet if need be. Excess carbohydrates and refined sugar can also weaken good bacteria and, therefore, cause the body to produce mucus as a result. So whatever your case may be, figure that out first, and then add these foods below.
For those interested in eating more plant-based, we highly recommend downloading the Food Monster App – with over 15,000 delicious recipes it is the largest meatless, vegan, plant-based and allergy-friendly recipe resource to help you get healthy!
Source: Basil Cucumber Salad
Perhaps one of the most cleansing fruits out there is cucumber. These are rich in water, potassium, and vitamin C all of which help to cleanse the body. Vitamin C also supports immune health and cucumbers’ alkaline nature also nourish the gut lining and reduce inflammation in the digestive tract which benefits the immune system further.
Source: Broccoli and Coconut Soup
Packed with detoxification properties, broccoli contain enzymes that help break down toxins and they are a great source of vitamin C. Their fiber also feeds good bacteria and help wastes leave the body … no detox pills needed!
Source: Millet With Spring Vegetables
Carrots are a humble root veggie so easy to forget in their ability to nourish us on a deep level. Carrots contain high amounts of vitamin C, potassium (the ultimate body cleanser), fiber, and high amounts of vitamin A that supports immune health further. These root veggies can be eaten raw or cooked and make delicious dinner sides instead of processed wheat pastas and refined carbs that actually enhance mucus production and weaken good bacteria.
Source: Raw Apple Pie With Goji Berries and Nutmeg
Apples’ vitamin C and fiber known as pectin are what make them such a star at relieving mucus build-up in the body. Their potassium content only contributes to their abilities and apples can be enjoyed in a variety of ways. Eat them, blend them, juice them, or bake with them. Cook them up with cinnamon and some pears for a naturally sweet dessert or use applesauce instead of sugar instead of butter and sugar in your next batch of muffins!
Source: Probiotic Cashew Yogurt
Berries are another fruit well known to cleanse the body, specifically the digestive tract but that’s not all! Berries are also great sources of vitamin C, potassium, and antioxidants. These help cleanse the blood and their fiber helps break down toxins in the body to relieve inflammation and infection. Try using raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries in your next smoothie in place of sugary sweeteners or instead of sugary yogurts. They have a natural sweetness that lends the perfect flavor and will help support cellular cleansing and immune health naturally.
Source: Goji and Chia Overnight Oats
Ginger can help break down toxins and mucus very quickly due the specific enzymatic benefits it holds. It also produces an anti-inflammatory effect in the body which signifies to the immune system that it’s safe and doesn’t need to produce a protection mechanism like mucus in the first place. Use fresh ginger when possible, and add a little turmeric to benefit even further. Try them in a tea, a veggie dish, or even juice with them or make a smoothie.
Source: Kimchi Kale Salad
Greens are one of the most powerful foods of all time to heal the body; with powerful amounts of vitamin A, C, B vitamins and even vitamin E and potassium, they support the body on every single level. Cook with greens at night, eat them during the day, or blend with them in the morning. They cleanse the body of mucus and toxins naturally, and their fiber will feed good bacteria while their high chlorophyll content will support immune and blood health.
Remember that if you’re suffering post nasal drip, excess mucus build-up of another kind, first look at what you’re eating that might be posing a problem. Then, if you remove allergenic foods and processed foods and still have a reaction, see a health specialist you trust to be sure you don’t have a bacterial infection. You should also begin adding in lots of fermented and probiotic rich foods such as sauerkraut, real pickles, kimchi, kombucha, and yogurt and kefir (non-dairy options are available) to support your system even further. When you give your body healthy, cleansing foods on a regular basis, mucus will subside naturally and your immune system can support you the way nature intended.
Eat your way to good health with every single bite!
Check out the following resources and don’t forget to check out our Digestion, Allergies, and Gut Health Archives for our latest content:
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Cytokine Storm and Mucus Hypersecretion in COVID-19: Review of Mechani
Nasal blockage or respiratory congestion is among the most common symptoms experienced in primary care as well as tertiary care. It can be particularly severe and even lethal in COVID-19 due to the formation of mucus plugs. Transmission of COVID-19 appears to occur primarily through dispersal of droplets generated from the respiratory tract when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. Large amounts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have been reported in sputum and nasal specimens, which account for the transmission through respiratory droplets. Numerous studies conclude that the recent coronavirus infection causes an allergic reaction in respiratory tract mucosa, which activates mucin secretion and modulates its chemical structure to enable the virus to enter the cells.1–3 Thereafter, SARS-CoV-2 initiates neutrophil and mucus-mediated inflammatory pathways.4
SARS-CoV-2 is shed predominantly in upper and lower airway tract secretions.5–9 Patients with severe COVID-19 infections are likely to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), consisting of hypoxemic respiratory failure associated with neutrophilia, mucus deposition in bronchi, and bronchiectasis. 10 Therefore, better understanding is needed of the mechanisms underlying secretions, and how to control them. The increase in mucus production and secretion is likely due to mucus cell metaplasia since pulmonary inflammatory diseases are often associated with excessive mucus secretion. Computerized tomography (CT) images of COVID-19 depict the incidence of mucoid impaction in lungs. Studies of CT imaging in the pulmonary parenchymal region of COVID-19 patients have reported a 64% occurence of pathological fluid in the alveolar sacs which appears multifocal, patchy, or segmented and is distributed around sub-pleural areas or along broncho-vascular bundles.11,12,13 Increase in sputum volume and mucus hypersecretion associated symptoms have been seen in up to 40% of patients. The mucus in these patients is also found to be more viscous than that in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lastly, the formation of colloidal mucus plugs is more frequent in these patients.
The role of inflammatory stimuli in influencing mucus cell levels remains uncertain. Here we review recently published work which defines events in the immune system and downstream epithelial cascade related to continuous metaplasia of mucus cells.
Physiology of Airway Mucus Secretion
In the pulmonary system, mucus is a component of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) or airway surface liquid (ASL). The major part of the respiratory tract is covered by it. The ASL comprises a sol layer and an overlying gel layer which are known as the perciliary liquid layer (PCL) and the mucus layer, respectively (see Figure 1).
Figure 1 Schematic illustration of a goblet cell, associated signalling for mucous secretion and microscopic images of goblet cells: (i) The gel on brush model describes mucus existing in two discrete layers, a more viscous gel layer on top and a periciliary layer (PCL) below. The gel layer contains the secreted mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B whilst the PCL contains the membrane-tethered mucins MUC1, MUC2 & MUC4; (ii) Viral infection induced signalling involved in mucus secretion; (iii) Lung tissue sections from a COPD-smoker showing goblet cells of large airway epithelium. Notes: Figure 1 (iii) reproduced with permission from Shukla SD, Mahmood MQ, Weston S, et al. The main rhinovirus respiratory tract adhesion site (ICAM-1) is upregulated in smokers and patients with chronic airflow limitation (CAL). Respir Res. 2017;18(1):6.14
Mucus consists primarily of water (~95%). The major non-aqueous component is mucin, while proteoglycans, lipids, proteins, and DNA are also present in smaller quantities.15 Mucin is secreted by goblet cells which are columnar epithelial cells present in the respiratory, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts. Mucin-containing secretory vesicles are present at the upper surface of goblet cells. Short microvilli projections are present on the upper surface of goblet cells which give an increased surface area for secretion.16,17
Mucin, the main protein component of mucus, functions primarily as a barrier, and consists of MUC5AC and MUC5B as important secreted mucin genes. Their sizes range from 200 kDa to 200 MDa. Chains of carbohydrates make up around 80% of the weight of mucins.18 Since mucin is quite large, it is packaged in secretory vesicles in a dehydrated state.8 The release of mucin is governed by fusion proteins such as SNARE (N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) and MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate). The secretion occurs in the presence of high pH and low calcium concentration.19–22
Past studies have shown that cytokines IL4, IL5, IL9, and IL13 upregulate mucus gene expression and mucus cell hypersecretion.23,24 Apart from cytokines, various other stimuli such as smoking generate reactive oxygen species. These stimuli upregulate numerous downstream cascades, which trigger multiple signaling pathways via mitogen-activated protein kinase and other signaling cascades. These signaling cascades induce goblet cell differentiation in the airway, causing excessive synthesis and secretion of mucin. 25,26 Such rampant hypersecretion leads to clinical conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchiectasis, and other respiratory disease conditions such as those observed in COVID-19 patients.
Association Between Viral Infection and Mucus Production
The inflammatory response that occurs after viral infection is similar to that observed in asthma and other respiratory conditions in which the role of mucus is profound. Viruses such as influenza, negative-strand RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinoviruses (RV) and lung colonization by pathogenic opportunistic bacteria have shown enhanced exacerbation in bronchial epithelial cells.27,28 For example, RSV infection in the upper respiratory tract is distinguished by inflammation and obstruction in the airways tract due to the formation of mucus plugs containing mucus, fibrin protein, cellular debris, and lymphocytes. Generally, these viruses activate the downstream signaling cascades of inflammatory markers through chemokines, as shown in Figure 1C. These in turn trigger multiple signaling pathways that result in goblet cell differentiation and hyperplasia in the airway, leading to the synthesis of MUC proteins, particularly MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC1, MUC2, and MUC4 followed by their secretion.29 Studies have shown that RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) stimulate varying production of mucin in A549 cell line.30 Despite similarities in the structure and pathogenicity of these two viruses, they cause different expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC5B as well as membrane-bound mucins.31 Thus, certain viral infections may uniquely alter the composition of mucus in respiratory epithelium.
Mucus Hypersecretion in COVID-19
Formation of mucus plugs has been observed in COVID 19 patients, causing airway obstruction and respiratory failure in a significant proportion of such patients. Severe mucoid tracheitis is detected in 33% of COVID-19 autopsies.32
Association of Immune Response with Mucus Secretion
Sungnank et al. have stated that the nasal epithelial serves as the point of infection of SARS-CoV-2, from where it moves to the lower respiratory tract.33 The respiratory mucosa functions as a defensive layer against pathogens. The layer has the ability to trap an invading pathogen through sticky secretions and then move it out via ciliary action.34 Arumugham et al. suggest that SARS-CoV-2 overstimulates the mucosa in a pathophysiology similar to other viruses such as dengue virus. This leads to the activation of an inflammatory cascade and the release of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.35 This is in line with other studies that show SARS-CoV-2 activates the inflammatory response and induces increased secretion of respiratory mucosa.36
In an experiment by Cohn et al., the role of IL-4 and IL-5 in mucus production and cell recruitment mediated by Th3 cells is well described. Activation of CD4 T cells by IL-4 causes the differentiation of th0 cells to th3 cells which in turn activates IL-4 secretion, maintaining a positive feedback loop. 37 Interleukin 4 induces the transcription of MUC5AC by activation of the JAK3/STAT 6 pathway. STAT 6 is involved in the activation of CLCA1 (calcium activated chloride channel 1) which activates MAPK signaling ultimately resulting in mucin production. Th3 cells help in recruitment of lymphocytes and eosinophils into lungs causing the over-secretion of MUC5AC in the airway resulting in goblet cell hyperplasia and damage of the ciliary layer of epithelial cells.38 Very-Late-Activation-Antigen-4 (VLA-4) is present on eosinophils and T lymphocytes which has the ability to bind with Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and allows selective entry of eosinophils into injured tissues.38
In various studies it has been found that defects in gene expression and function of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is associated with airway mucus hypersecretion. CFTR acts as a cAMP-dependent chloride channel.39 In an experiment performed on murine cell lines, tissue expression pattern of CLCA1 intersecting with that of CFTR confirms the fact that both genes participate in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis. The channel transports chloride ions, controlling the movement of water in tissues, which is necessary for the production of mucus.40 Mutation in the CFTR gene disrupts the movement of water and chloride ions out of the cell causing the mucus to be thick and sticky. Trapped chloride ions in cells cannot attract the fluids necessary to hydrate the cell surface and in the absence of the fluids, mucus becomes dehydrated and takes on a viscous consistency.41 CFTR modulator therapy proposed by Jarosz-Griffiths and co-workers could confer additional benefit to patients and may also contribute to improved clinical outcomes.42
Role of Inflammation in Airway Mucus Hypersecretion
The symptoms in COVID-19 and elevated levels of inflammatory markers in patients indicate that a severe cytokine storm develops in this disease. Recent studies support that inflammation causes mucus hypersecretion. Studies have shown that most cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 have normal WBC counts or in some cases lymphocytopenia. Patients showing severe conditions have significant increases in neutrophil levels. Their blood urea and D-dimer levels are also significantly high, whereas there is a reduction in their lymphocyte count.43 The levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL6, IL10, and TNF-α are elevated. Moreover, the blood report of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) have shown increases in IL-2, IL-7, and IL-10.44–46 The inflammatory response can induce mucus hypersecretion which can obstruct the respiratory tract, limiting airflow and thereby aggravating the already declining lung function.47
Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory cascades alter the composition of mucus and compromise its clearance by cilia.48 This leads to recurrent infection in airway tracts, causing more obstruction in the respiratory tract, thereby creating a vicious cycle. COVID-19 patients have higher levels of several pro-inflammatory markers, namely IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IL-13, and TNFα as shown in Figure 2 along with their crosstalk. 49
Figure 2 Crosstalk of interleukins, IL-4, IL-2, IL-6, IL-5, TNF-α, histamine and the downstream signaling pathways leading to the production of interleukins involved in mucus hypersecretion. Note: The cytokines written in red are elevated in COVID-19 patients.
The crosstalk of these cytokines and their downstream signaling upregulates several other inflammatory cytokines. IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 upregulate the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13 via STAT5, STAT6, and NFAT, respectively. IL-5 also upregulates levels of IL-6, IL-1, and TNFα via STAT1. TNFα through NF-κB activation leads to upregulation of IL-1beta and IL-8. Apart from cytokines, histamine released from mast cell degranulation during inflammatory response results in EGF and adenosine synthesis via ERk1/2 upregulation, as shown in Figure 2. The inflammation caused by these cytokines can result in mucus hypersecretion which corresponds to the complication arising in COVID-19 patients. The subsequent section describes these mechanisms of inflammatory cytokines in mucus hypersecretion.
Overexpression of Mucin Through STAT Mediated Signaling
The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is a series of interactions between proteins in the cytoplasm. It is involved in various processes leading to STAT dimerization and activation of transcription genes in the DNA. IL-4 via its receptor activates STAT6, leading to self-upregulation and activation of the MUC5AC gene complex consisting of MUC1/2/4.50 Meanwhile IL-8 via its receptor leads to SOCS1 protein (Suppressor of cytokine signaling) upregulation leading to IL-4 mRNA synthesis via STAT1. IL-4 mRNA also induces Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CLCA1). Binding of CLCA1 to its receptor (CLCA1-R), leads to the inhibition of FOXA2 (Forehead Box A2) which has a down regulatory effect on MUC5AC gene, through MAPK via SAM Pointed Domain Containing ETS Transcription Factor (SPDEF) protein.51 The same signaling pathway is used by interleukin 13 and IL-18 that are modulated by IL-6,52–56 as shown in Figure 3
Figure 3 STAT mediated signaling induced by cytokines leading to mucus hypersecretion.
IL-9 can induce pleiotropic function in various immune cells as well as normal cells.57 IL-9 signal transduction requires the receptors which have a common γ chain.58 IL-9R receptor activates JAK1 and JAK3, which through downstream signal transduction leads to the activation of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5. Dimerization of these STATs enhances the mucus hypersecretion.59 IL-2 via its receptor IL-2R causes the activation of Janus kinases family proteins, followed by recruitment to phosphorylated STAT5, which dimerize and attach to the nucleus and initiate IL-5 mRNA transcription. Therefore IL-2 causes the upregulation of IL-5 via the JAK/STAT pathway.60,61
Overexpression of Mucin Through MAPK Mediated Signaling
The MAPK mediated signaling (known as Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) consists of a chain protein molecule that transduces signal from a receptor induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines from the cell surface to the DNA present in the nucleus. Elevated levels of IL-6 found in COVID-19 would contribute to pathogenesis by promoting mucus hypersecretion. Studies have demonstrated that IL-6 is an important cytokine for the development of mucus metaplasia in the airways in response to inhaled allergens.62 As shown in Figure 4, IL-6 binds to its receptor IL-6R and activates Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 and Son of Sevenless complex (GRB2/SOS) which further leads to the activation of Ras and Raf signaling cascades. These cascades activate JNK via the p38/MAPK pathway. Activated JNK upregulates MUC5AC gene in the airway epithelium which enhances the mucus hypersecretion followed by exocytosis of mucin via MARCKS & SNARE.63,64
Figure 4 MAPK mediated signaling pathway induced by interleukins leading to mucus hypersecretion.
The expression of IL-5 is upregulated by IL-2, an interleukin which is elevated in severely affected COVID-19 patients. Mucus production due to IL-5 was initially observed in a pulmonary transgenic mouse model. The mechanism consists of IL-5 binding to IL-5R and activating GRB2/SOS which leads to activation of mucus genes (MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC1/2/4) in the airway epithelium, which enhances mucin synthesis and hypersecretion via MARCKS and SNARE.65,66
IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine secreted by T cells, is elevated by IL-6. IL-17 has been found to be upregulated in the mice model of asthma which be inhibited by anti-IL-17 antibody which cause reduction in granulocyte influx.67,68 Mucin expression is induced by IL-17 in cell cultures of airway epithelial cells via upregulation of the MUC5AC gene through IL-5 and IL-6 mediated signaling.
IL-1β acts as an early response pleiotropic cytokine that is produced by different cells in the pulmonary inflammatory cascade, which is elevated in severely affected COVID-19 patients. Upon binding to its receptor IL1R it causes the activation of MyD88 which leads to the activation of MAPK via MAP3K and MAP2K. 69,70 IL-1β has been recently shown to increase the expression of MUC5AC gene and mucin secretion in bronchial epithelial cell line.71
Overexpression of Mucin Through NF-κB Mediated Signaling
NF-κB (Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) comprises a group of protein complexes that controls the transcription of DNA, cytokine production namely Il-6, TNFα, IL-8, and IL-1 Beta and cell survival. TNFα is one of the most extensively studied pleiotropic cytokines of the TNF family which is also induced by IL-5.72 TNFα has an important role in the innate immune response against invading pathogens before triggering the adaptive immune system.73 It acts on the ubiquitously expressed TNFR1.74 This receptor ligand interaction causes downstream signaling, leading to phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) composed of subunits IKKα, IKKβ, and thus nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) activation. NF-kB forms a heterodimer composed of p50 and p65 proteins73,75 This heterodimer interacts with the DNA to increase transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, such as IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα itself, as shown in Figure 5. All of these cause pulmonary inflammation and are known to cause mucus hypersecretion. It also induces MUC5AC overexpression through p38-mitogen activated protein kinases/ERK (MAPK/ERK) and Sp1 in human airway epithelial cells.75
Figure 5 NF-Kß mediated signaling pathway leading to mucus hypersecretion.
TNF-α increases the expression of EGFR in the airways. EGF binds to its receptor (EGFR) and increases the expression of the MUC5AC gene via ERK signaling. EGFR also cause activation of Ras, Raf, and MUC2 via Erk1/2 which enhances the mucus hypersecretion.76 The role of ATP in MUC5AC release was examined by stimulating cells with polyinosine-polycytidylic acid.77 They found that the concentration of extracellular ATP increased in the NCI-h392 cells due to dsRNA stimulation and viral infection. Binding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to P2Y2 receptors causes activation of IP3 and DAG via PIP2 and releases calcium from endoplasmic reticulum which enhances the expression of MUC5AC gene in the airway epithelium. Adenosine via its receptor adenosine A1 receptor (Ad1R) through PLC beta also causes activation of the same signaling cascade leading to mucin production.
Leukotriene-Mediated Mucus Over-Secretion
Leukotrienes are from a class of inflammatory mediators that are produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and other essential fatty acids. Studies using exogenous viruses such as rhinovirus (RV) have found CD4-activated efflux of cytokines like IL-5, IL-4, and IL-2, as shown in Figure 6, which leads to B cell proliferation and IgE mediated leukotriene synthesis.78
Figure 6 Activation of Viral Induced Leukotriene Initiated Mucus Secretion.
Activation of FcεRI via IgE activates the synthesis and release of arachidonic acid (AA).79 AA metabolises into hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HPETE) and forms leukotriene (LT) A4 by enzyme 5-lipoxygenase. LTC4 synthase converts LTA4 into LTC4, which further converts into LTF4 and LTD4 with the help of carboxypeptidase A and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. Both LTF4 and LTD4 are converted by gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and dipeptidase separately into LTE4.80 LTE4 provokes mucus hypersecretion via binding with its receptor, Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor 1 (CysLT1).81 IL-2 is confirmed to be elevated in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection as well. It is also likely that IL-4 and IL-5 would be elevated since they are downstream in the signaling cascade of TNFα. Thus, viral induced leukotriene synthesis and a corresponding increase in mucus secretion is likely to be present in COVID-19.
Protective Role of Cytokines
Considering the severity of inflammation and its importance in COVID-19 patients, it is crucial to identify factors that contribute in the inflammatory response. These include anti-inflammatory cytokines and antibodies, some of which are currently used to treat other inflammatory conditions in the respiratory tract.
Anti-Inflammatory Role of IL-37
Multiple studies have reported significant anti-inflammatory properties of IL-37 and its mode of action in recent years.86,87 These studies demonstrated that IL-37 is capable of inhibiting pro-inflammatory effects that are mediated through activation of receptors belonging to the interleukin-1 receptor/toll-like receptor (TIR) superfamily such as TIRs 2 and 4 and the IL-1 receptor.86
IL-37 has shown to modulate inflammation by downregulating response of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells.88 Studies have demonstrated that locally administering IL-37 can reduce eosinophil levels in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid and respiratory tract tissues. Upon binding to IL-18R, IL-37 suppresses the expression of IL1α, IL6, IL1β, TNFα, GCSF, and GMCSF via JAK/STAT pathway.89,90 IL-37 inhibits NF-κB activation of S100A9 via STAT3 and p62.
Anti-Inflammatory Role of IL-27
IL-27 is a heterodimeric cytokine. IL-27 is primarily secreted by activated macrophages and dendritic cells.91–93 Binding of IL-27 to its receptor Il-27R and gp130 leads to activation of STAT1 and inhibits GATA-3 which further downregulates IL-4 and reduces mucin production via MUC5AC.
Anti-Inflammatory Role of IL-35
Interleukin-35 acts as an anti-inflammatory cytokine which is secreted by T cells and B cells.94 Studied have found that IL-35 induces proliferation of regulatory T cells, inhibiting CD4+ effector cells, and suppressing the development of Th17 cells.95 Upon binding to IL-12Rβ2/gp130, IL-35 activates the JAK/STAT pathway to inhibits GATA3, thereby regulating the expression of MUC5AC.96
Anti-Inflammatory Role of IL-38
IL-38 belongs to the interleukin-1 family.97 IL 38 plays a significant role in inflammation and immune responses, acting against pathogenic microorganisms. IL-38 has a binding affinity to IL-1R and IL-36R and inhibits the MAPK mediated downstream signaling, leading to the decreased activation of cytokines through AP1 thereby modulating inflammation, as shown in Figure 7. 98–102
Figure 7 Signaling Pathways of Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines.
As shown in various in vitro studies and in animal models for chronic inflammatory diseases, inhibition of specific inflammatory pathways results in diminished production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17. In addition to neutralization of single pro-inflammatory cytokines, the use of anti-IL6 and anti-IL1 drugs may lead to better control of cytokine storms in COVID-19 patients.
Inflammation in the mucosa is the main pathophysiological mechanism leading to congestion in several respiratory tract diseases. It is particularly heightened in COVID-19 due to elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. The build-up of mucus can also contribute to other complications found in COVID-19 such as venous engorgement, elevation in nasal secretions, and pulmonary edema. Thus, regulation of these inflammatory cascades might be crucial in the treatment of severely ill COVID-19 patients.
The use of drugs that inhibit key inflammatory signaling molecules (viz. IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) may be used. Th3 cytokines, such as IL-5, have been the main therapeutic targets for eosinophilic inflammation-associated pulmonary disease. For the treatment of asthma, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of mepolizumab, an anti IL-5 drug candidate, in 2015.82 Since then, reslizumab and benralizumab are two more anti-IL-5 drugs that have also been given FDA approval for use in asthma.83–85 Sarilumab, siltuximab and tocilizumab are inhibitors of IL-6 that are approved by the FDA for use in diseases such as Castleman disease, rheumatologic disorders and cytokine release syndrome.103 Anakinra is an IL-1 inhibitor that the FDA approved for use in rheumatoid arthritis and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes.104 Several clinical trials are underway for the use of these inhibitors in COVID-19. A pilot multicentre study found encouraging results with tocilizumab given to patients with severe COVID-19. 105 Current drugs and their trials are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Potential Therapeutic Drugs and Their Targets Currently Under Trial Against COVID-19
The use of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-27, IL-35, IL-37 and IL-38 can also be explored as a novel treatment modality. At present, there is no data available for the safety and efficacy of such cytokine therapy.105,106
Anti-Inflammatory Active Constituents
Lastly, regular intake of anti-inflammatory food products may be helpful in mitigating the cytokine storm. Many everyday food products have anti-inflammatory active constituents whose properties have been studied extensively. Ginger, turmeric, and green tea have active constituents that inhibit IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and NF-κB.107–110
In Figures 2–7, several anti-inflammatory active constituents are mentioned in green boxes at the site of their reported action. These active constituents along with the natural sources are listed in Supplementary Table S1 that contain active constituents which are known to inhibit various inflammatory cascades that arise due to the cytokine storm. The effect of incorporating such anti-inflammatory food substances in the diet of COVID-19 patients can be studied without the risk of any undesired effects. Developing such a modality seems particularly crucial in the absence of specific therapies for targeting cytokine storms in COVID-19.
Since mucus is a fundamental mechanism for defense against allergens and pathogens, its production increases in the respiratory tract in nearly every instance of airway inflammation. The cytokine storm in COVID-19 is particularly potent for the build-up of mucus due to the onset of several inflammatory cascades associated with mucus production. It is therefore important to understand these cascades for identification of new therapeutic targets and drug discovery. In the meantime, dietary supplementation of COVID-19 patients with foods that are known to inhibit key inflammatory molecules may provide some degree of relief in the mucus production and other symptoms of airway inflammation.
The authors are grateful to Dr Shadab Raza and Dr Mohd. Faheem Khan for their advice in selection of journal for publication. We are also thankful to Dr. M.M.A. Faridi for the encouragement provided by him for the analytical approach of this review. Lastly, we thank the entire management of Era’s Lucknow Medical College & Hospital for supporting this work.
The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.
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Ask an ENT doctor – page 14
Hello. Please help me unravel a difficult situation. 3 months ago I caught a cold, snot poured out in a stream. Cough. I breathed over the steam. There was a partial suffocation. As if something was blocking the respiratory tract. at first she treated like bronchitis, there was a severe cough. The yellow mucus was only coughing up at first. Then it became colorless, thick. The suffocation is still there. I examined what I could. In the bronchi there are broncholitis in the lumens (but they are far away, they cannot be reached by bronchoscopy).It may be there that a pathological secret is being developed. But there is not so much of it, it does not clear its throat. Asthma medications do not relieve asthma.
The oxygen saturation of the blood is normal, the volume of respiration is reduced (74%), from the maximum VC vyt. almost half.
There is hypertophic rhinitis (in the absence of a runny nose, mucus hangs in the nasopharynx and practically does not leave). It really interferes with the sensations there. And ENT diagnosed subatrophic pharyngitis. This mucus flowing from the nose interferes in the pharynx. Whether from this or not, reflexes disappeared when touched, vomiting, coughing, less often I swallow saliva.There is no involuntary cough either. There are very unpleasant sensations behind the nose and throat. Covid is negative. I can touch the palatine tongue – it is soft, does not cause a reflex.
There is also inflammation in the throat near the arytenoid cartilage.
Can swelling of the nasal mucous membranes and / or atrophy of the pharyngeal mucous membranes cause a choking sensation? (Like an ’empty nose’ syndrome?) What nerve endings there might have been damaged? And how is it to be treated? (Vasoconstrictor drops cause swelling in the nose even more. )
Doctors send from one to another, they cannot say anything.I feel suffocation even at rest, although with physical exertion, shortness of breath does not increase. Asthma medications don’t help. And when the mucus behind the nose and palate crushes less, a little better.
Sometimes it is possible to Breathe a little, tilting the head down. I’m terrified what this is, how to cure it ….
90,000 People in your colon need a healthy diet too
- Adam Rutherford
- BBC Future
Photo Credit, iStock
Eating is not enough to keep your body healthy and healthy and keep the good bacteria in your body yogurt with probiotics.BBC Future columnist found this out by handing in one not-so-pleasant analysis.
It all started with what can only be called an ingenious invention. It is a fold-out sheet with sticky notes in the front and back, like a flat starfish.
The papers are glued to the toilet seat. Properly fixed, the sheet turns into a kind of hammock, on which the sample falls to take a sample.
Preparing for the procedure, I put on rubber gloves.Leaving my biomaterial in the hammock, I took a sample using a small spoon attached to the inside of the blue lid of the test tube.
Then I screwed the lid tightly on and wrapped the plastic tube in the ice pack I had prepared beforehand. The valuable cargo was now ready for delivery.
And I was going to take him to Map My Gut, which promised me to find out exactly which microorganisms lurked in the depths of my intestines.
The results of various studies carried out in recent years indicate that the microorganisms living in our digestive system are much more important for our health and well-being than previously thought.
But I soon discovered that my own bacteria did not thrive very much, and that a certain diet could completely change the way we live with them.
Author of the photo, SPL
Methanobrevibacter helps to increase the digestibility of food
There are about a thousand different types of bacteria living in the intestines of the average person.
The total number of them is difficult to determine, but the count goes into trillions, and almost all of them are doing work that is useful to us.
The human genome has about 20,000 genes, however, the microorganisms living in our body together have about 500 times more of them.
This allows them to cope with rather difficult tasks: to help digest food, produce vitamins and minerals, and even prevent diseases by uniting in groups and destroying pathogenic bacteria.
But this is only a small part of their work; in fact, it depends on them who we are inside and outside.
As Ed Young, author of I Contain Multitudes, told me, “Microbes help build the human body, they shape and renew our organs as we age.”
“They may even influence our behavior and way of thinking. Numerous experiments on animals have shown that microorganisms in their gut can influence mood, temperament and tolerance to anxiety and stress,” he notes.
However, how these results are applicable to humans remains to be seen.
All we know for sure is that the microbiomes of two people differ much more than their genomes.
The composition of microorganisms in the human body depends on the history of its diseases, place of residence and diet.
It is individual for each person and can be very different even among the closest relatives.
Photo author, Getty Images
Some foods stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the body much better than yogurt.
That is why I had to empty myself on a piece of paper and take a piece of biomaterial for analysis.
I confess that when I walked into the office of Tim Spector, professor of genetics at St. Thomas’s Hospital, to see the results, I was a little nervous.
What will I learn about the mysterious inner world of my bacteria? What exactly is hiding in my colon?
To be honest, my analysis was worse than ever.
“Your score is much below average. In terms of diversity, you fall into the 10% of the population with the worst scores,” Spector told me with a faint note of joy in his voice. The joy that a scientist experiences upon discovering any deviation from the norm.
He explained that diversity is one of the main factors affecting gut health.
The point is that different microbes perform different tasks, and the more diverse this workforce, the more benefit we get.
Not only did I lack variety, but also the bacteria groups that settled in my intestines were not the most friendly.
Analysis showed that I have 65 times more Clostridium perfringens than the average person and 211 times more E. coli. Both of these bacteria can cause diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
“These results indicate that you have a very unhealthy microbiome,” said the test results document given to me.
I, of course, could try to justify myself by saying that I was on a business trip and, perhaps, ate something dubious.
However, Spector stated that a single infection is unlikely to greatly shift the balance for the worse.
What about beneficial bacteria? Fewer than 100 species of bacteria are capable of causing infectious diseases, while thousands of species of microorganisms living in the human intestine are, as the writer Douglas Adams would say, “practically harmless.”
So how are things with me with those on my side?
At the very top of the list of “most desirable” microorganisms are bacteria such as Akkermansia and the hard-to-pronounce Christensenellaceae. Both help prevent weight gain.
Methanobrevibacter promotes better digestibility of food, so you can eat less. Oxalobacter provides kidney stone prevention.
How many of these beneficial bacteria have I found? Zero.
So, I was not only ranked among the worst group, but also a strict diet was prescribed to my intestines, promising to cancel it only if he thought about his behavior and decided to change.
Photo author, SPL
Clostridium perfringens have been linked to gastrointestinal diseases
What can I do to improve my microbiome? Probably the most important thing is diversity.
The more varied your diet, the more species of bacteria will settle in your intestines.
Fermented foods are especially beneficial for maintaining a healthy microbiome.
“People know about live yoghurts, but an oriental fermented milk drink called kefir is a completely different level: it has five times more microorganisms,” Spector told me.
The population of our guts will also be very happy about other fermented foods, including miso soup and kimchi (sauerkraut).
If this sounds a little too exotic to you, keep in mind that healthy, high-fiber foods include garlic, artichokes, bananas, and whole grains.
And the polyphenols in red grapes are the favorite food of Akkermansia bacteria. I think this is a good reason to have a glass of wine.
Probiotics advertisements say they help increase bacteria in the gut, but in reality they are not worth spending money on.
There is little evidence that these bacteria linger in the body long enough to change the microbiome.
However, they have been shown to be beneficial for both very young and elderly patients and can be used to prevent indigestion when taking antibiotics.
But they will hardly help my intestines.
Since I made this shocking discovery, I have completely changed my diet. More than a month has passed since the test results were received, and during all this time I did not eat meat.
Miso soup replaced meatballs for me, and kimchi replaced fish and chips. Even though the kimchi jar smells, um … cool, my wife makes me keep it in the barn.
Only time will tell if these changes can have a lasting impact on my microbiome.
But I know that now I eat not only for myself, but also for the trillions of microorganisms that inhabit my body.
Hope this strict regime doesn’t last too long.
To read the original of this article in English, visit BBC Future .
How does the pear get to the brain. Lecture by biologist Ilya Kolmanovsky
Ilya KOLMANOVSKY, Head of the Biology Laboratory of the Polytechnic University, Ph.D., zoologist:
Any food that seems to us wonderful, charming, very tasty and desirable penetrates into our body.We need it so that we can live, so that we have energy.
What is really happening is this: now, when I hold this pear in my hands, my brain demands that I open my mouth, close my jaws on it and begin to chew it. This is what my brain wants! He needs this – so that I start a very complex process, with the help of which, as a result, the pear will enter the brain. If I just drill a hole in my brain, open the skull lid and put a pear in there, and shake it properly, you’re not eating at all. And your brain won’t be able to work.He generally needs a lot of energy. The rest is spent by my muscles, which need energy, my heart, which beats 100,000 times a day. Your bones grow – it takes a lot of energy! The police – immunity – are constantly patrolling millions of kilometers of your vessels and looking for germs. She also needs to be paid a salary. She needs to eat too. But none of them can eat a pear! – they all stand, very hungry, greedy and already quite angry. They stand in line in your body, all parts of your body, and wait for food to come to them.But they cannot just eat this pear.
What do they want? They need you to start eating. So that you throw the pear into your huge body, into your huge system. It is called the “digestive system”. They need you to just start this journey! Therefore, they persuade you: “Well, eat this pear! She’s so delicious! She smells so good! ” And then an endless process begins. It lasts 4 hours. I called it “Pear’s Journey”, during which the fruit will transform and transform, chop into tiny pieces.These are not such small pieces as in my blender. They are much smaller. They are separate molecules.
This is the smallest part of the substance that we still call this substance. And even to the fragments of a molecule. When this disgusting soup, the debris of the pear substance, is in your belly after 4 hours, it will be your belly! It’s OK. You wouldn’t like this soup. But now, by the end of our journey, this very valuable soup will be in the stomach. But pay attention: he was in the stomach, and he is needed in the whole body.The whole body is waiting for this eerie-looking, but very valuable soup made from fragments of molecules to get into different parts of the body. It has to get into the brain. He must get into the heart. He must hit the bones. It has to hit the muscles. He has to get into the lungs. He must get to the cells of the immune system. It should spread throughout the entire body from the abdomen.
And so we begin with you “Pear’s Journey”. And the first thing we have to do with the pear is chop it. At least just some kind of knives. Unlike the knives in this blender, which will wear out soon, your knives should last 10-20-30-40-80-100 years.And maybe 150 years! You have to chew on them. Let’s discuss what they are made of? Teeth! The teeth have a crown, you chew on it. There is a root with which the tooth is anchored in the jaw. To prevent the tooth from falling out, it is held there tightly. And this crown is covered with enamel. Enamel is a solid substance that can cut your food for 90 years. And by the way, if you lose half of your teeth, your chances of a heart attack will double. Teeth are very important for the health of the entire body! And these teeth should work for a lifetime.
But here there is one problem that I want to discuss with you. Imagine: are there little people in the hall, on our site? These are people who chew food. See how big your jaw is. Look at each other – are there children among you? Now look: adults are sitting next to you. They have monstrous jaws, huge. Compare the sizes of their jaws and yours. Their jaws are much larger. You will compare the forehead! Your forehead is about the same size as your adult neighbors.And the jaws are huge. They need them to feed their huge body. They need big teeth. But the teeth are covered with enamel. They are solid. They cannot grow. They are in armor like knights.
But, fortunately, we have a solution in this regard. We have a supply of teeth. Look: this is an x-ray. If you get an X-ray, we can see that you have your normal teeth in your jaws, but in the bone here are hidden huge soft teeth that live right here – in the bone.
This is the skull of a child. Look – soft teeth are stored here.They are huge. They grow as long as they are soft. But then they push the root of the tooth underneath. Look: these are teeth. They are 900 years old. They were found in southern Siberia by specialists from the Institute of Anthropology, who loaned them to us. And now the crown is visible. This is the cutting part of the tooth. These are his roots: he has 3 roots. And this is a very unusual tooth that I wanted to show you. Look: it has a crown, but its roots seem to have begun to dissolve. Can you see? A molar pressed on him from below. And when he felt this pressure, he said: “I get it! Signal received.Good”. Its root begins to dissolve like sugar in a glass of tea. And then, when it completely dissolves, only that will remain – only one crown. And what will happen to her? It will fall out! Has this already happened to someone? And you will have only a crown in the palm of your hand! It actually had a big root. But he dissolved, because the neighbors began to knock from below. These are large soft molars. They began to crawl out and harden. You now have hard molars and the crown has fallen out.
Well, it was such a long conversation about our miracle knives.Let’s move on. There is another very important participant in our mouth. Language is a scout! The brain sends him on exploration. The brain asks him all the time: “Well, how are things? What flew in there? What did you put in your mouth? In general, I asked to put this pear in! I explained to him, this creature, that she smells delicious! What did he end up with? What was she like? ” There are such microscopic laboratories on the tongue. They are called taste buds. When viewed under a microscope, these little laboratories are analyzing your food: what molecules are in it? They distinguish different molecules and tell the brain, “You know what? This pear is already ripe. “What taste is needed for this? Sweet.
We have five flavors. And the brain draws conclusions. If he tastes sweet, he tells you – oh! this is the most important food in the world. Grab it soon, eat as much as possible! This will save you from starvation. This is what the brain thinks, because your brain is many millions of years old. It was formed in the wild, where you were threatened with starvation. And he considers the sweet taste the most valuable and demands: “Grab it! Eat more and more! ” You know that it is dangerous and harmful.There are too many sweets around us today. But the brain does not know this. In this sense, we live in a very dangerous environment, because there is a powerful temptation around, against which the brain cannot resist.
The second very important taste that our brains also adore is salty. The fact is that you and I once lived at sea. When we left the sea, we began to live on land. We are looking for salt everywhere. We don’t have enough salt, the brain says. We need to eat a whole teaspoon of salt every week. Otherwise, we will get sick or die.And we are ready to climb somewhere high on the rock to find this salt and lick it a little, as some mountain goats do. Of course, we eat too much salt today. This is quite harmful and dangerous. But the brain requires this from us.
Which is the third? Bitter! This taste in nature means that it is something poisonous, inedible, it is difficult to digest. And the brain tells you: “Please don’t do this anymore!” Although today we are civilized people. We love to pamper ourselves with a sense of light danger.Chocolate! Cocoa beans! Bitter coffee. It’s such fun. It’s a little dangerous for us, like on a roller coaster. It’s dangerous and fun for us.
Sweet, salty, bitter – what next? Sour! This is another taste. The brain asks you to remember: “This is how unripe fruits look like. Don’t eat them anymore! Eat sweet! Look for the sweet ones! Remember the difference. They have more calories. This will save you from starvation. ” This is what the brain tells us. But we love to eat sour foods sometimes. Lemons and oranges.
What other taste do you know? “Spicy” is not a taste.This is touch. This is an illusion. It seems to you that you ate hotter. And this is how the plants protect themselves so that mammals do not crush their seeds with their teeth. They want to be eaten by birds. Peppers want to be gnawed by birds and carried away their seeds somewhere far away. They would come out of their intestines and sprout on the ground. The peppers are bright red. Birds see red well. We sometimes also entertain ourselves with a sense of danger and eat something spicy. It is safe and harmless.
In fact, the fifth taste is “umami” (jap.旨 味, “good taste”). This is the taste discovered by Japanese biologists. Therefore, they named it in Japanese. It tastes like soy sauce. It tastes like broth. It tastes like scrambled eggs and butter. This is the taste of kvass and black bread. This is the taste of such delicious food. It is called “umami”. We have umami receptors.
Tongue helped us find out that it got into our mouth. Spit it out, maybe, or eat more of it? And the salivary glands added water there. Every day a liter of saliva forms in my mouth.Just imagine: I open my mouth, and 5 glasses of saliva pour out from there! This is a day! So much saliva is needed to moisten this food. It will then be absorbed into the blood again with food. It is a duty. This is the loan that I took from the blood – the liquid that here, in the salivary glands, passes from the blood into saliva, and then returns back. In general, in just a day, a bucket of liquid passes through this system. This whole system releases a whole bucket, 10 liters of liquid, which is needed to digest (to boil this soup).Then this fluid is absorbed back into the blood.
But we have to move on because I have bad news for you! All this grinding, which was so expensive, on which we spent so much effort – this is only the very beginning! This is completely insufficient. If you pour such a smoothie into the brain – make a hole in the skull and pour it there, this is not food at all. We are facing chemical and physical transformations with you.
We need to do some dangerous chemistry experiments because you and I are getting into the stomach.And this is already a zone of chemical transformations. Look, this is a fish that has a very large stomach. She ate another fish. In general, this fish has a very large stomach. In predators, it is large. This is a bag that is needed to stuff food there and close it on top. Look, up here he has such a magic ring – it is called a “sphincter”. It keeps food from jumping out. And the predators are stuffing themselves with a huge stomach. Rather, it is not so big, but the main thing is that there is a terrible hell inside it.I pictured the Sun here because hydrochloric acid works there. Here I have a little hydrochloric acid – exactly the same as in your stomach. I want to show you what she can do. In this hydrochloric acid, in this hell, such molecular scissors float. They are called “enzymes”. They grind your food into smaller and smaller pieces, much less than you could with your teeth. These scissors cut the food into fragments of molecules. You also have enzymes floating in hydrochloric acid that additionally dissolve and cut food.It is cut into the smallest debris. This is already part of the soup that comes in handy – that you can absorb. It comes in handy in order to feed your brain.
It’s amazing that we have this hydrochloric acid floating in our stomach. She can digest food and somehow not digest the walls of the stomach – that’s what is amazing! There are several reasons why this is so. Please look: the stomach has many layers of mucus right here. And if anyone gets hurt, it’s just this slime.And then a new one will be made. In addition, acid is produced when food enters the stomach. And the acid is spent precisely to digest food. However, there is such a danger that someday the acid can begin to corrode the walls of the stomach. And then it will be very bad. Look, this is an ulcer. This is such a thing, a hole that acid has burned in the mucus. And you can die from it.
For a long time people did not understand why someone – some patients have such a problem. Why do some people have this ulcer? They get sick, suffer, and may even die.I want to tell you the story of one amazing discovery made by two brave doctors. Looking ahead: they did the incredible – no one believed them, and they found something that could not be imagined. It turned out that bacteria can live in the stomach.
These two doctors, Barry Marshall and his teacher Robin Warren from Australia. They worked at a small university in Perth and eventually won the Nobel Prize for their discovery. But in order to receive this award, they had to perform a very dangerous experiment.Doctors cannot perform such dangerous experiments on volunteers. You know that doctors sometimes invite volunteers to test a drug. However, doctors had no right to conduct this experiment on other people, and they did what scientists have always done – in different centuries. Doctors experimented on themselves. And the youngest of these two, Robin Warren, set up an experiment on himself, and proved to the whole world how an ulcer works – how it works, and how it can be cured.
He did the following: because they really saw under the microscope on the mucus samples that they got from the stomach of sick people, these bacteria, and they believed that they could live there.Warren did this experiment: he first swallowed a video camera. You know, there is research done by doctors. You swallow a hose that transmits a picture to a video camera, and you can see what is in your stomach. One morning Barry Marshall came to the laboratory. His stomach was examined, they saw that he was smooth and clean, and his stomach did not hurt.
And then he did this: In the last weeks he grew 2 liters of monstrous bacteria. The smelly they got from the stomach of a man who had a stomach ache.And through the video camera it was clear that he had an ulcer. Scientists took a small piece of mucus from him with a special manipulator and grew 2 liters of monstrously smelly bacteria. And what did Barry Marshall do? He drank 2 liters of these bacteria! After 10 days, his stomach began to hurt. Acute pains began 2 weeks later. And after another 2 weeks, he swallowed the video camera, and they saw that he now had an ulcer.
Do you think he proved his thesis? Not at all yet! In biology, a hypothesis … By the way, do you know what a “hypothesis” is? Guess, guess.Scientists are playing a special game. It’s called an “experiment.” The experiment has strict rules. And this is what he did. He swallowed this hose and saw that he had an ulcer. Then they took a sample of his mucus – pulled out and placed in a nutrient medium. After 2 weeks, a bunch of bacteria grew there. This meant that bacteria were indeed living in his stomach.
Do you think he has already proven his idea? Not yet! He took medicine that is very easy to kill bacteria. Fortunately, we can easily kill bacteria.We do this many times. And you all, probably, once in your life were given such a medicine – it’s an antibiotic. He drank this medicine and his stomach went through. Did he prove his thesis? What if he still has bacteria? He swallowed the camcorder again. We saw that he had smooth stomach walls, no ulcers. They took a sample of mucus – and what did they do with it? They were placed in a nutrient medium, and nothing grew on it. He no longer had bacteria. He was clean. They received the Nobel Prize, and tens of millions of people around the world have been cured of the ulcer.It turned out to be a very simple treatment that never crossed anyone’s mind.
It turned out that these fantastic bacteria are able to defend themselves against acid. Imagine you have to dive into a lake of acid. What would you need to surround yourself with? Just imagine: you have to dive into the lake of fire. You could surround yourself with ice. And while you are struggling to the bottom where you can hide, you can surround yourself with ice. The ice will melt and you will not be threatened by fire. What can you surround yourself with if you are going to dive into a lake of acid? What is the opposite of acid in action? Maybe any of you have heard this scientific word? Alkali! This is something that can neutralize the acid.These bacteria are able to secrete alkali around them. They are called helicobacter. They surround themselves with an alkali parachute and can dive to the bottom of the stomach and crawl under the mucus. And there start to multiply and there is mucus! Slime is good food for them. So you can save yourself from the ulcer. And you can get an ulcer with unwashed hands, as it turned out. And it is very important to wash your hands thoroughly.
Many types of food are indigestible in acid. We haven’t digested all the food. We need to continue to grind food with some other enzymes that can digest fat.Look: this is a fatty food! This is not a very healthy fatty food. And this is a healthier fatty food. Take a look: avocado, butter, eggs, nuts. And our ancestors learned to digest it, because, in addition to acid, we have something else in our digestive system. Something opposite to acid in action. If we did not know how to digest fat, we would starve to death. In nature, sometimes you can only eat nuts. Bushmen eat only nuts for 2 months a year and lose some of their weight. But they still digest them, because they have a liver.It is a huge digestive gland that makes alkali. And lye can digest fat. Now I’m going to show you how alkali works. I have no bile, but I have such an alkaline soap. I can use it. The liver makes alkali. Look, this is fat. Imagine that a large drop of fat has collapsed to the bottom of your system. By the way, we didn’t notice, but we moved on. We came out of the stomach.
Here is the stomach. There is another ring here that squeezes the exit from the stomach on this side.This is where food comes in. This is the beginning of the intestines. This intestine is called the duodenum. This is a miracle reactor, a magical reactor where the liver injects alkali and digests fats. See what happens if I take fat? Here it is transparent, nothing so interesting. And alkali – in this case it is soap, also transparent. It seems that nothing remarkable happened. But if I mix this mixture, you will see a rather interesting phenomenon. This thing turned white. It was transparent and became opaque – white.I just made an emulsion in front of your eyes. We had a glass, there was fat in it. When I added alkali, this huge drop of fat, which would forever be digested in your intestines, broke into a huge number of small bubbles. And now the light cannot freely pass through this glass. The light, reflected many times, returns to your eye. This liquid appears white to you. How, for example, milk seems to you white – you know that it only seems to you? What is white milk? But in reality it is also transparent and consists of a large number of golden bubbles?
Why is it important? Why make an emulsion? Imagine that you are all a big drop of fat.And you are lying in the intestines. And then my colleagues and I, the enzymes come up to you and begin to gradually digest it along the edges of this large drop, chop it into fragments of molecules and cut off small pieces. It will take a long time for you to get it. But if you break this whole huge drop into many small droplets, then the enzymes will be able to freely pass here and simultaneously cut here, here, and here at once. All this huge drop will be ground up very quickly with these molecular scissors. If you break it down into many small droplets, this is how alkaline digestion works.This alkaline liquid that we have in the liver (which the liver makes) is called bile.
Bile is a cocktail of alkali and enzymes that makes the liver and digests fats. But I have bad news. That’s not all. There are so many types of food that crunch like this. It is not digested at all by our enzymes. We don’t have scissors for her. We cannot digest it. There are long, strong molecules called fiber. We do not have enzymes to digest them, although this is a wonderful and very healthy food.
Fortunately, we have friends in the intestines who know how to digest it. Do you know, for example, that we cannot eat hair? You couldn’t eat a sweater. Although if you burn it, it will have a lot of calories. If you take a lot of sweaters, they can be used to heat the stove for ages, I guess. It will stink. But there are calories in there. However, we cannot retrieve them. We don’t have enzymes for this! But you probably have an animal at home that can eat hair. Who can eat a sweater? Mole! She has enzymes that allow her to digest this protein and get energy from it.
We have a huge amount of beneficial bacteria in our intestines. If you count them all, then there are more of them than all the cells in your body. They probably think that you are such a restaurant on legs. He walks and throws food there for them. Because your cells are smaller than theirs! And they have enzymes to digest fiber. They digest it, and you eat the kind of soup they make from fiber. And eat a little of the bacteria themselves. This is great food for you. This is who lives in our intestines! And it turns out that we were able to digest a lot of different foods.
However, there is one problem. Other bacteria can lodge in the intestines. Since beneficial bacteria live well there, dangerous bacteria can live well there. You can get very sick. They will give off various poisons, and this is very dangerous. They get inside with unwashed hands, when you touch food, touch your face. They are very dangerous. Also, a virus can get inside – along with unwashed hands. The flu virus, for example. Now I want to share with you the results of a very important scientific study carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO).Scientists conducted experiments and found out how you can scientifically wash your hands in a very dirty public toilet somewhere in a distant tropical country – if you go somewhere in the CAR (Central African Republic) on an expedition. Or Madagascar, where you don’t want to get sick. Or, for example, at school you bought plane tickets so that you could go somewhere on a wonderful trip during the holidays. But there is a flu epidemic at school.
There is a way to wash your hands so that they are practically sterile.And not get infected with anything. Do not bring home any infection and do not infect your old people at home, for whom it is especially dangerous. But these are scientific ways. I can teach you how to scientifically wash your hands. Research shows that a bar of soap contains more bacteria and viruses than you had on your hands when you used a public toilet. Therefore, take liquid soap. The main discovery made by scientists. They figured out that if you rinse off the soap for much longer than you’re used to, as long as you need to sing the song “Happy Birthday to You” three times, your hands will become almost sterile.Most people wash off very little soap with water. There are a billion people who live in countries where there is no access to running water. And they get sick longer and more, and live less.
So, now that we have chewed all this food, chewed it with our teeth – with our wonderful knives, we have digested it in the acid, from the enzyme that is in the acid – in the stomach. We digested this food in the duodenum, processed it with alkali, bile, made an emulsion, cut it with enzymes, made a soup – now from fat.Then the beneficial bacteria helped us break down fiber. And now, finally, after 4 hours, the thinnest soup made of fragments of molecules is smeared with a thin-thin film along the entire length of the intestine. And the whole body is very much waiting for him.
I repeat once more: if you completely unwind my intestines, it will be as long as from here to here. But most importantly, it has a gigantic area. Look at the screen: if I unwind the intestines, it turns out that it is folded. And on each fold such cilia and villi grow.And they contain blood vessels that absorb food. It turns out that if we unfold each such villi, one villi, maybe small, is approximately as thick as a hair, and a length of 1 millimeter. But if we unfold it and arrange all your villi like this, it turns out that each of you has an area in your stomach, roughly like this platform. And the food you have eaten now is minced with all the enzymes we discussed today. It was a very long process.
And now it is smeared over this huge area and falls into your blood to begin the journey through the million kilometers of your vessels.A million kilometers! As from the Earth to the Moon and back – to the Earth, and again to the Moon. To get into every cubic millimeter of your body, this food will be absorbed everywhere. And it will be completely pointless everywhere if you don’t do one thing. You must inhale! Breathe in! You just smeared oxygen over an area like a tennis court. Exhale! And he fell into the blood, and hit every cubic millimeter of your body. And there he is now burning food, and energy is released. And so the pear gets into the brain!
Editorial office of “Attic”
Dyspnea, shortness of breath, tracheostomy care – Vera Hospice Charitable Foundation
Shortness of breath is an unpleasant feeling of shortness of breath, which is often accompanied by anxiety.It should be borne in mind that shortness of breath is a subjective phenomenon, therefore it (like pain) should be assessed based on the description of the patient’s state of health.
Some patients with exertional dyspnea have respiratory panic attacks. During these attacks, patients feel as if they are dying. At the same time, fear caused by shortness of breath, as well as lack of awareness of this condition, cause an increase in anxiety, which in turn increases the frequency of breathing and, as a result, increases shortness of breath.
There are many reasons for the onset of shortness of breath: it can be provoked directly by the tumor itself, the consequences of cancer, complications as a result of treatment, concomitant diseases, as well as a combination of the above reasons. Shortness of breath can be caused both by damage to the lungs, lymph nodes and by damage to the upper respiratory tract.
If shortness of breath occurs, the patient should be explained his condition and encouraged in order to reduce the feeling of fear and anxiety, as well as try to change his lifestyle: make a daily regimen so that rest always follows the load, if possible, help the patient around the house, with the purchase of groceries. etc.d.
Treatment will depend on the cause of the shortness of breath. The issue of taking medications should be resolved on an individual basis in consultation with a doctor, since the number of drugs that relieve or reduce shortness of breath are quite wide (from bronchodilators to morphine).
If the causes of this condition are reversible, then the presence of loved ones, soothing conversation, cool dry air, relaxation therapy, massage, as well as treatments such as acupuncture (acupressure) can help.
Oxygen can also be beneficial if inhaled a few minutes before and a few minutes after exercise.
When caring for a patient with shortness of breath, remain calm and confident, do not leave the patient alone. He needs to create the most comfortable environment – open windows or put a fan nearby, as well as provide an opportunity to easily sound an alarm. The patient should be encouraged to do breathing exercises and taught relaxation techniques.
Proper oral care is also very important, especially if the patient breathes through the mouth. Since in this case the patient feels a strong dry mouth, you should periodically wipe the patient’s mouth with a damp swab and apply a thin layer of petroleum jelly on the lips. If the patient can swallow, give him a little drink or suck on ice.
For tumors in the upper respiratory tract that disturb breathing, a tracheostomy is performed (opening the trachea and introducing a special tube into its lumen to restore breathing).Tracheostomy care consists in frequent dressing changes and thorough rinsing of the skin around the tracheostomy opening with chlorhexidine. Dressings should be changed every day or more often, several times a day, as they become dirty.
If a lot of mucus and sputum accumulates in the bronchi and trachea, then a thin sterile portable suction catheter is inserted through the tracheostomy and suction is performed (sanitization). In these cases, it is also useful to create a sputum outflow by lowering the head end of the patient’s bed.
If the tube is changed, the tracheostomy opening is treated with an antiseptic (chlorhexidine). During replacement, the tube itself can be lubricated with Levomekol (for better sliding and antibacterial action).
Dressing on the tracheostomy opening (a lining between the tube and the skin) is done as follows. One or three gauze napkins measuring 5×10 cm are folded together and I make a V-shaped cross-section in the middle from its wide side. The depth of the cut is approximately half of the napkin.When applying a bandage, the tube is passed through the incision, and the bandage is placed under the flange (“wings”). You can put some betadine on the bandage so that there is no gateway for infection.
Weakened patients with tracheostomy, who cannot independently remove and clean the internal tracheotomy tube, require careful observation and care. If there are signs of difficulty breathing and anxiety of the patient, a piece of cotton wool, a strip of gauze or a hand should be brought to the opening of the tracheotomy tube and the force of the air stream during inhalation and exhalation should be determined.If it is loose, it means that the inner tube is clogged with mucus or dried crusts and must be removed. The jet of air should immediately increase sharply.
The tube must be cleaned, rinsed well, dried, greased with Levomekol and inserted. If, after removing the inner tube, the air stream does not increase and the patient continues to experience difficulty breathing, then the obstacle is below the tracheotomy tube or it has fallen out of the trachea and is near it. In this case, seek help from the hospice specialists.
90,000 AMK – Bad habits
– the prevailing way of behavior,
implementation of which in
acquires for a person
the nature of the need.
Bad habit – fixed
in a person a way of behavior,
aggressive towards herself
personality or society.
Bad habits are different
types of deviation from healthy
lifestyle. Among them, the most
smoking is dangerous,
exposure to toxic and
Consequences of bad habits for
each individual and for
society as a whole is very
For example, specialists
calculated that the world from
smoking one person dies
every 13 seconds.Annually from
addiction to tobacco dies
about 5 million people. it
much more than AIDS
(50 times!), from
earthquakes, from floods,
wars and many others
lethal factors. 90 – 95%
lung cancer patients –
smokers; 50% others
cancer and 20
– 25% cardiovascular
diseases associated with smoking.Every year in Russia for reasons
dies prematurely over 220
thousands of people.
Annually in Russia from
alcohol consumption dies before
40 thousand people, in the last
years male mortality
increased by 2.5 times, among
women – 3 times. 70%
crimes against the person
is done by people in a state
Over the past 10 years in Russia
mortality from drug addiction
increased 15 times, annually
over 120 die from drugs
thousands of people. Average
drug addict from 1 to 7 years
after the start of a systematic
drug use. One
addict pulls into his
vicious circle of at least 10-17
is a social problem
society, as for his smoking,
and for the non-smoking part.For
first, the problem is
quit smoking, for the second –
avoid the influence of the smoker
society and not “get infected” by them
habit, and also – to keep
your health from food
smoking, since substances
entering the exhaled
smokers smoke, not much
safer than if a person
The effects of smoking on
Is the only physical
smoking agent – first starts
destructive effect on
organism. Hot smoke first
the queue affects the dental
enamel, over time on it
cracks are the gate for
pathogenic microbes, in
the result of their life
tooth substance begins
break down earlier and faster,
than non-smokers.On the teeth
tar settles, and they darken,
a specific smell appears.
2. Smoke affects
mucous membranes of the mouth and
nasopharynx. Capillary vessels
dilate, mucous membrane
cheeks, palate, gums, exposed
3. The vocal cords come to
inflammation, they thicken,
become more rude that
leads to a change in the timbre of the voice.
4. Tobacco smoke is negative
affects organ function
breathing. Deteriorating permeability
bronchi, especially small and
the smallest, dropping
elasticity of the lung tissue,
tissue supply intensity
oxygen. Toxic substances
tobacco smoke suppress
macrophages, which leads to
reduced activity of local
immune factors and development
infectious and inflammatory
processes.If smoke is inhaled in
contributing to the development of cancer
5. Nicotine in high doses
causes respiratory depression
6. One smoked cigarette
causes generalized spasm
all vessels for 40 minutes. Spasm
vessels, their rebirth
the formation of blood clots lead to
a decrease in the lumen of blood vessels and
deterioration of blood flow in various
parts of the body, causing the development
heart disease, arterial
7. There is a sharp decrease
oxygen content in the blood. V
due to this in smokers
chronic hypoxia develops
tissues, including head
the brain, which significantly worsens
8. The vessels of the stomach are also located
in a state of constant spasm.
As a result, motor skills are impaired.
gastrointestinal tract and
secretion of gastric juice,
leading to gastritis and ulcerative
stomach diseases and
9. Nicotine causes a decrease
estrogen levels and
reproductive function as
women and men.
10. Skin of a smoker’s face for
turns grayish for several years
or yellowish color with ashy
shade (“nicotine face”).
The skin becomes dry, flabby and
wrinkled. Elasticity and
skin elasticity disappear.
Specific wrinkles appear
on the upper lips and eyes,
squinting from the acrid smoke.Hair
fade, become brittle,
loss, which is
the result of a malnutrition
hair due to weakening
blood supply to the skin and subcutaneous
fiber of the head.
“How to quit smoking”
whichever method you are
have chosen to quit smoking,
compliance with certain rules
will increase your chances of success.
1. Designate a date that has
you have some special meaning if
this date is on its way. It may
be your birthday,
baby, New Year or some
anniversary. If you smoke because of
stress at work or school,
quit this habit during
vacations or vacations. Not
set dates in the distant
future, you may lose
2. Make an appointment with a smoking friend
quit smoking together so you
could support each other.
3. Tell everyone you know
that you quit smoking. They
will try to support you.
Determine the circle of people who
you can call any
time when you really want
4. Try to replace smoking
other activities – physical
gum or low-calorie
high-calorie food; many
people quitting smoking
5. It is best to quit
smoke immediately and completely.
Gradually getting rid of
smoking habits give the worst
results. However, those who
became addicted to nicotine,
can quit smoking
gradually (or apply
nicotine gum), in order
to avoid symptoms
deprivation.If you are going
stop smoking gradually,
develop a scheme in advance and
follow it firmly.
6. Do not light a cigarette until you
five minutes will pass from the moment
when you need
smoke. During these five
minutes try to change your
emotional mood or
do something else.
Call someone from your
7. Make smoking so much
uncomfortable as far as it is
8. Always buy only one
a pack of cigarettes and only after
9. Never carry cigarettes while
to myself – neither at home nor at work. Not
carry matches with you or
10. Make a list of things
which could be bought at
money saved on smoking.Translate the cost of each
them on non-smoking days.
11. Always ask yourself,
do you really need this
cigarette or is it just
12. As soon as you quit smoking,
go to the dentist to
clean your teeth from tobacco
13. Spend your free time at
new activities, avoid
entertainment that was
associated with smoking
(sitting in the bar, in front of
more physically active
– a disease caused
characterized by attraction to
him, leading to mental and
physical disorders and
disrupting social relations
the person suffering from it
Consequences of use
alcohol for the body:
is a common cell
poison and has a particularly strong
toxic effect on
the central nervous system.
Acting primarily on
cerebral cortex, alcohol in
small doses causes
arousal associated with
weakening of processes
braking, in large –
has a depressing effect, but for
tem – a paralyzing effect on
basic nervous processes in the cortex
and in the subcortical centers,
responsible for the regulation of such
important functions like
blood circulation, respiration,
heat regulation and others.
2. Deteriorating ability
concentration of attention.
Perception processes are impaired,
information processing, especially
the accuracy of reactions to
complex stimuli. Quality
thinking deteriorates significantly.
There is a decrease in criticality,
performance are weakened
or are lost
moral and ethical criteria. 100
a gram of vodka destroys 7500 actively
working cells of the head
3. Some time after
how alcohol is passed through the stomach
and the intestines enter the bloodstream,
hemolysis of erythrocytes begins
due to rupture of their membranes, so
how does ethyl alcohol
4. Alcohol damages cells
secretion of digestive
pancreatic enzymes and
insulin, which contributes to
the development of pancreatitis and sugar
5. With regular use, even
small doses of alcohol gland,
located in the wall of the stomach and
producing gastric juice,
under the influence of alcoholic
irritations first emit
a lot of slime and then
motor and secretory function
stomach. When taking strong
alcoholic beverages occurs
“Burn” of the walls of the esophagus and
stomach.All this contributes to
the development of chronic diseases
6. Passing through the liver, products
decay of ethyl alcohol
destroy hepatocytes. Liver
gradually atrophies, blood vessels
the liver is compressed, the blood in them
increases 3-4 times. And in
cirrhosis of the liver.
7. Drinking alcohol,
activity of the kidneys, as they
along with the liver perform
detoxifying function in
the body.Passing through the kidneys
alcohol and its poisonous products
decay violate biochemical
processes causing damage
renal tissue, its small
vessels and capillaries,
contributing to the development of chronic
8. Alcohol inhibits activity
muscle contractions, changes
energy balance, reduces
oxidation of fatty acids,
inhibits the processes of protein synthesis
and disrupts calcium metabolism in
muscle fibers.After half an hour
after alcohol intake, muscle
strength is reduced by 20 – 40%.
9. All types of exchange are violated
10. Under the influence of alcohol
the heart muscle is reborn,
altered heart walls lose
their elasticity, become
flabby and cannot
resist blood pressure:
the heart grows in size,
its cavities expand. So
way, gradually decreases
the performance of the heart muscle,
blood circulation is disturbed.
11. Chronic exposure
alcohol causes damage
peripheral nerves and development
manifests itself in the form of numbness,
muscle contraction (especially the lower
limbs), “goose bumps”,
all kinds of pain – pulling,
burning, stabbing; celebrated
severe weakness in the limbs.
12. Alcohol leads to a violation
structure and functions of male
gonads and produced
production of testosterone,
male infertility occurs. Have
women long-term exposure
alcohol not only inhibits
proper function of the sex glands
and the production of germ cells,
disrupts the menstrual cycle, but
and often leads to irreversible
decrease in the mass of the ovaries and uterus,
– healthy low alcohol
drink.In fact, according to
harm to the body beer
can only be compared with
moonshine, because during
alcoholic fermentation both in beer and in
moonshine in full
alcohol is much more poisonous
fermentation.). In addition, the beer is already
has not been for a long time
a low alcohol drink, because
in recent years the content
alcohol in beer reaches 14%.By the speed of addiction, beer
alcoholism develops at 3-4
times faster than vodka.
2) Beer is healthy, but beer
alcoholism – contrived
problem. Beer alcoholism –
disease. For him very
characteristic, the so-called
anosognosia, that is, denial
illness and lack of criticism
to your state. The second
negative trait – fast
development of pronounced mental
alcoholism creates a certain
life stereotype filled with
rituals and familiar
actions. And finally, very
accessibility and ease are important
use. Not necessary
in laid tables, not needed,
at least a formal reason for
booze, you can drink alone,
you can in the company, you can at home,
you can be on the street, you can sit, but
can be on the go, etc.e. Due to
taste, presence of sedatives
components and “frivolity in
degrees “to fight the attraction to
beer is more difficult than craving for
vodka. Therefore, from the point of view
narcology, beer alcoholism –
it is heavy, difficult to give in
treatment option for alcoholism.
3) Beer is useful in that it reduces
drinking vodka. Beer is
the greatest self-deception. One
a bottle of beer is equivalent to 50-100
grams of vodka, depending on
fortress.Drinking 5-6 bottles
beer, you can get a dose
ethyl alcohol equal to
bottle of vodka. But psychologically
you are protected: bottle drinker
vodka a day – a clear alcoholic,
and drinking 2-3 liters of beer –
an “ordinary” person and even
gives the impression of being successful
and happy. Besides,
statistics are at odds with theory
and shows that consumption
vodka grows with
consumption of beer.
4) The benefits of beer for the brain.
Alcohol destroys cells
brain. By the way,
among a bouquet of substances,
affecting brain cells
in beer in microdoses contains
cadaverine is an analogue of cadaveric poison.
In adolescence and youth
age, while the body is growing,
all these changes take place on
order faster than adults.
Consistent beer consumption
affects the intelligence of a person,
reduces its ability to
alcoholism ends up in hospitals
in an extremely difficult, neglected
condition, most often with
severe dementia and
a decrease in personal assessment.
5) The benefits of beer for the heart. Beer
promotes the expansion of cavities
heart, thickening of its walls,
necrosis in the heart muscle,
decrease in mitochondria.
It is recognized that these changes
associated with the presence in beer
cobalt used in
as a beer stabilizer
foam.Saturation of beer
carbon dioxide, leads to
the fact that getting into the body,
beer fills quickly
blood vessels. This leads
to varicose veins and
expanding the boundaries of the heart. So
there is a syndrome of “beer
heart “or syndrome” nylon
stocking “when the heart sags,
becomes flabby and bad
6) The benefits of beer for digestion.V
WHO materials indicate that
significantly increases the risk
the development of colon cancer.
Cobalt in beer
in the esophagus and stomach.
7) Beer healthy content
vitamins. With massive
drinking excess beer
potassium and water intake abruptly
increases urine production and
enhances excretion by the kidneys
sodium and chlorine, resulting in
to demineralize the body.By
the content of calcium, magnesium,
phosphorus, as well as iron, copper,
zinc and others, beer is not
distinguished by special
come into beer mainly from
group B. However, in the process
brewing beer concentration
vitamins inevitably decreases.
8) The benefits of beer for reproductive
functions. Beer contains a number
toxic substances, including
heavy metal salts,
causing changes in
endocrine system.So, in
the body of men with
a substance is released from beer
are starting to develop
estrogens causing changes
the appearance of a man. Drinkers
beer men increase
breasts getting wider
pelvis. In women who use
beer, the likelihood increases
get cancer, and if it is
nursing mother, then the child
convulsions.Also in women
the voice becomes rougher and
“beer mustache”. Due to toxic
actions on the adrenal glands,
alcohol inhibits the production of
them androgens, causing
9) The benefits of beer for the nervous
systems. Thanks to the hops beer
contains psychoactive substances,
which create a special, slightly
stupefying, intoxicating effect,
different from the effect of others
alcoholic beverages (in large
doses of these substances cause
hallucinations).With beer man
accustom himself not only to
the usual intoxicating action
alcohol, but also a sedative
means. A certain
time, and without beer is no longer
it is possible to relax
calm down and rest. With
time starts to deteriorate
10) The benefits of beer for the kidneys.
Possessing a powerful diuretic
effect, the beer is merciless
flushes proteins from the body,
fats, carbohydrates and trace elements,
especially potassium, magnesium and vitamin
WITH.Potassium deficiency impairs
heart rate arises
dry skin, muscle pain,
weakness in the legs. Magnesium deficiency
dangerous because it changes
mood, the person becomes
does not sleep well. With a deficit
vitamin C decreases immunity,
hypoxia of the brain develops,
intellect suffers, more often
Is total (i.e.
affecting all parties
inner world, relations with
other people and ways
personality, moreover in
in most cases
accompanied by complications with
sides of physical health.
Consequences of use
exposure to narcotic poisons
on the human body
all without exception are amazed
organs and systems. Already the first
single dose of narcotic
substances can be fatal
or lead to the hardest
2. Decrease in body weight,
muscle atrophy develops,
deformation of the joints, changes
body posture, hair
become brittle, lose their
3. Caries, tooth loss,
inflammation of the oral mucosa
and gums, a specific smell from
oral cavity, non-disappearing
after brushing with toothpaste,
4. Addiction is the cause
having children with rude
underdevelopment of many internal
organs and especially substances
5. Poor health of patients
drug addiction has many faces, but
characteristic of him is
Disturbed by the eerie, debilitating
headache. People are rushing about
screaming, moaning from the pain that has arisen
in the forehead, occiput, temples.
The headache does not stop
days, weeks and accompanied
loss of vision develops in
toxic substances on blood vessels
retina of the eye. Sick
drug addiction is not able to
do any work.
6. However, drug suffering
only the head
pain. Rhythm disturbance occurs
and the depth of breathing – shortness of breath,
which is accompanied by
excruciating, harsh cough.
7. Narcotic and other
toxic substances have
destructive effect on the heart.
Vessels lose elasticity,
their diameter changes.
Marked as a sharp rise
and a decrease in arterial
pressure at insignificant
physical activity. On
autopsies of the victims
gross changes are found
in the myocardium, expansion
ventricles of the heart, deformation
its valves, violation
the integrity of the inner shells
walls of large and small vessels
(multiple ulcers, areas
necrosis, complete closure
lumen of the vessel).
8. Very fast developing
decrease in protective and
detoxifying function of the liver.
9. Kidney function is impaired.
10. Brain damage
irreversible and lead to
personality. Degradation begins
with memory impairment,
the inability to concentrate,
fantasizing, then gradually
desires fade away, are lost
normal human emotions and
work skills, interests
limited to searches and
taking drugs.The process ends
11. Particular danger to life and
health is the use
homemade and falsified
most of Russian
drug addicts. Included in them
impurities can lead to
impaired speech, coordination
movement and paralysis.
12. Mental disorders in
addictions are diverse and
accompany all its forms.Characteristic mental
the disorder is psychoses,
characterized by strong
consciousness up to visual,
auditory and tactile
hallucinations and delusions. Often
such states end
All drug addicts, regardless
the type of drug used,
do not live long.They are losing
instinct for living beings
self-preservation. This leads to
the fact that about 60% of them in
during the first two years after
suicide. To many this
conclusion would like
remind: smoking, alcohol,
drugs are terrible enemies,
insidious and ruthless.AND
avoid the misfortunes they
carry in themselves, easier with just one
sample. You will understand that you were
are right to abandon them when
see what happens over time
treated them lightly.
90,000 Paul Bragg. “The Miracle of Fasting” – Chapter 14.
Rational fasting against mucus
In my opinion, many human health problems are rooted in the body’s waste-laden excretory system.Most of the time, the blockage is due to mucus. Are you yourself free of mucus?
Think about it. Does mucus collect in your nasopharynx? What about the nose? How many times a day do you take out your handkerchief? How many times a day do you gargle? How many times a day do you spit out mucus and phlegm?
Anyone living on ordinary food suffers from the fact that his excretory system is clogged with mucus. This poisonous mucus is formed from the remains of undigested and unremoved unnatural food accumulated from the moment of birth.
It not only clogs the nose, throat and lungs, but can also be found throughout the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. People suffer from the accumulation of mucus in the maxillary cavity. it can also be found in the ears, and not only in liquid form, but also in the form of plugs. Large amounts of mucus accumulate in the lungs.
Pneumonia is one of the worst diseases. It develops when the lungs are so full of mucus that enough oxygen cannot penetrate there to enrich the blood flowing through the lungs.
Our regular food is never completely digested, and the accumulated residues are never completely removed. Thus, our elimination system is slowly but inevitably clogged up. This is the cause of many diseases.
The body is full of mucus, which it cannot get rid of. It remains in the body and is concentrated in a large mass.
Eat to live, not live to eat. The more food, the more diseases.
Our civilized food forms mucus
The modern diet is a mucus-forming diet.Most civilized diets are based on fried foods, and all fried foods are slimy.
Dairy products also form mucus. No animal on Earth feeds on milk as an adult.
The civilized diet includes butter, butter products, margarine, hydrogenated fats and hard fats that cannot be absorbed by the body. About 90 percent of all commercial convenience foods are hydrogenated fat.
The normal temperature of our body is 36.6 degrees Celsius.To digest and assimilate such fats, you need a temperature of 150 degrees.
Our civilized food contains a large amount of processed and synthetic cheeses, and natural cheeses are oversaturated with salt (we have already talked about the dangers of salt).
We eat a lot of eggs, although eggs are high in saturated fat known as cholesterol. Our diet includes a lot of meat, most of which is fried again with hydrogenated fats.
Meat also contains a lot of fat in both overt and latent form.So it’s pretty clear to everyone that modern civilized food is a mucus-forming food.
Mucus is detected in urine during fasting
A urine test gives a clear picture of the amount of mucus accumulated in a person’s blood. Take a three-day fast, eat absolutely nothing, and drink only large amounts of distilled water – two to three liters a day.
Collect the earliest urine in the morning, place the urine bottle on the shelf for cooling.After a few days, a whole cloud of mucus will appear in this urine. The longer you hold the urine, the larger the mucus cloud becomes.
In my opinion, 24-hour weekly fasting will help you get rid of a lot of mucus. Some of this mucus has been circulating in your bloodstream for many years.
In winter, when a person eats mainly heavy concentrated food, the body is so overwhelmed with mucus that it falls into a cleansing crisis. An excess of mucus is excreted.
This is most commonly done through the nose as a runny nose. Few people imagine what collisions occur in our body.
The body is a self-cleaning mechanism. As soon as he has enough strength to remove poisons and mucus, he does it himself. But how do people perceive the crisis? They feel hot. Temperature rise is a natural phenomenon of nature.
Dead people do not have heat, only living people, who have a lot of vital energy, can receive such heat, which works as a cleansing furnace of nature.
An unhappy ignorant person will tell you that he caught a cold because he got his feet wet, or that he was blown out, or that he did not put on a sweater or coat in time. But these are unscientific explanations.
The winter cold is an attempt by nature to rid a person of an excess amount of toxic mucus that has accumulated in the body. This is the inner cleansing mechanism.
I prove over and over that you can’t catch a cold. At the turn of the century, I worked with Dr. Bernard McFadden, the father and founder of the physical culture movement.He organized a group of people who were called “polar bears.”
On Saturdays and Sundays, and on holidays in cold weather, we would go to the coast of Coney Island in New York and exercise there.
Then they plunged into the icy waters of the Atlantic Ocean. At least once, one of the swimmers caught a runny nose! Never!
People who walked along the Coney Island embankment in fur coats and sweaters stared in bewilderment at us swimming and diving in the icy water.It was those spectators, not the “polar bears”, who suffered from colds.
After all, we believed in a mucusless diet, outdoor exercise and swimming in icy ocean water.
Today I belong to two wonderful organizations whose members swim all year round on Coney Island in New York: the Polar Bears and the Icebergs.
Also, I belong to the Boston Winter Swimming Club. And this group has proven that you can swim in the coldest weather and never have a sore throat, a runny nose or a cold.
I live in California, where the Pacific water temperature reaches 10 degrees Celsius during the winter months. If at this time I am not traveling with lectures around the world, then you can expect to see me taking cold baths in Santa Monica, where I live.
Many friends of mine, who also follow a natural, non-mucus-forming diet, join me for their winter swimming. I feel like fasting does a huge job in clearing mucus from the body. Of course, I try to live on a mucusless diet, but I feel that it is my weekly 24-hour fast that helps me remove the mucus that still builds up in me.
Do a little experiment on yourself: cut out all mucus-forming foods for several months, fast once a week and, if it is possible for you, do a seven-day fast. By carefully observing your urine, you can see how much mucus has accumulated in the blood.
After fasting, make your diet consisting of fresh vegetables and fruits, as well as boiled vegetables that do not contain starch. This is a mucusless diet.
Nuts and seeds do not form mucus, so you can add sunflower seeds, unsalted peanut butter and all kinds of nuts to all of the above.
If you eat meat and fish, limit your intake to no more than three meals a week. And don’t eat more than three eggs a week. Do not overuse cereals, flour products and bread.
I will not convince you how much fasting and a mucusless diet will give you, try it yourself. Examine your urine. Pay attention to how many times you will use the handkerchief.
A seven-day fast is a great mucus cleaner. I made it a rule for myself – to fast for seven to ten days at the end of October or in November, by the time winter comes, I cleanse the body of the mucus that has accumulated there.
I try to live on a mucusless diet, but during my lecture travels, it happens that I cannot get the fresh fruits and vegetables that I usually eat. Therefore, I atone for my sin by fasting.
Getting rid of smoking, alcohol, tea and coffee through fasting
Many civilized people are susceptible to one or another type of chemical poisoning. Tobacco, alcohol, tea and coffee are kind of drugs.
All of these substances contain hazardous toxic ingredients.Scientists have seriously studied the habit of smoking, on every pack of cigarettes you will find a warning that “smoking is dangerous to your health.” All over the world, research continues on the effects of tobacco on human flesh.
Let me repeat, “the flesh is stupid.” The flesh accepts everything!
She accepts the carbon compounds and nicotine of tobacco, she accepts alcohol, she accepts the caffeinated gums found in coffee and tea. The body is devoid of mechanisms that can neutralize these poisons and drugs.
But sometimes it seems that a person wants nothing more than to destroy his own body, although he has been warned about the danger many times. It should also be borne in mind that all of these drugs only first act as stimulants, and then cause depression of the central nervous system.
Fasting is salvation for a person who has decided to end bad habits. In my lifetime, I have seen many times how these habits recede during fasting.
A few years ago a woman came to me who was a heavy smoker.She smoked at least four packs of cigarettes a day, drank five servings of whiskey, and drank large quantities of tea and coffee.
She told me that her nervous system is completely upset. When she took the pencil, her hand trembled. She suffered from insomnia, she had no appetite, her eyes shone feverishly, her skin was flabby.
She felt so bad that she began to think about suicide. The doctor referred her to me, hoping that physical therapy would bring some relief.She was ready for anything. She stood on the edge of the abyss.
The first thing I did was starve her, and I didn’t forbid her favorite poisons. She continued to smoke and drink small amounts of alcohol and coffee, but on the morning of the third day of fasting, her body rebelled, and all these poisons, which she so often used, began to disgust her.
Every time she lit a cigarette, every time she drank a small amount of alcohol or coffee, she had a violent attack of nausea.Her fasting lasted ten days. These were the first days in many years when she did not poison herself and did not destroy her body with poisons.
I broke her fast on the tenth day, and her urine on the tenth morning was a thick mass of rotting mucus. You know that these are the remains of poisons.
I put her on a mucusless diet for ten days, and then she starved for another ten days. Every day of the second fasting, large amounts of toxins were found in the urine. She remained under my supervision for about ten months.
I photographed her at the beginning of the treatment and at the end of it, and you could hardly think that these are the same person.
Her skin and muscle tone were great and her arms were beautiful and calm. From an oppressed and downtrodden creature, she turned into a happy and carefree person.
She has lost her smoking habit, drinking alcohol, tea or coffee, and today she is one of the most capable screenwriters in Hollywood. Her income doubled, her personal charm increased to such an extent that she was able to find herself a beautiful and prosperous husband.
I could give many more examples like this, when people seemed to be on the edge of the abyss in their addiction to tobacco, alcohol, tea and coffee.
But they resorted to fasting, and fasting worked miracles. Anyone who wants to get rid of their addiction to tobacco, alcohol, tea and coffee will find a solution to their problem in simple fasting.
When the body is cleansed, it no longer accepts poisons. A clean, healthy, prosperous body always rejects poisons. Fasting is the greatest method for cleansing the body, in which it actively resists any poisonous substances.
Living in the conditions of modern civilization, it must be borne in mind that the preparation and purification of food products completely or partially destroys the vital elements of natural material.
If your food is lifeless, if essential nutrients are missing or greatly diminished during cooking, you could starve to death from a full stomach.
90,000 Does the snail feel pain: why our perception of other living things is so limited
I use shellfish in my scientific work, and I have to answer this question regularly.As with any experiments on animals, especially those concerning their brains, experiments on the bearded seal, Aplysia californica, are sometimes brutal. Aplysia is a gastropod mollusk that grows in a year from a small snail into a thick slug the size of a kitten. Of course, we put our aplisias to sleep with a solution of magnesium salt before carrying out any experiments on them, but in principle, it is difficult for a person to look at the dissection of an animal outside his own plate and not see that he is being shredded.
What does a person really want to understand when he asks if a snail is in pain? He wants to know how he would feel if he himself were a snail at that moment.He imagines himself awakened in the body of this animal, like the hero of the story “The Metamorphosis” by Franz Kafka, fully conscious, but without the gift of speech. He tries to see a cry for help in the movements of the snail. He imagines a terrible experimenter with a syringe and scissors, gleefully laughing at his unfortunate slimy body.
Human pain is a complex subjective sensation, and we are interested not in how the snail physically reacts to pain, but in what it experiences inside.
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There is no doubt that the snail does not experience sensations like ours.She cannot try to utter a cry for help because she has no vocal cords, linguistic centers in the brain, and an idea of what help is. She cannot be intimidated by the experimenter, because she does not see him, does not hear and does not feel otherwise than in the form of a set of tactile stimuli. Her eyes are two small specks, capable of distinguishing light from darkness as much as possible. She doesn’t know what the human world looks like. She does not understand where she is, in spatial or temporal categories familiar to a person.Our concept of pain is inapplicable to it, just as the concept of random access memory is inapplicable to an iron.
But is the snail experiencing something? She reacts to what is being done to her exactly as if she were in pain. Runs away if poked, wriggles if held in hand, releases a cloud of purple mucus if pulled or pulled out of the water for a long time. This means that all these dangerous stimuli somehow penetrate her. How would I feel if I felt all these stimuli?
The fundamental limitation of human perception of any other creatures is that we strive through observation to understand about them that is inaccessible to observation.We can only judge others because of what they do. But we are not interested in the patterns of movement (“if you push Seryoga into a ditch, he will make a loud sound”), but the thought process hidden from us (“if you push Seryoga into a ditch, he will get very angry”). We cannot observe the inner state of other people, but we can observe the inner state of ourselves. Therefore, we imagine what will happen if not Seryoga is in the ditch, but ourselves, and what sounds we will make at the same time. Having performed such a mental operation, we realize that Serega probably does not need to be pushed into the ditch.
But what to do when another living creature is not Seryoga, who in all respects resembles me and probably thinks in a similar way, but a sea hare?
Intuitively, it seems to a person that the body is a shell, inside which sits a conscious being independent of it. We look out of our eyes as if from a periscope, listen with our ears as with microphones, observe the signals of our own nerve cells, as if we were sitting in a theater and looking at a stage. Introducing himself as Seryoga, a person represents his personality in his body.In the same way, imagining himself as a snail, a person imagines that a conscious being from his brain has moved into a new shell and is watching a different performance – but at the same time remains himself. Experiencing the same sensations, thinking the same thoughts, only he cannot say or do anything about this. Of course, this makes a person scared.
But if the snail’s body is a shell into which the human consciousness can be installed in principle, why then we are not nervous about killing bacteria? Those, like snails, react to what they do to them: they avoid dangerous substances and temperatures, move towards the light or, conversely, hide from it, and so on.But if a snail escaping from an injection suggests that it is in pain, then we explain the escape of the bacterium from the acid simply by the peculiarities of its structure. On what basis do we decide who has an inside view and who does not?
Previously, people used to cut this Gordian knot off the shoulder: a person has a soul, because he is a likeness of God, and all other living beings are just mechanical devices. But I find it difficult to imagine a modern sane person who can look at a chimpanzee or even a dog and decide that they are robots that do not experience at least partly the same sensations, emotions and motivations that we do.On the scale of the entire living world, these mammals in their internal structure are almost indistinguishable from us. There is no reason to believe that they cannot be afraid or happy, suffer or have fun, that they cannot be hurt or pleasant, and that they experience these feelings in a fundamentally different way than a person.
But where exactly is the evolutionary boundary at which mechanical reactions become subjective sensations? Which animals can we understand with the help of our thinking, and which ones are fundamentally inaccessible to our imagination? Which animal has a “first face”, a point of view that is understandable to the person sitting in our head?
When students ask if the snail I poke in the gills in a lecture hurts, I usually say no, because otherwise it would have released its purple ink.But this is just an excuse. In fact, in order to understand whether a snail hurts, you need to imagine where consciousness comes from and what it consists of – and this is perhaps the most controversial question that humanity faces in general.
Historically, it was believed that consciousness, it is subjectivity, it is the soul, is a special matter, independent of the material body. This philosophical position is called “dualism”, that is, duality: there is material, and there is conscious. René Descartes is considered the main figure in the history of dualism with his famous statement: “I think, therefore I am.”The aforementioned metaphor of the “scene” in which consciousness observes the “spectacle” taking place in the brain was invented by the fierce critic of dualism Daniel Dennett and named after Descartes the “Cartesian theater” (Cartesius is Descartes’ Latinized name).
The typical argument against dualism is quite simple. If consciousness is independent of matter, then how can it influence this matter, forcing us to do something? If it nevertheless affects matter, then does this not mean that material forces must act on matter in this case? And if a material force acts on matter from the side of consciousness, then does not consciousness itself also make this material? If consciousness does not affect the body in any way, then why is it necessary at all? If there is no influence, then consciousness does not affect the work of the brain in any way, does not change the train of thought, does not affect memory, emotions, motivation and movement – after all, today we well understand that all these things are of a material nature.If consciousness is not reflected on anything, their opponents say to the dualists, then how could it have arisen in the process of evolution?
The opposite of dualism is physicalism, which claims that there is no duality. Everything is material and everything consists of physical objects that move and interact with each other by physical forces according to physical laws. Consciousness, according to the typical physicalist, is a special, concrete, physical sign of the brain, the supreme commander-in-chief, which different animals may or may not have, and thanks to which the brain of this animal can control itself.The main problem of physicalism is to explain how the subjective sensation of this brain arises from the movement of material objects in the brain. Many philosophers regard this problem as fundamentally insoluble and call it the “difficult problem of consciousness.”
I adhere to the point of view bordering between dualism and physicalism, which is closest to the philosophical school of epiphenomenalism (philosophers have no equal in terms of the invention of “-isms”). Epiphenomenalists believe that consciousness is not a separately existing property of a living thing, but a by-product of some other property.The very work of the brain in certain circumstances generates consciousness, which is not needed for anything specific, but simply is. Epiphenomenalists are usually referred to as dualists, because for them consciousness and the brain are different things, and on this I agree with them. But, in my opinion, “dualism” should not consist in the separation of matter and consciousness, but in the separation of matter and information *. The same applies to all biology.
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A piece of DNA and the nucleotides of which it is composed is matter.The gene written in this piece is information. In my opinion, this is the same as the dualism of the brain and consciousness. But would anyone say that a gene does not affect DNA? Only thanks to a specific sequence of nucleotides can DNA perform its function, produce proteins, be copied, and distributed between cells. Only due to its configuration does matter acquire a meaningful direction of motion. From the point of view of the history of life on earth, the configuration is primary, and the material form is secondary – after all, before the appearance of DNA, genes lived in another carrier, RNA, but in the same way made this carrier move and multiply.The information defines the function.
In the same way, the brain acquires meaning and direction of movement due to its configuration. Moreover, if the configuration of DNA is just letter by letter, then the configuration of the brain is an almost infinite space of possibilities. As we will see, this configuration is influenced by every event that happens to the brain during its existence. The configuration of the brain, from my point of view, is consciousness in the most general sense, and if desired, this concept can be applied to anyone.The question is that due to differences in the structure of the brain, and therefore in its configuration, in different animals, consciousness obviously feels differently. This requires an explanation. It is not necessary to explain what consciousness is, where it came from and where it lives (it lives everywhere and nowhere in particular), but why exactly our brain configuration feels the way it feels, and what does it generally mean that a certain system “feels itself”.
I agree with the dualists that consciousness, that is, the configuration of the brain, can be viewed separately from the brain itself.In theory, it can even be transferred to another medium, if only an artificial brain of adequate complexity is created. I agree with the physicalists that, apart from matter, there are no “special substances” in the brain, just as there are no special “gene” substances hovering between the nucleotides of DNA. I agree with epiphenomenalists that the decisions of the brain are achieved by physical means, and our subjective sensations naturally “grow” out of these decisions.
But both the “Cartesian theater” of the dualists and the “difficult problem of consciousness” of the physicalists seem to me far-fetched, and in epiphenomenalism I do not like the complete denial of any role of consciousness in the material world.In my opinion, if we perceive the brain as matter, driven by information through time, then the very concept of consciousness changes and all questions disappear. Interacting with the outside world, the brain constantly assimilates information, that is, it changes its configuration. This information is not the very matter of the brain, but is inextricably linked with it. The totality of this information determines what the brain does in the future. Our subjectivity is also a product of this information. Just as information in DNA is what, strictly speaking, lives and evolves, so information in the brain is what thinks and is aware of.
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