Heart palpitations electrolytes: The request could not be satisfied
Heart Arrhythmia and Endurance Athletes
In recent years, there have been several articles published that discuss the concept of “athlete’s heart,” which is comprised of either scarring or enlargement of the heart tissue over time. There is still a debate about whether or not this is harmful to the athlete; nevertheless, these stories have sparked a discussion among the endurance community about the importance of protecting one’s heart.
Tissue scarring is not the only possible side effect of exercise. In this article, we discuss another heart-based symptom and cause to consider: heart palpitations (arrhythmia) resulting from abnormal levels of electrolytes.
Palpitations, while not always harmful, can be unnerving and can feel like the heart is “skipping a beat,” beating too fast or fluttering. They have many causes, including high levels of caffeine, an allergic reaction, thyroid issues and even pregnancy. In the realm of endurance sports and for endurance athletes, however, one must consider electrolyte levels as well.
It is also important to distinguish between heart palpitations (the generalized feeling of a heartbeat that is rapid, fluttering, skipping, etc.. ) that can have many causes, and atrial fibrillation (AFib). This occurs when rapid electrical signals cause the heart’s two upper chambers to contract very fast and irregularly (referred to as an arrhythmia).
One of the symptoms of AFib are palpitations, but having palpitations does not necessary invoke AFib. The manifestation of AFib causes blood to accumulate in the upper heart rather than pumping into the heart’s two lower chambers as it normally would. The condition can be very serious and can lead to stroke and heart failure if left untreated. AFib can be temporary, persistent or permanent, and generally requires a physician’s diagnosis and treatment.
The purpose of electrolytes
Electrolytes are crucial to a variety of physiological functions. In particular, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium work together to help the body manage neurological impulses, muscular contraction, nutrient transportation, blood pressure and the sweating process. Electrolytes contain electric charges (thus their name), and these charges allow them to move in and out of cell walls, change the electric potential of cells, and conduct electrical impulses.
A change in the electrolyte content in blood is one of the potential triggers of heart palpitations.
To get an idea of how important electrolytes are to the exercise process, consider a 2016 study in Spain that examined 26 triathletes who raced a 70.3 distance triathlon. Half of the athletes were given sports drinks and the other half were given both sports drinks and electrolyte capsules, designed to replace 70 percent of sodium lost during the course of the race.
The triathletes who consumed extra electrolytes finished their race, on average, 26 minutes faster than the group who consumed sports drinks alone. To read more about this study, go here.
For the purpose of this blog post, the role of electrolytes in neurological signals and muscular contraction is mainly of interest, specifically in understanding how the heart requires electrolytes to function.
Electrolytes and the heart beat
“When treating congestive heart failure, one must consider how to prevent depletion of electrolytes or how to replete potassium and magnesium in deficiency states,” conclude the authors of a 1992 study published in Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. Their conclusion is due to the fact that electrolytes are vital to the heart’s ability to contract.
Dr. Peter Kas of resus.com in Australia does an excellent job of explaining this process, which is summarized below.
Known as extracellular ions, sodium and calcium mainly exist in the body outside the cell walls. When sodium and calcium cross the cell wall, a cell becomes positively charged due to the positive charge of these electrolytes.
Potassium, as an intracellular ion, has the opposite effect as it moves towards the outside the cell. During a heart beat, these three electrolytes enter and exit the heart’s muscular cells in phases, resulting in changes to the electrical charges of these cells, which are measurable with an ECG, although easier to understand with the Overall Electrical Charge graph below.
First, sodium enters the cell, resulting in a net positive charge and spike. This positive charge is then maintained as calcium quickly follows, so the charge graph registers a mostly flat line. Finally, potassium exits through the cell wall and the original charge of the cell is restored. This last step is not as quick as step one, so the rate illustrated by the repolarization charge line is slower.
Image source: http://thepad.pm
Overall Electrical Charge graph converts to an ECG like this:
Image source: SaltStick
The corresponding ECG pattern will take place only when electrolytes are properly balanced. If one of the ions exists in too high or too low a concentration, the pattern will diverge.
Low potassium, known as hypokalemia, results in a slower repolarization of the cell, so the second spike will be too low. Hyperkalemia, or too much potassium, has the reverse effect. Sodium concentrations will have the same effect on the first spike in the ECG pattern.
Calcium’s effect is a little more complicated, but it nevertheless leaves distinct marks when there is too much or too little present in the heart.
These interruptions to a cell’s electrical pattern result in abnormal contractions of the heart muscle, and to an athlete, this can manifest itself is as heart palpitations. In these cases, the proper chemistry of the heart must be restored to counteract the negative symptoms.
Of course, non-athletes can experience abnormal levels of electrolytes as well, and the next section lists two case studies published in the Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal, which detail the physical symptoms and solutions to electrolyte imbalances.
Case study 1: Potassium
The first example describes the treatment of a 75-year old man who entered the emergency room complaining of heart palpitations, among other symptoms. After finding his potassium levels too low, the doctors prescribed an aldosterone blocker in attempt to prevent excessive potassium losses through urine. Aldosterone is a hormone that directs the kidneys to filter potassium out of the body, and too much aldosterone results in potassium levels that are too low.
Note that the exact method here is not that important, as potassium levels can be influenced by a number of hormones and physiological processes; it just so happens that in this case, the man’s aldosterone levels were too high.
The point is that potassium levels were abnormally low, which impacted the patient’s heart beat. Once potassium blood levels returned to normal, the patient’s blood pressure stabilized and his heart palpitations disappeared.
Case study 2: Magnesium + Calcium
In this case, a 36-year old woman, who earlier in her life had undergone intense chemotherapy to treat a bout of cancer, entered the hospital complaining of cramping and heart palpitations. The physicians measured the magnesium content of her urine and found it to be quite high, meaning her body was failing to absorb magnesium from her diet.
The doctors did not find an exact cause for the patient’s hypomagnesemia (low magnesium levels), but they assumed it was a side effect of the chemotherapy drug used to treat the patient’s cancer.
In addition to a host of physical problems such as cramping, low magnesium levels can affect both calcium and potassium levels in the body. After physicians returned the patient’s magnesium levels to normal through a combination of drugs and supplements, the patient’s symptoms went away.
These case studies and technical explanation demonstrate that electrolytes are not just useful to an endurance athlete; they are crucial. Sitting at the very center of aerobic activity — cardiovascular performance — electrolytes must remain in balance in order for the body to perform optimally.
While the body is adept at maintaining homeostasis under most conditions, significant demands (such as hot conditions, long distance training or racing) or dietary needs (due to training or racing) can disrupt these biological systems.
Provided an athlete’s diet contains sufficient amounts of these electrolytes, the body absorbs sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium as needed. For day-to-day activity, athletes can maintain normal levels by eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes. During periods of long, intense exercise or periods of extreme heat, additional supplementation may be necessary.
The point of this article is not to say that all heart palpitations in an athlete are necessarily caused by out-of-balance electrolyte levels. As mentioned earlier, arrhythmia has many potential causes, including electrolyte imbalance.
There is often no way to know what is causing the arrhythmia, and the provided recommendations are on the list of things to do (which include proper sleep, reduce emotional stress, no alcohol, etc.) if you want to do everything you can to keep arrhythmia at bay. The point here is to further illustrate the great importance electrolytes play to proper physiological functioning, and to show that replacing electrolytes is a crucial element of any endurance athlete’s nutrition routine.
Disclaimer: Contact your physician before starting any exercise program or if you are taking any medication. Individuals with high blood pressure should also consult their physician prior to taking an electrolyte supplement. Overdose of electrolytes is possible, with symptoms such as vomiting and feeling ill, and care should be taken not to overdose on any electrolyte supplement.
The Links Between Dehydration, Heart Rate, and Heart Health
We all know that water is essential to survival. In fact, most humans can’t survive more than a few days without water. So, when our hydration levels drop, serious side effects like pounding headaches, confusion, and muscle cramps set in. But dehydration is more than just feeling extreme thirst or decreased urination. Not getting enough fluids can dramatically impact your heart health as well.
Here, we’ll show you the connection between dehydration, heart rate, and heart health. You’ll learn how dehydration affects things like heartbeat, blood pressure, and blood fluid volume. Plus, you’ll find out how to recognize dehydration and what causes the condition.
Finally, you’ll discover the most effective way to tackle dehydration is to reach for an oral rehydration solution like DripDrop ORS. It’s medically formulated to crush mild to moderate dehydration, which can cause symptoms including increased heart rate.
The main function of your heart is to pump blood to organs throughout your body. To understand the connection between dehydration, heart rate, and overall cardiovascular health, you need to know more about blood. Blood is a blend of liquids — known as plasma — and solids including red and white blood cells and platelets. Plasma is largely made up of water, but it also contains electrolytes and proteins.
Electrolytes are charged minerals and include things like potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Your body uses electrolytes to retain water, produce muscle movements, and send signals across neurotransmitters.
Dehydration is a condition where electrolyte and water loss is greater than electrolyte and water intake. When you’re dehydrated, your body doesn’t have enough water to transport blood efficiently. As a result, the amount of blood – also known as blood fluid volume — in your body drops.
That means your heart has to work harder to pump enough fluids and electrolytes to organs that need them. Your body responds by constricting blood vessels in an attempt to pump the blood more efficiently. The result of this higher cardiac output is an increased heart rate, heart palpitations, and irregular heartbeat.
In addition, dehydration causes decreased blood flow. Without enough fluids, your blood becomes thicker and moves more slowly through arteries and veins. This can cause an increase in blood pressure, particularly if you have high blood pressure or heart disease. The added strain on your heart can also lead to an increased risk of heart problems including hypertension. Blockages in blood vessels can trigger a heart attack or a stroke if they affect arteries that deliver blood to your brain.
In severe cases, dehydration can also lead to low blood pressure. As the condition worsens, your blood volume may drop to dangerous levels. At this point, your heart may not be able to pump enough blood to your brain, resulting in symptoms such as confusion and fainting.
You can’t just drink water to remedy dehydration. You also need to replenish electrolytes to tackle the condition. The best way to do this is to drink an oral rehydration solution like DripDrop ORS. At the first signs of dehydration, start sipping DripDrop ORS. It’s a proven way to manage mild to moderate dehydration that’s powerful enough to use in extreme circumstances but safe enough for everyday use.
Causes of Dehydration
Dehydration and resulting heart rate issues are caused by several different factors. Many people are familiar with high heat and the risk of dehydration. However, the condition can occur just as frequently in cold temperatures. To understand why, it’s important to know what causes dehydration on a biological level. It’s also vital to recognize that other factors, including age and overall health, contribute to hydration status.
When you’re dehydrated, fluid loss is greater than fluid intake and your body doesn’t have enough water and electrolytes. These fluids are essential for bodily processes from sending signals between your brain and organs to maintaining adequate blood volume. In fact, electrolytes such as sodium and potassium play a key role in muscle movement, water retention, and nervous system function.
Even mild cases of dehydration can affect your heart rate. That’s because your body has to work harder to pump blood when you’re dehydrated. As a result, your heart beats faster and your pulse quickens. Here are the main causes of dehydration:
- Illnesses that cause diarrhea or vomiting
- Excessive sweating
- Not drinking enough fluids
- Electrolyte imbalances
- Certain medications including diuretics
When you sweat, water and salt are pushed to the surface of your skin where they evaporate to create a cooling effect. If you don’t replace these lost fluids and electrolytes, dehydration can set in. Excessive sweating can also occur in wintertime, not just in summer. With cooler temperatures, we put on heavier clothes and often have to exert more energy when we move. That’s why we’re often drenched in sweat when we shovel snow, go backcountry skiing, or walk several blocks to reach the job site.
When you’re sick, vomiting and diarrhea dramatically increase the speed at which fluids are lost. It can also be difficult to rehydrate when you constantly feel queasy. These two factors combine to increase the risk of dehydration substantially.
Older individuals and young children are at higher risk of dehydration. Young kids are still developing, so even minor changes in hydration status can produce dehydration symptoms. Older adults often take medications or have medical conditions that include dehydration as a side effect. But regardless of age, many of us simply don’t drink enough fluids, which leads to an increased risk of dehydration.
If you feel like you’re suffering from dehydration, there’s a fast, low-cost way of managing the condition. Reach for an oral rehydration solution like DripDrop ORS. It contains a precise balance of glucose and electrolytes, including sodium, to tackle dehydration — which can cause symptoms like increased heart rate or irregular heartbeat — quickly.
How To Recognize Dehydration
Now you know the connection between dehydration, increased heart rate, and what causes the condition, it’s time to understand how to recognize the symptoms of dehydration. Once you can identify the main indicators of dehydration, you can jump into action to prevent the condition from worsening.
One of the easiest ways to tell you’re dehydrated is to look at the color of your urine. Dark urine or decreased urination for several hours are key indicators of dehydration.
Here are some other warning signs of dehydration for mild to moderate dehydration:
- Extreme thirst
- Dry mouth or dry skin
- Increased heart rate (known as tachycardia)
- Rapid breathing
- Decreased urination
- Blood pressure changes
- Lightheadedness and fatigue
- Muscle cramps
- Increased body temperature
Cases of severe dehydration may include fainting, confusion, and irritability and should be treated by a qualified medical professional.
If you recognize the symptoms of mild to moderate dehydration, drinking plenty of water isn’t enough to beat the condition. That’s because dehydration isn’t just about drinking water. You also need electrolytes to ensure your body functions properly.
Regardless of how mild or severe, when you’re in a state of dehydration, drinking a few glasses of water is not enough. Your body needs the perfect balance of sodium and glucose to help absorption. With the precisely balanced ratio provided by oral rehydration solutions like DripDrop ORS, you can replenish vital electrolytes and fluids to relieve dehydration quickly.
Plus, DripDrop ORS supplies vitamins like zinc, potassium, and magnesium, which are essential to support your overall health. The convenient packaging means you can take a high-quality dehydration protocol with you everywhere you go. With tasty flavors such as Orange and Lemon plus hot flavors including Decaf Green Tea and Spiced Apple Cider, it’s never been easier to fight dehydration.
Fight Dehydration With DripDrop ORS
When you’re dehydrated, you may feel symptoms such as heart palpitations, increased heart rate, and lightheadedness. Staying hydrated can help to support a healthy heart. That’s because dehydration causes a decrease in blood flow and blood volume, which can decrease your risk of blood clots, high blood pressure, and heart attacks.
If you recognize the symptoms of dehydration, the best way to tackle the condition is to use an oral rehydration solution like DripDrop ORS. Medical-grade DripDrop ORS allows you to alleviate mild to moderate dehydration outside of a hospital setting, without the need for costly and painful IV therapy.
DripDrop ORS was developed by a doctor on a mission to defeat life-threatening dehydration. The patented formula provides medically relevant electrolyte levels, improving on the World Health Organization’s Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) standards because of its delicious taste, giving you a medically viable ORS that also tastes great. By comparison, sports drinks contain about one-third the electrolytes of DripDrop ORS.
For cases of mild to moderate dehydration, DripDrop ORS is a fast, effective, and great tasting remedy. The convenient packaging allows you to have DripDrop ORS when you need it, where you need it.
Get started with a trial or our most popular multi-flavor pouch for dehydration relief fast. Or, if you’re ready to make a purchase, and you’re a first-time buyer, enjoy 15% off your order with code: FIRST15.
How Magnesium Keeps Your Heart Rhythm Healthy
How Your Body Regulates Magnesium Levels
Less than 1 percent of the body’s magnesium is found in the blood. Most magnesium (up to 60 percent) is found in the bones. The rest is inside cells, notes Hugh Calkins, MD, professor of medicine and director of the cardiac arrhythmia service at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore. In otherwise healthy people, a magnesium deficiency is uncommon, Dr. Calkins says, because the kidneys help control how much magnesium is in the body. For example, when your magnesium level is low, less is excreted in the urine. If your healthcare provider suspects that you have a magnesium deficiency, they might order a blood test to check your level.
Magnesium Helps Your Heart Keep the Beat
Magnesium is central to a healthy heart rhythm because it’s involved in transporting other electrolytes, such as calcium and potassium, into cells. Electrolytes are all-important for nerve signals and the muscle contractions of a normal heartbeat. Research shows that magnesium deficiency, or restricted magnesium intake, increases irregular heartbeats known as arrhythmias.
In a review published in May 2019 in Cardiology Research and Practice, researchers found that a low level of magnesium in the blood may increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In addition, the review showed that a low magnesium level is associated with atrial fibrillation (afib), the most common heart rate disorder. Afib occurs when a malfunction in the heart’s electrical system causes the upper chambers of the heart to quiver.
Who Is at Risk for Magnesium Deficiency?
With age, magnesium absorption decreases in the body. Magnesium deficiencies can also be caused by certain conditions, including alcoholism, malnutrition, preeclampsia (if a woman is pregnant), a digestive disorder like Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, diabetes, or chronic diarrhea.
Prolonged use of certain medications can cause too much magnesium excretion. These include diuretics like Lasix (furosemide), as well as proton pump inhibitors like Nexium (esomeprazole) and Prevacid (lansoprazole) used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. Because older people are more likely to take these medications, they’re at greater risk for a magnesium deficiency.
How to Get More Magnesium
Experts advise people to get nutrients primarily from food. “Just 1 ounce of almonds or cashews contains 20 percent of the daily magnesium an adult needs,” says Lakkireddy. Although magnesium is added to some foods, like breakfast cereal, there are several excellent natural sources of this mineral:
- Soy products like tofu or soy milk
- Green leafy vegetables like spinach
- Black beans
When to Reach for Magnesium Supplements
“Patients who do not have normal kidney function should be very careful about taking too much magnesium because it can be toxic at high levels,” says Lakkireddy. The forms of magnesium in dietary supplements, which are more easily absorbed by the body, include magnesium aspartate, magnesium citrate, magnesium lactate, and magnesium chloride, according to Lakkireddy. In most cases though, magnesium supplements aren’t necessary, Calkins adds, and generally are not prescribed for heart health.
Too much magnesium from food isn’t a danger because the kidneys excrete what the body doesn’t need. But high doses of magnesium from supplements can cause diarrhea, nausea, and stomach cramping. Extreme doses of magnesium, over 5,000 mg daily, can be fatal. If you’re concerned about your magnesium level, talk to your doctor to find out how you can get the most of this valuable nutrient.
With additional reporting by Avery Miles.
Remedy for racing heart beat | Health
Everyone experiences palpitations from time to time. If you are the kind of person who takes on too much stress or gets anxious about an upcoming event, your heart beats faster in response.
Many individuals take time to gain control and realise this as being a serious episode of palpitations. Palpitations are irregular, arrhythmic or forceful beatings of the heart. Feeling you heart racing is a common sign of anxiety and impulsiveness, but certain other kinds of recurrent and severe palpitations are indicative of serious heart issues like tachycardia (rapid heart beats, more than 100 beats per minute), bradycardia (slow heart beats, less than 60 beats per minute), fibrillations (rapid, irregular heart beats).
Palpitations usually occur due to emotional outbursts like anxiety, stress, fear, shock, panic, vigorous exercise and increased caffeine intake. Certain phases of fetal development during the pregnancy could also cause palpitations. Medical conditions like hyperthyroid, low blood sugar, low potassium level, low oxygen level or low carbon dioxide level as well as high level of carbon dioxide in the blood increases palpitations. Fever, anemia, dehydration, loss of blood could also be underlined as causes of palpitations. Medications like asthma inhalers and decongestants, beta blockers (taken for high blood pressure), thyroid and anti-arrhythmic medications, can cause irregular heart beats.
It is important to balance the levels of electrolytes in the body. Electrolytes like sodium and potassium, along with minerals like calcium and magnesium help maintain regular heart beat. Palpitations usually occur when the above minerals are not in balanced levels. Hydration of the body is important for maintaining correct electrolyte levels of the body. Keep your body hydrated at all times. Here are a few other suggestions:
1.Take calcium with magnesium supplements. It helps stabilise heart beats.
2. Coenzyme Q10 is also beneficial for reducing the palpitations.
3. If you are intolerant to milk, eggs and wheat, it may be giving you palpitations.
4. Indian spices like powdered aniseed (saunf) and powdered dry coriander can also be consumed for palpitations. Peppermint tea is shown to have a soothing effect on palpitations and acts as a relaxant to the mind and body.
5. Avoid the intake of caffeine and other stimulants. Tea, coffee, carbonated beverages, alcohol and chocolate should be avoided.
6. Do not smoke or drink if you suffer from palpitations.
7. Avoid heavy meals at night. Heavy drinking, fried foods also strain the heart.
8. Apart from the diet, some lifestyle changes are neccesary. Learn the art of relaxation through yoga. Meditation helps calm the mind for anxiety related palpitations.
9. Try aroma therapy massage. It is very relaxing.
10. Use a few drops of lavender, ylang ylang essential oils in your bath or inhale it directly from the bottle. It has a relaxing effect on the mind.
Mostly, heart palpitations are harmless. However if you experience them frequently it may indicate a problem.
Dr. Anjali Mukerjee, Nutritionist and Founder, Director – Health Total
Can Dieting Cause Heart Palpitations?
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our lives in a variety of ways. For many people, it has meant putting their gym membership on indefinite hold. If you’re unable to find alternative ways to maintain an active lifestyle, it can result in significant weight gain. In fact, many people have experienced this problem during the pandemic.
Fad diets are not a new phenomenon, but they are likely to be used with increasing frequency during the pandemic as people struggle with weight gain from decreased activity levels. There are many reasons to be wary of fad diets, including a negative impact on your heart health. Many diets have been linked to heart palpitations.
What Are Heart Palpitations?
Heart palpitations are very common and, in most instances, they aren’t cause for alarm. However, there is always a chance that these palpitations are a sign of a more serious heart condition. Due to the uncertainty surrounding their severity, it’s preferable to avoid actions that may trigger heart palpitations.
You may experience one or more of the following symptoms from heart palpitations:
- A fluttering sensation in your chest
- A pounding or throbbing that feels like your heart is beating too hard
- A racing heartbeat
- A sensation of your heart skipping a beat
Fad diets can often trigger heart palpitations. While there are many other potential causes of the condition, you may want to discontinue your fad diet to see if your palpitations go away. This can be helpful in identifying whether the condition should be cause for alarm.
There are several ways in which your diet may contribute to heart palpitations:
- Increased levels of caffeine consumption – If you’re taking diet pills to lose weight, you’re most likely receiving a super-charged dose of caffeine, which can trigger heart palpitations. This is due to the fact that stimulants such as caffeine often increase your heart rate. If you are particularly sensitive to the effects of caffeine, it’s best to avoid diet pills.
- Dehydration – Many fad diets result in serious dehydration. This can create electrolyte imbalances in your body, especially if your diet restricts your caloric intake to less than 800 calories per day. Many detox diets can deplete your electrolytes as well due to diuretic effects.
- Low blood sugar – Limiting your caloric intake can lower your blood sugar levels, which can trigger heart palpitations. This is especially common in individuals with a history of anemia, heart disease or hyperthyroidism. In addition, diabetics are prone to wild fluctuations in blood sugar levels, increasing the likelihood of palpitations from a fad diet.
- Mineral deficiencies – This is especially common in diets that severely restrict your carbohydrate intake. Eliminating carbs will decrease your insulin production. This can make it challenging for your body to regulate the levels of sodium, magnesium, and potassium in your system.
Preventing Diet-Related Heart Palpitations
The most effective way to eliminate the risk of diet-related heart palpitations is to discontinue your fad diet. Instead of relying on a method that will result in rapid weight loss that may be hard to sustain, you’re better off making adjustments to your diet that will be sustainable over the long haul. This should include:
- Lots of fruits and vegetables
- Moderate levels of protein
- Whole grains
- Limited amounts of processed foods and items high in sugar or unhealthy fats
If you’re committed to your fad diet, the following tips can help reduce your risk of heart palpitations:
- Drink salted water to restore proper hydration and electrolyte levels
- Consume magnesium- and potassium-rich vegetables to ensure a sufficient supply of these important minerals
- Take a supplement containing essential minerals and electrolytes
If you’re experiencing heart palpitations on a regular basis, it’s important to determine the cause of the problem. While this condition is benign in many situations, such as when it is caused by dieting, there are other times when action is required to prevent more serious heart issues down the road. At South Denver Cardiology Associates, our team of cardiologists can help you understand the reason behind your palpitations and whether any changes to your lifestyle are needed.
Our diagnostic center uses the latest and most advanced technology to ensure highly accurate results. If our cardiologists determine that your diet is causing heart palpitations, we may recommend adjustments that will alleviate this condition. If we believe it is a sign of a more serious problem, our heart doctors will work with you to develop a treatment plan that will help restore optimal heart health.
Schedule an Appointment
Please contact South Denver Cardiology Associates today to schedule an appointment. We serve patients in Denver, Littleton, and the surrounding areas of Colorado.
Randy Cupps Graduated from Western Colorado University in Gunnison, Colorado, in 1983 with a degree in Physical Education with an emphasis in Exercise Physiology. Randy started his medical career in 1980 as an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) working on an ambulance and in an emergency room. He then joined South Denver Cardiology in 1986 when it was South Denver Cardiac Rehabilitation as an Exercise Physiologist conducting a wide variety of Graded Exercise Testing on a diverse patient population. Randy continues to keep his EMT current, and he is certified by the American College of Sports Medicine as a Clinical Exercise Physiologist. In 2012 Randy acquired the role of business development, marketing, and physician relations manager at SDCA.
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As with any health concerns, your specific treatment program should be discussed thoroughly with your primary care physician as well as any specialists who may need to be consulted – like a cardiologist.
5 Ways to Keep Your AFib in Check
Want to sidestep AFib symptoms? Try these tips
When you’re diagnosed with atrial fibrillation, you might think that life as you know it is over. Now you have to watch for triggers, be prepared to handle sudden symptoms, and generally keep a lower profile than other heart-healthy people.
In reality, there’s plenty that you can do to keep living the life you want – or make it an even happier, healthier, and more rewarding existence.
It’s true that heart palpitations, chest discomfort, and anxiety are not fun to live with. But although it can be difficult to completely eradicate AFib symptoms, you can diminish their severity and frequency by making some clear and straightforward lifestyle changes. If you want to take your health seriously, consider these approaches to a stronger cardiovascular system.
Tip #1: Make exercise a part of your life
You’ve heard it before, but it can’t be said often enough: if you want to improve your energy, strengthen your heart, and increase your longevity, you need to make exercise a part of your everyday routine. Of course, living with AFib means minding your limits, so you’ll need to moderate your workout routine with the help of sound medical advice from your doctor and a keen focus on your body’s signals.
Strenuous exercise can make an irregular heartbeat worse, but moderate exercise can bring long-term benefits, like weight loss and lower blood pressure – and that can help you ward off heart failure, which is a major risk for AFib patients. Consider a routine that balances regular, moderate aerobic exercise with stretching and strengthening activities like yoga. For more information, be sure to check out our “Exercising with AFib” article.
Tip #2: Minimize stress as much as possible
Not only is stress a common trigger for AFib, it appears to affect the severity of symptoms, too. Psychological stress, which can manifest in forms like anxiety and depression, has prompted patients to visit their doctor more often with AFib complaints. Likewise, if you’re prone to anxiety or high-stress states, even moderate AFib symptoms could feed the cycle.
Stress is personal and unique – your stress relief program should be as well. The first step is to be more observant: learn what brings on stress, where it tends to happen, and why you have such a difficult time controlling it. Then, explore your options. From innovative workouts to face-to-face therapy sessions, there are plenty of stress-relieving resources at your fingertips (and no reason to wait any longer to try them).
Tip #3: Reduce your salt intake
High-sodium lifestyles are the norm in North America, and they’re slowly chipping away at our health. It’s true you need salt to live, but when you take in too much – more than 1500 mg a day – your body’s mineral balance is thrown off, your blood pressure can go up, and your heart rhythm can suffer. Not a good combination for anyone, especially people with AFib.
One simple first step is to decrease the amount of sodium you eat, which means drastically reducing frozen, processed, or takeaway meals. Pay close attention to labels (some foods have a surprising amount of sodium) and get used to cooking with flavorful herbs and spices rather than salt. You may also want to pay more attention to your minerals: electrolyte imbalances can feed AFib, so it might be time to up your magnesium and potassium to counter the sodium you take in.
Tip #4: Watch out for stimulants like caffeine and alcohol
Stimulants can feel great when you’re consuming them, but your heart often bears the health burden. If you’re prone to heart rhythm irregularities, you’re probably even more vulnerable to an adverse reaction to stimulants like caffeine, alcohol, and other drugs.
Remember that stimulants can hide in products that seem harmless. Coffee and cola are prime caffeine sources, but caffeine can also be found in pain relievers and chocolate treats. Energy drinks are some of the worst offenders: they’re loaded with stimulating compounds, so even if they’re labeled “caffeine-free” you should avoid them altogether.
Alcohol is one of the most common stimulants, and it has a direct impact on heart health. Even a couple of drinks can raise blood pressure and increase the risk of palpitations, so moderation is key. Wondering what moderation looks like for AFib sufferers? It can come down to personal physiology, so listen to your body and talk with your doctor.
Tip #5: Try your best to avoid infections like the flu and more
Getting sick is never comfortable, but it can be dangerous when you live with AFib. The flu is particularly threatening: symptoms like high fever can lead to dehydration, and respiratory problems causing hypoxia can stress your cardiovascular system.
Your best defenses against the flu are frequent hand washing and the annual flu shot. Worried that this year’s vaccine won’t offer much protection? It’s still worth getting, because even if you were to contract the flu, the symptoms could be much more manageable – and that can make a big difference when those symptoms are known to interfere with your heart disorder.
Implement these tips by establishing a routine
How long does it take to form a habit? A lot depends on how difficult it is to adopt, and how quickly you can weave it into your daily routine. Some research suggests that it takes a little over two months for a new behaviour to become automatic, which means you’ll have to stay focused on your lifestyle changes for a while, especially when it comes to tips like exercise and eating well.
It’s easy to slide into old patterns, especially when life gets hectic. You may fare better with some support, like working out with a group or joining conversations in online forums to share challenges and tips on keeping (or kicking) a specific habit. The idea is to make it as easy as possible on yourself to adopt positive, lasting changes for the good of your heart.
Electrolyte Imbalance 101 For the Knowledge Thirsty
What’s the first thing your little athletes go for after a straight 30-minute sprint in 90-degree Texas weather? Just like a commercial ad, they reach for their Gatorade (or Powerade), guzzle it down, and breathe a sigh of relief. Gatorade was created in 1965 when a head football coach from University of Florida sought to address the effects of electrolyte imbalance in his football players. The drink would replace the body fluids that his athletes lost during physical exertion. Needless to say, the drink full of these invisible things, called “electrolytes,” was a success. And Gatorade is now a go-to source of replenishment for 75% of American families whose children play some type of sport. Go Gators!
So we know Gatorade helps those with too little electrolytes in their system, but is it possible to over-consume them? Is there such a thing as an electrolyte imbalance from consuming too many electrolytes? Let’s take a look.
Electrolyte Imbalance: Too Much of a Good Thing?
What is an electrolyte exactly? An electrolyte is a positively or negatively charged ion that creates an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in water. Electrolytes provide a charge that is essential for life and human survival, and have to be maintained in proper concentrations in the body. The most important electrolytes for body replenishment are potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium. Because these are vitamins, it’s easy for parents and kids to think they can have a lot of it. But just like anything, too many electrolytes can be unhealthy:
- Too much sodium, formally referred to as hypernatremia, can cause dizziness, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- Too much potassium, known as hyperkalemia, can impact your kidney function and cause heart arrhythmia, nausea, and an irregular pulse.
- Too much calcium, known as hypercalcemia, can lead to fatigue, lethargy, seizures, and bone and joint pain.
- Too much magnesium can cause muscle weakness, nausea, dizziness, confusion, and heart arrhythmia. At its worst, it can cause muscular and neurological damage.
How to Prevent Electrolyte Imbalance
Teach your kids that water is still the best source of hydration. During high-activity practices and games, they should work in some water with their sports drinks. For an alternative to sports drinks, fruits and vegetables are rich in electrolytes and have much less sugar. The rule of thumb is that if you are doing endurance physical activities, like long distance running, Gatorade or Powerade is in order. But if your kids are just playing a one-hour game or activity, vegetables and water do the job and eliminate any concern of vitamin toxicity.
→ Want to learn how to spot heat exhaustion, a broken ankle, or how to keep your kids out of the ER? Visit our blog or get to know our doctors at HHER in Tyler and Longview, Texas.
90,000 causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of cardiac tachycardia
February 15, 2012
Tachycardia: features of rapid heartbeat
Tachycardia is a condition in which the heart rate (HR) exceeds 90 beats per minute at rest. The heart rate is calculated on the radial artery in a state of relaxed rest, the rest before measuring the heart rate should be at least 10 minutes, before the measurement, you should not take strong tea, coffee, smoke, or play sports.
In some cases, an increase in heart rate is not a pathology. Each of us is familiar with the state when the pulse suddenly quickens, and the heart begins to beat faster. As a rule, this happens with excitement or joy, in stuffy rooms, during sports (running, swimming, etc.). Can an increase in heart rate in such situations be called tachycardia? Not at all.
When is an increased heart rate not tachycardia?
- Tachycardia after emotional stress, physical exertion, in a stuffy room.With an increase in body temperature, for example, with a cold, tachycardia can also be observed. Typically, an increase in body temperature of 1 degree gives an increase in heart rate by 10 beats per minute.
- Tachycardia in a healthy person is not accompanied by other alarming symptoms: shortness of breath, pain in the region of the heart, behind the breastbone, darkening of the eyes, dizziness, fainting, etc.
- There is a concept of maximum heart rate for the age of a person . Maximum heart rate is calculated by subtracting the person’s age from 220.So, for a 50-year-old person, the maximum heart rate cannot exceed 170 beats per minute. With tachycardia, this rule does not work: the maximum heart rate does not depend on age.
- The pulse spontaneously returns to normal after a while, for example, after the cessation of physical activity. Typically, in a healthy person, the pulse returns to normal within 5 minutes. If, after this time, the pulse continues to be speeded up or there is a slight decrease, this is a reason to worry.
Tachycardia may indicate a medical condition if it is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Feeling of interruptions in the work of the heart.
- Tachycardia is accompanied by dizziness, the surrounding objects in front of the eyes may begin to “float”, double, the condition may be accompanied by fainting, shortness of breath, even with little physical exertion or at rest.
- Pain in the heart or chest with tachycardia is a common symptom of any type of cardiovascular disease.
Symptoms of tachycardia
- Increased heart rate (main symptom).
- Pain in the heart or chest, dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, etc.
- In some people, tachycardia may be asymptomatic. In such cases, tachycardia can only be diagnosed with a medical examination.
Causes of tachycardia
- Cardiovascular diseases (arterial hypertension, rheumatism, myocarditis, heart defects, myocardial infarction, etc.)).
- Smoking, alcohol abuse.
- Drinking large quantities of caffeinated beverages.
- Taking some medications.
- The use of drugs that have an exciting effect on the cardiovascular system.
- Violation of the balance of electrolytes, mineral substances that provide the conductivity of electrical signals.
- Increased thyroid activity (hyperthyroidism), etc.d.
- In cases where the cause of the tachycardia is not possible to establish, they speak of idiopathic tachycardia.
Diagnostics and treatment of tachycardia in GUTA CLINICS
When diagnosing tachycardia, it must be remembered that tachycardia is not an independent disease, but a symptom that may indicate the presence of any disease of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, one should not engage in self-treatment of tachycardia, it is necessary to establish an accurate diagnosis and conduct therapy for the underlying disease.
Diagnosis of tachycardia in GUTA CLINIC includes, first of all, heart rate measurement during auscultation (listening to the heart), ECG recording, exercise ECG, as well as 24-hour Holter monitoring.
Also, depending on the doctor’s suspicions of a specific disease that caused the tachycardia, additional studies may be prescribed.
Treatment of tachycardia primarily involves the treatment of the underlying disease, the symptom of which is tachycardia.We should also not forget about the prevention of tachycardia and other cardiovascular diseases: after all, as you know, almost any disease is easier to prevent than to deal with its consequences.
Treatment of tachycardia is not only classical drug antiarrhythmic therapy and vitamin therapy, but also giving up bad habits (smoking, drinking alcohol), caffeinated drinks and sweets, as well as stabilizing the emotional background, balanced physical activity and rest.
It must be remembered that too high a heart rate leads to impaired blood circulation, as a result of which all organs and tissues do not receive enough oxygen for their normal functioning. In turn, such a situation can contribute not only to the deterioration of general well-being, but also to the development of pathology of the kidneys, brain, liver, etc.
Experienced cardiologists of GUTA CLINIC will diagnose tachycardia and treat the underlying cause of the disease in the shortest possible time and at the highest level.
Our specialists use the most modern European expert-level diagnostic equipment and the most advanced methods of treating cardiovascular diseases of various forms and varying degrees of severity.
Trusting your health to professionals, you can be sure of an excellent result!
Gorbacheva Elena Vladimirovna
, Cardiologist, therapist
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medicine for cranial pressure Medicines for heart palpitations: a list of medicines with a description, indications and conditions of compatibility. What can you drink or take with tachycardia?Why is there a rapid heartbeat? Tachycardia pills: what to take with a rapid heart rate? Contraindications to drugs. Why is there a rapid heartbeat? The emergence of a rapid heartbeat can be triggered by various factors, including both the body’s natural reactions to the influence of external stimuli, and the presence of pathological changes in organs or systems. The rapid pulse has two forms of occurrence: physiological and pathological. Rapid pulse – tachycardia, when the brain lacks oxygen.It compensates for the lack in two ways: by increasing the pressure or by increasing the heart rate. Nature is so laid down that the breath and heartbeat of a person are combined into a single center located in the brain. An increase in heart rate is always accompanied by shallow breathing. First aid for rapid heart rate. Increased tachycardia can be a serious cause of a critical state of the body. To relieve symptoms, it is recommended to do the following. Increased blood pressure and heart palpitations may occur due to a lack of magnesium in the body.Take vitamin complexes to strengthen the body. The medicine for an increased heart rate can be different. So, some patients, in the fight for normal heart function, take medications (pills, injections), others lead an active lifestyle and avoid stressful situations that provoke tachycardia, but still others use traditional medicine methods. But in any case, it is recommended to seek medical help before starting treatment. The doctor will prescribe a set of tests to diagnose the condition of your body and heart function.Taking medications for sudden pain in the heart without first consulting a cardiologist is highly discouraged. The reasons why a person begins to feel pain in the heart are infinitely many – from true cardiovascular disorders, which really have a location in the heart, to skeletal muscle spasms, sometimes mistaken for cardiac problems. In no case should the importance of the organ be underestimated: the work of the valves, the clear lumen of the blood pathways are the main and life-determining parameters of health.Popular drugs for pain in the heart. Heart pills for the elderly. What pills to take for different pains in the heart. What is the normal heart rate? How to identify and treat tachycardia? What to do to avoid tachycardia? These questions were answered by a cardiologist. When is a rapid heart rate considered normal? A fast pulse may be normal. In such cases, it should not be treated, it is enough to eliminate the cause that caused it. If the attack of tachycardia is short-lived, goes away on its own or from drugs, there is always the likelihood of its recurrence, because it is not about eliminating the cause, but about alleviating or eliminating the symptoms.Such tachycardia cannot be cured; it can recur with the same provoking situations. Palpitations should be distinguished from tachycardia. Tachycardia is an objective increase in heart rate. The normal pulse in an adult at rest is 60-80 beats per minute. If more than 90 beats per minute are recorded, then tachycardia is diagnosed. However, at the same time, the patient may not feel that his heartbeat is rapid. An increased heart rate is often accompanied by high blood pressure.In this case, the more often the heart beats, the higher the pressure in the arteries. The dependence here is just such. Therefore, it is wrong to consider high blood pressure to be the cause of increased heartbeat. Tachycardia is a symptom in which the heart rate increases from 100 beats per minute or more. It is a common symptom of many diseases, can seriously disrupt the normal functioning of the heart and increase the risk of stroke. Therapist, candidate of sciences, specialist in the field of cardiovascular diseases, organizer of the Club of Former Hypertensives Alexander Yuryevich Shishonin tells about the heart rate and why people develop tachycardia.Physiological indicators of the pulse in people of different ages. Before looking for an answer to the question: How to lower a high heart rate?, You need to make sure that you really have a problem with this. Physiological indicators of the heartbeat can vary over a significant range. They are individual for each person. Note. The heart rate in the fairer sex is slightly higher than in men. Causes of high pulse rate at normal pressure. Physiological. Pathological.What to do if there is a feeling of a strong heartbeat in your chest. If, in addition to a rapid heartbeat, there are also symptoms of increased sweating, sudden mood swings, unreasonable weight gain, shortness of breath with little physical exertion, tremors of the limbs, bulging of the eyeballs, an enlarged thyroid gland, a feeling of tightness in the throat and an obstacle when swallowing, it is necessary to consult an endocrinologist and conduct examination of the thyroid gland. A complex of such symptoms indicates hyperthyroidism.Therefore, treatment with heart medications will not give a positive effect. ICB code 1st degree hypertension arterial hypertension 1st degree risk 2 hypertension cerebral hemorrhage
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Many people mistakenly assume that hypertension is characteristic only of the elderly. But this is not the case. More and more young people have been suffering from it lately. Moreover, there are children among the patients. Any excitement or slight stress can cause a jump in blood pressure, resulting in a whole bunch of unpleasant symptoms – dizziness, hot flashes, sweating, headaches, tinnitus, etc. But those who have already managed to buy Cardilite at the pharmacy know that with it you can quickly get rid of all the signs of the disease and not be afraid that the next jump in blood pressure will be taken by surprise.Diuretics (diuretics) increase the excretion of fluid from the body (urine), leading to a decrease in the volume of fluid circulating in the cardiovascular system and a decrease in blood pressure. It is necessary to remember: at the beginning of treatment in some patients, the diuretic effect can be very pronounced. With the use of some diuretics, the balance of electrolytes in the blood may change (due to the active excretion of potassium). In this case, the doctor will recommend introducing more potassium-rich foods (baked potatoes, bananas, raisins, dried apricots) into the diet or taking asparkam, panangin. There are potassium-sparing diuretics, in which case dietary potassium supplementation is not recommended. The natural preparation is used for the treatment of hypertension, prevention of heart and vascular diseases. It should not be taken by pregnant and lactating women, people with low blood pressure and a history of severe chronic diseases. Blood pressure exceeds 140 mm Hg. Art. (as a result of at least three measurements taken at different times against the background of a calm environment; in this case, you can not take drugs, both increasing and lowering blood pressure).Often, arterial hypertension does not have any manifestations. Then he will definitely measure the level of blood pressure and conduct a full examination. An increase in blood pressure is possible. with abnormalities of vascular development, for example, coarctation – narrowing of the aorta, or with narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels, for example, subclavian arteries, atherosclerotic plaques to varying degrees (in these cases, the pressure on the right and left hands can be different) Increased pressure above the age norm is correctly called arterial hypertension. If the pressure rises often or for a long time, and during the examination it is not possible to identify the reasons for this, then the diagnosis is made of hypertension. If a person has any disease that caused an increase in blood pressure (for example, head injury in the past, kidney disease, etc.), then they talk about secondary arterial hypertension. However, in common parlance, all cases of high blood pressure are often referred to as hypertension. A short-term increase in blood pressure is noted when the sympathoadrenal system is activated.This happens during stress, severe fright. Blood pressure increases moderately, not accompanied by a serious deterioration in health. After the elimination of the traumatic factor, the state is normalized. With fever, the tonometer readings also change, their growth is proportional to the level of body temperature. White coat syndrome is a widespread phenomenon. During the measurement of blood pressure in a medical institution (for example, during a medical examination), its level exceeds the norm. hereditary predisposition – an increase in blood pressure occurs approximately 2 times more often among persons in whom one or both parents had hypertension.Epidemiological studies have shown that about 30% of blood pressure variations in different populations are due to genetic factors . excess sodium intake (5 g / day) ; alcohol abuse; hypodynamia. Interrelation of blood pressure with the risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal complications. Elevated blood pressure is the main factor in the development of premature death and the cause of almost 10 million deaths and more than 200 million cases of disability in the world [20–22].High blood pressure symptoms. High blood pressure: what to do. The profile is called polymorphism of genes of the hemostasis system. Genetic tests are taken once in a lifetime and allow you to assess the risk of developing a particular pathology. A sharp increase in blood pressure is called a hypertensive crisis – it is not only a sharp increase in blood pressure to high numbers, but also an increase in all the main symptoms of the disease. The reasons for the development of hypertensive crises are mental trauma and anxiety, negative emotions, changes in the weather (changes in atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity).The pressure with which blood flows through the vessels is called blood pressure or arterial pressure. Measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The highest pressure is recorded when blood leaves the left ventricle of the heart. Getting into the vessels, the pressure gradually decreases, and in the veins it becomes minimal. When measuring blood pressure, 3 indicators are taken into account. This sharp rise in blood pressure to critical levels requires an immediate reduction in blood pressure with intravenous drugs. If medical attention is not provided in time, high pressure in blood vessels can lead to damage to important organs – the heart, brain and kidneys.Why arterial hypertension occurs. Arterial hypertension – an increase in blood pressure in the arteries – an important symptom of pathological conditions and diseases accompanied by either an increase in resistance to arterial blood flow, or an increase in cardiac output, or a combination of these factors. Long-term or significant arterial hypertension itself forms a pathological condition, manifested by overload and hypertrophy of the heart, tension of the adaptive mechanisms of regional blood circulation and pathological anatomical.
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Cardiolite is a hypotonic drug based on natural ingredients. Its reception strengthens the heart muscle and blood vessels, normalizes blood circulation and dissolves blood clots. With its regular intake, the work of the entire cardiovascular system is restored, and the risks of complications against the background of hypertension are reduced to a minimum.The tool has no contraindications and is suitable for everyone, both women and men. Hypertension is a disease characterized by a constant increase in blood pressure. It practically does not respond to treatment, but constant medical supervision and the implementation of all recommendations can significantly improve the quality of life. In addition to drug therapy, it is necessary to know about possible contraindications for arterial hypertension. Drinking alcohol is a serious risk factor for hypertension and its consequences.If the patient does not limit himself to drinking alcohol, then this can lead to sad complications. Drunkenness always causes a hypertensive crisis, leads to brain hypoxia and heart attack. For hypertensive patients, the norm and limit per day is 40 grams of red wine! It relieves stress and other emotional states that are dangerous in hypertension. It is a myth! According to medical research, smokers have an increased risk of complications from cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension (hereinafter referred to as HD) is a chronic disease, the main manifestation of which is an increase in blood pressure, not associated with the identification of obvious causes leading to the development of secondary forms of hypertension (symptomatic hypertension).The term hypertension, proposed by GF Lang in 1948, corresponds to the terms essential hypertension and arterial hypertension used abroad. HD prevails among all forms of hypertension, its prevalence exceeds 90%. Secondary (symptomatic) hypertension – hypertension due to a known cause, which can be eliminated with appropriate intervention. The exercise therapy technique, recommended for hypertension, involves a combination of general developmental exercises with special ones, including: breathing, to relax various muscle groups, to develop the vestibular apparatus.Exercises for general development help to normalize blood pressure, and special exercises have a positive effect on the tone of the arteries. Physical activity with hypertension is not only not contraindicated, but also recommended. But this does not mean that you need to immediately run to the gym or start playing active sports. Is arterial hypertension a syndrome of increased systolic blood pressure (SBP)? 140 mmHg Art. and / or diastolic blood pressure (DBP)?. Thus, in the mechanism of increasing blood pressure in hypertension, two groups of factors can be distinguished: neurogenic, which directly affect the tone of arterioles through the sympathetic nervous system, and humoral, associated with increased release of catecholamines and some other biologically active substances (renin, cortex hormones adrenal glands, etc. ), also causing pressor action (A.L. Myasnikov). Arterial hypertension (essential hypertension). High blood pressure is a serious health risk factor. For this reason, most serious diseases with fatal (fatal) outcomes occur: stroke, hypertensive crisis, acute heart failure, myocardial infarction, acute renal failure. The insidiousness of hypertension lies in the fact that about 50% of people with high blood pressure do not know about it, and half of those who do do nothing to normalize it.Hypertension (arterial hypertension) is, without exaggeration, the most common disease in the world. The World Health Organization has estimated that about 1 billion people are suffering from it. In Russia, according to statistics, hypertension affects 44% of the working population. In the people, its manifestation is called high blood pressure. Many people suffer from it after 40 years. With high-quality diagnostics and timely therapy, blood pressure can be easily controlled, and the manifestations of hypertension are reduced to a minimum. Otherwise, it can cause dangerous complications on the heart, vascular system, kidneys and other organs. Arterial hypertension. Textbook for senior students, clinical residents and interns of medical higher educational institutions, medical specialists. Moscow, 2019. fig. 1 Arteriole spasm in hypertension. Electronogram. The lumen of the vessel (Ex) is narrowed. Arterial hypertension (essential hypertension) is the most common disease of the cardiovascular system.Hypertension refers to persistently high blood pressure. An increase in blood pressure occurs when there is a narrowing of the arteries and / or their smaller branches – arterioles. In some people, arterioles often narrow, at first due to spasm, and later their lumen remains constantly narrowed due to thickening of the wall, and then, in order for the blood flow to overcome these narrowings, the work of the heart increases and more blood is thrown into the vascular bed. Such people, as a rule, develop hypertension.clinical blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive. disease and symptomatic hypertension above the threshold values determined by the epidemiological. Hypertension (hereinafter referred to as HD) is a chronic disease, the main manifestation of which is an increase in blood pressure, not associated with the identification of obvious causes leading to the development of secondary forms of hypertension (symptomatic hypertension). The term hypertension, proposed by GF Lang in 1948, corresponds to the terms essential hypertension and arterial hypertension used abroad.HD prevails among all forms of hypertension, its prevalence exceeds 90%. medicine for rapid heartbeat at normal pressure . arterial hypertension 1 degree risk 2. Reviews, instructions for use, composition and properties. Disease history. Samokhvalov Andrey Alexandrovich. Clinical diagnosis. the main disease is vegetative-vascular dystonia of the sympathicotonic type, labile arterial hypertension. complications – no. concomitant diseases – no. Oryol, 2010. 1. PASSPORT SECTION. F.: Samokhvalov Andrey Alexandrovich. Age: 15. main: vegetative-vascular dystonia of a mixed type, with sympatho-adrenal paroxysms, with hypertensive, astheno-neurotic, cardialgic syndromes. concomitant: chronic non-atrophic associated with H. pylori and duodeno-gastric reflux, gastroduodenitis in the active phase. A 16-year-old child with a history of hypertension, born from an unfavorable condition. Disease history. Curator: Pavel Olegovich Mylnikov, Art.3 courses, 3 honey. faculty. 1 group. Leader: ace. The diagnosis is clinical: VVD of the vagotonic type. COMPLAINTS OF THE PATIENT. Abdominal pain, recurrent headaches, poor transport tolerance, physical exertion pain in the right and left hypochondrium; in 1994 complaints of nausea, abdominal pain, poor transport tolerance. History of present illness. On February 11, a sharp sharp pain appeared in the lower abdomen and pyloroduodenal zone. The patient noted a deterioration in appetite. Case history of the VVD by vagotonic type.Download the case history [17. 5 Kb] Information about the work. National Medical University named after A. Bogomolets. Department of Propedeutics of Childhood Diseases No. 4. Head of Department: prof. Disease history. Curator: Art. 3 courses, 3 honey. faculty. Many do not take vegetative-vascular dystonia seriously. Often, patients feel weak and dizzy, but over time they get used to this condition and do not seek help from a medical institution. In this case, the VSD is a failure in the functioning of the whole organism.First of all, the pathology is reflected in the autonomic nervous system – there are pressure surges, malfunctions of the respiratory systems, hormonal problems. The disease affects a person’s quality of life. With VSD of the mixed type, there is an instability of the vascular tone. The pressure can be very high and then drop sharply. Anamnesis: History of VSD. Present deterioration. Diary template Hypertension Complaints: recurrent headaches, dizziness, general weakness, increased blood pressure up to 170 / 100mm. Hg, flashing of flies before the eyes. Anamnesis: History of GB. Takes perindopril, indapamide. Case history: Acute respiratory viral infection of moderate severity. Clinical diagnosis: Acute respiratory viral infection of moderate severity. Visits: 1119. VSD of hypertensive type. The causes of vegetative vascular dystonia by hypertype. Symptoms, methods of diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive type of vegetative-vascular dystonia. Vegetovascular dystonia is a diagnosis that is gradually becoming obsolete.It is still sometimes put when a person has complaints of pressure drops, but at the same time it is not possible to find a cardiac pathology. Doctors often find it difficult to define what the hypertensive type of VSD is, although they know the symptoms and successfully treat such a disorder. Doctors agree that this is a disorder of the balance of the vegetative-vascular system. The documents. Medicine, health. Case history of the VVD by vagotonic type. National Medical University named after A. Bogomolets. Department of Propedeutics of Childhood Diseases No. 4.Head of the Department: Prof. G. Maidannik. Disease history. Curator: Pavel Olegovich Mylnikov. The diagnosis is clinical: VVD of the vagotonic type. COMPLAINTS OF THE PATIENT. Abdominal pain, recurrent headaches, poor transport tolerance, physical exertion pain in the right and left hypochondrium Vegetovascular dystonia of the hypertensive type is a severe clinical syndrome. It is capable of causing a number of cardiovascular diseases. Vegetovascular dystonia affects up to 70% of the population without age restrictions.VSD for hypertensive type and hypertension have two different codes of the international classification of diseases. The only similar symptom is an increase in blood pressure during seizures. With inaction in the treatment of vegetative-vascular disorder, hypertension may develop with the possible manifestation of a hypertensive crisis, as the main pathology.
90,000 Convulsions, muscle cramps, palpitations after exercise
A muscle spasm (muscle spasm) is an involuntary contraction of a muscle or muscle group, usually accompanied by severe pain.
Seizures can affect any skeletal muscle of the musculoskeletal system. However, muscles that are involved in the movement of two joints at once are most prone to cramps.
The following muscles are most susceptible to cramps:
- muscles of the foot, arms, abdomen, and along the chest
Muscle cramps are very common among endurance athletes (such as marathon runners and triathletes) and also occur during maximum intensity exercises such as sprint running, sprint track cycling.
Causes of muscle cramps:
insufficient stretching, physical fitness and muscle fatigue;
exercise in heat, dehydration and depletion of salt (electrolyte) stores, in particular calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions;
problems with blood circulation, nerves, spine, metabolism, hormone levels;
the consequence of taking medications;
deficiency of certain vitamins.
First aid and treatment
Seizures usually go away on their own and do not require medication.
To stop the seizure as soon as possible, you need to take the following actions:
- Stop performing movements that caused the seizure.
- Gently stretch and massage the contracted muscle and hold it in the stretched position until the convulsions stop.If the calf muscle is reduced, then you need to pull the toe of the foot towards you with your hands, while the knee should be straightened. If the muscles of the back of the thigh are brought together, you also need to straighten the knee with the help of your hands.
- Do not stretch the muscle solely by the action of antagonistic muscles – this can intensify and / or prolong the cramp.
- Relax the contracted muscle and let it rest for a few minutes. Attempting to voluntarily contract this muscle immediately after the seizure stops can lead to a second spasm.
- In case of painful sensations in the muscle after cramps, you can apply ice and apply a tight bandage (elastic bandage, bandage).
- If, after the convulsions, the muscle is still in a tense state, dense to the touch, you should massage it, warm it up and apply a tight bandage.
For the prevention of muscle cramps, we recommend:
warm up thoroughly, regularly stretch muscles prone to cramps;
consultation of a nutritionist-nutritionist specialist who will develop an individual diet with the required amount of calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, as well as select a vitamin and mineral complex.
The Moscow Department of Healthcare gave recommendations to the participants of the Moscow Marathon
Leading specialists of the Moscow Scientific and Practical Center for Medical Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine of the Moscow Department of Health (MNPC MRVSM) gave their recommendations to the participants of the Moscow Marathon, which will be held on September 23. Zurab Ordzhonikidze, the first deputy director of the Moscow Scientific and Practical Center MRVSM, the chief specialist in sports medicine in Moscow, and Vladimir Pavlov, head of the department of functional diagnostics and sports medicine at the Moscow Scientific and Practical Center MRVSM, took part in the development of the recommendations.
“To successfully overcome a marathon distance, you must be well adapted to it. In medical practice, adaptation is usually understood as that form of adaptation that is created in the unusual conditions of the organism’s existence. Adaptation to physical activity, in relation to this kind of sport, high functional readiness, in itself plays an important role in achieving success and avoiding complications due to unfavorable external conditions, ”said Zurab Ordzhonikidze.
A few days before participating in the competition, it is recommended to eat a meal rich in carbohydrates, the so-called carbohydrate load, which will allow you to form a sufficient reserve of energy substrate. 3-5 days before the start, heavy physical activity and interval training should be excluded.
Adequate fluid intake is required 24 hours before the competition. One way to confirm that you are adequately hydrated is to excrete light-colored urine in the correct amount.
Immediately before participating in the competition, you need to sleep well, about 2 hours before the start, it is recommended to take a small amount of food rich in carbohydrates (light carbohydrate load), and 30 minutes – 1 hour before the start – to consume 500 ml of liquid.
“It is advisable to use specialized sports drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes, since drinking pure water with a very large loss of fluid can lead to disruption of the functioning of organs and systems associated with a parallel irreplaceable loss of electrolytes,” added Vladimir Pavlov.
It is recommended to wear an appropriate sports uniform – a minimum amount of light-colored clothing that allows skin vapors to pass through well, and continuous monitoring of your well-being – sensations, pulse, etc.
When unpleasant, unusual, unusual sensations appear (trembling, chills, “goose bumps” , inappropriate to the load and incessant heartbeat, “dimness” in the eyes, dizziness, etc.) it is better to leave the distance and seek medical help, because, despite all the achievements, the most important thing is life!
90,000 Healthy heart – Healthy lifestyle
The heart is the main organ of the circulatory system.Our blood moves through the arteries, veins and capillaries precisely because of the work of the heart. Proper functioning of the cardiovascular system contributes to the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the cells of the body. The quality of our life depends on the work of this delicate and capricious instrument. Helping your heart isn’t too difficult – there are a few important principles of healthy living to follow.
Diseases of the cardiovascular system are the most common causes of death in modern society.According to the World Health Organization, by 2030 the number of people suffering from cardiovascular diseases worldwide will exceed 23 million people. But the paradoxical attitude of people to their health frightens more. For example, in Russia, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, a sedentary lifestyle and inattention to the first symptoms are the main reasons for diagnosing serious illnesses in the population. Such a permissive attitude towards oneself leads to an insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart muscle, the heart begins to “fail” and ceases to perform its main function by 100%.
The consequences of a poor diet can lead to serious heart problems. Here the main enemy of our “motor” that pumps blood is animal fat. Cholesterol and some other lipid molecules lead to the development of atherosclerosis, which, in turn, threatens the gradual blockage of the arteries. With this disease, gradually increasing plaques appear on the walls of the arteries, which eventually block the lumen. They can be damaged, and in this case, a blood clot appears at the site of the plaque.When it grows to the size of an artery, blood flow through it stops, which means that the organ stops receiving the amount of oxygen necessary for full-fledged work. If this occurs in the coronary arteries, a lover of fatty foods is at risk of myocardial infarction.
Table salt is no less harmful to the heart. Chlorine and sodium, of which it consists, are needed to maintain the exchange of electrolytes, however, to perform this function, a very small amount of them is sufficient. Salt abuse, on the other hand, causes changes in blood pressure.Once in the blood, it attracts fluid from the surrounding tissues into the bloodstream, overfilling it. Tissues that have lost water begin to experience a deficit in it, and a feeling of thirst appears. In this case, the water drunk again enters the bloodstream, worsening the situation. With excessive use of salt, the mechanism for regulating vascular tone is also disrupted, and they narrow, which eventually leads to hypertension – high blood pressure.
Stress is also a danger to the heart. If you think that our experiences are temporary and pass without a trace, then you are mistaken. With a surge of negative emotions, the human nervous system is overexcited, which leads to an increase in heart rate and an increase in blood pressure. Such increased work of the heart muscle requires a lot of oxygen, and its lack causes oxygen starvation. If stress is repeated regularly, then it provokes many cardiovascular problems.
The main symptoms of cardiovascular diseases are: discomfort up to pain in the chest, severe aching chest pain radiating to the left arm, neck, back, nape, dull pain in the heart region, accompanied by high fever, short stabbing pain in the heart , palpitations, shortness of breath, swelling, pallor of the skin, dizziness and headaches.
To keep your heart in good shape, it is enough to follow simple rules.
Potassium is our heart friend
Potassium is responsible for the regulation of fluid in cells. When the cells lack potassium, the body begins to consume sodium, which is in excess in our body. This leads to muscle swelling. To maintain heart health, you need to eat foods that contain potassium – potatoes, legumes (soy, beans, and peas), watermelons, melons, and bananas.
Beta-carotene against heart attack
Beta-carotene is an orange pigment and antioxidant, which, together with other beneficial substances, is used to increase immunity, as well as prevent and treat cancer, heart disease and cataracts. Carrots, spinach, cabbage must be in the diet of a person who cares about their hearts.
Once again about stress
Remember the joke about the horse on the collective farm, which worked the most, but did not become the chairman? So, achieve your goals not by the number of hours worked, but by their quality.It is clear that such a formula is not always applicable during emergency days, but it must be remembered that everyone needs rest and respite. For the best effect, devote your break to a leisurely walk, breathe some air, stretch your stiff limbs.
Cuddle more often
In the fight for a healthy heart, hugs play an important role. According to psychologists, sincere hugs help people exchange warmth and positive energy, as well as allow them to relax and get away from problems.Hugging a loved one, our breathing calms down, the body’s processes stabilize, and stress recedes.
Cranberries to help
This berry contains acids necessary for the expansion of the venous vessels of the heart, which nourish the heart muscle. Cranberry also relieves headaches, increases the elasticity and strength of blood vessel walls. Berries are generally beneficial for high blood pressure.
Power of breakfast
A healthy low-fat breakfast in the first hour after waking up will not only energize you for the whole day, but also save you from clogged arteries.The main thing is that breakfast is unhurried, and coffee does not become the main guest of your morning meal.
Is it worth arguing?
People who seek to argue, suppress the interlocutor and be always right are more at risk of cardiovascular disease – again, everything comes down to stress. Sometimes, before entering into a tough polemic with someone, ask yourself: “Is it necessary?”
Remember to exercise regularly, eat right, and follow these simple guidelines to stay healthy!
how to properly prepare for the autumn race / City news / Moscow website
How to run and not get tired? leading specialists from the Moscow Scientific and Practical Center for Medical Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine of the Moscow Department of Health spoke about the preparations for the Moscow Marathon .
“To successfully overcome a marathon distance, you need to be well adapted. In medical practice, adaptation is usually understood as that form of adaptation that is created in the unusual conditions of the organism’s existence. Adaptation to physical activity (in relation to this kind of sport), high functional readiness in themselves play a vital role in achieving success and help to avoid complications due to adverse external conditions, “said Zurab, First Deputy Director of the Center for Medical Rehabilitation, Chief Specialist in Sports Medicine in Moscow. Ordzhonikidze.
Doctors recommend eating foods rich in carbohydrates a few days before competing in competition . This will allow the body to form a sufficient reserve of energy.
Three to five days before the start should exclude heavy physical activity and interval training. And on the eve you need to drink a lot of liquid and to sleep well .
“It is advisable to use specialized sports drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes, since drinking pure water with a very large loss of fluid can lead to a violation of the water and electrolyte balance in the body,” added Vladimir Pavlov, head of the department of functional diagnostics and sports medicine at the center.
It is desirable that the clothes be loose , made of natural fabrics of light colors. It is also recommended to use devices that monitor well-being ( fitness bracelets, heart rate monitors ).
In addition, doctors ask you to pay special attention to the occurrence of unusual sensations – tremors, chills, goose bumps, palpitations, blurred eyes, dizziness. At the first onset of these symptoms, it is best to get out of the way and seek medical attention.
The Moscow Marathon is one of the largest races in the country. This year it will take place on 23 September. Like last year, route runs along the most picturesque embankments of the city – Luzhnetskaya, Frunzenskaya, Prechistenskaya, Kremlin, Raushskaya and Kosmodamianskaya. More than 90,295 30 thousand people can take part in the race.
This might be interesting
Running City: Who Runs and Why Moscow Marathon
Running around the city and life, or Interview with the sports director of the Moscow Marathon
78 years and 179 marathons: Andrey Chirkov – about running and longevity
City Clinical Hospital.
The adrenal glands are a paired organ, on the right and left they are located above the kidneys,
lie in the retroperitoneal tissue. The right adrenal gland is triangular in shape, located
above the upper pole of the right kidney, directly adjacent to the inferior vena cava.
The left adrenal gland has a lunate shape, located partially above the upper
pole of the left kidney, in contact with the pancreas, spleen,
the cardiac part of the stomach. The adrenal glands are supplied with a large amount
arteries. Venous blood flows through the central adrenal vein (on the right it flows directly into the lower
vena cava, on the left – into the left renal vein).
In the adrenal medulla
- Adrenaline – important
hormone in the fight against stress. Activation of this hormone and its production
increases both with positive emotions and stress, trauma. Under
the influence of adrenaline can enlarge and dilate the pupils, breathing
becomes more frequent, blood pressure rises, hot flush is felt
forces. Increases resistance to pain
- Norepinephrine – hormone
stress, which is considered the precursor to adrenaline.Renders less
effect on the body, is involved in the regulation of blood pressure, which
allows to stimulate the work of the heart muscle
produces hormones of the corticosteroid class, which are divided into three layers:
glomerular, bundle, reticular zone. Hormones
glomerular zone produce:
- Aldosterone – hormone
responsible for the exchange of potassium and sodium ions in human blood. Participates in water-salt metabolism,
helps to increase blood circulation, increases blood pressure
- Corticosterone –
inactive hormone, participates in the water-salt balance
– a hormone that increases resistance in the human body, gives strength to the muscles
and the skeleton, also regulates the water-salt balance
Hormones of the adrenal bundle zone:
- Cortisol is a hormone
preserving the body’s energy resources, participates in carbohydrate metabolism. Cortisol levels often fluctuate, so in the morning it is much higher than
in the evening
- Corticosterone – (see.
above) is also produced by the bundle zone
Hormones of the reticular zone:
- Androgens – sex
hormones that affect sexual characteristics: libido, increase in muscle
mass and strength, body fat, lipid and cholesterol levels in the blood
of the above – adrenal hormones perform an important function in the body
a person, their excess or deficiency can lead to disruption throughout the body.
Diseases of the adrenal glands can be divided into pathology forms – tumors, cysts and functions – aldosteroma, corticosteroma, pheochromocytoma, androsteroma, estroma. To help diagnose diseases of the adrenal glands or to identify violations in their functionality, you can use a series of examinations that the doctor prescribes after the collected history. To make a diagnosis, the doctor determines the hormones of the adrenal glands, which makes it possible to identify an excess or deficiency of the latter. In adrenal tumors, the main screening diagnostic method is ultrasound, but a more accurate picture is given by CT or MRI of the abdominal and retroperitoneal organs.The results of the examination make it possible to draw up a complete picture of the disease, determine the cause, identify certain disorders in the work of the adrenal glands and other organs and, accordingly, prescribe treatment, which can be carried out both by a conservative method and by surgery
Itsenko’s syndrome- Cushing’s is a pathological symptom complex resulting from an increased release of the hormone cortisol from the adrenal cortex by the tumor.The production of cortisol and corticosterone is regulated by the pituitary gland by the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone. The activity of the pituitary gland is controlled by the hormones of the hypothalamus – statins and liberins. This multi-stage regulation is necessary to ensure the coherence of body functions and metabolic processes, a violation of one of the links can cause hypersecretion of adrenal cortex hormones, which will lead to the development of Itsenko-Cushing’s syndrome. Unlike Itsenko-Cushing’s disease, the syndrome is manifested by a primary increase in hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex, while in Insenko-Cushing’s disease, ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma is the basis.In 20% of cases, the cause of Itsenko-Cushing’s syndrome is a tumor of their adrenal cortex. The most characteristic symptom of the syndrome is obesity according to the cushingoid type (fatty deposits on the face, neck, chest, abdomen, back with relatively thin limbs), the face becomes reddish-purple, muscle atrophy, a decrease in muscle tone and strength are observed. Diagnostics: determination of the excretion of cortisol in daily urine, determination of cortisol in the blood, determination of ACTH in the blood, conduct a small dexamethasone test (normally taking dexamethasone reduces the level of cortisol, with Itsenko-Kushching syndrome, there is no decrease), CT or MRI of the abdominal organs is performed.If there is a neoplasm in the adrenal gland, surgical treatment is performed. Symptomatic treatment for Itsenko-Cushing’s syndrome includes the use of antihypertensive, diuretic, hypoglycemic drugs, cardiac glycosides. With Itsenko-Cushing’s disease, surgical treatment of pituitary adenoma is performed.
Conn’s syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism, aldosteroma) is a symptom complex due to the greater production of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. The cause is most often a tumor of the adrenal gland, less often – hyperplasia of the glomerular zone of the cortical layer.In patients, the amount of potassium decreases and the concentration of sodium in the blood increases, because of this, blood pressure rises.
The syndrome was first described by a scientist from America by Horse in 1955, which is why it got its name.
weakness, fatigue, tachycardia, convulsions, headache, thirst, paresthesia
limbs, increased blood pressure.
accompanied by signs of damage to the heart and blood vessels, kidneys, muscle tissue.Arterial hypertension is malignant and resistant to hypotensive
a study of blood electrolytes (high sodium, low potassium in the blood),
increase in the level of aldosterone in plasma, calculation of daily urine output, determination
the level of renin in the blood, the ratio of the activity of plasma aldosterone and renin,
determination of the level of aldosterone in daily urine, CT or MRI of the abdominal organs
– determination of neoplasms in the adrenal glands.
measures are aimed at correcting high blood pressure,
metabolic disorders, as well as to prevent possible complications,
due to high blood pressure and a decrease in potassium in the blood.Conservative therapy is not radically capable of improving the condition of patients,
complete recovery occurs only after surgical removal of the tumor.
Pheochromocytoma is a hormonally active tumor that actively secretes adrenaline and norepinephrine. Pheochromocytoma leads to the release of adrenaline or norepinephrine into the bloodstream, which leads to the development of specific disorders in patients – a persistent crisis increase in blood pressure (sometimes more than 200/100 mm Hg), not amenable to antihypertensive therapy, heart palpitations.Most often, pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland. Diagnostics is based on radiation and hormonal research methods. Radiation diagnostics: CT or MRI of the abdominal and retroperitoneal organs. Hormones: determination of the level of chromogranin A, ACTH, aldosterone, renin, blood cortisol, determination of metanephrines, normetanephrines in daily urine. The presence of formation in the adrenal gland, an increase in the level of metanephrines and normetanephrines in daily urine allows suspecting a pheochromocytoma.The main method of treatment for pheochromocytoma is adrenalectomy with a tumor. Special attention is paid to the preparation for the operation – the tasks of the preoperative preparation of patients with pheochromocytoma are to normalize the blood pressure level, eliminate its dangerous fluctuations during the day, and slow down the heart rate. Doxazosin (Cardura) is used as the main drug used to prepare for surgery. The drug is prescribed at least 2 weeks before the planned operation. The method of access for surgical treatment depends on the size of the tumor, location, hormonal activity
Estroma is a tumor of the adrenal cortex that produces a large number of female sex hormones – estrogens.As a rule, these tumors are malignant. Estromas are very rare, clinically they are manifested in males by impotence, bilateral gynecomastia, fenimization of the physique, and sometimes testicular hypotrophy. In most patients, along with feminization, there are signs of hypersecretion of gluco- and mineralocorticoids. Therefore, the diagnosis consists in examining specific hormones in the blood, performing CT or MRI of the abdominal organs. Surgical treatment – removal of the adrenal tumor.
Androsteroma is a hormonally active tumor of the adrenal gland that produces large quantities of male sex hormones.The picture of the disease in women is characterized by a disorder of the menstrual cycle (amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea), hypertrophy of the clitoris, hair growth of the face and body, masculinization of the figure, coarsening of the voice, and sometimes male-pattern baldness. In some patients, hypertension and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in the form of hyperglycemia and a moderate increase in sugar in the urine may be observed. In men, androsteromas are extremely rare and do not show any external signs, therefore, they are diagnosed at a late stage of the disease.Diagnostics consists in performing CT scan of the abdominal organs or MRI of the abdominal organs, the content of a high titer of androgens and their metabolites in daily urine. Treatment – removal of the adrenal gland tumor
Hormonally inactive adrenal tumor – adrenal gland formation, most often of a benign nature, not producing high amounts of hormones. These adrenal tumors can be of various sizes. Patients with hormonally inactive formations in the adrenal gland less than 3 cm are shown observation, study of hormones in dynamics.When tumors are more than 3 cm in size, or when the tumor grows more than 1 cm per year, surgical treatment is indicated. Diagnostics includes hormonal and biochemical blood and urine tests, CT or MRI of the abdominal organs.