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Heating pad burns treatment: Thermal Burns (Heat or Fire): Pictures, Treatment & Symptoms

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First Aid Treatment for Thermal Burns

Call 911 if:

  • The burn penetrates all layers of the skin.
  • The skin is leathery or charred looking, with white, brown, or black patches.
  • The person is an infant or a senior.

 

For All Burns

1. Stop Burning Immediately

  • Put out fire or stop the person’s contact with hot liquid, steam, or other material.
  • Help the person “stop, drop, and roll” to smother flames.
  • Remove smoldering material from the person.
  • Remove hot or burned clothing. If clothing sticks to skin, cut or tear around it.

2. Remove Constrictive Clothing Immediately

  • Take off jewelry, belts, and tight clothing. Burns can swell quickly.

Then take the following steps:

For First-Degree Burns (Affecting Top Layer of Skin)

1. Cool Burn

  • Hold burned skin under cool (not cold) running water or immerse in cool water until the pain subsides.
  • Use compresses if running water isn’t available.

2. Protect Burn

  • Cover with sterile, non-adhesive bandage or clean cloth.
  • Do not apply butter, oil, lotions, or creams (especially if they contain fragrance). Apply a petroleum-based ointment two to three times per day.
Continued

3. Treat Pain

4. When to See a Doctor

Seek medical help if:

  • You see signs of infection, like increased pain, redness, swelling, fever, or oozing.
  • The person needs tetanus or booster shot, depending on date of last injection. Tetanus booster should be given every 10 years.
  • The burn blister is larger than two inches or oozes.
  • Redness and pain last more than a few hours.
  • The pain gets worse.
  • The hands, feet, face, or genitals are burned.

5. Follow Up

For Second-Degree Burns (Affecting Top 2 Layers of Skin)

1. Cool Burn

  • Immerse in cool water for 10 or 15 minutes.
  • Use compresses if running water isn’t available.
  • Don’t apply ice. It can lower body temperature and cause further pain and damage.
  • Don’t break blisters or apply butter or ointments, which can cause infection.
Continued

2. Protect Burn

  • Cover loosely with sterile, nonstick bandage and secure in place with gauze or tape.

3. Prevent Shock

Unless the person has a head, neck, or leg injury, or it would cause discomfort:

  • Elevate feet about 12 inches.
  • Elevate burn area above heart level, if possible.
  • Cover the person with coat or blanket.

4. See a Doctor

  • The doctor can test burn severity, prescribe antibiotics and pain medications, and administer a tetanus shot, if needed.

For Third-Degree Burns

1. Call 911

2. Protect Burn Area

  • Cover loosely with sterile, nonstick bandage or, for large areas, a sheet or other material that that won’t leave lint in wound.
  • Separate burned toes and fingers with dry, sterile dressings.
  • Do not soak burn in water or apply ointments or butter, which can cause infection.

3. Prevent Shock

Unless the person has a head, neck, or leg injury or it would cause discomfort:

  • Elevate feet about 12 inches.
  • Elevate burn area above heart level, if possible.
  • Cover the person with coat or blanket.
  • For an airway burn, do not place pillow under the person’s head when the person is lying down. This can close the airway.
  • Have a person with a facial burn sit up.
  • Check pulse and breathing to monitor for shock until emergency help arrives.

4. See a Doctor

  • Doctors will give oxygen and fluid, if needed, and treat the burn.

Pictures of types and symptoms

A burn is skin damage, usually caused by exposure to heat. The seriousness of a burn depends on its type and size. There are different types of burns and many treatment options available.

This article discusses different types of burn, their symptoms, how to treat them, and when to seek medical attention.

The skin consists of three different layers that protect against viruses and bacteria entering the body. These are:

  • the epidermis
  • the dermis
  • hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue

The epidermis

This is the visible outer layer of skin that helps regulate temperature and protect the body. It does not contain any blood vessels.

Superficial or first-degree burns only affect the epidermis, which remains intact. Often treatable at home, a first-degree burn is the least severe.

The dermis

The dermis is the lower level of the skin. Called the papillary region, it consists of collagen, nerve endings, sweat glands, and elastic fibers. It is also the thickest layer of skin, providing flexibility and strength.

A second-degree burn is one that reaches the dermis. This is more serious than a first-degree burn.

Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer

This consists of adipose tissue that stores energy in the form of fat. It is also connective tissue that cushions and insulates the body.

Any burn that destroys all layers of the skin and reaches the hypodermis is a third-degree burn. Third-degree burns are severe and require immediate medical attention.

All types of burns can be painful and produce visible symptoms. Understanding the kind of burn and its severity is essential when assessing medical treatment. There are three levels:

  • first-degree
  • second-degree
  • third-degree

First-degree burn

A first-degree burn is the most common type of burn. Symptoms include:

  • dry skin with mild swelling
  • changes in skin color
  • pain
  • itchiness
  • sensitivity to the touch

Sometimes blisters and peeling may occur. If touched, the skin may blanch (lighten in color). The epidermis typically remains intact.

While first-degree burns may be painful, long-term damage is rare. Also known as ‘superficial’ burns, common causes include:

  • mild sunburn
  • tipped over hot liquids
  • hot bathwater
  • cooking fluids
  • hot appliances, such as a cooker or iron
  • friction between skin and hard surfaces, such as turf on a sports field, floors, roads, or carpets

First-degree burns often heal on their own within a week. A person may require medical treatment if the burn is over a large area of skin. Speak with a healthcare provider for advice.

Second-degree burn

Second-degree burns affect deeper layers in the skin than first-degree burns and can involve intense pain.

They affect the epidermis and dermis, with the burn site often appearing swollen and blistered. The area may also look wet, and the blisters can break open, forming a scab-like tissue. Doctors also call them partial-thickness burns.

A second-degree burn is more likely to require medical treatment, depending on its location and depth. Causes of second-degree burns include:

  • boiling water
  • flames from a fire
  • hot stoves
  • burning candle wax
  • steam from an iron
  • hot iron
  • sunburn in extreme cases over a large area
  • chemical burns

Many second-degree burns heal within a couple of weeks, although scar tissue can occur.

Third-degree burn

This is the most severe type of burn and requires medical treatment. Nerve and blood vessel damage often leave the burn site looking pale in color or blackened and charred.

Despite the severity, third-degree burns are often painless because of damage to the nerve endings. Doctors may call them full-thickness burns.

Causes of third-degree burns include:

  • a scalding liquid
  • flames
  • an electrical source
  • contact with a hot object for an extended period
  • a chemical source

Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and the skin follicles, which means new skin will not grow back. Anyone who has a third-degree burn needs immediate medical attention.

The treatment of a burn depends on its severity, size, and location. While a person can manage some burns at home, more severe burns require immediate medical treatment.

First-degree burn treatment

These are generally not severe and most clear up relatively quickly. However, first-degree burns can be painful. The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) has a video that provides guidance on treating first-degree burns.

Here is a quick guide:

  • hold under cool water or apply a cool compress for 5-10 minutes or until the pain subsides
  • cover burn with a non-stick, sterile bandage
  • clean wound gently with lukewarm water
  • apply petroleum jelly daily
  • over-the-counter (OTC) medication such as ibuprofen can help with pain and reduce inflammation

Click here to learn more about sunburn treatment.

Remember, if the burn is substantial or the person is an infant or older adult, seek medical attention.

Learn about home remedies for mild burns here.

Second-degree burn treatment

Treating these types of burns will depend on its scale and location. Hot water and objects, radiation, friction, electricity, or chemicals can cause second-degree burns.

Symptoms include the skin blanching when pressed, blistering, and swelling. These burns calm down within a couple of days.

Home treatments include:

  • running the burn under cool water to ease the pain — do not use ice as it can cause tissue damage
  • removing jewelry, rings, or clothing that could become too tight around the swelling
  • applying a cool compress if the burn is on the face or body
  • cleaning and washing the burn gently — always wash the hands first
  • wrapping loosely with a bandage if clothing or dirt is likely to cause irritation
  • moisturizing lotion can help, but follow instructions closely
  • applying over-the-counter antibiotic ointment
  • talking pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen

Hot oil, grease, or microwaved liquids can cause deeper partial-thickness burns. Symptoms can take a few days to develop, so monitoring the wound is crucial to prevent infection.

People with a more severe second-degree burn should see a healthcare professional for treatment. They may prescribe a course of antibiotics or ointment. In extreme situations, a person may require a skin graft.

Third-degree burn treatment

This is the most severe burn and always requires medical treatment. Because a third-degree burn often destroys nerve endings, a person may not feel any pain when they touch the area. The skin can become raised, leathery, and dark brown, or waxy and pale.

Keep a person who has sustained third-degree burns warm and still. Complications may include:

Severe burns covering a large part of the body may require intravenous antibiotics and skin grafts. Recovery times vary and depend on the location of the burn.

A person may require treatment If blisters burst on a mild-first degree burn, such as on a hand or sunburn.

If the burn is more severe, and pain does not settle after a couple of days, a doctor can prescribe antibiotics and recommend further treatment. This includes a specialist burn care service.

Chemical burns are the result of exposure to acids, oxidants, bleaches, and gasses. They commonly occur in children.

Third-degree burns are serious and often leave visible scarring. Children and the elderly are most at risk. After car accidents and drowning, burns are the most frequent cause of childhood death.

While mild burns are common household injuries and may be very painful, it is possible to treat them at home. However, more severe burns require an expert opinion.

To avoid sunburn, wear sunscreen and a hat. If there are hot appliances in a kitchen, take great care, and use protective gloves around an oven or stove.

Pictures of types and symptoms

A burn is skin damage, usually caused by exposure to heat. The seriousness of a burn depends on its type and size. There are different types of burns and many treatment options available.

This article discusses different types of burn, their symptoms, how to treat them, and when to seek medical attention.

The skin consists of three different layers that protect against viruses and bacteria entering the body. These are:

  • the epidermis
  • the dermis
  • hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue

The epidermis

This is the visible outer layer of skin that helps regulate temperature and protect the body. It does not contain any blood vessels.

Superficial or first-degree burns only affect the epidermis, which remains intact. Often treatable at home, a first-degree burn is the least severe.

The dermis

The dermis is the lower level of the skin. Called the papillary region, it consists of collagen, nerve endings, sweat glands, and elastic fibers. It is also the thickest layer of skin, providing flexibility and strength.

A second-degree burn is one that reaches the dermis. This is more serious than a first-degree burn.

Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer

This consists of adipose tissue that stores energy in the form of fat. It is also connective tissue that cushions and insulates the body.

Any burn that destroys all layers of the skin and reaches the hypodermis is a third-degree burn. Third-degree burns are severe and require immediate medical attention.

All types of burns can be painful and produce visible symptoms. Understanding the kind of burn and its severity is essential when assessing medical treatment. There are three levels:

  • first-degree
  • second-degree
  • third-degree

First-degree burn

A first-degree burn is the most common type of burn. Symptoms include:

  • dry skin with mild swelling
  • changes in skin color
  • pain
  • itchiness
  • sensitivity to the touch

Sometimes blisters and peeling may occur. If touched, the skin may blanch (lighten in color). The epidermis typically remains intact.

While first-degree burns may be painful, long-term damage is rare. Also known as ‘superficial’ burns, common causes include:

  • mild sunburn
  • tipped over hot liquids
  • hot bathwater
  • cooking fluids
  • hot appliances, such as a cooker or iron
  • friction between skin and hard surfaces, such as turf on a sports field, floors, roads, or carpets

First-degree burns often heal on their own within a week. A person may require medical treatment if the burn is over a large area of skin. Speak with a healthcare provider for advice.

Second-degree burn

Second-degree burns affect deeper layers in the skin than first-degree burns and can involve intense pain.

They affect the epidermis and dermis, with the burn site often appearing swollen and blistered. The area may also look wet, and the blisters can break open, forming a scab-like tissue. Doctors also call them partial-thickness burns.

A second-degree burn is more likely to require medical treatment, depending on its location and depth. Causes of second-degree burns include:

  • boiling water
  • flames from a fire
  • hot stoves
  • burning candle wax
  • steam from an iron
  • hot iron
  • sunburn in extreme cases over a large area
  • chemical burns

Many second-degree burns heal within a couple of weeks, although scar tissue can occur.

Third-degree burn

This is the most severe type of burn and requires medical treatment. Nerve and blood vessel damage often leave the burn site looking pale in color or blackened and charred.

Despite the severity, third-degree burns are often painless because of damage to the nerve endings. Doctors may call them full-thickness burns.

Causes of third-degree burns include:

  • a scalding liquid
  • flames
  • an electrical source
  • contact with a hot object for an extended period
  • a chemical source

Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and the skin follicles, which means new skin will not grow back. Anyone who has a third-degree burn needs immediate medical attention.

The treatment of a burn depends on its severity, size, and location. While a person can manage some burns at home, more severe burns require immediate medical treatment.

First-degree burn treatment

These are generally not severe and most clear up relatively quickly. However, first-degree burns can be painful. The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) has a video that provides guidance on treating first-degree burns.

Here is a quick guide:

  • hold under cool water or apply a cool compress for 5-10 minutes or until the pain subsides
  • cover burn with a non-stick, sterile bandage
  • clean wound gently with lukewarm water
  • apply petroleum jelly daily
  • over-the-counter (OTC) medication such as ibuprofen can help with pain and reduce inflammation

Click here to learn more about sunburn treatment.

Remember, if the burn is substantial or the person is an infant or older adult, seek medical attention.

Learn about home remedies for mild burns here.

Second-degree burn treatment

Treating these types of burns will depend on its scale and location. Hot water and objects, radiation, friction, electricity, or chemicals can cause second-degree burns.

Symptoms include the skin blanching when pressed, blistering, and swelling. These burns calm down within a couple of days.

Home treatments include:

  • running the burn under cool water to ease the pain — do not use ice as it can cause tissue damage
  • removing jewelry, rings, or clothing that could become too tight around the swelling
  • applying a cool compress if the burn is on the face or body
  • cleaning and washing the burn gently — always wash the hands first
  • wrapping loosely with a bandage if clothing or dirt is likely to cause irritation
  • moisturizing lotion can help, but follow instructions closely
  • applying over-the-counter antibiotic ointment
  • talking pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen

Hot oil, grease, or microwaved liquids can cause deeper partial-thickness burns. Symptoms can take a few days to develop, so monitoring the wound is crucial to prevent infection.

People with a more severe second-degree burn should see a healthcare professional for treatment. They may prescribe a course of antibiotics or ointment. In extreme situations, a person may require a skin graft.

Third-degree burn treatment

This is the most severe burn and always requires medical treatment. Because a third-degree burn often destroys nerve endings, a person may not feel any pain when they touch the area. The skin can become raised, leathery, and dark brown, or waxy and pale.

Keep a person who has sustained third-degree burns warm and still. Complications may include:

Severe burns covering a large part of the body may require intravenous antibiotics and skin grafts. Recovery times vary and depend on the location of the burn.

A person may require treatment If blisters burst on a mild-first degree burn, such as on a hand or sunburn.

If the burn is more severe, and pain does not settle after a couple of days, a doctor can prescribe antibiotics and recommend further treatment. This includes a specialist burn care service.

Chemical burns are the result of exposure to acids, oxidants, bleaches, and gasses. They commonly occur in children.

Third-degree burns are serious and often leave visible scarring. Children and the elderly are most at risk. After car accidents and drowning, burns are the most frequent cause of childhood death.

While mild burns are common household injuries and may be very painful, it is possible to treat them at home. However, more severe burns require an expert opinion.

To avoid sunburn, wear sunscreen and a hat. If there are hot appliances in a kitchen, take great care, and use protective gloves around an oven or stove.

Pictures of types and symptoms

A burn is skin damage, usually caused by exposure to heat. The seriousness of a burn depends on its type and size. There are different types of burns and many treatment options available.

This article discusses different types of burn, their symptoms, how to treat them, and when to seek medical attention.

The skin consists of three different layers that protect against viruses and bacteria entering the body. These are:

  • the epidermis
  • the dermis
  • hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue

The epidermis

This is the visible outer layer of skin that helps regulate temperature and protect the body. It does not contain any blood vessels.

Superficial or first-degree burns only affect the epidermis, which remains intact. Often treatable at home, a first-degree burn is the least severe.

The dermis

The dermis is the lower level of the skin. Called the papillary region, it consists of collagen, nerve endings, sweat glands, and elastic fibers. It is also the thickest layer of skin, providing flexibility and strength.

A second-degree burn is one that reaches the dermis. This is more serious than a first-degree burn.

Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer

This consists of adipose tissue that stores energy in the form of fat. It is also connective tissue that cushions and insulates the body.

Any burn that destroys all layers of the skin and reaches the hypodermis is a third-degree burn. Third-degree burns are severe and require immediate medical attention.

All types of burns can be painful and produce visible symptoms. Understanding the kind of burn and its severity is essential when assessing medical treatment. There are three levels:

  • first-degree
  • second-degree
  • third-degree

First-degree burn

A first-degree burn is the most common type of burn. Symptoms include:

  • dry skin with mild swelling
  • changes in skin color
  • pain
  • itchiness
  • sensitivity to the touch

Sometimes blisters and peeling may occur. If touched, the skin may blanch (lighten in color). The epidermis typically remains intact.

While first-degree burns may be painful, long-term damage is rare. Also known as ‘superficial’ burns, common causes include:

  • mild sunburn
  • tipped over hot liquids
  • hot bathwater
  • cooking fluids
  • hot appliances, such as a cooker or iron
  • friction between skin and hard surfaces, such as turf on a sports field, floors, roads, or carpets

First-degree burns often heal on their own within a week. A person may require medical treatment if the burn is over a large area of skin. Speak with a healthcare provider for advice.

Second-degree burn

Second-degree burns affect deeper layers in the skin than first-degree burns and can involve intense pain.

They affect the epidermis and dermis, with the burn site often appearing swollen and blistered. The area may also look wet, and the blisters can break open, forming a scab-like tissue. Doctors also call them partial-thickness burns.

A second-degree burn is more likely to require medical treatment, depending on its location and depth. Causes of second-degree burns include:

  • boiling water
  • flames from a fire
  • hot stoves
  • burning candle wax
  • steam from an iron
  • hot iron
  • sunburn in extreme cases over a large area
  • chemical burns

Many second-degree burns heal within a couple of weeks, although scar tissue can occur.

Third-degree burn

This is the most severe type of burn and requires medical treatment. Nerve and blood vessel damage often leave the burn site looking pale in color or blackened and charred.

Despite the severity, third-degree burns are often painless because of damage to the nerve endings. Doctors may call them full-thickness burns.

Causes of third-degree burns include:

  • a scalding liquid
  • flames
  • an electrical source
  • contact with a hot object for an extended period
  • a chemical source

Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and the skin follicles, which means new skin will not grow back. Anyone who has a third-degree burn needs immediate medical attention.

The treatment of a burn depends on its severity, size, and location. While a person can manage some burns at home, more severe burns require immediate medical treatment.

First-degree burn treatment

These are generally not severe and most clear up relatively quickly. However, first-degree burns can be painful. The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) has a video that provides guidance on treating first-degree burns.

Here is a quick guide:

  • hold under cool water or apply a cool compress for 5-10 minutes or until the pain subsides
  • cover burn with a non-stick, sterile bandage
  • clean wound gently with lukewarm water
  • apply petroleum jelly daily
  • over-the-counter (OTC) medication such as ibuprofen can help with pain and reduce inflammation

Click here to learn more about sunburn treatment.

Remember, if the burn is substantial or the person is an infant or older adult, seek medical attention.

Learn about home remedies for mild burns here.

Second-degree burn treatment

Treating these types of burns will depend on its scale and location. Hot water and objects, radiation, friction, electricity, or chemicals can cause second-degree burns.

Symptoms include the skin blanching when pressed, blistering, and swelling. These burns calm down within a couple of days.

Home treatments include:

  • running the burn under cool water to ease the pain — do not use ice as it can cause tissue damage
  • removing jewelry, rings, or clothing that could become too tight around the swelling
  • applying a cool compress if the burn is on the face or body
  • cleaning and washing the burn gently — always wash the hands first
  • wrapping loosely with a bandage if clothing or dirt is likely to cause irritation
  • moisturizing lotion can help, but follow instructions closely
  • applying over-the-counter antibiotic ointment
  • talking pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen

Hot oil, grease, or microwaved liquids can cause deeper partial-thickness burns. Symptoms can take a few days to develop, so monitoring the wound is crucial to prevent infection.

People with a more severe second-degree burn should see a healthcare professional for treatment. They may prescribe a course of antibiotics or ointment. In extreme situations, a person may require a skin graft.

Third-degree burn treatment

This is the most severe burn and always requires medical treatment. Because a third-degree burn often destroys nerve endings, a person may not feel any pain when they touch the area. The skin can become raised, leathery, and dark brown, or waxy and pale.

Keep a person who has sustained third-degree burns warm and still. Complications may include:

Severe burns covering a large part of the body may require intravenous antibiotics and skin grafts. Recovery times vary and depend on the location of the burn.

A person may require treatment If blisters burst on a mild-first degree burn, such as on a hand or sunburn.

If the burn is more severe, and pain does not settle after a couple of days, a doctor can prescribe antibiotics and recommend further treatment. This includes a specialist burn care service.

Chemical burns are the result of exposure to acids, oxidants, bleaches, and gasses. They commonly occur in children.

Third-degree burns are serious and often leave visible scarring. Children and the elderly are most at risk. After car accidents and drowning, burns are the most frequent cause of childhood death.

While mild burns are common household injuries and may be very painful, it is possible to treat them at home. However, more severe burns require an expert opinion.

To avoid sunburn, wear sunscreen and a hat. If there are hot appliances in a kitchen, take great care, and use protective gloves around an oven or stove.

Home Treatment for Second-Degree Burns | CS Mott Children’s Hospital

Topic Overview

For many second-degree burns, home treatment is all that is needed for healing and to prevent other problems.

Rinse the burn

  • Rinse burned skin with cool water until the pain stops. Rinsing will usually stop the pain in 15 to 30 minutes. The cool water lowers the skin temperature and stops the burn from becoming more serious. You may:
    • Place arms, hands, fingers, legs, feet, or toes in a basin of cool water.
    • Apply cool compresses to burns on the face or body.
  • Do not use ice or ice water, which can cause tissue damage.
  • Take off any jewelry, rings, or clothing that could be in the way or that would become too tight if the skin swells.

Clean the burn

  • Wash your hands before cleaning a burn. Do not touch the burn with your hands or anything dirty, because open blisters can easily be infected.
  • Do not break the blisters. .
  • Gently wash the burn area with clean water. Some of the burned skin might come off with washing. Pat the area dry with a clean cloth or gauze.
  • Do not put sprays or butter on burns, because this traps the heat inside the burn.

Bandaging the burn

  • If the burned skin or blisters have not broken open, a bandage may not be needed. If the burned skin or unbroken blisters are likely to become dirty or be irritated by clothing, apply a bandage.
  • If the burned skin or blisters have broken open, a bandage is needed. To further help prevent infection, apply a clean bandage whenever your bandage gets wet or soiled. If a bandage is stuck to a burn, soak it in warm water to make the bandage easier to remove. If available, use a nonstick dressing. There are many bandage products available. Be sure to read the product label for correct use.
  • Wrap the burn loosely to avoid putting pressure on the burned skin.
  • Do not tape a bandage so that it circles a hand, arm, or leg. This can cause swelling.

There are many nonprescription burn dressings available. Be sure to follow the instructions included in the package.

If the burn is on a leg or an arm, keep the limb raised as much as possible for the first 24 to 48 hours to decrease swelling. Move a burned leg or arm normally to keep the burned skin from healing too tightly, which can limit movement.

Credits

Current as of:
February 26, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
H. Michael O’Connor MD – Emergency Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine

Current as of: February 26, 2020

Author:
Healthwise Staff

Medical Review:William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine & H. Michael O’Connor MD – Emergency Medicine & Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine

The Factors Associated with Contact Burns from Therapeutic Modalities

Abstract

Objective

To understand the injury pattern of contact burns from therapeutic physical modalities.

Method

A retrospective study was done in 864 patients with contact burns who discharged from our hospital from January 2005 to December 2008. The following parameters were compared between patients with contact burns from therapeutic modalities and from other causes: general characteristics, burn extent, cause of burn injury, place of occurrence, burn injury site, treatment methods, prevalence of underlying disease, and length of hospital stay were compared between patients with contact burns.

Results

Of the 864 subjects, 94 patients were injured from therapeutic modalities. A hot pack (n=51) was the most common type of therapeutic modality causing contact burn followed by moxibustion (n=21), electric heating pad (n=16), and radiant heat (n=4). The lower leg (n=31) was the most common injury site followed by the foot & ankle (n=24), buttock & coccyx (n=9), knee (n=8), trunk (n=8), back (n=6), shoulder (n=4), and arm (n=4). Diabetes mellitus was associated with contact burns from therapeutic modalities; the odds ratio was 3. 99. Injuries took place most commonly at home (n=56), followed by the hospital (n=33), and in other places (n=5).

Conclusion

A hot pack was the most common cause of contact burns from therapeutic modalities, and the lower leg was the most common injury site. Injuries took place most commonly at home. The patients with contact burns from therapeutic modalities showed high correlation to presence of diabetes mellitus. These results would be helpful for the prevention of contact burns due to therapeutic modalities.

Keywords: Burns, Physical therapy modalities, Diabetes mellitus

INTRODUCTION

The physical therapy or physiotherapy refers to activities using heat, cold ice, electricity, electromagnetic wave, or ultrasonic wave, for rehabilitational therapeutic efficacies with specific goals, such as relieving pain, facilitating healing, and improving body movement.1 Heat therapy, among them, is used for relieving general pains, relaxing of muscle spasm by physiological effect of heat, and in the case of joint stiffness and joint contracture, is used in combination with therapeutic exercise. This modality is especially helpful for treatment of musculoskeletal diseases and is commonly used in the hospital and at home.

The hot pack is a most widely used equipment in heat therapy due to its advantages, such as low cost and long period of use; however, it has to be used carefully for individuals with dysesthesia because of the risk of burns.2 It is known that a burn is most frequent side effect of moxibustion, a therapeutic modality used in folk remedies and in Oriental medicine as a heat stimulation on a certain site.3

It is reported that approximately 1,500 patients with burn injury from electric heating pad are treated in emergency room in the United States and an average of 8 deaths per year are associated with the use of heating pads.4 It is also relatively common in our country to visit hospitals with contact burns from therapeutic physical modality. Concerning this issue, Nam et al.5 reported on a case study and Song et al.6 noted the hot pack and moxibustion as causes of contact burns. According to Song et al.,6 402 of 4,321 patients with burn injuries were contact burns and the causes were hot pack (n=45, 11.2%) and moxibustion (n=27, 6.7%). These studies, however, have limits of focusing on heat therapy only, as a cause of contact burn injury. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the damage pattern of contact burns from physical therapeutic modalities, to analyze associated factors of them, and to propose preventive measures.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Of 7,817 hospitalized patients with burn injuries in our center from Jan 2005 to Dec 2008, 864 occurrences (11.1%) were from contact burns. The medical records of 94 events, among them, from physical therapeutic modality were analyzed retrospectively; the prevalences of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, alcoholism, and disability were analyzed, and the presence of diabetic neuropathy, associated factors, including duration of diabetes mellitus and blood HbA1C, were compared with that of 770 patients from other causes than physical therapeutic modalities. The electrodiagnostic examination for diabetic neuropathy was performed only with 7 patients because of acute treatment of contact burns and decreased general conditions. The number of operations and hospitalhospitalization periods of each physical therapeutic modality was analyzed as well. The additional phone questionnaires were administered to the survey treatment process and the method for the contact burns from physical therapeutic modalities; for the 64 survey responses, the period of physical therapy, prescription and indication of the physician before therapy, cause of burn injury, and cause of therapy were surveyed. The contact burn injury from the hot pack was defined as those from a hydrocollator pack used in hospital and keeping its temperature using water and from commercially available disposable hot packs used at home. The burns caused by hot towels and Ondol (heated stone) were excluded. Contact burn injuries from electric heating pad was defined as those that resulted from heating pad in which the heating amounts are controlled by electric currents, and burn injuries from electric mattress were not included.

The frequency analysis for general characteristics was performed against the collected data, using SPSS 18.0 program (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). The univariate analyses were tested using independent samples t-test and chi square test; multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for the variables whose p-values were under 0.05. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare the duration of diabetes mellitus and blood HbA1C level of patients with diabetes mellitus groups in those with contact burn injuries between occurrences from physical therapeutic modalities and from other causes. Treatment method and hospitalization period, by presence of diabetes mellitus and types of physical therapy, were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. A p-value under 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS

General characteristics of patients

Of 94 patients, the average age was 47.5±19.7 for males (n=45) and 50.3±20.2 for females (n=49). The average burn surface area was 1.5±1.1%. The patients with contact burn injuries from physical therapeutic modalities (PT group) were statistically significantly older and had higher mean body mass index (BMI) than those that occurred from other causes (nPT group). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was also statistically significantly higher in PT group. It was shown that the alcoholism and disabilities had no effect on the prevalence of contact burn injuries from physical therapeutic modalities. The home (n=56) was the most common place in which burn accidents occurred, followed by the clinic, hospital, and oriental medical clinic (n=33), and other sites (n=5) ().

Table 1

Demographic, Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Contact Burns from Therapeutic Physical Modalities and Contact Burns from Other Causes

Physical therapeutic modality and associated factors causing contact burn injury and burn injury sites and treatment methods

The hot pack was most common cause of burn injury from physical therapeutic modalities and followed by moxibustion and electric heating pad. The most common place where contract burn injury occurred was home for ones from moxibustion and electric heating pad, and whereas was hospital (47.9%) for ones from hot pack ().

Table 2

Circumstances and Place of Injuries of Contact Burns from Therapeutic Physical Modalities (n=94)

For the application time of physical therapeutic modalities, 39.1% were under 30 min and 30 minutes and over was 37.5% (not answered 23.4%). Of the 64 responses, the 24 patients received prescription or indication from doctor for physical therapeutic modalities and others didn’t any indication and performed physical therapy on their voluntary choice. The main complaints for treatment were pain of the back, shoulders, knees, and ankles, and musculoskeletal diseases such as joint contracture for 48 patients, and were leg numbness and coldness for 16 patients. The 16 patients all had underlying diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, hemiplegia from stroke, or peripheral vascular disease. The perceived causes of burn injuries for patients were prolonged physical therapy (n=24), impaired sensation of affected sites (n=24), excessively high intensity of physical therapy (n=14), and careless use (n=8), including lying down on heating pad, extraction of hot pack contents, heated iron parts of rubber heating pack ().

Table 3

Characteristics of Contact Burns from Therapeutic Physical Modalities (n=64)

The most frequent burn injury site was the lower leg, followed by the foot & ankle, buttock, coccyx site, knee, trunk, back, shoulder, and upper arm; for patients with causes other than physical therapeutic modalities, it was the hand and followed by leg, face, foot & ankle and upper arm (). The most frequently used treatment method was split thickness skin graft (n=60), followed by conservative treatment (n=20), flap (n=5), and full thickness skin graft (n=3).

Table 4

Comparison of Burn Injury Site between Contact Burns from Therapeutic Physical Modalities and Contact Burns from Other Causes

Risk factor of contact burn injury from physical therapeutic modalities

The univariate analysis showed that age, BMI, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were significant variables. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the significant variables and age and diabetes mellitus were shown to be statistically significant (). For the PT group, the analysis of the difference in number of operation and hospitalization day, between patients with and without diabetes mellitus, showed that the number of operations had no significant difference but the hospitalization period increased significantly in subgroups with diabetes mellitus (p<0.05) (). There were no significant differences in the number of operations and the hospitalization period among the type of physical therapeutic modalities.

Outcome variables for diabetic and nondiabetic patients with contact burns from therapeutic physical modalities. (A) Number of surgery. (B) Hospital length of stay. *p=0.003 for diabetic versus nondiabetic patients.

Table 5

Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis of Risk Factors for Contact Burns from Therapeutic Physical Modalities

The average duration of diabetes mellitus of 26 patients with diabetes mellitus in PT group was 15.8±11.1 years, a significantly longer period than that (8. 1±7.6 years) of 51 counterparts in nPT group (p<0.05). The average concentration of blood HbA1c of patients with diabetes mellitus in PT group was 9.3±3.1%, a significantly higher than that (7.6±1.7%) of 51 counterparts in the nPT group (p<0.05) (). The 7 patients available in electrodiagnostic examination were diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy.

Diabetes related factors for diabetic patients with contact burns from therapeutic physical modalities and contact burns from other causes. (A) Diabetes duration. (B) HbA1C. *p<0.05.

DISCUSSION

The doctor, before prescribing physical therapy, investigate detail clinical history and general condition, assess functional ability, including physical examination and radiological findings, so that make medical judge synthetically, considering consciousness state, cognitive ability, anatomic structure, level of pain, disease period, temperature sensation, and sense of pain on damaged site of patients. The heat therapy, among them, is frequently used for treating various musculoskeletal diseases. The general contraindications for this treatment method include patients with dysesthesia or site of impaired sensation, site undergone recently or of high risk for hemorrhage, site of malignant tumor, acute inflammation, external wound, or edema, and patients with low cognitive ability.7 The hot pack is most frequent cause of burn injury from physical therapeutic modality because it has sedative effects and rarely performed under medical staff. In addition, when the patients lie on hot pack the exudated water wet the towel increase the heat conductivity and the local pressure is generated, resulting in increasing risk for burn injury. Similarly, the risk for burn injury increase also in case of using electric heating pad, especially more carefulness is required when the patients are lean or cachectic because the site with protruded bone has thin layers of fat.7

This study attempted to investigate clinical factors associated with contact burn injury, a complication common during physical therapeutic modalities. The 94 patients hospitalized in our center were analyzed and it was shown that the hot pack is most common cause of contact burn and followed by moxibustion, electric heating pad, electric stimulation, and moxa cautery. According to Song et al.,6 the hot pack and moxibustion were the most common cause of contact burn in the data covering 12 years, occupying 11.2% and 6.7%, respectively, in agreement with the results of this study. Nadler et al.4 reported, in the study about complications from physical therapeutic modalities among 905 athletic trainers, that 233 ones experienced complications from physical therapeutic modalities and that the most common causes were heat therapy (n=41), electric therapy (n=40) and cryotherapy (n=23). Bill et al.8 reported, in his case study, two cases in which patients with dysesthesia each due to congenital spina bifida and diabetes mellitus got burn injuries from electric heating pad, and Satter9 reported a case of third degree burn injury from interferential current therapy. In addition, Balmaseda et al.10 reported two cases of contact burn injuries from electric stimulation treatment and Ford et al.11 reported a case of burn injury after interferential current therapy for treating pain after total knee replacement arthroplasty. Nam et al.5 reported keloid after burn injury from moxibustion.

The hot pack, a superficial heat treatment, is best known conduction heat treatment. During treatment using this method, the medical staff should check the sensation and the skin state of patients because the feeling of patient is only indicator of temperature. The electric heating pad, an frequent alternative superficial heat treatment of hot pack used at home and hospital, has also risk of burn injury, necessitating limited period of use.1 It is considered that the reason hot pack and heating pad is most common causes of contact burn injuries is that those are most general heat therapy at home and hospital and have high risk of burn injury when carelessly used. The moxibustion is known, in Oriental medicine, to have efficacies of treatment, relieving pain, recovery and prevention, to be applicable in wide range of disease, and to have no major complication, so it is broadly used in clinical setting by Oriental doctors; however, it has been likely to be performed by unlicensed doctor or patients themselves. According to Han et al.,3 the most common symptom among outpatients for side effects from moxibustion was a severe scar; the moxibustion was also the secondly most common cause of contact burn injury in this study.

In the study by Song et al.,6 the most common place burn injuries occurred was home (66.9%) and followed by workplace (11.8%), it is consistent with this study, results of which showed that the most common case is self-treatment at home (60.2%) and followed by hospital and clinic (34.4%). The most common place where contract burn injury occurred was home for ones from moxibustion and electric heating pad, and whereas was hospitals for ones from hot pack. It is speculated, for the reason of those results, that the learning and performance of moxibustion is relatively easy, therefore is likely to be performed by unlicensed practitioners or patients themselves carelessly. It needs, therefore, to use professional treatment approaches by correct diagnoses and procedure at hospital in order to prevent those undesired side effects. The electric heating pad can be used at home easily because, unlike hot pack treatment which is applied by therapist under prescription at hospital, it needs only electric connection using consent and simple switch manipulation for controlling intensity. It causes, however, many burn injuries probably because it is hard to do careful observation on affected site and it is common to neglect for long time, left lying on the floor. Therefore, it is recommended to apply for limited periods of time in using and to be careful not to sleep leaving body sites contacted with electric heating pad. It is also recommended to force the manufacturers to attach timer to prevent prolonged application of excessive heat, and to specify use cautions largely.

The direct cause of contact burn injuries were analyzed using data from patients available in administering phone questionnaires. It was shown that the 37.5% of them got burn injuries from physical therapy over 30 minutes. Given that the 20-30 minutes is proper application time in heat therapy such as hot pack,7 the prolonged application time may be the cause of burn injuries in those cases. It is recommended, therefore, to comply appropriate application time and to check skin state frequently. It is also shown that the 62.5% of the patients get burn injuries during self-treatment without doctor’s prescriptions. This indicates that the incorrectly prescribed physical therapies can have significant damages to body. In addition, the 25% of patients reported that they get burn injuries during heat therapies for the foot numbness and coldness. Those patients were all confirmed to have underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hemiplegia from stroke that may cause dysesthesia of foot, probably that information were not informed to medical staffs or there were no careful hearing of clinical history and examining general condition, nor physical examination which are necessary medical diagnosis steps for suitable prescription of physical therapies. It is, especially, important for patients with diabetes mellitus to inform patients with clinical manifestation and suitable treatment method in order to prevent burn injuries from above careless performance of heat therapy, because, in that group, the chance of developing diabetic neuropathy increases with the length of disease period. The facts that patients perceived careless use as most common cause of burn injuries indicates that it is important for therapists and patients to have correct knowledge about physical therapy and use them properly.

The most common burn injury site was lower limbs (67.7%) including foot, knee joint and followed by buttock and trunk, the arms was the less frequent site. The hands are the medium allowing us to interact with environments, and arms are the most frequent morbid site.12 According to Kim and Na13 the sites where the burn injuries occurred mostly were hands (29%) and lower limbs (21.3%). The reason for the significant dominance of lower limbs burn injuries in this study is speculated that the dysesthesia due to diabetic neuropathy is more severe on lower limbs than other body parts, and the numbness and pains make patients to seek physical therapies. The fact that is harder for patients to observe lower limbs than upper body may be another reason. Notably, the results of this study may be affected by selection bias because this study, unlike Kim and Na,13 which included outpatients and private hospital patients with burn injuries based on data from National Health Insurance Corporation, included only patients with burn injuries hospitalized at our center.

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in PT group was higher by 3.99 times than that in nPT group, indicating that the patients with diabetes mellitus is likely not to sense high temperature despite the prolonged heating, due to their dysesthesia from diabetic neuropathies. The severities of seven patients available in electrodiagnostic examination, measured by the modified version of electromyographic findings from The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)14 were suspected group for three patients, probable group for two patients, and definite group for two patients. Although those who diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy were only seven, comparing the patients with diabetes mellitus in nPT group, they had longer disease period and higher concentration of blood HbA1C, resulting in higher chance of developing peripheral neuropathy.15 It is also problematic, in other hands, that patients with diabetes mellitus are likely to complain pains and dysesthesia, resulting in more prescription of physical therapeutic modalities. It needs, therefore, to be more careful in applying physical therapy to patients with diabetes mellitus, and it is considered that it is helpful in preventing contact burn injuries from physical therapy to inform patients with diabetes mellitus to inform them clinical manifestation and suitable treatment method and related information.

The hospitalization period of patient with diabetic mellitus, in this study, was significantly longer than one without the disease, this is consistent with the results of Schwartz et al.16 showing that the patients with diabetic mellitus had higher infection rate, occurrence of complication from graft and longer hospitalization period compared to patients without the disease.

The limitation of this study is that the patients with burn injuries of minor severities were not included because patients were restricted to ones hospitalized at our center. It is considered, therefore, to plan wider scope of study in future.

Burn Treatment: A Heated Situation

You touch the stove burner, thinking it’s cool. Or bump the bottom of a hot pot. Or pick up a blackened chunk of firewood, unaware that it’s red hot on the bottom. However it happens, your response is the same: your hand jerks back involuntarily, you utter words Mom wouldn’t approve of, and then you inspect the burned area.

Your flesh keeps burning after you remove it from the heat source. Even though hours might pass before a blister appears, treating the injury within the first few moments is critical for reducing the pain of the burn and the size of the blister. Act fast enough, and you may even prevent one from developing.

Your best bet is to plunge the burned area immediately into cold water, which cools the skin; as long as heat remains in the tissues, the burning sensation continues. Keep the area submerged for at least 10 minutes, stay well hydrated, and take ibuprofen to reduce the pain and inflammation.

After that, try the treatment methods below to help healing.

For a superficial (first-degree) burn, which is characterized by red, painful skin

(as in sunburn, for example), a skin moisturizer often is all that’s needed.

Partial-thickness (second-degree) burns produce painful blisters. Moisturize the area around the blister and then cover the area with gauze or a Spenco 2nd Skin Moist Burn Pad to protect it. If (or, rather, when) the blister ruptures, cautiously peel off the dead skin and gently wash the sore. For maximum healing, apply antibiotic ointment and a new dressing to the affected area; keep it on until the skin has healed.

With a full-thickness (third-degree) burn, the skin is black and charred after being exposed to an open flame, or pale and colorless after scalding. The burn site itself may not be painful, but extreme pain typically surrounds the burn. Gently wash the area, then apply antibiotic ointment and gauze. Third-degree burns larger in size than a quarter seldom heal well without a doctor’s care, but there’s no rush to find a physician if you keep the burn area clean.

But beware! Partial- or full-thickness burns covering 15 to 20 percent of the body—both arms, a leg, the chest, or the back, for instance—are life-threatening. A serious burn on the face can also be a significant risk if swelling of the airways results, possibly leading to suffocation. Immediate evacuation to a hospital is vital.

HotTip

Synthetic fabrics such as nylon and polypropylene can melt, causing serious burns. Secure loose clothing when you’re near a flame.

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First aid and important tips

Inaccurate cooking on the stove or oven, faulty or improper use of electrical appliances, boiling water, steam or hot oil can all cause injury.

To alleviate the condition of the victim and prevent scarring, you need to know about the features of first aid for burns.Let’s talk about this.

Classification of burns

The severity of the injury is determined by the depth of the skin lesion. To provide effective assistance, it is necessary to correctly classify the burn:

  • I degree. Slight redness of the skin area, swelling, mild pain. The consequences disappear without a trace after 3-7 days.
  • II degree. Severe pain associated with the appearance of watery blisters. The deep layers of the skin are not damaged, which eliminates the formation of scars.Characterized by a change in the color of the skin, which passes over time.
  • III degree. The symptoms are many times superior to those listed above. There is tissue necrosis and the appearance of scabs and open wounds. The skin regenerates poorly, forming dense scars.
  • IV degree – charring. It is considered the most intractable. In most cases, a skin graft is required. The injury affects muscle, tendon and bone tissue.

In domestic conditions, burns of I and II degrees occur more often, but it is important to note that improperly provided or untimely assistance can lead to infection of the damaged area and serious consequences even with a second degree of burn.If you are injured, it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible.

It is imperative to call an ambulance if:

  • The area of ​​the burn of any degree is more than 5 palms of the victim;
  • Child or elderly person injured;
  • Burnt head and airway / groin / two limbs;
  • Burns of III degree and higher.

First aid for thermal burns

The basic rule of care for burns before a doctor’s examination is – do no harm! What to do:

  1. Don’t panic!
  2. Provide the injured person with a safe place, removing the cause of the injury.
  3. If the cause of the burn is a hot liquid, it is important to remove the hot, damp clothing as soon as possible. If the fabric sticks to the skin, carefully cut it with scissors, do not remove the adhering fragments yourself.
  4. Reduce the temperature of damaged tissues. Immediately after getting a burn of I and II degrees, the injured area must be cooled with running water; in more serious cases, a cool bath or a moist sterile dressing can be used.
  5. For severe pain, take a pain reliever.

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How to protect children from burns?

Date of publication: .

Burns in children are a serious type of injury, often leading to irreversible consequences and sometimes death. According to the medical literature, among all traumatic injuries in childhood, 15% are due to thermal trauma, and the main group of victims (60-70%) are children under the age of 3 years. Burns in children and adults have marked differences. The epidermis and dermis in children are thinner, with poorly differentiated layers, and dense connective tissue is absent, therefore, as a result of exposure to hot liquids, there is a greater tendency than in adults to develop a total lesion.Children are more prone to the development of burn shock, due to age-related anatomical features – increased tissue hydrophilicity.

Burns in children are mainly associated with living conditions. The most common causes of burns are contact with hot liquids, hot objects, flames, chemicals, and the passage of an electric current. Insufficient supervision of children indirectly contributes to the occurrence of burns. Parents are often unaware of the dangers associated with the normal home environment.It should be noted that most child burns fall into the category of preventable accidents.

The main factors determining the occurrence of a burn are the temperature and time of exposure to the thermal agent, the higher the temperature and the longer the exposure time, the more serious the damage caused. Prolonged heating of tissues in children at temperatures above 45-600C leads to irreversible changes – to the coagulation of tissue proteins, cell death, impaired permeability of the walls of blood vessels, the occurrence of total necrosis of the skin and underlying tissues.

Depending on the depth of tissue damage, the following degrees of burns are distinguished:

I degree – skin redness, slight edema, disappearing 1-2 days after injury.

II degree – the appearance of thin-walled, filled with a transparent liquid, bubbles. Sensitivity and capillary pulse of the papillary dermis are preserved. Complete epithelialization as a result of conservative treatment occurs within 1-2 weeks.

IIIIA degree – damage to the upper layer of the dermis.It is manifested by the formation of bubbles with a jelly-like content. Often there is a spontaneous opening of the blisters, the bottom of the wound is pale pink in color, the capillary pulse is reduced. Complete healing as a result of conservative treatment occurs within 3-4 weeks from the moment of injury.

IIIB degree – damage to all layers of the skin. The appearance of blisters with hemorrhagic contents is characteristic, the bottom of the wound is pale, there is no capillary pulse, and a necrotic scab forms within a short period of time.Treatment of IIIB degree burns is usually surgical and requires autodermoplasty (skin grafting). In rare cases, with limited (up to 2 cm in diameter, burn wounds), healing is possible as a result of conservative treatment due to marginal epithelialization with the formation of a rough scar within 5-8 weeks.

IV degree – damage not only to the skin, but also to the subcutaneous fat, underlying tissues – tendons, muscles, bone structures. A dense necrotic scab forms on the surface of the wound, dark brown in color with thrombosed vessels.Healing is possible only as a result of surgical surgical treatment – removal of dead tissue (necrectomy), replacement of the resulting defect by skin grafting or various types of skin grafting.

Burns of more than 8-10% of the body surface area of ​​children are considered severe, accompanied by severe pain and severe disorders of various vital organs and body systems, which can lead to death, despite timely treatment.

Burns of IIIA-B and IV degrees lead to the formation of gross hypertrophic scars, cicatricial contractures, the formation of cosmetic defects that can restrict movement in the joints and cause impaired bone growth.

First aid for burns – stop exposure to a damaging factor. In case of burns with hot liquids, it is necessary to very carefully remove clothing from the affected area, if possible, cool the affected area under running cold tap water. In case of burns by a flame – extinguish, take off the burning clothes as quickly as possible, evacuate the victim from the zone of high temperature or smoke to fresh air. In case of chemical burns – abundant washing of the wound with water, and this procedure should last at least 20-30 minutes, while you must be careful, use gloves and / or protective clothing so as not to get injured yourself. First aid in case of electric shock – free the victim from the action of the current (pull out the bare wire from his hands, pull the body to a safe distance), in case of high voltage shock, also use protective equipment (rubber gloves and shoes).When providing first aid, it is unacceptable to apply various ointments, fats, creams, oils, etc. to a burn wound. It is necessary to apply a sterile bandage to the burn surface, or wrap the child in a clean ironed sheet. In no case do not self-medicate, be sure to contact a medical institution (clinic, hospital), and in case of extensive damage, call an ambulance.

The primary responsibility for preventing burns in children rests with the parents. Prevention of burns in newborns and children in the first years of life should be based on the knowledge that the cause of burns at this age is contact with hot liquid, and the place of receipt is often the kitchen or bathroom.During this period of their life, even a small but reasonable restriction of their mobility allows them to avoid an accident.

KITCHEN is not a place to find a child. If this requirement is not possible, the following rules must be followed:

  • Do not let your baby out of sight while cooking;
  • Cook food only on distant burners. The plate must be motionless, securely fixed;
  • dishes on the stove and table should be turned with the handles to the wall;
  • Do not cover the table with a tablecloth if hot dishes are served;
  • Do not leave containers with hot liquids on the edge of the table or stove, dishes with hot food should be placed on the table at a distance where children cannot reach it;
  • Do not take children in your arms when eating hot food;
  • Do not leave loose cords of electrical household appliances (kettles, deep fryers, toasters, etc.)by pulling on them, the child can get severe extensive burns;
  • Install ovens at least 1.5 m above the floor;

BATHROOM

  • Do not bathe newborns in hot water, remember – if the water temperature is over 500C, a child may get burned;
  • Check the temperature of the water before swimming, when selecting the temperature, first adjust the cold water, then hot, wait until the cold and hot layers of water mix evenly.
  • Do not leave your child alone in the bathtub, if left unattended, he may turn on the hot water tap and get burned.

GENERAL WARNINGS

  • Place the crib at a safe distance from heat sources and electrical outlets;
  • Use only electrical appliances that are in good working order;
  • Do not leave the hot iron unattended in the area where children can reach;
  • Install protective devices on electrical outlets;
  • Do not leave burning candles unattended;
  • Be very careful when using heating pads, remember – the skin of a child is more delicate than an adult;
  • Store corrosive substances only in secure, locked areas;
  • matches and sources of ignition should be kept out of the reach of children;
  • Never store gasoline or flammable liquids in your home;
  • tightly close electrical panels, transformer booths;

Prevention of burn injury in preschoolers includes supervising them both at home and in the immediate vicinity.At this age, the main reason for getting burns is contact with hot liquids (soup, tea, coffee) and objects (iron, grill, barbecue, ash), careless handling of matches and lighters. With increasing age, the causes of burns become multifactorial, and any setting can become the place of receipt.

REMEMBER: The constant vigilance and foresight of adults can significantly reduce the risk of thermal injury in children.

10 errors in first aid

10 major mistakes in first aid

1.Burns must not be oiled

Oil creates a film on the wound, the “greenhouse effect”, oxygen has no access to the burn, as a result, the wound will not heal, and the pain will only intensify.

HOW IT IS NECESSARY: is best to cool the burnt place. It all depends on the severity and size of the burn. A small one can simply be substituted under cold water.

There is a good “grandmother’s” recipe for treating small “kitchen” burns – immediately smear it with laundry soap.Soap is an alkali, a burn is an acid reaction. The alkali quenches the acid, a neutralizing reaction occurs, and the pain subsides and the bladder may not inflate.

A serious burn with damage to the skin should be treated with cool water, a clean sterile dressing (NOT WATER) should be applied to the wound, and you should go to the emergency room.

Many people use Panthenol for burns. It comes in cream, ointment and foam. Only foam is suitable for a burn, because it provides oxygen access to the wound.


2. An open wound is not watered with iodine and greenery

Any alcoholic composition, iodine, brilliant green – a deep chemical burn will be created on the wound, which will heal for a long time and, possibly, leave a scar.

HOW IT IS NECESSARY: to disinfect the wound, use hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, and put a clean gauze bandage on top. Iodine and brilliant green are great for minor scratches.


3.Do not grind frostbite

If you stay in the cold for a long time, some parts of the body may freeze and turn white – ears, cheeks, fingers. The first thing we do is start rubbing the whitened area. It is not right! From hypothermia, vasospasm occurs, blood flow in this area worsens, and then completely stops. Vessels become “brittle”, and, rubbing the frozen skin areas, we inflict microtrauma on the skin, break it, damage it. In the worst case, rubbing can bring frozen areas of the skin to death.

HOW IT IS NECESSARY: if you have frostbitten ears, fingers (hands, feet), you need to get out of the cold, warm it up gradually – it is better to let it “thaw” itself in a warm room. It is imperative to warm up from the inside, BUT in no case WITH ALCOHOL, but hot tea, preferably sweet.


4. Fever chills and a rise? Do not wrap yourself up!

When our temperature rises, thermoregulation is disturbed. And the hot body becomes cold, because the difference in body temperature and temperature in the room increases.There is a feeling of chills, it seems that we are freezing. Immediately I want to wrap myself up in two blankets, dress warmly, hug a heating pad. But, if at this moment you start to warm up intensely, the heated body will not have the opportunity to cool down and bring down the temperature.

HOW IT IS NECESSARY: contrary to sensations, you need to open up, apply a cool wet handkerchief to your forehead, and, on the advice of a doctor, drink antipyretic drugs.


5. Choked – do not clap

Choked? Let’s clap! This method of first aid is contrary to logic and can seriously worsen the situation if a person chokes.The victim inhales some foreign object, and the most correct thing at this moment is a cough. But if you pat on the back at this time, the object with which the victim choked will only slip even deeper into the respiratory tract!

HOW IT IS NECESSARY: with the help of coughing and sharp exhalations, a person pushes the “garbage” out, so the best thing, if you just choke, is to lean forward slightly and make several strong exhales, carefully and slowly inhaling air (sharp breaths can only worsen the situation).

If a person not only choked, but choked and cannot breathe (that is, a foreign object clogged the airways), he needs help. The victim must be strongly tilted forward, you can hang over the back of the chair, and make several sharp sliding movements towards the neck, as if knocking out a foreign object.


6. Nose obstructed – do not warm up

If the nose is firmly stuffed up, the “grandmother’s” way is to apply heat to the bridge of the nose – a warm hard egg, a bag of hot buckwheat, etc.d.

Such heating is dangerous! When the runny nose is strong, the vessels are dilated. Edema began in the nose, and this edema will only intensify the heat. Heating can interfere with mucus drainage, inflammation develops in the paranasal sinuses, which can even lead to meningitis in the worst case.

HOW IT IS NECESSARY: , on the contrary, the vessels need to be narrowed – this is exactly what drops from the common cold do.


7. No heat to injury

Sprain, bruise, dislocation – all these injuries are accompanied by tissue edema.In no case should you apply a heating pad to the injury site. This will only increase the swelling and pain.

HOW IT IS NECESSARY: to restrict movement, apply ice and try to get to the emergency room as soon as possible.


8. If there is a nosebleed, do not throw your head back

Don’t lean back. Thus, you will not stop bleeding, but only change its direction – the blood will go into the nasopharynx, into the stomach, which can cause bloody vomiting.And also, if all the blood goes into the stomach, in the event of hospitalization, the doctor will not be able to determine how much blood you have lost.

HOW TO: sit up straight, leaning slightly forward. Place a swab of hydrogen peroxide in your nostril (or nostrils) and apply cold to the bridge of your nose.


9. Alcohol – not anesthesia

Alcohol is really a folk “anesthetic”. It reduces sensitivity. And if a person has an injury, it is very dangerous.More allows the victim to make unnecessary movements, thus often helping. From alcohol, a person does not feel pain so clearly, he begins to move, often aggravating his injuries. Yes, and it is difficult for a doctor with a drunk patient – the patient cannot accurately describe his condition and his feelings. In addition, many pain relievers and other medications are incompatible with alcohol.


10. Potassium permanganate – dangerous medicine

Even grandmothers gave us potassium permanganate for poisoning.Kind of like killing the infection from the inside. But you need to remember that potassium permanganate is an accumulation of microcrystals. It is they who, dissolving in water, give it a pink color. The more crystals there are, the darker and more saturated the solution. The problem is that the crystals do not dissolve completely (until the end only when boiling). After complete dissolution, you need to pass the potassium permanganate solution through a good filter – for example, through several layers of gauze. Otherwise, getting on the gastric mucosa, the manganese crystal can cause a serious chemical burn.

90,000 Newborn burn – Burns

The main causes of burns in newborns

The problem of burns in infants has always remained relevant, since the factors that lead to such accidents are not created by the babies themselves, but by those who are with them and are directly involved in caring for newborns. It is the category of people who, for various reasons, became the culprit in what happened (the list of individuals is very extensive), or who created the conditions (inexperience, negligence), lead to such manifestations.

The situation is complicated by a temporary factor: if for an ordinary person it takes some time for the symptoms of burns to manifest, then in infants this happens in a matter of minutes. Experts identify several main factors that entail manifestations in the form of burns in newborns:

  • Any liquid whose temperature can cause burns: tea, compote, boiling water.
  • Household items, contact with which may cause burns: boiler, iron, hot dishes, heating items.
  • Chemicals that, by their properties, can cause burns in newborns: paints and varnishes, solvents, detergents.

Even seemingly insignificant factors can cause a situation causing harm to the health of a child in the form of burns, but what is especially important, the damage can differ according to the location of the injury. Experts identify the main areas that can be exposed to effects in the form of burns:

  • Skin.
  • Digestive organs.
  • Organ mucosa.

Medical workers advise at the first manifestations of burns, regardless of their category, to contact medical institutions, which will not only determine the degree of damage, but also help in the future with treatment.

Burn from a heating pad in a newborn

Modern medicine uses rubber heating pads filled with warm (hot) water to relieve some of the symptoms that are often manifested in newborns.Colic, as a result of flatulence, a consequence of intramuscular injections or in the treatment of colds by applying a hot heating pad to the soles of the feet, often cause burns with rubber heating pads, and experts identify several main factors that lead to such situations:

  • The surface of the heating pad is too hot (using boiling water or excessively hot liquid).
  • Filler plug not tightly closed.
  • Defects in the heating pad in the form of cracks and holes.
  • Incorrect use.

Rubber, namely, it is used in the manufacture of heating pads for treating diseases and relieving their symptoms, conducts heat well, adheres tightly to the surface of the body. These two factors must be considered when using the device when caring for newborns.

Hot water bottles are also often used for the warming effect, and the reason for this use lies in the particular organism of newborns. During this period, they are not yet able to independently respond to the external environment.In other words, if the apartment is cool, the child should not only be dressed, but also be located in the immediate vicinity of a place that will help the body to gain the necessary temperature so as not to get sick and often, for this very purpose, an ordinary rubber heating pad or plastic bottles filled warm water.

Young mothers and nannies who care for newborns should be aware that heating pads can differ in the way they are used, using them, you need to be extremely careful in choosing the correct temperature regime.The most popular types of heating pads are:

  • Water.
  • With filler.
  • Electrical.
  • Saline.

All of the listed devices are used solely for the purpose of heating a specific area of ​​the body and this should be taken into account when determining the surface temperature that will contact the area of ​​the newborn’s body.

Chemical burn of the navel of a newborn

Burns of chemical origin, as a result of improper processing of the navel of a newborn, is a frequent phenomenon, and the reason lies not only in basic ignorance of the rules for caring for babies, but also in ordinary negligence.

In the baby’s umbilical cord there are two arteries and an umbilical vein, which at the end of labor are cut in the hospital and tied in a special way. The structure of the walls of the umbilical cord in the places of the cut have compaction, and the presence of rollers inside the arteries prevent bleeding, in other words, nature itself took care of the safety of the baby in the first months of life, but this does not mean that the place does not require special treatment.

If bleeding after childbirth from the umbilical cord of a newborn is rare, then harmful bacteria, if untreated, can freely enter the baby’s body through this channel, which in itself is very dangerous for his health.This is where you need to pay special attention to the cutting technique and the substance that will be used for this. To begin with, the navel is treated with hydrogen peroxide, monitoring the reaction: the absence of foam and bubbles indicates that the wound has completely healed, and there is no need to treat it with chlorophyllipt solution or brilliant green. It is required to inspect the wound and, if necessary, remove the dried crust.

A mistake many moms make, which negates all their efforts to treat the wound, is the use of potassium parchment powder.It is bred for the purpose of treating the navel in newborns. Crystals of the substance, which do not always completely dissolve in water, can cause a chemical burn, and the solution itself, at a strong concentration, will provoke damage to the skin area. Experts advise, in order to avoid such problems, to use an ordinary 2% solution of green diamond, this will completely eliminate the appearance of burns in the places of processing.

Burn symptoms in a newborn baby

Symptoms of burns in infants may differ due to the nature and extent of the lesions.Depending on the degree of damage, experts identify the main symptoms:

  • 1 degree of burn. It is expressed in reddening of the upper layer of the epidermis without peeling of the skin and the appearance of blisters. Recovery time to normal from 7 to 10 days.
  • 2 degree of burn. On the skin there are formations similar to blisters in their initial stage of appearance. The child is anxious, nervous, the affected area recovers in about two weeks.
  • 3 degree.The presence of blisters with red-yellow discharge in the inside, there is a detachment of the upper skin. The child, due to the presence of pain, is nervous, does not sleep well, cries. Third-degree burns require constant monitoring by specialists, as well as wound treatment in a stationary setting.
  • 4 degree. There are deep and extensive skin and tissue lesions. The edges of the wound are charred, the disease is treated strictly under the supervision of specialists in inpatient medical institutions.The timing of recovery depends on the nature and extent of the lesions.

What to do if a newborn is burned?

Often, illiterate actions in case of a burn injury to an area of ​​the skin or mucous organs in infants in order to improve the situation for the better leads to the fact that, instead of alleviating the effect of symptoms, mothers, nannies or other individuals who care for the child do everything with precision vice versa. Specialists, when teaching young mothers, are obliged to conduct consultations in which they must explain the action in non-standard situations.Correctly carried out measures, in order to alleviate the action of symptoms in case the baby is burned, will help to avoid negative effects on the psyche and health of the child as a whole.

First aid for a burn in a newborn

If it is revealed that the child has received a burn, it is necessary to provide first aid, which is expressed in the following actions:

  • Immediately identify the object that caused harm and save the child from contact with it.
  • Call an ambulance.
  • If possible, remove clothing from the affected area or trim it so that it does not interfere with or cause disturbance to the child.
  • Try to apply an ice pack to the damaged area, but in such a way as to exclude direct contact of the substance with the skin, using sterile bandages or gauze for these purposes, or, if necessary, wash off the affected area with running cool water until the arrival of specialists.
  • If bubbles are present, try to keep them intact by covering them with sterile gauze or a clean cloth.
  • Painkillers for the extent of the lesions are given to the child taking into account his weight.
  • As soon as possible, deliver the child to a medical facility as soon as possible, while waiting for an ambulance team all the time, be inseparable with him until specialists appear.

Burn in a newborn, how to smear it?

Depending on the type and extent of the burn, experts advise using both medications, in the form of ointments, gels and other substances, and folk remedies to treat the damaged area.

  • Solcoseryl. It is used as a remedy for removing thermal burns, including the action of direct sunlight, for convenience it is made in the form of a gel or ointment.
  • Panthenol. Spray, which is made specifically for the treatment of burns, small wounds. It has wound healing, analgesic and antibacterial properties.
  • Helium anti-burn wipes. They help relieve pain, are used as a bactericidal agent.
  • Olazol.A simple but effective remedy in its healing properties, made in the form of an ointment.

From folk remedies in the list of medicines, the juice or pulp of aloe is in the lead, it is this plant that will protect damaged areas from microbes entering the wound, help relieve inflammation, and relieve pain. Raw potatoes, grated on a fine grater, have also proven themselves well, the gruel from which is applied to the affected areas. If there is slight redness, you can use a raw cabbage leaf by applying it to the damaged area and securing it with a bandage.

Treatment of a burn in an infant in a hospital setting

Burns affecting 10% of the skin over the entire body area cause burn shock, a condition in which hypovolemia is observed, accompanied by blood deposition, and a decrease in cardiac output. Burn shock is divided into three categories, which are expressed in the varying severity of the child’s condition, both physically and psychologically.

Superficial burns from 40% and deep burns from 20% require immediate hospitalization of the child for the treatment of burns in inpatient facilities.Burns are treated with an antiseptic, removing contamination from the wound and its edges, dried and, opening the blisters, clean the affected area. In addition to antiseptics, the wound is treated with anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents, after which standard treatment is prescribed. The dressings that are used in treatment are rarely changed; this is done in order not to injure the affected area once again.

After the formation of a crust, which serves as a kind of barrier against microbes entering the wound, experts decide on the advisability of using protective dressings.A closed method of treatment can also be used, which involves the use of bandages and this is done due to the formation of suppuration, both around the wound and under the crust. The rejection of the affected tissue is considered normal, but there is a danger of microbial reproduction and increased inflammation. In such cases, it is required to ensure the normal outflow of purulent accumulations and constant treatment of the affected area in order to remove the tissues that have undergone rejection.

In some cases, when the affected areas are especially large, specialists use the method of skin grafting from places that are suitable for such operations.This is considered the only correct method for restoring the affected area of ​​the skin. This type of surgical intervention is possible only after complete rejection of the burned tissues. In case of extensive lesions of the skin area, a mesh graft is used, which is stretched using a special technology to increase the covered area.

As the areas affected by the burn heal, experts observe the appearance of changes that may occur on the skin.Post-burn scars and scars are removed with the help of plastic surgeries, which partially or completely solve the problem of defects.

Similar articles:

Burning a child with tea

Prevention of burns in children

Child burned with boiling water

Aloe for burns

Burn egg

Ordering compression garments for the treatment of scars after burns

Compression therapy is the most effective way to treat thermal, electrical, chemical burns of 2-4 degrees and their consequences.

Benefits of compression garments after burns

Wearing compression products from the earliest recovery time:

  • Protects the skin from mechanical damage
  • Creates pressure for proper growth of collagen fibers (parallel to the skin surface)
  • Reduces scarring. If they have already appeared, it helps to smooth them out, make them more invisible
  • Accelerates the process of skin healing and healing

IMPORTANT! Compression devices can be used to flatten already formed, but not hardened (matured) scars.After the maturation of the hypertrophic formation, the only method for its elimination is surgical excision.

For more information on the treatment of burns using compression medical devices read HERE

Types of compression garments

  • For adults and children
  • For all areas of the body: head and neck, trunk, arms, legs, lower body, stumps
  • The type of product, material and position of lightning is determined depending on the location of the burn and its condition

Ordering products

IMPORTANT! Products are made individually for each patient, using a special measurement technique!

1.Be sure to get the advice of your doctor.

The doctor recommends from when to start treatment with compression devices, as well as the duration of treatment.

2. Leave a request for measurements in a convenient way for you:

  • On the website (at the end of the service description or with an online consultant)
  • By phone 8-800-500-3079
  • In any of our salons

3.