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How long does it take for dramamine to kick in: Dramamine | Side Effects | Dosage | Precautions

Hopkins History Moments

Louis Pasteur, the 19th century French biologist, microbiologist and chemist, famously observed: “Chance favors the prepared mind.”

In the case of two Johns Hopkins researchers with exceptionally well-prepared minds, chance led to a momentous discovery: the power of Dramamine to prevent and cure seasickness, which had plagued people from time immemorial, including travelers such as Julius Caesar, Adm. Horatio Nelson and Gen. Douglas MacArthur. The drug was also found to prevent or cure any other kind of motion sickness.

The following story marks the 70th anniversary of Dramamine’s public debut.

In 1947, a Baltimore woman who had broken out in hives went to Johns Hopkins’ allergy clinic to see if doctors there could help her. The trip required her to take the Monument Street trolley, which she dreaded because she became nauseated whenever she rode in a streetcar, automobile or any other means of conveyance.

Braving the trolley, she met with allergist Leslie Gay, a 1917 graduate of the Johns Hopkins medical school who founded the allergy clinic in 1923. Gay and his colleague, Paul Carliner were testing a new antihistamine — called Compound 1694 — for hay fever and other allergies. Gay gave her a pill of the experimental drug, then sent her home.

After several more visits to the allergy clinic, where she received additional doses of the medication, the woman’s hives cleared up — and so did her motion sickness. After mentioning to Gay and Carliner that her trolley rides home were now free from nausea, the physicians began experiments with other people to see if Compound 1694 — later given the commercial name Dramamine by its manufacturer — had the same effect.

It did.

“Other victims of car sickness and airsickness sought among patients and friends were, without exception, completely freed of discomfort, provided the drug was taken just before exposure to the motion,” Gay later wrote.

Before announcing their discovery, however, Gay and Carliner devised a far more impressive experiment to confirm their findings. They decided to see if Dramamine could be used for seasickness.

With the approval of Gen. Omar Bradley, then chief of staff of the United States Army — and with the involuntary participation of 1,376 U.S. soldiers being shipped to postwar Germany — Operation Seasickness got underway Nov. 17, 1948. The troops sailed from New York to Bremerhaven on the General C. C. Ballou, a slim, high-riding transport known to pitch and roll in rough weather — which occurred often during the 10-day voyage.

The soldiers were divided into groups: those who would receive Dramamine to prevent seasickness, those who would get Dramamine after they got seasick, and two control groups given a sugar pill placebo.

The results were impressive. None of the 134 soldiers who received Dramamine before embarking got seasick. Of the 123 men who got the placebo before the trip, 35 became seasick. Then, all but one of the men who’d gotten seasick were cured after receiving Dramamine.

On a return trip, when most of the service personnel were women, the results were the same.

Gay and Carliner reported their discovery at a Feb. 14, 1949, meeting of the Johns Hopkins Medical Society, as well as in the Bulletin of The Johns Hopkins Hospital. The New York Times, the Baltimore Sun and other newspapers nationwide hailed this major breakthrough, and Dramamine became available in drugstores later that year.

Read more:

Hopkins History Moments: Neil A. Grauer tells the story of the brilliant but often incomprehensible founder of modern American psychiatry

Hopkins History Moments: Neil A. Grauer tells the story of the Johns Hopkins researcher who coined the term “biological clock.”

Hopkins History Moments: Neil A. Grauer reveals the medical secrets of a mummy and other little-known facts from the annals of Johns Hopkins Medicine.

Johns Hopkins’ medical concierge services offer complimentary assistance with appointments and travel planning. Request free assistance:

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Dramamine (Dimenhydrinate) For Dogs: Uses, Dosage, & Side Effects

(Picture Credit: galyaivanova/Getty Images)

Dramamine is an antihistamine that veterinarians may prescribe to alleviate the effects of nausea and motion sickness in dogs. It’s actually one of the popular brand names for the generic medicine dimenhydrinate.

The medication works by affecting the canine’s vestibular system so that the animal no longer feels dizzy or nauseous. It comes in tablet and liquid form, and you may need a veterinarian’s prescription to purchase some forms of the drug.

You can easily order dimenhydrinate supplements for your dog online from Chewy, but you must consult your vet before giving them to your dog. Closely follow your vet’s instructions for the correct and safe dosage and frequency.

Here’s what you should know about the uses, dosage, and side effects of Dramamine for dogs.

Uses Of Dramamine For Dogs

Dramamine is an antihistamine that veterinarians usually prescribe to treat cases of nausea or motion sickness in dogs.

It works by acting on the animal’s sensory system in charge of sending the brain information about motion. This is known as the vestibular system.

After taking the medication, the dog will no longer experience a sense of motion sickness or nausea when traveling.

Dosage Of Dramamine For Dogs

(Picture Credit: Cavan Images/Getty Images)

The following is a guideline for typical use of the drug in dogs and must not replace your veterinarian’s advice for your individual pet.

The dosage and administration of Dramamine for dogs will vary depending on the dog’s weight, their condition, and the form of the medication. Make sure to precisely follow the instructions about dosage and administration that your vet provides to you.

Generally, veterinarians recommend a dosage of 2 to 4 mg per pound of the dog’s body weight, not to be administered more than once every eight hours. It’s best to give dogs the medicine at least half an hour before traveling.

Again, you must consult your vet before providing this drug to your dog. Some formulas may not be safe for canines.

Side Effects Of Dramamine For Dogs

Side effects of Dramamine that appear in dogs mostly include feelings of sleepiness or problems urinating. In some cases, dogs may experience vomiting and diarrhea.

In general, if you notice signs of an allergic reaction, including swelling, hives, or difficulty breathing when administering any kind of medication to your dog, make sure to contact your veterinarian immediately.

If you believe your dog took too much of the dog and may be suffering from an overdose, then you must contact your veterinarian or an emergency vet right away.

Has your vet ever prescribed Dramamine for your dog’s motion sickness? Did it help? Let us know in the comments section below!

Non-Drowsy Dramamine Naturals with Ginger – 18 ct

Non-Drowsy Dramamine Naturals with Ginger – 18 ct | Rite Aid

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From the Manufacturer

PRODUCT DETAILS

Item No. 0372905

Dramamine Non-Drowsy Naturals is the first non-drowsy solution for motion sickness from Dramamine. The product contains the clinically tested ginger dosage required for preventing and treating motion sickness. Other sources of ginger, including candies, gums, or ginger ale, may not contain a full clinical dose. It prevents and treats the symptoms of motion sickness (nausea and vomiting) without drowsiness. Dramamine Non-Drowsy Naturals is safe to use every day you travel, since it’s made from natural ginger, and it is safe for children ages 6 and up. Always bring Dramamine with you! You don’t want to be caught in the air, on the water, or on the road without Dramamine. Depending on the cause, motion sickness is also referred to as airsickness, carsickness or seasickness. Here are some tips to help: 1. Whether on a cruise ship, a jetliner or a sailboat – the middle of the vessel tends to be the steadiest. Stay mid-boat at sea or reserve a seat over the wings when flying to avoid too many nauseating ups and downs. 2. If you know you are going on a rocky ocean-fishing adventure or helicopter tour that is likely to cause motion sickness, take Dramamine BEFORE boarding. Dramamine works best when taken as a precautionary measure. It also eases motion sickness after the fact, but why risk getting sick? 3. Take a turn at the wheel. Driving the car or small watercraft may distract you from feeling nauseous. Ask your friends if you can act as a captain. If you begin to feel motion sick and can’t drive, at least sit in the front seat. You’ll feel better if you can face the direction in which you’re headed and stare at a non-moving object. 4. Steer clear of fumes. Ferryboats, in particular, seem to chug out a lot of stinky exhaust that can make a seagoer go from slightly motion sick to all-out nauseated. 5. Toast your besties with a glass of bubbly ginger ale or stick to bottled water and focus on staying hydrated. Avoid alcohol, which can increase dehydration and nausea. Not only is Dramamine the most trusted over-the-counter treatment for motion sickness, it is the Number One Pharmacist Recommended brand to both prevent and treat the condition.

  • Dramamine’s first non-drowsy offering
  • Contains the clinically tested ginger dosage required for preventing and treating motion sickness
  • Prevents and treats the symptoms of motion sickness (nausea and vomiting) without drowsiness
  • Safe to use every day you travel since it’s made from natural ginger
  • 18 capsules
  • *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

MORE INFORMATION

More Information
Product Name Dramamine Non-Drowsy Motion Sickness Relief, Natural Ginger – 18 ct
Package Count 18
Container Type box
Form Capsule
Model 10831248005376
Disclaimer

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Serving Size 2 Capsules
Prop 65 No

HOW TO USE

Adults and children 12 years and older, Take 2 capsules do not take more than 4 capsules in 24 hours.Children 6 to under 12 years Take 1 capsule do not take more than 2 capsules in 24 hours. If you have difficulty swallowing capsules, you may open the capsule and pour onto a spoon or into food or drink.

INGREDIENTS

Ginger(zingiber offcinale) (root) 1000 mg,Other Ingredients Gelatin, vegetable magnesium stearate, silica – See more at: http://www. dramamine.com/motion-sickness-medicine/non-drowsy-naturals/#sthash.zpp33KvD.dpuf

SAFETY

Tamper evident: do not use if outer carton is open or inner seal beneath the cap is missing or broken.

Reviews 3

Customer Reviews

  1. All Natural and Non Drowsy.

    Dramamine did not make me tired and It took away the Nausea within an hour. The best part is that it’s natural-Ginger.

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  2. Works great!

    Was very effective and didn’t make me drowsy. Highly recommend!

    Review by

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  3. Ivy

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Cancer: Home Treatment for Nausea or Vomiting

Topic Overview

Home treatment may be all that is needed to treat mild nausea caused by cancer or the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. If you are having chemotherapy, your doctor can give you medicines to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting. Be sure to tell your doctor if you continue to have problems after your treatment. Your doctor will adjust your medicines to prevent or control your symptoms.

You may also try the following home treatment tips:

  • Take any antinausea medicines as your doctor recommends. If your doctor hasn’t prescribed medicines for you, ask about taking a nonprescription antinausea medicine, such as:
    • Meclizine (Antivert or Bonine).
    • Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine).
    • An antihistamine, such as Benadryl.
  • Make sure you drink enough liquids so you don’t get dehydrated. Take frequent small sips of water if a whole glass is too much.
  • Make sure to eat enough food. Try 5 or 6 small meals instead of 3 bigger meals. And stay away from foods that make you feel sick, such as fried, spicy, sweet, or salty foods.
  • Suck on peppermint candy, or chew a stick of peppermint gum. Peppermint may relax tight muscles in your stomach and help decrease the stomach contractions that may be causing your nausea.
  • Try ginger, such as candied ginger or ginger tea. Real ginger—not ginger flavoring—helps to reduce nausea.
  • Acupressure bands, which are available for motion sickness, may help reduce nausea.

If you are vomiting:

  • Get some extra rest until you are feeling better.
  • Sip a rehydration drink to restore lost fluids and nutrients.
  • After vomiting has stopped for one hour, drink 1 fl oz (30 mL) of a clear liquid every 20 minutes for one hour. Clear liquids include apple or grape juice mixed to half strength with water, rehydration drinks, weak tea with sugar, clear broth, and gelatin dessert. Avoid orange juice, grapefruit juice, tomato juice, and lemonade. Avoid apple or grape juice if you also have diarrhea. Do not drink milk products, alcohol, or carbonated drinks such as sodas.
  • If you do not have any more vomiting, increase the amount of fluid you drink to 8 fl oz (237 mL) during the second hour. If you are not vomiting after the second hour, make sure that you continue to drink enough to prevent dehydration.
  • When you are feeling better, begin eating clear soups, mild foods, and liquids until all symptoms are gone for 12 to 48 hours. Gelatin dessert, dry toast, crackers, and cooked cereal are good choices. Try to stay away from strong food odors, which can make nausea worse.

The acid in vomit can erode dental enamel and cause tooth decay (cavities). Rinse your mouth with water after you vomit. Brush your teeth if you can.

On treatment days

Eating or drinking something before your treatment may help you feel better. Some people feel better if they don’t eat or drink anything. Find out what works best for you.

Some people feel sick right before their treatments. For this kind of nausea, medicine doesn’t seem to work well. But these things can help:

Symptoms to watch for during home treatment

If one or more of the following symptoms occur during home treatment, contact your doctor:

  • You have signs of dehydration.
  • Vomiting has lasted longer than 24 hours, and you are not able to keep fluids down.
  • You develop a stiff neck.
  • Severe vomiting develops.
  • Chest pain or other symptoms of a heart attack develop.
  • You have changes in mental alertness, such as extreme sleepiness, personality changes, confusion, irritability, or restlessness.
  • You vomit blood, or your vomit looks like coffee grounds.
  • Fever of 101°F (38.3°C) or higher occurs, or fever of 100°F (38°C) lasts longer than 12 hours.
  • Belly pain develops or gets worse.
  • Any vomiting lasts longer than 2 days.
  • Your symptoms become more severe or more frequent.

Additional information about preventing nausea and vomiting is provided by the National Cancer Institute at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/supportivecare/nausea/Patient.

Credits

Current as of:
December 17, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
Sarah Marshall MD – Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Jimmy Ruiz MD – Hematology, Oncology

Current as of: December 17, 2020

How Long Does Diphenhydramine Stay in Your System?

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) is an antihistamine that’s often found in over-the-counter (OTC) allergy relief medications.

You can purchase OTC drugs at grocery stores, drug stores, and pharmacies without a prescription. Although diphenhydramine is commonly used in OTC medications, it can also produce a high and even cause dependence. The half-life of diphenhydramine determines how long its side effects last and how long it stays in a person’s body. Additionally, factors like weight, age, and the dosage taken can also influence the results of a drug test. So, how long does diphenhydramine stay in your system? Our Milford treatment center has your answers.

What Is Diphenhydramine Used For?

Sold under the names Benadryl, Sominex, Unisom, and others, diphenhydramine is most often used to treat symptoms of allergic reactions like sneezing, itchy eyes, scratchy feelings in the nose or throat, runny nose, and difficulty breathing. Diphenhydramine HCL is also sold as a sleep aid that helps people with insomnia or similar sleep disorders. Allergy symptoms occur when the immune system releases a substance called histamine in an attempt to protect the body from allergens like pollen, animal hair, or dust, and antihistamines like diphenhydramine work by combatting the symptoms of histamine. Benadryl is an antihistamine that, in addition to allergies, can also be used to treat cold symptoms, while its side effects include promoting sleep.

Although Benadryl is sold without a prescription, it can cause drowsiness, sedation, and a slight calm-like high. Diphenhydramine misuse can occur when a person takes more than the recommended dose or mixes it with another substance. While the first scenario is unintentional, the latter is a common form of recreational use. Drinks called “lean” and “purple drank” are substances that contain drugs like diphenhydramine as well as codeine, soda, hard candy, and alcohol. You can overdose on diphenhydramine, so it’s imperative to take it only as needed and as recommended. OTC drug use often opens the door to other forms of substance abuse, which facilitate the need for medical detox.

How Long Does Diphenhydramine Take to Work?

The body absorbs diphenhydramine within 20 and 30 minutes after the last dose. Diphenhydramine usually takes 15 minutes to work when taken orally. Side effects also peak anywhere between 2 to 4 hours after use. When injected, diphenhydramine side effects can kick in almost immediately. There is also topical administration of this drug to treat skin-related allergy symptoms. When applied topically, diphenhydramine can take around 24 hours to work.

Some common diphenhydramine HCL side effects include:

  • Dry mouth, nose, and throat
  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Constipation
  • Increased chest congestion
  • Headache
  • Muscle weakness
  • Excitement or increased energy (especially in children)
  • Nervousness

More serious side effects of diphenhydramine include blurred vision, difficulty urinating or painful urination, and difficulty breathing. It is possible to overdose on diphenhydramine. If you experience any overdose symptoms like delirium, ringing in the ears, confusion, blurred vision, or hallucinations, get medical attention immediately.

How Long Does Diphenhydramine HCL Stay in Your System?

The diphenhydramine HCL half-life ranges from 2. 4 hours to 9.3 hours but can average out to around 4.3 hours in young adults. A half-life of a drug determines how long it will take for 50% of it to flush out of your system. Depending on the median value that the individual lands on, diphenhydramine can stay in your system anywhere between 13.2 and 49 hours.

Factors that impact how long diphenhydramine stays in your system include:

  • Age: Adults over the age of 65 and children who are 12 and younger tend to metabolize diphenhydramine more slowly, meaning the drug can last longer in their systems.
  • Hydration: The more water you drink, the quicker diphenhydramine is flushed from the system.
  • Metabolism: Everyone’s body metabolizes or breaks down drugs and similar substances at a different rate. The faster your drug metabolism is, the less time diphenhydramine stays in your system.
  • Dose taken: Even healthy adults who take higher than the recommended dose of Benadryl will experience some unwanted side effects. Higher than recommended doses of diphenhydramine can take longer to metabolize and can lead to a build-up of tolerance in the body, increasing the medication’s elimination time in future uses.
  • Kidney health: The kidneys help to process toxins in the body and pass them out through the bladder. A person with kidney problems may have a tough time metabolizing diphenhydramine or Benadryl.
  • Liver health: Similar to kidney health, the health of your liver can also determine how long diphenhydramine stays in your system. Since the active ingredient in Benadryl is processed through the liver, anyone with liver problems may have difficulties safely using and metabolizing this drug.
  • Presence of other medications: As previously mentioned, taking other substances like prescription pills, alcohol, or other OTC drugs can change how the body metabolizes diphenhydramine. Mixing substances like this also increase the risk of overdose, so it’s important to be cautious when using any medications.
  • Bodyweight/mass: Different body types process drugs at different rates. Drugs tend to linger in fat, so individuals with higher levels of body fat may take longer to metabolize Benadryl and other similar drugs.

Although it usually takes around 500 mg of diphenhydramine to feel high or experience adverse side effects, any form of drug misuse can be dangerous. There are many risks in taking any drugs, whether OTC or prescription, for long periods of time. Diphenhydramine addiction is a real thing, and those who become dependent on it often require detox and inpatient drug treatment to recover. OTC drug use also tends to open the door to other forms of substance abuse, further increasing your likelihood of addiction and overdose.

If you or someone you know has a drug or alcohol problem, let Banyan Delaware help. Call us today at 888-280-4763 to learn more about our drug treatment programs in Milford.

Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine®) for Dogs and Cats

Overview of Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine®) for Canines and Felines

  •  Dimenhydrinate is an over-the-counter medication, commonly known as Dramamine®, that is used to treat nausea and motion sickness for dogs and cats.
  • Antihistamines are most often used in the treatment of allergies. However, some of these drugs also are useful to reduce the sensation of motion sickness, often caused by travel or diseases of the inner ear. Many dogs develop carsickness and drool excessively or vomit during an automobile, boat or airplane ride.
  • Dimenhydrinate is an antihistamine that inhibits stimulation of the vestibular system of the brain. The vestibular system is located within the inner ear and is responsible for detecting motion. Excessive or overstimulation of the vestibular system can result in dizziness, nausea and stumbling.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Dimenhydrinate is available over the counter but should not be administered unless under the supervision and guidance of a veterinarian.

Name Brands and Other Brands of Dimenhydrinate

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulations: Dramamine® (Upjohn) and various generic preparations
  • Veterinary formulations: None

Uses of Dimenhydrinate for Dogs and Cats

  • The most common use for dimenhydrinate is to reduce symptoms associated with motion sickness in dogs or cats.
  • Dimenhydrinate can also be used to help with nausea unrelated to motion sickness, such as that related to inner ear (vestibular) disease.

Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, dimenhydrinate can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Dimenhydrinate should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Dimenhydrinate should be used with caution in animals with glaucoma, prostate gland enlargement and certain stomach and urinary bladder abnormalities.
  • Dimenhydrinate should also be avoided in animals with an overactive thyroid, seizure disorder, heart disease or high blood pressure.
  • Dimenhydrinate may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with dimenhydrinate. Such drugs include heparin, tranquilizers and sedatives.
  • Adverse effects include sedation, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea or lack of appetite.

How Dimenhydrinate Is Supplied

  • Dimenhydrinate is available in 50 mg tablets and various strength liquid forms.
  • Dimenhydrinate is also available in 50 mg/ml injectable forms.

Dosing Information of Dimenhydrinate for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • For dogs, a common dose is 4 mg per pound (8 mg/kg) three times daily.
  • For cats, 12.5 mg total dose per cat three times daily.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse.

 

Antihistamine Drugs

 

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Seasickness Prevention and Treatment – Divers Alert Network

Some of the world’s best dive sites are accessible only by boat, and unfortunately seasickness prevents some scuba divers from visiting their dream destinations. Unmanaged seasickness will make any boat trip miserable, and if relief cannot be found the effects can pose a serious threat to a diver’s health. Though there isn’t a cure for seasickness, there are ways to prevent it and manage it.

The word seasickness is a bit of a misnomer because motion, not water, is what causes affected individuals to feel ill. In fact, many divers who feel dizzy or nauseated on a dive boat discover the symptoms of their motion sickness disappear as soon as they get in the water (or descend). Motion sickness can occur when traveling on a boat, flying in an airplane or riding in a car. The repeated motions associated with these modes of transportation can disturb the motion-sensing organs in our inner ears, and motion sickness develop when the brain receives conflicting signals from different sensory organs.

If a boat passenger inside a windowless cabin can feel the boat moving up and down in their muscles and joints, their inner ears are telling them to balance according to this perceived motion and their eyes see surroundings that appear to be stationary, this passenger may start experiencing dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Scientists are still unsure why vomiting is one of the body’s reactions to these conflicting signals, but some hypothesize the body is reacting as if it has been poisoned and is attempting to purge toxins.

Given the right combination of motion stimuli and exposure time, anyone can experience motion sickness, but certain people are more susceptible. Women, children and those who suffer from migraine headaches are more likely to experience motion sickness.

Seasickness Prevention

Preventing seasickness is easier than treating it. Dehydration due to vomiting is a serious threat to divers who are prone to motion sickness, so if you are prone to it, take preventative measures before you feel unwell.

  • Do Your Homework – Choose the largest boat possible (opt for a catamaran if available). In general, the wider the beam, the more stable a boat will be. Avoid single-hulled sail boats and choose dive sites relatively close to shore.
  • The Day Before – Avoid drinking alcohol and eating heavy meals. Take antiemetic medication; some divers find taking Bonine or Dramamine the night before a dive to be more effective than taking it the morning of. Check the medication’s guidelines to see how long it takes to take effect and how long it lasts. Don’t dive under the influence of any medication you’re using for the first time.
  • The Day Of – Hydration is key, so drink plenty of water. Eat a light meal 45-60 minutes before boarding; an empty stomach is more susceptible to irritation.
  • Gear Up Right Away – Once onboard, assemble your dive gear on the dock or before the boat gets underway. In addition to making equipment set-up easier, this prevents you from having to look down while moving through swells.
  • Watch the Horizon – When possible, stare at an unmoving object in the distance, such as the horizon. Avoid reading, writing or using a mobile device for long periods.
  • Find a Stable Spot – Stand in the center of the boat, avoiding upper or lower decks where bobbing and swaying will be more pronounced.
  • Avoid Odors – Position yourself in a well-ventilated area. Stay away from strong smells such as cigarette smoke, perfume and engine exhaust.
  • Eat a Little, Stay Hydrated – Opt for easily-digestible snacks such as dry crackers or bread throughout the day. Stay hydrated with water or sports drinks; avoid carbonated drinks and caffeine.

Treatment

Over-the-Counter Medications

Anti-nausea medications such as Bonine (meclizine), Dramamine Less-Drowsy (meclizine), Dramamine (dimenhydrinate), Marezine (cyclizine), and Benadryl (diphenhydramine) work by suppressing nerve pathways between the control center in the brain that induces vomiting and other control centers. Drowsiness is a side effect of many of these medications, so experiment with them to test your susceptibility to drowsiness before using one of these medications while diving.

The Seasickness Patch

Some divers acquire a prescription for the scopolamine patch, which reduces nerve activity in the inner ear to prevent motion sickness. The patch releases the drug slowly through the skin; because scopolamine affects the central nervous system, its side effects can impair your ability to dive safely.

The most common side effects of scopolamine are dry mouth and blurred vision. Other side effects, more common in children and the elderly, include hallucinations, confusion, agitation and disorientation. Scopolamine can also cause problems for individuals with glaucoma or an enlarged prostate. Wearing a scopolamine patch for more than three days can bring on withdrawal symptoms that mimic symptoms of decompression sickness which can complicate proper diagnosis. If divers who wear the patch experience dizziness, nausea or vomiting within 24 hours of a dive, they should contact a physician.

Natural Seasickness Remedies
  • Ginger For some individuals, consuming ginger tea, ginger candy or ginger ale can soothe the stomach. Research suggests ginger reduces contractions in the stomach, which may help relieve nausea.
  • Dive In If you start to feel ill, ask if you can be one of the first to enter the water. Once submerged, the body no longer receives conflicting signals from the eyes and limbs, which can alleviate nausea. Make a shallow dive and conserve air so you can remain underwater as long as safely possible. If you become ill underwater, keep your primary regulator in your mouth and vomit through it. Most regulators can process vomit without issue, but it’s good to keep your spare second stage handy in case things get messy.
  • Acupressure Bands – According to traditional Chinese medicine, applying pressure to a point on the wrist known as “P6” can suppress nausea caused by motion sickness. The ReliefBand sends out a small electrical pulse; other bands simply apply pressure.

Before taking any medication or trying a natural remedy in a diving setting, know how it affects you. On a day when you won’t need to drive, operate heavy machinery or generally need your wits about you, take one dose and assess your condition. If you are unimpaired and pleased with the results, employ this method of seasickness prevention and book your next boat dive.


Join DAN

Dramina tab 50mg 10 pcs (for motion sickness)

Parameters of the incidence of side effects: very often (> 1/10), often (> 1/100, 1/1000, 1/10000,

Violation of the blood and lymphatic system: very rare: hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, neutropenia, leukopenia , thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia.

Immune system disorders: rarely: anaphylactic shock.

Mental disorders: often: mood changes, anxiety, stiffness; infrequently: insomnia.

Disturbances from the nervous system: often: drowsiness; infrequently: impaired balance, decreased concentration and memory impairment (more often in elderly patients), tremors, lack of coordination, confusion, hallucinations; rarely: headache, sleep disturbance, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension; very rare: paradoxical stimulation of the central nervous system (especially in children).

Violation of the organ of vision: rarely: glaucoma, vision problems (dilated pupil, blurred vision or double vision).

Cardiac disorders: rare: heart palpitations, tachycardia and hypotension.

Violation of the respiratory system, chest and mediastinal organs: often: nasal congestion.

Violation of the gastrointestinal tract: often: dry mouth, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain.

Disorders of the liver and biliary tract: unspecified frequency: impaired liver function (cholestatic jaundice).

Violation of the skin and subcutaneous tissues: rarely: rash, redness.

Disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract: often: impaired urination (urinary retention due to anticholinergic action).

General disorders and disorders at the injection site: rarely: edema (less often – Quincke’s edema).

If any of the side effects indicated in the instructions are aggravated, or you notice any other side effects not listed in the instructions, inform your doctor.

Sleep and wakefulness.Insomnia and sleeping pills

In all living things (from protozoa to humans), all organs and systems of the body function in accordance with circadian (from the Latin words “circa” – about and “dies” – day) or circadian rhythms. The most pronounced fluctuations in circadian rhythms during the transition of the body from sleep to wakefulness, and they also appear during sleep. The physiological significance of circadian rhythms in humans and animals lies not only in the regulation of the rhythmic activity of physiological functions and metabolism, but also in the interaction of the organism with the environment.

A waking person actively interacts with the environment. In the state of sleep, this interaction does not disappear, but it has a number of physiological differences.

Physiological (normal) sleep proceeds in several stages. In a healthy person, it begins from the so-called “relaxed wakefulness” (stage A), which corresponds to the transition from wakefulness to sleep. The man is in bed and getting ready for bed. Alpha waves are recorded on the encephalogram. Then comes the latent period of sleep (stage B, falling asleep and the most superficial sleep), characterized by the appearance of delta waves on the encephalogram.After this, superficial sleep occurs (stage C), when the sleeping person no longer responds to weak external stimuli. On the encephalogram, there are high-amplitude “vertex-teeth” with a duration of 3-5 s, as well as spindle-shaped bursts of rhythm – beta waves (“sleepy spindles”). Stage D (moderately deep sleep) is characterized by the appearance of fast beta waves on the encephalogram. In stage E (deep sleep), slow alpha waves are occasionally superimposed on the slow beta waves. In stages D and B, there is a complete shutdown of consciousness, a significant decrease in pain sensitivity and tone of striated muscles, as well as a lack of response to strong stimuli.

Before awakening, a sleeping person usually goes through another, special phase of sleep, characterized by desynchronization of the encephalogram, as well as episodes of rapid eye movements with atony of the remaining striated muscles.

It should be emphasized that during the night there are four cycles of sleep phase changes.

Another feature of the physiology of sleep has been established – during sleep, some centers of the brain are at rest (inhibition), while others are in a state of excitement.

It is well known that sleep is a physiological state of the body and is vital for a person. During sleep, a person rests, recovers his strength, just during sleep, the processes of growth and normalization of metabolism are accelerated. There is a relationship between a child’s growth and sleep. Growth hormone is released during sleep. The longer the baby sleeps, the better it grows. If we add to this that a person spends a third of his life in a dream, then the vital necessity of sleep will become clear.

Studies carried out on animals have shown that deprivation of their sleep for three days or more leads not only to a disorder of the function of the nervous, cardiovascular, urinary systems, digestive organs, metabolism, but also to the development of degenerative (necrotic) changes in the structure of nerve cells.

Insomnia negatively affects the general state of the human body, reduces its ability to work, causes rapid fatigue, increased irritability, mental imbalance, leads to the development of a state of constant stress, inhibits the healing process in case of diseases of internal organs.Insomnia is one of the risk factors for the development of hypertension or ischemic disease, hypertensive crisis, and angina pectoris. Without a doubt, insomnia reduces the ability to work, the mental activity of a person, negatively affects the communication of a person in a team.

Therefore, sleep disorders are so difficult for patients, and this requires the use of hypnotics that can induce normal physiological sleep.

Restoration of physiological sleep is the main purpose of sleeping pills.Remedies for insomnia can not only normalize the patient’s sleep, but also improve the general condition of a person.

Scientists of the world have been searching for effective and safe sleeping pills for a long time. The first synthetic drug with a hypnotic effect was chloral hydrate, which began to be used in the middle of the 19th century. The drug, in addition to sleeping pills, has a calming effect. Chloral hydrate induces sleep, close to physiological, lasting 6-8 hours. However, the pronounced irritating effect on the skin and mucous membranes, as well as the development of a state of drug dependence, sharply reduces the value of chloral hydrate as a hypnotic. This drug is currently not used for this purpose.

A significant success in the search for hypnotics was the synthesis in 1902 by the German chemist E. Fischer of barbituric acid derivatives – barbital and phenobarbital, which had a pronounced hypnotic effect. This was, without a doubt, a significant advance in the search for new drugs for insomnia. Therefore, already in 1904, E. Fischer received the Nobel Prize for this discovery. Then they began to synthesize new derivatives of not only barbituric acid, but also other chemical groups.

Unfortunately, the first success was somewhat overshadowed by the side effects caused by barbiturates. In the morning, the person did not feel cheerfulness, freshness, general (albeit insignificant) fatigue, decreased ability to work, deterioration of mood arose. Research began to study the mechanism of this action.

One of the disadvantages of the action of barbiturates on the human body was that the sleep caused by these drugs does not “fit” into the phases of normal sleep. If we add to this that drug dependence develops as a result of the intake of barbiturates, then it becomes clear why, in recent years, these medicines have practically not been used in the treatment of insomnia.

At the end of the 60s, a new group of hypnotics appeared – derivatives of benzodiazepines (diazepam, phenazepam, chlordiadepoxide, etc.), which have not only a hypnotic, but also a sedative (tranquilizing) effect. The hypnotic effect of benzodiazepine derivatives is more physiological and resembles natural normal sleep, therefore they have become widely used to treat various forms of insomnia.

However, with the use of benzodiazepines, the development of undesirable effects is also possible, such as: slight daytime sleepiness, fatigue, headache, impaired coordination of movements, muscle weakness.They should not be prescribed to pregnant women due to adverse effects on the fetus (mental retardation, muscle hypotonia). Unfortunately, it turned out that drugs in this group are capable of causing even more pronounced drug dependence than barbiturates. This has significantly limited the use of benzodiazepine derivatives for insomnia.

Zolpidem hemisuccinate is a derivative of imidazopyridines. In addition to the hypnotic effect, the drug has a sedative, as well as a slightly pronounced anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and central muscle relaxant effect.Zolpidem hemisuccinate is prescribed in a dose of 10–20 mg for situational, short-term and chronic sleep disorders, including difficulty falling asleep, night and early awakenings. In a review article on the pharmacotherapy of insomnia, J.L. Goren et al (1999), note that zolpidene, by interacting with benzodiazepine receptors, can cause drug dependence.

In recent years, a new hypnotic drug, an ethanolamine derivative, DONORMIL (doxylamine succinate), has been used in medical practice.

DONORMIL is available in the form of film-coated tablets and effervescent tablets. One tablet, both effervescent and film-coated, contains 15 mg of doxylamine succinate.

DONORMIL is widely used in Western and Central Europe, the Middle East, etc., and in most countries DONORMIL is included in the group of non-prescription drugs.

Pharmacokinetic properties of DONORMIL are characterized by the fact that the active ingredient, doxylamine succinate, is well absorbed from the intestines.Its half-life from blood plasma is comparable to that of benzodiazepines. Biotransformation of doxylamine succinate is carried out in the liver only partially. The main part of the drug (about 60%) is excreted unchanged in the urine, partly in the feces.

The pharmacodynamics of DONORMIL can be distinguished: 1) features of the mechanism of action; 2) the physiology of the hypnotic effect.

1. A feature of the mechanism of the hypnotic action of DONORMIL is that the active substance of the drug – doxylamine succinate acts simultaneously on M-cholinergic (which reminds of central anticholinergics) and H 1 – histamine (which resembles the antihistamine – diphenhydramine (diphenylhydramine)) receptors in central nervous system (CNS).This combined effect on receptors in the central nervous system enhances the hypnotic effect, as well as the development of the sedative effect of the drug.

2. Unlike other sleeping pills, DONORMIL increases not only the duration and improves the quality of sleep, but also does not disturb the physiological phases of normal sleep and circadian rhythms. This is one of the most important features of the new sleeping pill DONORMIL.

Indications for its use are sleep disorders and insomnia of various origins in patients aged 15 years and older.

Usually the drug is prescribed in a dose of 1 / 2-1 tablet 15-30 minutes before bedtime. However, depending on the individual response of the patient, the dose of the drug can be reduced to 1/4 of a tablet or increased to 2 tablets. The effervescent tablet is dissolved in 150 ml of water, and the coated tablet is washed down with water. In this case, the patient should know that the duration of sleep will be at least 7-8 hours, if the expected period of sleep is less, then after awakening for a short time, a decrease in psychoemotional activity is possible.The drug is prescribed in courses: the first course lasting 10 days. This is enough to normalize sleep. If necessary, repeat 10-day courses are carried out with a break of 10-15 days.

Clinical studies were conducted at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of the National Medical University to study the effectiveness of DONORMIL as a hypnotic. The study compared the effect of DONORMIL and diphenhydramine in dermatological patients (eczema, pemphigus, mycosis, psoriasis) suffering from insomnia.The results of the study convincingly indicate that DONORMIL is significantly superior to diphenhydramine in terms of the effectiveness of the hypnotic effect, and at the same time it has practically no antihistamine effect.

At the Center for Somnological Research of the Russian Federation (Moscow) and at the Department of Nervous Diseases of the Moscow Medical Academy (headed by Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Prof. AM Vein), the hypnotic effect of DONORMIL in patients with various types of insomnia was studied. Investigated the effect of the drug on the duration of sleep and its latency period.The duration of various stages of sleep was determined in accordance with international requirements according to the data of the encephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram, as well as on the basis of subjective and objective data. The results of the study convincingly indicate that DONORMIL has a pronounced hypnotic effect and normalizes the structure of sleep, as a rule, without causing the development of side effects. At the same time, the effective therapeutic effect of Donormil on patients with severe sleep disorders was noted.DONORMIL reduced the duration of falling asleep, the duration of sleep, and also increased the duration of the phases of slow wave sleep.

In 1996, Schadeck B. et al completed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study involving 338 patients, which compared the severity of the hypnotic effect and the safety of doxylamine succinate and zolpidem. The study revealed a high activity of both drugs without significant differences in their safety and effectiveness.However, side effects were less common in the doxylamine succinate group. Thus, the results of the study indicate that doxylamine succinate is an effective and safe drug that does not cause addiction, which, due to its pharmacological properties, does not require special registration and storage conditions and is available to the widest range of people with sleep disorders.

Side effects are observed only when the drug is used in high doses, in these cases, drowsiness in the daytime, dry mouth may appear, and even more rarely, accommodation disturbances and constipation are observed.

Contraindications to the appointment: glaucoma, age up to 15 years, hypersensitivity to the drug, lactation period.

It should be remembered that with the simultaneous use of DONORMIL with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, clonidine, opiate analgesics, neuroleptics, tranquilizers, an increase in the inhibitory effect on the central nervous system is noted.

With the simultaneous administration of DONORMIL with atropine or other blockers of M-cholinergic receptors, the risk of developing anticholinergic side effects increases: dry mouth, urinary retention is possible.Alcohol enhances the sedative effect of DONORMIL. As already noted, after taking DONORMIL, you should take 7-9 hours to sleep, if the duration of sleep is insufficient, then a weakening of attention is possible, which can complicate driving or working with various mechanisms.

Overdose is possible only when taking the drug in very high doses.

Symptoms: mydriasis, hyperemia of the skin of the face, hyperthermia, impaired coordination of movements, tremor, convulsions are possible.If untreated, severe hypotension may occur, accompanied by the development of collapse. The phase of excitement and development of seizures may be preceded by a state of depression of the central nervous system.

Treatment: symptomatic. It is necessary to rinse the stomach, prescribe sorbents, saline laxatives. According to indications, anticonvulsants are used.

Thus, DONORMIL has the following characteristic features of pharmacological action in clinical use:

1.DONORMIL causes prolonged and deep sleep, without disturbing its physiological phases (sleep structure), awakening is not accompanied by drowsiness, which contributes to active and productive activity during the day, as well as improving the quality of life.

2. DONORMIL is effective in almost all forms of sleep disorders, since it eliminates various pathological processes leading to insomnia.

3. After taking DONORMIL in therapeutic (recommended) doses, patients have no aftereffect (headache, weakness, general weakness, etc.).).

4. The drug is well tolerated by patients. When using DONORMIL in therapeutic doses, side effects are extremely rare.

5. DONORMIL does not cause drug dependence and withdrawal symptoms.

Thus, an effective hypnotic drug, DONORMIL, has appeared in the arsenal of doctors, which can be widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of various forms of insomnia. An ethanolamine derivative – Donormil is one of the most effective and safe hypnotics, the use of which restores normal physiological sleep in a person suffering from insomnia.

Ivan Chekman,
Corresponding Member NAS and AMS of Ukraine, Honored Worker of Science and Technology of Ukraine, Professor, Head of the Department of Pharmacology with a course in Clinical Pharmacology of the National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets

REFERENCES
1. Wayne A.M. Brain pathology and the structure of night sleep. Materials of the symposium “Sleep Mechanisms”.- L .: Science, 1971; 4-11.

2. Wayne A.M. Report on the research of Donormil in patients with insomnia. – M., 1997.

3. Hausser-Hauw C., Fleury B., Scheck F., Pello J.Y., Lebeau B. Effet sur l’architecture du sommeil et effet residuel d’une prise de 15 mg de doxylamine chez le volontaire sain. Sem. Hop. Paris, 7-14 Septembre, 1995.

4. Piero Ermanni, Eric Ganzoni. Doxylaminsuccinat bei Schlafstörungen. Ars. Medici Nr. 4/90.

5.Schadeck B., Chelly M. et al. Efficacite comparative de la doxylamine (15 mg) et du zolpidem (10 mg) dans le traitement de l’insomnie commune. Une etude controlee versus placebo. Sem. Hfp. Paris, 18–25 April, 1996.

DRAMINA: reviews about the drug

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