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How many grams sugar per day for diabetic: How Much Sugar Can a Person With Diabetes Have?


How Much Sugar Can a Person With Diabetes Have?

If you have diabetes, you may have been told to watch your sugar intake or even eliminate sugar altogether. But does that truly mean you can never ever eat any sugar? Or is there a way for you to enjoy a sweet treat every now and then?

Here we look at how sugar impacts your blood sugar. Read on to learn tips to identify hidden sugars, choose better carbs, and work with your doctor to stick to a diabetes-friendly diet.

What’s a Safe Level of Sugar?

Unfortunately, Americans eat too much sugar. They don’t seem to know where to draw the line, whether or not they have diabetes. A national survey published in 2016 showed that American adults averaged at least 77 grams of added sugar per day. Children were found to eat a startling 82 grams. To put things in context, 4 grams of sugar equals 1 teaspoon.

These numbers are way above the daily limits recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA):

  • Men: 36 grams (9 teaspoons)
  • Women: 24 grams (6 teaspoons)
  • Children ages 2 to 18: less than 24 grams (6 teaspoons)

If you have diabetes, your doctor will probably advise that you eat less sugar than the AHA’s recommendations. With a typical diet, you can quickly reach your sugar limit at breakfast. A pastry and a couple of cups of sweetened coffee will likely be above what’s safe for you.

Identifying Hidden Sugar

It’s often hard to realize how much sugar is hidden in packaged foods and drinks. Even if you religiously read food labels, you may not be aware that sugar can go by another name.

Names to watch for on food labels include:

  • Agave nectar
  • High fructose corn syrup
  • Honey
  • Fructose
  • Maltose
  • Molasses
  • Rice syrup
  • Sucrose

Different types of sugar can have more or less of an impact on your blood sugar. Don’t get hung up on the idea that “natural sugars” are inherently better for you. You can still overdo it on foods containing natural sugars. Both natural and processed sugars are broken down into glucose and fructose.

  • Glucose is the type of sugar used for energy by every cell of the body.
  • Fructose can only be metabolized by the liver, which turns it into a type of fat (triglycerides) that can increase insulin resistance and stimulate more insulin production. In the long term, this effect can cause fatty liver and other complications.

How to Make Dark Chocolate Avocado “Pudding”

Common Sources of Added Sugars

There’s lots of added sugar in cookies, sodas, jams, and sweetened breakfast cereals. Yet plenty of “healthy” foods have sugar, too. They may even contain more sugar.

Here are a few examples:

  • Flavored yogurt: 26 grams per 6 ounces
  • Granola bars: 7 to 12 grams per 70-gram bar
  • Jarred spaghetti sauce: 11 grams per half-cup
  • Peanut butter: 5 grams per tablespoon
  • Protein bars: 23 to 30 grams per 80-gram bar
  • Russian salad dressing: 3 grams per tablespoon
  • Sweetened apple juice: 39 grams per 12 ounces
  • Vanilla almond milk: 14 grams per cup

Luckily, many of these foods have sugar-free versions so you can enjoy them without worry. But don’t confuse the terms “low fat” with “low sugar” or “no sugar added.” Low-fat foods and natural ingredients can still have added sugars.

Verywell / JR Bee

Choosing Better Carbohydrates

Your blood glucose level is affected both by complex carbohydrates (starches) and simple carbohydrates (sugar). There are several ways to work sugar into your diet without going overboard.

First, track your daily carb intake. Choose foods lower on the glycemic (GI) index. The GI index measures the impact that different foods have on your blood sugar.

The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes eat carbohydrates with a low or medium GI, like fresh vegetables, whole grains, and legumes. Fresh fruits can also be part of a diabetes-friendly diet, but they should be limited because they are high in natural sugars.

You can also look for carb foods that contain less than 10 grams of sugar and more than 3 grams of fiber per serving. Look at the nutritional label to find these numbers. The more fiber in the food you eat, the fewer carbs your body will absorb with each meal or snack.

If you’re in the mood for something sweet, you might also try eliminating a carbohydrate from the same meal. For example, if you want to enjoy a small slice of cake after dinner, cut out a portion of starch from your meal beforehand. A starch may be a serving of pasta, rice, or potatoes.

Be careful to keep the carb counts pretty much the same. Swapping a slice of whole-wheat bread for a huge cinnamon roll isn’t going to work.

If you have a sweet tooth, fruits such as berries are also a great choice. Just stick with whole fruit rather than drinking a big glass of fruit juice or a fruit-based smoothie. Even if the juice is unsweetened, the amount of sugar in the juice or smoothie can have the same glycemic impact as a can of soda.

Calculating Your Daily Allowance

If you don’t have diabetes, the AHA recommends limiting calories from sugar to 10% of your total calories. One gram of sugar equals 4 calories.

For a 2,000-calorie diet, that means you can have up to 50 grams of sugar from all sources per day. It’s worth noting that the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an even lower percentage: no more than 5% of total calories from sugar.

If you have diabetes, it’s important to work with your doctor to figure out what’s right for you. Ask what percentage of your total daily calories should come from sugar. This will help you to make adjustments if you are obese and need to cut calories or if you are underweight and need to increase calories.


Having diabetes doesn’t mean that you can never eat sugar again. However, it does mean that you need to be aware of hidden sugars and what percentage of your daily calories should come from sugar. This will involve reading food labels, choosing high-fiber, low-sugar carbs, and making deliberate food choices to best manage your blood sugar levels.

How Many Grams of Sugar Per Day Can a Diabetic Have?

It may surprise you to know that with the exception of sugary beverages, the recommended sugar intake guidelines are the same for people with and without diabetes. Sugar is a form of carbohydrate your body uses for energy, and compared to other food components, carbs have the greatest impact on your blood glucose level. Learn about the types of sugar in your diet and what to choose to best manage your condition.

The Deal With Sugar

Carbohydrates consist of sugars, starches and fiber, and regardless of the type, your body converts them to blood glucose. In the past, the dietary approach to diabetes focused on eliminating sugar because experts thought it caused blood glucose to rise too high. However, subsequent research found that the total amount, rather than the type of carb you eat, has more of an impact on your blood sugar. For this reason, the current approach is to control the total amount of carbs, regardless of the type, at each meal.

  • Carbohydrates consist of sugars, starches and fiber, and regardless of the type, your body converts them to blood glucose.
  • However, subsequent research found that the total amount, rather than the type of carb you eat, has more of an impact on your blood sugar.

Natural Versus Added Sugar

Negative Side Effects of Maltitol

While the goal is to focus on the total amount of carbs you eat, this doesn’t give you a green card to eat excess sugar. These foods contain naturally occurring sugars, and as whole foods, they provide useful nutrients such as:

  • protein
  • calcium
  • vitamin D
  • minerals

On the other hand, sugar that is added to foods has no nutritional value and is typically added to nutritionally imbalanced foods. Natural sugar has a place in your diet. For example, the sugar in fruit provides a quick source of energy to replenish you after exercise.

  • While the goal is to focus on the total amount of carbs you eat, this doesn’t give you a green card to eat excess sugar.
  • These foods contain naturally occurring sugars, and as whole foods, they provide useful nutrients such as: * protein
    * calcium
    * vitamin D
    * minerals On the other hand, sugar that is added to foods has no nutritional value and is typically added to nutritionally imbalanced foods.

Added Sugar Guidelines

The recommended amount of added sugar for people with or without diabetes is 6 teaspoons for women and 9 teaspoons for men, according to the American Heart Association 12 12. This amount equals 100 to 150 calories, or 25 and 37.5 grams. The American Diabetes Association also recommends that people with diabetes limit or avoid sugary beverages because they’re heavy in calories, increasing the risk of weight gain, and are high in rapidly absorbed sugars, which negatively affect triglycerides — a type of fat in your blood 2 2. Because having diabetes increases the risk of heart disease, it’s best to reduce other risk factors such as weight gain and high cholesterol.

Controlling Carbohydrates and Added Sugars

Diabetic Diet Food List

Counting carbohydrates is a way to control the amount of carbs you eat each day. Having 45 to 60 grams of carbs per meal works well for most people, according to the ADA. To include sweets in your meal, compensate so you stay within the 45- to 60-gram range — or the range recommended by your dietitian. The goal is to keep your meal balanced. To best control your diabetes, save desserts and other sweets for special occasions.

  • Counting carbohydrates is a way to control the amount of carbs you eat each day.
  • To include sweets in your meal, compensate so you stay within the 45- to 60-gram range — or the range recommended by your dietitian.

What Is Prediabetes? Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Diet, and Treatment

What Are the Risk Factors and Symptoms of Prediabetes?

The risk factors for prediabetes are largely the same as those for type 2 diabetes:

  • Being obese or overweight
  • Not exercising regularly
  • Being previously diagnosed with gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy)
  • Being over age 45
  • Having a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • Being African-American, Hispanic and Latino, American Indian, Asian-American, or Pacific Islander

RELATED: How Your Ethnicity May Affect Your Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

Prediabetes generally has no signs or symptoms. (2) But as the condition progresses toward diabetes, people may experience type 2 diabetes symptoms, such as increased thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, and fatigue, Whelan says. (3)

One of the few possible signs is acanthosis nigricans, which is a darkening of the skin in places such as the neck, armpits, elbows, knees, and knuckles. (2)

If you notice such skin changes, it’s a good idea to get them checked out by a doctor.

What Causes Prediabetes? Why Experts Aren’t Sure

The exact causes of insulin resistance are still unknown, but experts believe major contributors include excess weight, especially around the middle, and a lack of physical inactivity. Fat around the waist could contribute to chronic inflammation, and has been linked to health problems like high blood pressure and heart disease. Physical activity helps muscles burn stored glucose, or sugar, and maintain a balance of blood sugar levels in the body. (2)

Other risk factors and potential causes of insulin resistance include ethnicity, steroid use, aging, sleep problems like sleep apnea, and smoking. (2)

Screening for and Diagnosing Prediabetes: How Is It Usually Done?

Prediabetes may be discovered by chance if you undergo a routine blood test (at any age) or routine screening for type 2 diabetes (at age 45). (4)

Or your doctor may discover the condition if you have risk factors for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and your doctor orders a screening test. (4)

RELATED: 7 Warning Signs and Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes

The tests used to screen for prediabetes are the same as those used to screen for type 2 diabetes: the fasting plasma glucose test and the A1C test (also called the HbA1c test or the hemoglobin A1c test). (4)

A1C is a two- to three-month measure of average blood glucose levels. According to the ADA’s 2018 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, adults with no symptoms should begin getting tested for prediabetes at 45 years old, with repeat testing at a minimum of once every 3 years after that, providing the test results were normal. But adults who are overweight or obese and have one or more of the following risk factors should consider getting tested, even if they have not yet reached 45: (5)

  • A first-degree relative who has diabetes
  • High-risk race or ethnicity, including African-American, Latino, Native American, Asian-American, and Pacific Islander
  • History of cardiovascular disease
  • Hypertension
  • Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

A fasting plasma glucose test result between 100 and 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) and an HbA1c test result between 5.7 percent and 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes. (4)

The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), which involves fasting overnight, then drinking a glucose solution and having blood sugar measured one hour and two hours afterward, is sometimes used to diagnose prediabetes. (4)

But that test is generally used only to screen for gestational diabetes because it’s more time-consuming and expensive than other tests. It can also be used to screen for and diagnose type 2 diabetes, Whelan says.

Dealing With the Emotional Toll of a Prediabetes Diagnosis

When you are first diagnosed with prediabetes, you might want to check your local hospital or YMCA for any in-person support programs, Whelan says. “Sometimes knowing that you are not alone and learning all you can about the disease is enough,” she says.

RELATED: How a Diabetes Prevention Program Helped One Man Lose 60 Pounds and Gain More Energy

Whelan also notes that people with prediabetes can find many online support groups and blogs that provide educational information and emotional support. Family members and healthcare professionals can offer support and encouragement, while mental health professionals can help you when you feel like you’re dealing with more problems than you can cope with on your own, Whelan says.

Is Reversing Prediabetes Possible Through Dieting, Weight Loss, and Lifestyle Changes?

Luckily, you can take steps to help reverse prediabetes and prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes.

Data and research back up this notion. In fact, the CDC points out losing just 5 to 7 percent of your body weight can help prevent prediabetes from progressing into full-blown type 2 diabetes. (1)

One study notes that lifestyle intervention may decrease the percentage of people with prediabetes who develop type 2 diabetes from 37 to 20 percent within four years of those individuals’ prediabetes diagnoses. (6)

Also, the landmark Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) study, which examined the effects of weight loss through dietary changes and increased physical activity in people who have prediabetes, found the disease is reversible. (7)

The DPP study enrolled 3,234 overweight adults from 27 clinical centers around the United States; 45 percent of participants were members of racial or ethnic minority groups.

Participants who received intensive counseling and motivational support for improving their diets and being physically active reduced their risk of developing diabetes by 58 percent.

The methodology of the DPP has been adopted by the YMCA’s Diabetes Prevention Program, which is currently being implemented at participating Ys across the United States, as well as other sites. The CDC maintains a list of local DPP programs, including ones run by the YMCA. And, in 2018, National DPP programs will become eligible for Medicare coverage, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (8)

That means many of the 84 million Americans with prediabetes now have access to an affordable — and proven — way of managing their prediabetes and preventing or delaying type 2 diabetes.

RELATED: How to Beat Type 2 Diabetes With Diet and Lifestyle Changes

How to Follow a Prediabetes Diet: What to Eat and Avoid

A healthy diet for people with prediabetes is the same as any healthy diet, Whelan says. Generally, she notes, you’ll want to reach for the following foods:

  • More fruits and vegetables, including at least 1 cup of vegetables at both lunch and dinner
  • Fish at least twice a week
  • Lean meats and proteins, such as the round or loin cuts of meat and chicken without the skin
  • Plant-based proteins like beans, instead of meat and chicken more often
  • Food that is roasted, broiled, grilled, steamed, or baked instead of deep-fried or pan-fried
  • Oil for cooking instead of butter, lard, or shortening
  • Water and other calorie-free drinks

In addition, Whelan says, you’ll want to cut back on:

  • Regular soft drinks and juice
  • Refined carbohydrates, such as white bread, rice, and potatoes
  • High-fat desserts like ice cream, cakes, pies, and cookies — reach for fruit instead
  • High-fat and processed meats, like hot dogs, sausage, and bacon
  • Foods with trans fat, like certain margarines, packaged baked goods, and certain peanut butters (check the label)
  • Alcohol. Limit your drinking to a moderate amount, which means no more than one drink per day for women, and no more than two drinks per day for men. A drink is about 12 fluid ounces (oz) beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of liquor. (9)

The Importance of Portion Control for Reversing Prediabetes

Whelan notes that if you are overweight, losing weight can decrease your odds of developing type 2 diabetes. (10) Cutting back portions is one way to lose weight. In addition, the Joslin Diabetes Center notes that portions are closely related to blood glucose control: If you eat more than recommended, your blood sugar will go up. (11)

Whelan offers the following tips for portion control:

  • Use a smaller plate and skip second helpings.
  • Write down what you eat and drink for a week, which will make you more aware of how much you’re consuming.
  • Try to avoid snacking between meals.
  • When dining out, share your main course with a friend or family member, or try taking half of it home in a to-go box.

RELATED: The Best and Worst Foods for Type 2 Diabetes

Using the Glycemic Index and the Glycemic Load to Monitor Your Carb Intake

The glycemic index rates foods on a scale of 0 to 100, based on how much those foods affect your blood sugar. The lower the ranking, the slower your blood sugar rises after eating that food. More cooked and processed foods tend to have higher GI numbers, while more fiber-filled and fat-filled foods tend to have lower GI numbers. (12)

The glycemic load, meanwhile, is an additional measure that tells you not only how quickly the glucose enters the bloodstream, but how much glucose it can deliver. For example, watermelon has a glycemic index of 80, but a serving of watermelon has so few carbohydrates that its glycemic load is only 5. (12)

Counting your carbohydrates is not required for people with prediabetes, Whelan says, but it can be a useful tool that can help you regulate portion sizes and eat healthier.

Why Smoking and Prediabetes Are a Deadly Combination

Smoking can increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes, especially if you’ve already been diagnosed with prediabetes. In fact, it can decrease blood from flowing to your muscles and elevate stress levels — all of which increases your risk of insulin resistance. Preliminary research also suggests nicotine may affect blood sugar control. (13)

Here are some proven ways you can quit smoking: (14)

  • Individual, group, or telephone counseling
  • Treatment delivered via a mobile phone
  • Nicotine replacement products, like over-the-counter nicotine patches, gum, or lozenges, or prescription inhalers or nasal sprays

RELATED: The Best and Worst Ways to Quit Smoking

Why Exercise Is Crucial to Help Manage Well or Reverse Prediabetes

“Being active is one of the best ways to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes,” Whelan says. (15) Regular physical activity can help lower your weight and blood pressure, and improve cholesterol levels, she explains. Try walking for half an hour five days a week to start, Whelan recommends.

In fact, a 2016 study looked at whether exercise alone could affect oral glucose tolerance, and found that it was actually fairly comparable to the results of the exercise-plus-diet group. In the research, participants who adjusted their diet and exercise habits saw an 8.2 percent improvement in glucose tolerance, and participants who adjusted only their exercise habits saw just a 6.4 percent improvement in glucose tolerance. (16)

Common Medication That Can Help Treat Prediabetes

If you need medication to help manage your prediabetes, your doctor will most likely prescribe Glucophage (metformin), Whelan explains. Metformin reduces how much glucose your liver makes and can also lower insulin resistance. (17) Also, people with prediabetes are often prescribed medication to help them manage their hypertension, if applicable, Whelan says.

Possible Complications of Unmanaged Prediabetes

Above all, it’s important to take steps to prevent type 2 diabetes after you receive a prediabetes diagnosis. “Diabetes is a serious disease that causes several long-term complications, like heart disease, kidney disease, eye disease, nerve disease, and more,” Whelan says. “If you delay or prevent it, you’ll prevent long-term complications and enjoy better health in the long run.” (18)

RELATED: How to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Complications

Why Prediabetes Isn’t an Early-Death Sentence

It’s important to know that you will not automatically develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes, Whelan says. Early treatment can help return blood glucose levels to the normal range, she explains. By being proactive about your health, you can avoid developing type 2 diabetes and take steps towards a more active, healthy life.

Additional reporting by Stephanie Bucklin

Reduce sugar | Heart and Stroke Foundation

Tips to reduce your sugar intake

1. Don’t drink your calories.

Avoid sugary drinks. Drink water instead, when you are thirsty. Low-fat, unsweetened milk is also a good way to quench thirst.

  • To keep things interesting, flavour your water with lemon, orange or lime slices, strawberries or fresh mint.
  • Avoid soft drinks and sports drinks. They are high in sugar and have no nutritional value (which is why they are called “empty calories”).
  • Avoid fruit juice, even when it is 100% fruit juice. Although fruit juice has some of the benefits of the fruit (vitamins, minerals), it has more sugar than the fruit and less fibre. Fruit juice should not be consumed as alternative to fruits. Canadians should eat their fruits, not drink them.
  • Stay away from fancy hot drinks with free sugars. Order a latte instead of a mocha coffee. Add nutmeg and cinnamon toppings for extra flavor rather than adding sugar.

2. Try whole foods. Whole foods are items that remain close to their natural state as possible with little processing. Examples are: fresh or frozen vegetables and fruit, poultry and fish, beans, lentils or tofu, brown rice, whole wheat couscous, barley, whole grain breads, plain lower-fat milk, plain yogurt and cheeses.

3. Snack sensibly. Stock up on roasted nuts, lower-fat, lower-sodium cheese and crackers, veggies and dip, and plain yogurt with fresh fruit. Reduce the amount of baked goods, sweet desserts, candies, and chocolates you eat.

4. Eat lower-sugar cereals. Choose cereals with less than 6 grams of sugar and more than 4 grams of fibre per 1 cup (30 gram) serving.

5. Cook at home more often. Select recipes that are lower in sugar.  Check out our recipe section  for a wide variety of delicious recipes. Also, you can experiment with your favourite recipes by reducing the amount of added sugar to your recipes by one-quarter to one-third.

6. Read the Nutrition Facts table and the ingredient list on packaged foods. Pay special attention to the serving size, total amount of sugar and read the ingredient list. The Nutrition Facts table will tell you the total amount of sugar in the product (from both naturally occurring and added sugars) and the ingredient list will let you know where the sugar is coming from.

Products with added sugars such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, honey, evaporated cane juice, fruit puree, molasses, corn syrup, dextrose, concentrated fruit juice provide no nutritional benefits – minimize or remove these items from your shopping list.

How Much Is Too Much?

The growing concern over too much added sugar in our diets

For most people, experts agree that some added sugar in the diet is fine. But the truth is, most Americans are consuming way too much — on average, nearly 57 pounds of added sugar per person, every year. This could be affecting us in ways that make us prone to craving more sugar and to obesity.

How much is okay?

Expert panels worldwide have made consistent recommendations on daily sugar intake. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends no more than 6 teaspoons (25 grams) of added sugar per day for women and 9 teaspoons (38 grams) for men.1 The AHA limits for children vary depending on their age and caloric needs, but range between 3-6 teaspoons (12 – 25 grams) per day.

That is in line with the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommendation that no more than 10% of an adult’s calories – and ideally less than 5% – should come from added sugar or from natural sugars in honey, syrups and fruit juice. For a 2,000-calorie diet, 5% would be 25 grams.

Limit daily sugar to 6 tsps (25 g) for women, 9 tsps  (38 g) for men.

Yet, the average American consumes 17 teaspoons (71.14 grams) every day.2 That translates into about 57 pounds of added sugar consumed each year, per person.3

Children and teens are particularly at risk. The U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting total intake of discretionary calories, including both added sugars and fats, to 5% –15% per day. Yet children and adolescents in America obtain about 16% of their total caloric intake from added sugars alone.4

Sugar leaves us craving more

It’s easy to exceed those limits. With as many as 11 teaspoons (46.2 grams) of added sugar in one 12 oz. soda, a single serving is close to double most people’s daily sugar allowance.5 But sugar also is pervasive in our food supply. A leading brand of yogurt, for example, has 7 teaspoons (29 grams) of total sugars in a single serving, most of it added.

The sugar in one 12-oz soda is as much as in 1 orange + 16 strawberries + 2 plums.

Research also shows that, for some people, eating sugar produces characteristics of craving and withdrawal, along with chemical changes in the brain’s reward center, the limbic region.

Using brain-scanning technology, scientists at the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse were among the first to show that sugar causes changes in peoples’ brains similar to those in people addicted to drugs such as cocaine and alcohol.6,7 These changes are linked to a heightened craving for more sugar.8 This important evidence has set off a flood of research on the potentially addictive properties of sugar.9

Natural changes lead to weight gain

Consuming too much added sugar over long periods of time also can affect the natural balance of hormones that drive critical functions in the body. Eating sugar increases levels of glucose in the bloodstream, which leads the pancreas to release insulin. Higher levels of insulin, in turn, cause the body to store more food calories as fat.

Insulin also affects a hormone called leptin, which is our natural appetite suppressant that tells our brains we are full and can stop eating. Imbalanced insulin levels, along with high consumption of certain sugars, such as fructose, has been linked to a condition called leptin resistance,10 in which the brain no longer “hears” the message to stop eating, thus promoting weight gain and obesity.

Leptin resistance enabled our ancestors to survive long periods of limited food supply by encouraging them to overeat during times of plenty and enabling them to conserve more calories as fat. In the modern world, that’s not a benefit. To make matters worse, people with leptin resistance also tend to feel sluggish, making it difficult to be active and contributing to further weight gain.

  • [1]Johnson, R.K., Appel, L., Brands, M., Howard, B., Lefevre, M., Lustig, R., Sacks, F., Steffen, L., & Wyllie-Rosett, J. (2009, September 15). Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation , 120(11), 1011-20. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192627. Retrieved from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/120/11/1011.full.pdf
  • [2](2016, March). 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Cut Down on Added Sugars. Retrieved from https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/DGA_Cut-Down-On-Added-Sugars.pdf
  • [3]United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. (2012). USDA Sugar Supply: Tables 51-53: US Consumption of Caloric Sweeteners. Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/sugar-and-sweeteners-yearbook-tables.aspx
  • [4]Ervin, R.B., Kit, B.K., Carroll, M.D., & Ogden, C.L. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). NCHS Data Brief No. 87: Consumption of added sugar among U.S. children and adolescents, 2005–2008. . Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db87.htm
  • [5]Soft drinks: sugar content. Retrieved from http://www.floridahealth.gov/chdcollier/Documents/ToothFairy/sugarinsodas.pdf
  • [6]Volkow, N.D., & Li, T.-K. (2004). Drug addiction: the neurobiology of behaviour gone awry. Nature Reviews Neuroscience , 5(12), 963-970.
  • [7]Brownell, K.D., & Gold, M.S. (2012). Food and addiction: A comprehensive handbook. () Oxford University Press.
  • [8]Avena, N., Rada, P., & Hoebel, B. (2008). Evidence for sugar addiction: behaviroal and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience Behavior Review , 52(1), 20-39. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17617461
  • [9]Garber, A.K., & Lustig, R.H. (2011). Is fast food addictive?. Current Drug Abuse Reviews , 4(3), 146-162.
  • [10]Shapiro, A., Mu, W., Roncal, C., Cheng, K.-Y., Johnson, R.J., & Scarpace, P.J. (2008). Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology , 295(5), R1370–1375. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00195.2008
World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.

Website: http://www.who.int

SugarScience Glossary

Added sugar

Any sugar added in preparation of foods, either at the table, in the kitchen or in the processing plant. This may include sucrose, high fructose corn syrup and others.

SugarScience Glossary

Fruit juice

This is a drink that is made entirely (100%) from the liquid which comes from squeezing or grinding up the part of the fruit we would normally eat. Sugar is not added to this drink. The drink will have the sugars that come from the food itself. The juice will likely have less fiber than the fruit. Fiber serves to decrease the speed and amount of sugars absorbed from sugary foods.

SugarScience Glossary


Sugars are chemicals made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen found which taste sweet and are found in food. They are an important part of what we eat and drink and of our bodies. On this site, sugar is used to mean simple sugars (monosaccharides) like fructose or glucose, and disaccharides like table sugar (sucrose). Sucrose is two simple sugars stuck together for example (see Table sugar). Sugars are a type of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are energy sources for our bodies Sugars enter the blood stream very quickly after being eaten.

SugarScience Glossary


Glucose is a sugar we eat. It is found in starch. It is the main fuel for our bodies. It is the sugar measured when we have a blood test to measure the blood sugar.

SugarScience Glossary


The pancreas is an internal organ that helps us digest our food by making insulin and other chemicals.

SugarScience Glossary


One of the three major groups of nutrients we eat. Much of this website is related to problems associated with too much fat storage in the body. Each gram of fat produces 9 calories of energy if burned by the body as fuel. Fat can be stored in many places in the body. We generally think of fat as under the skin (subcutaneous), but the fat that may be most damaging to us is the fat stored in the liver and around the organs of the abdomen (intrahepatic and visceral or abdominal or intra-abdominal)

SugarScience Glossary


A sugar that we eat. Also called fruit sugar. Most fructose comes in sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar), or from high-fructose corn syrup.

SugarScience Glossary


Insulin is a messenger released from the pancreas after eating, which shunts energy (glucose or triglycerides) from the blood into fat cells for storage. Insulin is given to some people with diabetes to lower the blood glucose; it leaves the blood and enters the fat cell for storage.

SugarScience Glossary


A chemical created by the body and released into the blood stream. Upon reaching another part of the body or organ, a hormone effects the function of that bodily part or organ.

SugarScience Glossary


A hormone produced mostly in fat cells in response to eating and to how much energy is stored in the body. It effects the brain and tells us we have eaten enough and to stop eating.

SugarScience Glossary

Carb Counting and Diabetes | ADA

Carbohydrates, or carbs, are naturally found in certain foods. For example, grains, sweets, starches, legumes and dairy all contain different amounts of carbs. Get up to speed on the three types of carbs, and what foods have them.

When foods and drinks with carbs are digested, the carbs break down into glucose to fuel our cells, and the body’s blood glucose, or blood sugar, level rises. In people without diabetes, blood sugar levels rise after eating but the body’s insulin response keeps levels from rising too high.

If you have diabetes, the process doesn’t work as designed. How carb counting can help your blood glucose control depends on your treatment regimen and whether or not your body makes insulin.

  • Type 1: If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas no longer makes insulin, so you need to take background insulin as well as offset the carbs in your food with mealtime insulin doses. To do this, you have to know exactly how many carbohydrate grams are in your meal—cue carb counting!
  • Type 2: Because people with type 2 diabetes are resistant to insulin and may not produce enough of it, it’s important that you be mindful of your carb intake. To avoid blood sugar spikes, it helps to eat a consistent amount of carbs at meals throughout the day, rather than all at once. People taking oral medications may use a more basic form of carb counting than those on insulin.

How do you count carbs?

Carb counting at its most basic level involves counting the number of grams of carbohydrate in a meal and matching that to your dose of insulin.

If you take mealtime insulin, that means first accounting for each carbohydrate gram you eat and dosing mealtime insulin based on that count. You will use what’s known as an insulin-to-carb ratio to calculate how much insulin you should take in order to manage your blood sugars after eating. This advanced form of carb counting is recommended for people on intensive insulin therapy by shots or pump, such as those with type 1 and some people with type 2.

While people with type 2 diabetes who don’t take mealtime insulin may not need detailed carb counting to keep their blood sugars in line, some prefer to do it. While some choose to stick with traditional carb counting, there are others who do a more basic version of carb counting based on “carbohydrate choices,” where one “choice” contains about 15 grams of carb. Still others use the Diabetes Plate Method to eat a reasonable portion of carb-containing foods at each meal by limiting whole grains, starchy vegetables, fruits or dairy to a quarter of the plate.

So, there are a few ways to go about it and it’s really about personal preference, but remember that the best carb counting method for you is the one that addresses your medication and lifestyle needs. A registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN/RD) or Certified Diabetes Care and Education Specialist (CDCES) can help you figure out what works best for you.

How many carbs should I eat?

As for the ideal number of carbs per meal, there’s no magic number. How much carbohydrate each person needs is in large part determined by your body size and activity level. Appetite and hunger also play a role.

In order to figure out how many carbs you should be eating, schedule an appointment with your RD/RDN or CDCES. They’ll work out an eating plan specifically for you. This service, when provided by a dietitian, is known as medical nutrition therapy.

Diabetes self-management education (DSME) sessions also may include creating an eating plan. During the sessions, you’ll determine your carb needs and how to divide your carbs among your meals and snacks. Everybody’s insulin response is going to be different, and we don’t want to make the diet more restrictive than it needs to be to manage blood sugars.

Find a diabetes education program

To get started, you’ll want to figure out how many carbs you are eating at your meals and snacks now. Tracking your food intake and your blood sugar before and about 2-3 hours after your meals for a few days can provide useful information for you and your diabetes care team to see how different meals impact your blood glucose so you can determine the right amount of carbs for you.

How many carbs are in my food?

You can find how many carbs foods have by reading food labels. If a product doesn’t have a food label, such as a whole piece of fruit or a vegetable, there are apps and other tools available to help you calculate. For example, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Composition Database has nutrition information for thousands of foods in a searchable format. The good news is, the longer you practice carb counting, the more you’ll remember the carb content of the foods you commonly eat.

There are two items on the nutrition facts label that you’ll want to pay attention to when carb counting:

  • Serving size. The serving size refers to how much a person usually eats or drinks, and all the information on the label is about this specific amount of food. If you eat more, you will need to account for the additional nutrients. For example, eating two or three servings of something, means you will need to double or triple the amount of grams of carbs (and all other nutrients) on the label in your calculations.
  • Grams of total carbohydrate. This number includes all carbs: sugar, starch and fiber. That’s right: You don’t have to worry about adding on grams of added sugars—they’re included in the number of total carbs! The added sugars and other bullets below the total carbs listing are included to provide more information about what’s in the food that you are eating. And while you don’t need to worry about adding added sugars when it comes to counting carbs, you should still aim to minimize the amount of added sugar in the foods you eat.

What about protein and fat?

Carb counting would be simple if we only ate carbohydrate foods, but meals are usually a mix of carbohydrate, protein and fat. A meal high in protein and fat can change how quickly the body absorbs carbs, which impacts blood sugar levels.

A great way to understand how food impacts your blood sugar is to keep track of your numbers and discuss them with your diabetes care team including a RD/RDN and/or CDCES. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or self-monitoring of blood glucose can also help, especially for insulin dosing.

What should I eat?

Whether you count each carb gram or use one of the other meal planning methods, you’ll want to choose foods that are rich in nutrients. Opt for whole foods that are unprocessed and in their natural state, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains and lean proteins. Processed foods, such as packaged cookies, crackers and other snack foods, usually contain added salt, sugar, carbohydrates, fat or preservatives.

While this sounds like a lot, don’t be overwhelmed—start by making small changes and sticking to them. Even small changes can have huge results!

how much sugar is it OK to eat?

Consuming too much energy – whether from fat or carbohydrates, including sugar – will make you gain weight. If left unchecked, this excess weight increases your risk of lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and some cancers.

In recognition of this, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends adults and children limit their intake of “free sugars” to less than 10% of their total energy intake. Below 5% is even better and carries additional health benefits.

Free sugars refer to monosaccharides (such as glucose) and disaccharides (sucrose or table sugar) added to foods and drinks by the manufacturer, cook or consumer. It also refers to sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates.

Free sugars are different from sugars found in whole fresh fruits and vegetables. There is no scientific evidence that consuming these sugars leads to health problems. So the guidelines don’t apply to fresh fruit and vegetables.

If you’re an average-sized adult eating and drinking enough to maintain a healthy body weight (roughly 8,700 kilojoules per day), 10% of your total energy intake from free sugar roughly translates to no more than 54 grams, or around 12 teaspoons, per day.

But more than half of Australians (52%) usually exceed the WHO recommendations.

Most sugar we eat (around 75%) comes from processed and pre-packaged foods and drinks. The rest we add to tea, coffee and cereal, and other foods we cook.

Sugary drinks account for the largest proportion of Australians’ free sugar intake. A single can or 600ml bottle of soft drink can easily exceed the WHO recommendation, providing around 40-70g sugar. One teaspoon equates to 4.5g white sugar, so soft drinks range from 8.5 to 15.5 teaspoons.


More insidious sources of sugar are drinks marketed as “healthier” options, such as iced teas, coconut water, juices and smoothies. Some medium-sized smoothies have up to 14 teaspoons of sugar (63.5g) in a 475ml drink.

Flavoured milks are also high in free sugars (11 teaspoons in a 500ml carton) but can be a good source of calcium.

Other foods high in sugar are breakfast cereals. While some sugar is derived from dried fruit, many popular granola mixes add various forms of sugar. Sugar content for one cup of cereal ranges from 12.5g for creamy honey quick oats to 20.5g for granola. A cup of some types of cereal can contain 30% to 50% of your daily free sugar allowance.


A surprise for many is the added sugars in savoury foods including sauces and condiments. Tomato and barbecue sauce, salad dressing and sweet’n’sour stirfry sauces contain one to two teaspoons of sugar in each tablespoon (20ml).


Popular “health foods” and sugar-free recipes can be particularly misleading as they can contain as much sugar as their sweet alternatives. Usually this is referring to “sucrose-free” (what we know as white sugar) and doesn’t exclude the use of other sugar derivatives such as rice malt syrup, agave or maple syrup, typical of popular sugar-free recipes. These are still forms of sugar and contribute to energy intake and unhealthy weight gain when consumed in excess.


We know treats such as chocolate, pastries and ice-cream do contain sugar, but just how much might surprise you. A chocolate-coated icecream will contribute five teaspoons of sugar, or almost half the daily limit.


Sugar added to foods and drink can have different names depending on where it comes from. When reading labels, alternative names for sugar include:

  • sucrose
  • glucose
  • corn syrup
  • maltose
  • dextrose
  • raw sugar
  • cane sugar
  • malt extract
  • fruit juice concentrate
  • molasses.

The main ingredient is sugar if any of these are listed as the first three ingredients.

Note that products with “no added sugar” nutrition claims may still contain high levels of natural sugars, also considered as free sugars. A good example of this is fruit juice: the sugar content of 200ml of sweetened orange juice (21g) is 7g higher than unsweetened juice (14g).

So how can you cut down on your added sugars?

First, eat fewer foods with free sugars. Reduce your intake of sweets such as chocolate and lollies, cakes, biscuits, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, cordials, fruit drinks, vitamin waters and sports drinks.

Second, make some swaps. Swap your cereal for a lower-sugar variety and limit the amount of sugar you add. Drink plain tap water and swap brands for sugar-free or those with lower added sugar. Swap fruit juices for whole fruits, which also give you fibre and other health-promoting nutrients.

Finally, read the labels on packaged food and drink. If the product has more than 15g of sugar per 100g, check to see if sugar is one of the main ingredients. If it is, use the nutrient information panel to compare and choose products containing less sugar.

90,000 What can be done with diabetes mellitus? What can diabetics eat?

Many mothers of “dia-kids” faced sympathetic glances from those around them when they brought their child to a cafe, to a party, or a children’s birthday. After all, almost everyone believes that a child with diabetes should not eat sweets, cakes and other “goodies”. Kind-hearted friends and acquaintances often advise adult diabetics to buy more buckwheat. After all, this is, in fact, the only food allowed for their diagnosis.Is it really that bad, and having been diagnosed with diabetes will have to say goodbye to all the gastronomic delights? It turns out not! Many “horror stories” about the diet of diabetics are nothing more than a myth.

The myth and truth about diabetic nutrition

Consider a few established opinions about proper nutrition for diabetics, and try to give answers, which of the established statements is true, and where is fiction.

Diabetics can’t eat sweets.

This statement is more myth than truth.The fact is that with a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in the body, namely, this problem worries those who are diagnosed with diabetes, fast-digesting carbohydrates can disrupt the sugar curve. Sugar is the fastest carbohydrate. Its glycemic index is 100. However, diabetics can eat sweets. But if we are talking about diabetics with the first type of disease, they should strictly calculate the “eaten” for insulin and take into account the GI (glycemic index) of the product. Type 2 diabetics are advised to avoid sugar and choose sweeteners over the slower GI sweeteners.

Today diabetics are offered a wide range of sweets (stevia, sucralose, fructose).

Important! When a person diagnosed with diabetes drops blood sugar sharply and reaches values ​​below 3 mmol / L, he may develop a dangerous condition – hypoglycemia. In order to prevent the development of complications, it is important in the first minutes to give such a person juice with sugar, warm water with 2-3 teaspoons of sugar, honey, lollipop, a special product for the relief of hypoglycemia based on dextrose.Giving sweets to stop hypoglycemia is only possible if the person is conscious and can swallow. Otherwise, you need to call an ambulance.

The diet of a diabetic should consist of buckwheat, cabbage and green apples.

This is a delusion! Undoubtedly, buckwheat, cabbage and green apples are healthy foods. But eating just these three food options is boring. And there can be no use in a low-component menu. A diabetic’s diet should be varied and balanced.Buckwheat, cabbage, green apple are foods with a low glycemic index. Simply put, blood sugar rises slowly from them. Therefore, these three products are recommended for the nutrition of people diagnosed with diabetes. But this does not mean at all that a diabetic should eat only apples, buckwheat and cabbage.

In the diet of a person with diabetes, even without it, there must be a variety of cereals and pasta. You can choose products in this category with a low GI (spelled, chia, amaranth) and then it will be easier to control the sugar curve.

Diabetics should not eat carbohydrate foods.

This is a myth! Indeed, people with impaired carbohydrate metabolism have a problem with the assimilation of carbohydrate foods. However, a complete rejection of carbohydrates is not the solution to this problem. On the contrary, such a refusal is even dangerous. The body of any person must receive all the important elements and carbohydrates as well. Simply, by consuming carbohydrate foods, a diabetic must strictly monitor the quantity and quality of these carbohydrates. It is important to take into account the GI (glycemic index of the product) and calculate the quantitative content of carbohydrates per meal.If necessary, you need to correctly calculate insulin or drink a sugar-lowering drug on time (specialist consultation is required).

Very popular among diabetics are low-carbohydrate crispbreads, breads with additives that slow down the rate of absorption of carbohydrates.

Diabetics can eat sweets with sugar substitutes without taking into account.

Indeed, today there are a lot of special products for diabetic nutrition. Among them there is a large selection of sweets. As a rule, fructose, sorbitol, xylitol and other sweeteners are put in these sweets as sweeteners.However, when buying sweetened sweets, cookies and waffles, it is important to remember that many sweeteners have very low GIs, such as fructose (GI = 32). But they still have an effect on blood sugar. It is also important to understand that cookies, sweets and other diabetic sweets contain flour, cocoa, starch, etc. And all of these foods contain carbohydrates. A diabetic can eat all this. But it is important to consider the amount eaten, and if we are talking about type 1 diabetes, it is important to calculate the dose of insulin to compensate for carbohydrates.

By the way, tea is often served with sweets. All diabetics, without exception, are advised to drink tea without sugar or use sugar substitutes, so it will be possible to reduce the amount of “useless” carbohydrates in the diet and not upset the blood sugar balance after a delicious tea with sweets.

Alcohol lowers blood sugar.

It’s true! Alcoholic drinks have a mild sugar-lowering effect. And it is important to remember this for adult diabetics. While drinking dinner with a glass of wine, a diabetic on insulin, it is worth remembering about this property of alcohol.You may need a smaller dose to compensate for such a dinner. But it is a huge misconception to think of alcohol as beneficial for leveling out sugar! With such a disease, it is simply dangerous to abuse alcoholic beverages. Already fragile vessels, liver, and kidneys fall under the blow. Well, if the balance of alcohol and insulin is incorrectly calculated, you can provoke severe hypoglycemia (a dangerous condition associated with a sharp drop in blood sugar).

Diabetics with the second type are advised to slow down their lunches and dinners by adding bran and fiber to their dishes.It is a safe and even beneficial method to “slow down” the absorption of carbohydrates and naturally adjust blood sugar values.

The diabetic must eat on a schedule.

It’s true! The main difference in the diet of a person with diabetes from a healthy person is the regimen. Diabetes of any type requires strict control over food intake. You need to eat 3-6 times a day. The diabetic’s portions are calculated according to the needs of the body and taking into account the recommended norms.

No, this does not mean at all that it is not at all possible to eat an “after-hour” cookie or to have a snack.It is possible, but it must be done correctly, taking into account the amount eaten and adjusting the choice of product to the current blood sugar levels. If it’s an after-hour snack, it’s better that it be healthy. You can choose from spelled bread, apple croutons, or corn sticks.

In diabetes, salt should not be eaten.

This is an exaggeration. Salt for this disease should be eaten in moderation. It’s all about kidney health. With diabetes, this organ is exposed to serious stress. After all, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) affects kidney function.They have to work hard to remove excess glucose from the body. Therefore, it is recommended not to “go too far” with salt. But, unless otherwise prescribed by the doctor, you can eat salt.

For those who have been banned from salt as part of diet therapy, it is worth paying attention to useful salt substitutes, then you will not have to eat unleavened food, and not to the detriment of health.

Proper nutrition for diabetics

To understand how a person with diabetes should eat, it is important to realize that there is a strict distinction between dietary recommendations for type 1 and type 2 diabetics.The fact is that with type 1 diabetes, insulin therapy is most often used to compensate for carbohydrate metabolism. In fact, a diabetic on insulin can eat everything that a healthy person eats, but at the same time he must keep a strict record of carbohydrates and calculate the correct dose to compensate for each meal.

Nutrition for type 2 diabetics implies adherence to the diet. Most often, it is recommended to choose foods with a low GI and give preference to sweets with sweeteners, as well as to avoid sugar for sweetening hot drinks.

Blood sugar level in women: how to determine what is the norm

Everyone knows that together with food, useful substances, including glucose, enter our body, which support its health and vital functions. Being a source of energy, glucose often causes the development of diabetes mellitus, since it is not broken down by insulin, but remains in the blood in its original state.

This impairs blood flow and leads to blood viscosity, which sometimes contributes to thrombus formation.In order to prevent sad consequences, it is necessary to carefully and regularly measure blood sugar in women, and if the rate is exceeded, consult a doctor.

Blood sugar in women: acceptable limits

Until recently, experts believed that the level of glucose in the blood does not change depending on the sex of an individual, but depending on his age. However, recent studies have shown that in the body of the fairer sex, this indicator may depend on completely different factors.

This is primarily due to the peculiarities of the physiology of a woman, since it is female hormones that are called upon to regulate the level of this element in the blood. It has been proven that during menopause, when there is a decline in hormonal activity, the level of glucose in the urine and blood rises. And if a healthy middle-aged woman has a normal sugar limit of about 5.5 mmol / l, then during menopause this figure can fluctuate between 7-10 mmol / l.

This is not considered a pathology, but a normal condition, and it is during this period that tests must be taken.A condition when the level reaches the upper limit up to 6 mmol / l is called pre-diabetic, and is the reason for visiting an endocrinologist. If the mark exceeds the limit of 6 mmol / l, then this gives reason to assert that a woman develops diabetes mellitus.

The norm of blood sugar in women should not fall below 3.3 mmol / l, as symptoms such as weakness, drowsiness, dizziness, and in some cases hunger and irritation may occur. If the level exceeds its norm, a woman may experience irritation of the mucous membrane and skin, develop itching, dry mouth, and thirst that is difficult to quench.With abundant absorption of fluid, frequent urination is observed.

Blood sugar in women: gestation period

An increase in blood glucose levels can also occur in pregnant women, and this condition is called gestational diabetes or gestational diabetes. This phenomenon is temporary and usually disappears after childbirth. In this case, a pregnant woman’s blood sugar level reaches 7 mmol / l, but, at the same time, she feels great. With an indicator over 7 mmol / l, it can be argued that there is manifest diabetes mellitus, which requires serious treatment and does not disappear after delivery.In addition, against the background of increased glucose levels, almost half of pregnant women experience late gestosis (toxicosis).

It must be remembered that in case of any changes in the state of health, a visit to the doctor is simply necessary. The above norms and symptoms do not always indicate a specific disease. Only a qualified specialist will be able to give you an accurate diagnosis.

How to determine the normal sugar level in diabetes?

It is often asked what is the normal blood sugar level? Answering this question, we can say: on an empty stomach less than 6.1 mmol / l, and after meals less than 7.8 mmol / l.

But for patients with diabetes mellitus it is impossible by definition to speak of “normal sugar”. There is a term – target range. In other words, the blood glucose level should not exceed the maximum value and not fall below the minimum value. This range should be discussed with your doctor. it may differ from patient to patient.

The challenge for the person with diabetes is to keep the blood sugar within the target range.

There is a well-known myth that blood glucose levels can be felt. Therefore, you do not need to use the meter. Unfortunately, this is more of a misconception. The body gradually gets used to high sugar levels. Of course, we are not talking about extreme values ​​above 20 mmol / L. Even at a value of 11-12 mmol / l, it can develop irreversible negative consequences and complications of diabetes. Therefore, blood glucose measurement should be carried out regularly, at least once a day. These are the official guidelines from diabetes treatment algorithms.

How can you make sure your blood sugar is in the right range and not kid yourself?

It’s simple – the OneTouch Select® Plus Flex Series with color cues will help you understand the results at a glance. Within 5 seconds, a number will appear on the screen and indicate what it means: too high, low sugar, or within the target range. And the OneTouch Select® Plus Flex meter can even set different pre- and post-meal ranges.

But it is very important to remember that regular self-monitoring does not effectively manage diabetes.It is imperative to take the right action with low and high sugar. To find out what to do, you just need to consult a doctor.

Be healthy!

Do tomatoes raise blood sugar? – Blog

For people living with diabetes, healthy food choices are very important for managing their weight and blood sugar. A healthy diet can also help improve cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as reduce the risk of other complications associated with type 2 diabetes.However, it’s important to know that not all healthy foods contain the same amount of vitamins and minerals, which means that the nutrients in tomatoes may be different from those in kale or spinach.

In addition to the nutrient content, it is also important for humans to consider the glycemic index (GI) of food. Knowing a little more about GIs can help you eat better. In general, foods with a low GI (55 or less) are the best choices for diabetics. Tomatoes are said to have a glycemic index of 30, making them a low GI food that is unlikely to cause unwanted side effects.

How to Add Tomatoes to Your Diet

Tomatoes are a source of various essential nutrients. They are also an excellent source of the antioxidant lycopene, which has been shown to reduce the risk of certain diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and macular degeneration. They are also rich in vitamin C, potassium, folate and vitamin K.

Researchers have found that eating tomatoes can help reduce the risk of heart disease associated with type 2 diabetes.One 2011 study reported that patients with type 2 diabetes who ate 200 grams of raw tomato daily had lower blood pressure.

Tomatoes, like other non-starchy foods, can be safely included in your diabetic diet. However, opt for plain tomatoes, as other tomato-based foods, including tomato sauce and tomato juice, can cause your blood sugar to rise. For example, tomato sauce with added sugar has a glycemic index of 45.

Tomatoes can be eaten in a variety of ways, including raw or cooked. They can be added to sandwiches, salads, sauces, and drinks. Just make sure you do not store fresh tomatoes in the refrigerator, as this can impair their taste. Try storing them in a cool dry place instead.

Disclaimer: The tips and suggestions mentioned in the article are for general information only and should not be construed as professional medical advice.Always check with your doctor or dietitian before making any changes to your diet.

Scientists talk about the benefits of beer for diabetics

A glass of beer a day lowers the risk of developing diabetes, according to Chinese scientists. However, most colleagues disagree with them.

A mug of beer or a glass of wine a day may protect against diabetes, according to researchers at Southeastern University of China. They shared their observations at the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.

Scientists reviewed 10 studies on the relationship between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. A total of 575 people took part in them.

experts concluded that moderate alcohol consumption improves glucose metabolism, which lowers insulin levels.

The authors named 20 g of ethanol per day or less as moderate alcohol consumption. This amount is contained in half a liter of beer, 200 ml of wine or 50 ml of forty-degree alcohol.

High glucose levels, caused by the body’s inability to respond to insulin, causes the pancreas to release more insulin.Consequently, blood sugar levels rise, weight increases, and insulin resistance also increases, which ultimately leads to the development of diabetes.

In addition, alcohol consumption was found to be associated with lower triglycerides, the most common type of fat found in foods. High triglyceride levels, often found in poorly monitored diabetics, are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

At the same time, alcohol did not significantly affect the level of fasting glucose and the level of glycated hemoglobin.

Fasting blood glucose is used to test for type 2 diabetes, with higher levels indicating that the body is not using insulin efficiently.

Glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c – an indicator of blood glucose for a long period of time (up to three months).

Total cholesterol, including good and bad cholesterol, also remained the same. For people with diabetes, it is important that cholesterol levels are balanced to prevent complications, especially cardiovascular disease.

“The results of this meta-analysis show the beneficial effects of alcohol on glucose and fat metabolism in people with type 2 diabetes,” said Dr. Yulin Chen, lead author of the study. “Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the effect of alcohol consumption on blood sugar, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes.”

However, not all researchers share this optimism regarding alcohol consumption.

“The most reliable data published in 2018 shows that the lower the amount of alcohol consumed, the lower the risk of developing a variety of heart disease and stroke.Therefore, you need to consume less alcohol, not more, and this also applies to diabetics, ”says Professor Navid Sattar, an expert in the field of metabolism.

In addition, it is not clear if the beneficial effects were due to the chemistry of alcoholic beverages or other factors.

“Perhaps this is due not only to the presence of alcohol, but also to other components of the drinks that the study participants consumed. Any potential benefit must be weighed against all the health risks associated with alcohol use, such as an increased risk of cancer even with low alcohol consumption.At this stage, it is difficult to draw any conclusions, ”says Dr. Sadie Bonifice of the Institute for the Study of Alcohol.

“While these results suggest the potential benefits of drinking alcohol in moderation, we do not recommend that people with type 2 diabetes consider these results as a reason to start drinking if they don’t,” said Douglas Twenefort of Diabetes UK. –

We recommend that people with diabetes or not, rely on government standards for alcohol consumption. “

Also, experts criticized the research methodology – data collection was rather careless, not all works indicated the regularity of alcohol consumption and dosage. In addition, they were alarmed that the work has not yet been published anywhere.

90,000 Truth and myths about diabetes

Article author –
Galina Ivanovna Masalygina,
endocrinologist at the clinic “Dixion”

In his daily practice , Endocrinologist has to answer many questions from his patients.Most often these are questions related to nutrition, lifestyle in diabetes mellitus. But in those cases when there are questions, and there is nowhere to get an answer to them, peculiar “myths” are born among the patients, which patients willingly share with each other. The purpose of this article is to debunk the most common of these myths and help patients understand what is true and what is not. So, the most common 10 myths about diabetes are .

Myth one:
If there is a lot of sweets, then be sure to
get sick with diabetes.

Not true. Diabetes itself does not arise from eating sweets alone. If you do not have a hereditary predisposition to diabetes, normal weight and physical activity, then you can eat sweets as much as you want.

But if your close relatives suffer from diabetes, and the consumption of sweets leads to the development of obesity in you, then yes, you are at risk for diabetes.

But you will also be at risk if you have obesity, a sedentary lifestyle – and at the same time you practically do not eat sweets, and your weight grows from the consumption of hamburgers, chips, beer and other, not at all sweet foods.

Myth two:
If my relatives are sick with sugar
diabetes in adulthood, then I have it too
cannot be avoided.

Not true. Yes, the role of heredity in type 2 diabetes is very important. But if you lead a healthy lifestyle, eat right, and, most importantly, have a normal weight, then the likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus is extremely low.

And in type 1 diabetes mellitus, the role of heredity is even less.

The probability of its transmission by inheritance to children if one of the parents is sick is only 3-5%.

Myth Three:
Diabetes mellitus can be cured by methods
alternative medicine.

Not true. This is the most dangerous delusion. Alternative medicine methods for type 2 diabetes mellitus (together with traditional treatment) can have a positive effect, but they will not lead to a cure. There are cases when, with type 2 diabetes, a person loses weight to normal weight, continues to play sports, follows a diet – and his blood sugar remains normal without taking pills.But this does not mean that he is cured.

As soon as he stops doing all this, begins to gain weight – and blood sugar will inevitably begin to rise. And with type 1 diabetes mellitus (when a person cannot live without daily injections of insulin), no “healers” and miracle methods will ever be able to give the main thing – to restore the dead beta cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. Unfortunately, the death of these cells is irreversible. …

Myth four:
If I Don’t Eat Carbs,
then my blood sugar will be normal.

Not true. If only it were that simple – don’t eat carbohydrates and there will be no diabetes! Carbohydrates are vital for us, because glucose is a source of energy for our body, and we can get it only from carbohydrates. In the diet of a patient with diabetes mellitus, carbohydrates should account for 60% of the daily calorie intake. It’s all about their type and quantity.

To avoid a rapid and pronounced rise in blood sugar after a meal, it is not recommended to eat easily digestible carbohydrates (sugar, sugar-containing foods, sugary drinks, grapes, etc.).etc.).

But slowly digestible carbohydrates – cereals, vegetables, fruits – must be included in the diet. But there shouldn’t be a lot of them!

Myth 5:
A diabetic patient can only eat
buckwheat porridge, but potatoes and pasta are not allowed.

Not true. And porridge, and potatoes, and pasta are slowly digestible carbohydrates. But again, the matter is in their type and quantity.

Cereals for diabetes can be any (except semolina), but the porridge should be boiled in water, crumbly.

Pasta – durum wheat (class A) and not boiled, but with a light hard grain.

Potatoes can be eaten, but not fried, but boiled, baked, stewed.

Myth six:
Alcohol lowers blood sugar, so
with high blood sugar, it is only beneficial.

Not true. Such a delusion is not only stupid, but also dangerous. High blood sugar does not decrease from alcohol. Blood sugar drops after alcohol because alcohol blocks the flow of carbohydrates from the liver into the bloodstream! There are two sources of increased blood sugar in the body: carbohydrates from food and glucose from the liver.

Now imagine what will happen if glucose from the liver ceases to enter the bloodstream: all glucose from food will be absorbed by the cells of the body and the blood sugar level drops below 3.3 mmol / l, because the mechanism preventing this fall (liver glucose) is blocked by alcohol. Severe hypoglycemia will develop!

Myth Seventh:
With diabetes, you can only eat green
and sour apples (but red and sweet apples are not allowed).

Not true.The color, like the taste of an apple, does not affect the amount of carbohydrates in it. The taste is more dependent on fruit acids, which give the apple a sour taste (the more there are, the more sour the apple).

It’s a matter of size. Green sour and red sweet apples of the same size have equal carbohydrate content.

Therefore, pay attention to the size and quantity, not the taste and color of the fruit.

Myth 8:
If biscuits, waffles and other sweets
contain fructose instead of sugar,
that is, you can have as many of them as you want.

Not true. Fructose is absorbed more slowly than sugar, but also increases blood glucose. In addition, both biscuits and waffles are baked from dough that contains flour, which also increases blood sugar. So again we need to remember about the quantity. One or two pieces are safe, but a whole pack at a time is already overkill.

Myth ninth:
If I have diabetes,
then pregnancy is contraindicated for me.

Not true.If a girl suffering from diabetes keeps her blood sugar under control, does not have severe complications of diabetes, is trained in self-control and nutritional rules, then pregnancy is not contraindicated for her. But! It is important to remember that pregnancy must be planned!

Six months before the expected pregnancy, you need to control your diabetes so that the blood sugar values ​​are from 4 to 8 mmol / l.

It is also necessary to undergo an examination by an ophthalmologist, a neurologist, take blood and urine tests, including for microalbuminuria and glycosylated hemoglobin.And good luck!

Myth ten:
Care should be taken in diabetes mellitus
yourself and avoid physical activity.

Not true! This should never be done! Exercise for diabetes is as much of a treatment as diet and medication. During physical exertion, working muscles become more sensitive to the action of insulin, more actively absorb glucose from the blood, thereby reducing its content.

Numerous studies have proven that diabetic patients who regularly play sports have a more favorable prognosis in the development of complications: retinopathy, neuropathy, and others.Physical activity has a beneficial effect on all types of metabolism: the breakdown of fats increases, body weight decreases, and the fat composition of the blood improves.

You just need to remember that you can start exercising when blood sugar is below 10 mmol / l, the load should be feasible, and do not forget to take measures to prevent hypoglycemia, because blood sugar during exercise can drop significantly.

Nutrition for diabetes mellitus | OneTouch®

Understanding how food affects blood sugar


Food has a direct effect on blood glucose levels.Some foods raise blood glucose levels more than others. Successful diabetes management requires knowing what foods and how much you can eat and following a meal plan that suits your lifestyle and helps control your blood glucose levels. Foods contain 3 main types of nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.


Carbohydrates are the starches, sugars and fiber found in foods such as grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy products and sweets.They raise blood glucose levels faster and more than other nutrients found in foods such as proteins and fats. Knowing which foods have carbohydrates and how many carbohydrates are in a food is helpful in keeping blood glucose levels under control. Carbohydrates from sources such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains (high in fiber) are preferred over carbohydrates from sources with added sugars, fat, and salt.


Protein is an integral part of a balanced diet and will help keep you from feeling hungry.Unlike carbohydrates, they do not raise blood glucose levels. However, in order to avoid weight gain, it is necessary to control the portion size of foods containing proteins. In people with type 2 diabetes, protein makes insulin work faster, so you shouldn’t try to cope with low blood glucose with protein shakes and blends. Using 15 grams of fast-acting glucose-containing carbohydrates, such as juice, other sugar-sweetened beverages, glucose gel, or tablets, is the preferred treatment for low blood sugar.


Fats are an integral part of a balanced diet. Fats, which are found in oily fish, nuts and seeds, are especially beneficial. They do not raise blood glucose levels, but they are high in calories and can cause weight gain.

Strive to include all 3 nutrients in your meals to balance your diet.

Choosing a healthy diet

Your dietitian or diabetes counselor can help you develop a meal plan that suits you and your lifestyle.

Some recommendations for healthy eating:

Healthy food for a person with diabetes is healthy food for the whole family.

  • Enjoy food by eating regularly healthy meals with appropriate portion sizes. Your doctor can help you learn how to choose healthy foods and the correct portion sizes.
  • Eat a variety of nutrient-dense foods with every meal, including healthy fats, lean meats or proteins, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products in appropriate amounts.
  • Choose fiber-rich foods as often as possible, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (bran, wholemeal pasta, brown rice).
  • Try replacing the meat with lentils, beans, or tofu.
  • Drink low-calorie beverages such as unsweetened tea or coffee and water.
  • Introduce sweeteners into your diet.
  • Choose foods with a lower salt content.

Possibility of visual assessment of portion size – at your fingertips

Choose food and quantity based on your blood glucose level.If you eat more than you need, your blood glucose levels will rise. Knowing how to properly size your portions is essential to successfully managing your diabetes. Fortunately, the tool is always at your fingertips – in the palm of your hand.

Canadian Diabetes Association 2 recommends the following serving sizes:

How to choose healthy foods

before going to the store:

  • Plan your meals for a specific period of time (for example, a few days to a week) and include a variety of foods that contain all types of nutrients in your diet.
  • List foods based on your meal plan.

In the store:

  • Take a list with you and stick to it.
  • Avoid shopping when you are hungry, as this often leads to less healthy food choices.
  • Choose foods that are around the perimeter (outer edges) of the store. For example, in those sections where “real food” is sold, not canned food.
  • Do not buy sugary drinks, candy, or chips.
  • Check food labels to help you make the right choice.

1 American Diabetes Association. (ADA) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2018. Diabetes Care – 2018; 41, Suppl. 1. Online version May 6, 2018 at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/suppl/2017/12/08/41.Supplement_1.DC1/DC_41_S1_Combined.pdf

2 Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) – Recommended Portion Sizes: Your hands will guide you in estimating portion sizes.Online version dated May 25, 2018 at https://www.diabetes.ca/diabetes-and-you/healthy-living-resources/diet-nutrition/portion-guide

90,000 Ice cream for diabetes | Icecro

Is ice cream possible with diabetes

Ice cream has always been a favorite delicacy for those with a sweet tooth. It’s hard to imagine how you can do without a refreshing glass or an ice cream on a stick on a hot day. Alas, for people suffering from diabetes, this dessert was previously strictly prohibited.The high sugar content of this dessert posed a risk for the sick.

Then the doctors reconsidered their views and allowed the patients to introduce popsicles into their diet. And even later, the creamy ice cream ceased to be seen as enemy number 1.

In diabetes, remember how many so-called bread units are in a dessert. One ball of ice cream weighing 60-65 grams contains 1-1.5 XE. Thus, a person suffering from diabetes can afford one ball with little or no fear.


It became possible to consume ice cream if several conditions were met:

  1. monitor your own health and check your sugar level;
  2. do not get carried away with sweets;
  3. Carefully choose ice cream that is free of fat substitutes and other artificial ingredients.

If overweight or obesity is also attached to diabetes, in this case, you should still refuse your favorite treat.When calculating their diet for the day, a person suffering from diabetes should take into account that a number of sugar substitutes have a high calorie content. But at the same time, eating ice cream instead of one of the meals can be fraught with an attack of hypoglycemia.

You should also not wash down ice cream with tea, coffee or any other hot drink. This is harmful to the teeth as the contrast between hot and cold destroys the enamel. And in the case of diabetes, the conversion of slow carbohydrates to fast carbohydrates is added to this general danger.By itself, ice cream with diabetes is absorbed slowly, because it is cold. A hot drink will quickly melt the dessert, and carbohydrates will rush into the stomach.

If you are going to taste ice cream in a cafe, then you need not only to clarify the composition with the waiter, but also refuse various tempting offers, like topping the dessert or sprinkle with chocolate chips.