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How quickly does flu come on: Flu Symptoms & Complications | CDC

Frequently Asked QUestions

What is INFLUENZA (Flu)?
Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. There are
two main types of influenza viruses: type A and type B. Each type has many different
subtypes or strains. The flu can cause mild to severe illness and, at times, can cause
death. Some people such as young children, older people and people with certain health
conditions are at higher risk for serious flu complications. The best way to prevent this
illness is by getting a flu vaccination.

Influenza can occur throughout the year, but seasonally peaks from December to March.
Each year in the United States, on average:
* 5 percent to 20 percent of the population get the flu;
* More than 200,000 people are hospitalized from flu complications; and
* About 36,000 people die from the flu.

What are the symptoms?
Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, extreme fatigue, sore throat, runny
nose, cough and nasal congestion. Occasionally, stomach symptoms such as nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain are present.

What are complications associated with flu?
Complications caused by influenza include pneumonia, dehydration, diabetes; and
worsening of chronic medical conditions such as chronic lung or heart diseases. Children
may develop sinus problems or ear infections.

How is influenza spread?
Influenza is spread from person to person by direct contact with airborne particles or large
droplets from the respiratory tract of the infected person when coughing, sneezing, or
talking. Transmission can also occur through articles recently contaminated by secretions
from the nose and throat of the infected person. Handwashing and avoiding or limiting
contact with an infected person may reduce the risk of infection.

How soon do symptoms appear?
Symptoms of influenza usually appear 1-4 days after exposure.

How long can a person spread influenza?
Persons are most contagious during the 24 hours before symptoms appear and may be
contagious for up to 5 -7 days after getting sick. This means that you can give someone
the flu before you know you are sick, as well as when you are sick.

How is influenza diagnosed?
The diagnosis of influenza is usually based on symptoms. For a laboratory-confirmed
diagnosis, the virus is detected in specimens collected from the throat or nose by culture or
a rapid test. Laboratory testing is generally reserved for hospitalized individuals or those at
high risk for complications related to influenza.

What is the treatment of influenza?
Basic treatment includes bed rest, fluids and over-the-counter medications for the relief of
symptoms of runny nose, cough, sore throat, fever and discomfort. Aspirin should not be
used for infants, children or teenagers because of the associated risk for contracting Reye

Antiviral medications may reduce the severity and shorten the duration of influenza type A
in healthy adults when administered within 48 hours of illness onset. These drugs may
have side effects and must be ordered by a physician. Antiviral medications are generally
reserved for hospitalized individuals or those at high risk for complications related to

Can influenza be prevented?
The single best way to prevent the flu is to get a flu vaccination each fall. Influenza vaccine
is updated annually to match the circulating strain of influenza and provides protection for
approximately one year. If unable to get the vaccine in the fall, the vaccine can still be
taken anytime during the flu season. It takes about one to two weeks for the antibody to
develop and provide protection.

For detailed information regarding prevention of seasonal influenza with vaccination:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):

24/7 Emergency Contact Number: 1-888-295-5156
Revised 6/2011


Find out the most common first signs that you’re about to get a cold or flu

How we catch cold and flu

Cold and flu viruses can be breathed in, or passed on by your hands to your nose or eyes. When people who are infected cough or sneeze into their hands, they can transfer the virus onto them. If sufferers go on to have hand‐to‐hand contact with healthy people, they can pass their cold or flu on. In the same way, healthy people can pick up viruses when they touch objects that sufferers have held or handled.

The first few days of a cold

As our immune system responds to the virus, we experience the familiar cold symptoms. The first sign of a cold is usually a sore or irritated throat and is typically followed by early symptoms such as a headache, chilliness or lethargy. These develop quickly and can last one to two days.

During the first few days, your nose may also start to run. As your cold takes hold, this watery trickle may become thicker and change colour to yellow, or even green.

A cough can also be a common symptom of a cold. In the early days this may be linked to a sore or irritated throat and an irritating ‘tickle’ in the throat.

Common signs of a cold may include:

A headache –
As your immune system responds to the infection it is common to develop a headache.

Chilliness –
In the first few days of a cold, you may feel shivery or chilly. However, it is rare for adults with a cold to get a fever too.

Sneezing –
This reflex is your body’s way of keeping your nose free from the things that irritate it, like dust, bacteria or viruses.

Tiredness and fatigue –
With a cold you may feel tired and drained. You may also find it difficult to concentrate.

During this initial period, you’re at your most contagious. So wherever possible, it’s a good idea to regularly wash your hands with soap and warm water, and wipe down door handles and worktops with a disinfectant.

It’s worth remembering that the early symptoms of a cold are usually at their worst during the first two to three days of the infection and if you’re otherwise fit and healthy, there is no need to visit a GP. However, if you’re in any doubt, or are concerned about any of your family’s symptoms, please speak to your doctor.

Influenza (flu) and your baby

What is the flu?

Influenza (also called flu) is a virus that can cause serious illness. It’s more than just a runny nose and sore throat. It’s really important to protect babies and young children from the flu because it can make them very sick. In rare cases, flu can cause death. In 2017, the flu caused a record number of deaths in children. Most of the children who died didn’t get a flu vaccine.

How does the flu spread?

The flu spreads easily from person to person. When someone with the flu coughs, sneezes or speaks, the virus spreads through the air. Your baby can get infected with the flu if she breathes the virus in or if she touches something (like a toy) that has the flu virus on it and then touches her nose, eyes or mouth.

People with the flu may be able to infect others from 1 day before they get sick up to 5 to 7 days after. People who are very sick with the flu or young children may be able to spread the flu longer, especially if they still have symptoms.

Does your child need a flu vaccine every year?

Yes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (also called CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (also called AAP) recommend that everyone 6 months and older get the flu vaccine each year. It’s especially important for children younger than 5 to get it because they’re more likely than older kids to have serious health problems caused by the flu. The flu can be dangerous for all children, even healthy children. 

The best way to protect your child from the flu is to make sure he gets a flu vaccine each year before flu season (October through May). Even though your child’s more likely to get the flu during flu season, he can get it any time of year. 

There are two ways for your child to get the flu vaccine:  

  1. Flu shot. Children 6 months and older can get the flu shot.
  2. Flu nasal spray. This is a spray your child’s provider puts in your child’s nose. Most children 2 years or older can get the flu nasal spray. But it’s not recommended for children who have certain health conditions, like asthma, heart and lung problems, or a weak immune system that doesn’t protect him well from infection. The flu nasal spray also isn’t recommended for children who take certain medicines for a long time, like aspirin (called long-term aspirin therapy).

The first time your baby gets the flu vaccine, he gets two doses to give him the best protection from the flu. Your child gets one dose of the vaccine every year after.

If you’re not sure which vaccine is best for your child, ask his health care provider. Visit flu.gov to learn more about flu vaccines. 

The flu vaccine is safe for most children, even babies born prematurely (before 37 weeks of pregnancy). But if your child had a bad reaction to the flu vaccine in the past, tell his provider. The provider may want to watch your child closely after getting the vaccine to check for a reaction. If your child is allergic to eggs, talk to his provider to decide if it’s OK to get the flu vaccine. Some flu vaccines are made from eggs.

There are many different flu viruses, and they’re always changing. Each year a new flu vaccine is made to protect against three or four flu viruses that are likely to make people sick during the upcoming flu season. With the vaccine, protection from the flu lasts about a year, so it’s important to get your child vaccinated each year. You get the vaccine from his provider or from other places, like pharmacies, that offer it. Use the HealthMap Vaccine Finder to find out where you can get a flu vaccine for your child.

Are some children more likely to have serious health problems caused by flu than others?

Yes. Babies and children younger than 5 years old—and especially those younger than 2 years old– are more likely than older children to have complications from the flu. Premature babies also are at increased risk of serious complications from flu. The CDC recommends that premature babies get most vaccines, including the flu vaccine, according to their chronological age (the time since birth). Even if a baby is born small or with a low birthweight, she can get her vaccine at the same time as other babies who are the same age. If you have a premature baby, talk your baby’s provider to make sure your baby gets the flu vaccine on time. Children with chronic health conditions, like asthma, heart disease or blood disorders, also are at high risk of flu complications. 

What health problems can flu cause in children?

Complications from flu in children younger than 5 years old include:

  • Making chronic health conditions, like heart disease or asthma, worse
  • Brain problems, like encephalopathy. Encephalopathy is any brain disease that affects the brain’s structure or how the brain works.
  • Dehydration. This means not having enough water in your body.
  • Pneumonia. This is an infection in one or both lungs.
  • Sinus problems and ear infections. Sinuses are hollow air spaces within the bones around the nose. Sinus infections can happen when fluid builds up in the sinuses.
  • Death. Flu complications can sometimes lead to death, but this is rare. 

What are signs and symptoms that your baby has the flu?

Signs of a condition are things someone else can see or know about you, like you have a rash or you’re coughing. Symptoms are things you feel yourself that others can’t see, like having a sore throat or feeling dizzy. If your baby has any of these signs and symptoms of the flu, call his health care provider right away or take him to see his provider:

  • Being very tired or sleepy (also called fatigue)
  • Cough  
  • Fever (100 F or above), chills or body shakes. Not everyone who has the flu has a fever.
  • Headache, or muscle or body aches
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Sore throat
  • Vomiting (throwing up) or diarrhea

The flu often comes on quickly.  Fever and most other signs and symptoms can last a week or longer. While your baby can’t tell you how she’s feeling, babies who have the flu often are sicker, fussier and seem more uncomfortable and unhappy than babies with a common cold. If you think your baby has the flu even if she got a flu vaccine, call her health care provider.

If your baby has any of these signs or symptoms, take her to a hospital emergency room: 

  • Being so fussy that she doesn’t want to be held
  • Bluish color of lips or face
  • Chronic health conditions, like asthma, get worse
  • Fast breathing, trouble breathing, chest pain or ribs pulling in with each breath
  • Fever in a baby younger than 12 weeks old, fever above 104 F in older babies or children, or fever with a rash
  • Fever or cough that gets better but then returns and gets worse
  • Having seizures. A seizure is when the whole body or parts of the body move without control.
  • Not drinking enough fluids or not making as much urine as she normally does. If your baby doesn’t make urine for 8 hours, has a dry mouth or doesn’t make tears when crying, she may be dehydrated.  
  • Not waking up, or not being alert or interacting with you when she is awake
  • Severe muscle pain. It may be so severe your child can’t walk.
  • Vomiting (throwing up) that’s severe or doesn’t stop

How is flu treated in babies and children?

Your baby’s provider may prescribe an antiviral medicine to prevent or treat the flu. An antiviral is a medicine that kills infections caused by viruses. Antivirals can make your baby’s flu milder and help your baby feel better faster. Antivirals also can help prevent serious flu complications, like a lung infection called pneumonia. For flu, antivirals work best if used within 2 days of having signs or symptoms. 

If your baby is at high risk for flu, his provider may prescribe an antiviral as soon as he begins to have flu symptoms. All children younger than 5 are at high risk for flu, especially children younger than 2. Children who were born prematurely  or who have chronic health conditions, like asthma or sickle cell disease, also are at high risk.

Three medicines are approved in the United States for preventing or treating the flu in children:

  1. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) for children as young as 2 weeks.  This medicine comes as a capsule or liquid.
  2. Zanamivir (Relenza®) for children at least 5 years old.  This medicine is a powder that your child breathes in by mouth. It isn’t recommended for people with breathing problems, like asthma.
  3. Peramivir (Rapivab®) for children at least 2 years old. This medicine is given through a needle into a vein (also called IV) by a health care provider.

If your child has the flu, help him get lots of rest and drink plenty of fluids. He may not want to eat much. Try giving him small meals to help his body get better.

If your baby seems uncomfortable from a fever, ask her provider if you can give her infant’s or children’s acetaminophen (Tylenol®) or ibuprofen (Motrin® or Advil®). Don’t give her aspirin without checking with her health care provider. Aspirin can cause a rare but life-threatening liver disorder called Reye syndrome in children with certain illnesses, such as colds, the flu and chickenpox.

If your baby has a cough or a cold, don’t give her over-the-counter cough and cold medicine. These are medicines you can buy without a prescription from a health care provider. AAP says these medicines can cause serious health problems for children. Talk to your baby’s provider before you give your baby any kind of medicine.

How can you stop the flu from spreading? 

Everyone 6 months and older needs to get a flu vaccine. This means you, especially if you have or take care of a baby younger than 6 months. Getting a flu vaccine can help keep you from spreading the flu.

If you or your child has the flu, you can spread it to others. Here’s how to help prevent the flu from spreading:

  • Keep your child home from day care, school or camp for at least 24 hours after her fever (100 F or higher) is gone. The fever should be gone without using a medicine that lowers fever.
  • Avoid contact with other people.
  • Don’t kiss your baby and avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth.
  • Teach your child to cough or sneeze into a tissue or his arm. Throw used tissues in the trash.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water before and after caring for your baby. You also can use alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Use enough hand sanitizer so that it takes at least 15 seconds for your hands to dry.
  • Clean surfaces and toys that may have the flu virus on them.
  • Use hot, soapy water or a dishwasher to clean your baby’s dishes and utensils.
  • Don’t share any of your baby’s dishes, glasses, utensils or his toothbrush. 

More information


See also: Flu and pregnancy, Your baby’s vaccinations

Last reviewed: September, 2019


Flu Symptoms: When To Bring Your Child Into The Emergency Center

We are in the midst of one of the most severe flu seasons in a decade. Texas Children’s alongside hospitals across the nation have seen a major jump in flu-related emergency center visits over the past several weeks. It’s important for parents to understand when they should or shouldn’t bring their child into an emergency center with flu-like symptoms. The flu can cause a variety of symptoms and effects, ranging from mild to severe. Most healthy people, including children, can recover from the flu without complications, and don’t need to go to the emergency center or seek hospitalization. Symptoms of the flu can include:

  • Fever or chills
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Coughing
  • Sore throat
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Body aches
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting

A child with these regular flu-like symptoms can usually be cared for at home with fever-reducing medication, like Tylenol or Ibuprofen, clear fluids and bed rest. If diagnosed early enough, some children might benefit from Tamiflu, a medication that requires a prescription from your pediatrician. To ensure your child has fully recovered from the flu, he/she should stay home for at least 24 hours after the fever is gone. If your child’s flu-like symptoms return and worsen, or if your child is at high risk for developing flu-related complications (he/she is younger than 2 years old or has a chronic condition like asthma, epilepsy, lung disease, heart disease, sickle cell disease, cancer, etc.), call your child’s pediatrician to seek evaluation.

You should seek immediate medical care in an emergency center if your child exhibits any of these core warning signs:

  • Return of flu-like symptoms with worsened fever, cough
  • Fast or troubled breathing
  • Cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the skin
  • Dehydration, a lack of fluid consumption (no tears with crying, dry lips and mouth, no urination in more than eight hours)
  • Severe lethargy
  • Irritability

In adults, core warning signs signaling a need for urgent medical attention include:

  • Return of flu-like symptoms with worsened fever, cough
  • Difficulty breathing, or shortness of breath
  • Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen
  • Sudden dizziness
  • Confusion or altered mental state
  • Severe or persistent vomiting

Just remember: Although most flu-related illnesses can be treated at home, please seek immediate medical care if you’re especially concerned about your child’s health, or if your child exhibits any of the core warning signs.  The flu vaccine is the best way to protect yourself and your family from flu infection. It isn’t too late to get your flu shot!

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Influenza Flu Exposure | Advocare Broomall Pediatric Associates

Is this your symptom?

  • Exposure (Close Contact) to a person with influenza (flu)
  • NO symptoms of flu (no fever, cough, sore throat, or runny nose)

Definition of Exposure (Close Contact) to Influenza

  • Household Close Contact: Lives with a person who has the flu.
  • Other Close Contact (within 6 feet, 2 meters; touching distance) with a person who has the flu. Examples of such close contact are kissing or hugging, sharing eating or drinking utensils, or carpooling. For healthcare workers, doing a physical exam is close contact.

The following are NOT considered close contact exposures:

  • Being in the same school, church, workplace or building as a person with the flu.
  • Walking by a person who has the flu.

Adults at HIGH RISK for Complications

  • The flu is usually not serious in healthy adults. Most people with the flu do not need to be seen by a doctor. They can treat their flu at home.
  • However, sometimes the flu can move into the lungs and cause pneumonia. It can cause dehydration. It can make diabetes, heart failure, and lung problems (such as asthma) worse.

Experts at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) say that some adults are at HIGH RISK for more serious problems from the flu. These people include:

  • Persons 65 years and older
  • Persons younger than 19 years old who are taking aspirin long-term
  • Persons with a weak immune system, such as from cancer treatment, long-term steroid treatment, or HIV infection
  • Persons who are morbidly obese
  • Persons with lung, heart, kidney, and heart problems
  • Persons with sickle cell anemia
  • Persons with diabetes
  • Persons with nervous system problems such as stroke, seizures, and spinal cord injury
  • Persons living in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities
  • Women who are pregnant or who gave birth in the past two weeks
  • American Indians and Alaskan Natives

When to Call for Influenza (Flu) Exposure

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Close Contact (exposure) with flu (influenza) within last 72 hours (3 days) and you are at High Risk of problems from the flu. See High Risk list; such as age more than 64, pregnant, chronic illness.
  • You feel weak or very sick

Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Close Contact (exposure) with flu within last 72 hours (3 days) and you are NOT at High Risk of problems from the flu, but you still want to talk with your doctor about antiviral medicine
  • Close Contact (exposure) with flu within last 72 hours (3 days) and you are a health care worker, public health worker, or first responder (EMS)
  • You think you need to be seen

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • Close Contact (exposure) with flu in past 4-7 days and you are at High Risk of problems from the flu
  • You need a flu vaccine (nasal spray or shot)
  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Close Contact (exposure) with flu within last 7 days and you are NOT at High Risk of problems from the flu
  • NO Close Contact (exposure) with flu within last 7 days
  • Questions about the flu
  • Questions about how to keep from getting the flu

Care Advice

Influenza Exposure

  1. What You Should Know – Influenza Exposure Within Past 7 Days:
    • Although you were exposed to flu, you do not have any symptoms (such as cough or fever).
    • Symptoms usually start within 1 to 4 days of close contact with another person with flu. Seven days is an outer limit.
    • There are some things that you can do to help prevent getting flu.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. What You Should Know – Influenza Exposure More Than 7 Days Ago:
    • Although you were exposed to flu, you do not have any symptoms.
    • Symptoms usually start within 1 to 4 days of close contact with another person with flu. Seven days is an outer limit.
    • Since 7 days have passed, you should be safe and not get the flu from this exposure.
    • There are some things that you can do to help prevent getting flu.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  3. Influenza – Cause:
    • The flu is caused by the influenza virus.
    • Flu viruses change (mutate). Each year the flu virus is slightly different. This is why some people seem to get influenza every year. Flu season occurs every year, often during the fall and winter. During these months, about 5 to 40% of people get sick with the flu each year.
  4. Influenza – Symptoms:
    • Symptoms often start quickly.
    • Symptoms are much like the common cold. They include runny nose, sore throat, and a bad cough.
    • However, the fever is usually higher (102 – 104° F; 38.9 – 40° C) with flu than with a cold. Headaches and muscle aches are also worse with the flu.
  5. Influenza – How It Is Spread:
    • The flu virus is in the nasal mucus or drainage.
    • Every time a person with the flu coughs or sneezes, germs are sprayed into the air.
    • Germs can be found on tissues and handkerchiefs. Germs often get on the hands after a person coughs or sneezes.
  6. Influenza – Diagnosis:
    • Often people can diagnose this problem at home by asking themselves three questions. Is it flu season? Are other people getting the flu? Do the symptoms match the symptoms of flu?
    • A doctor (or other health-care provider) can diagnose the flu by taking a history (asking questions) and performing a physical exam. A flu test (nasal swab) is sometimes used to diagnose the flu.
  7. Influenza – Treatment with Antiviral Medicines:
    • There are antiviral drugs that can be used to treat influenza. These include baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza), oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza).
    • To get the most benefit, these drugs must be started within 48 hours of when flu symptoms start.
    • The benefit of these drugs are limited in healthy adults. The may decrease the time you are sick by 1 to 2 days. They help reduce the symptoms, but do not make them go away.
    • The CDC recommends that antiviral drugs be used for people at High Risk for flu problems. They also recommend them for people with severe flu symptoms.
  8. Call Your Doctor If:
    • You have more questions
    • You think you need to be seen
    • You get worse


  1. What You Should Know – Get the Flu Vaccine!
    • All adults should get a flu vaccine (nasal spray or shot) every year. Protect yourself and your family!
    • You should get it in the fall before the start of flu season. However, it is never too late.
    • It is especially important for people over 65 years old and people at High Risk for getting severe problems from the flu.
    • A Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) for the flu vaccine shot is available from the CDC.
    • A Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) for the flu nasal spray vaccine is available from the CDC.
  2. How to Keep from Getting the Flu:
    • Wash your hands often with soap and water. This is very important after shaking hands with a person who has the flu.
    • Avoid touching your own nose and face. The most likely way to get sick is to touch your nose after you touch something with the flu germs on it.
    • Avoid hugging or kissing people who are sick with the flu. Avoid shaking their hands.
  3. Stop the Spread of Germs to Others!
    • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or a cloth when you cough or sneeze.
    • Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. You can use an alcohol-based hand cleaner if soap and water are not available.
    • Don’t shake hands when you are sick.
  4. Prevention with Antiviral Medicines:
    • Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines that help fight viruses in your body. These drugs can help keep you from getting the flu if you have been exposed.
    • The two antiviral drugs that are used to prevent flu are: oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza).
    • Who Should Get an Antiviral Drug? An antiviral drug may be needed for High Risk patients (such as age over 64 years, pregnant, or chronic illness) who have been exposed to the flu, especially in the past 48 hours. An antiviral drug is sometimes used for other people who have been exposed to influenza.
  5. Call Your Doctor If:
    • You have more questions
    • You think you need to be seen
    • You get worse

Internet Resources

  1. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
  2. The World Health Organization (WHO):
    • WHO has a website about the flu at Influenza.
  3. Call Your Doctor If:
    • You have more questions
    • You think you need to be seen
    • You get worse

And remember, contact your doctor if you develop any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Last Reviewed: 5/30/2021 1:00:31 AM
Last Updated: 3/11/2021 1:00:32 AM

Copyright 2021 Amazon.com, Inc., or its affiliates.

5 Ways To Recognize Early Flu Symptoms

Each year, we get tons of information about why, when, and where to get a flu shot but not all that much about how to recognize the first signs of flu. Read on for five ways to recognize the start of flu symptoms.

How Do Flu Symptoms Start?

It’s difficult to pinpoint when flu symptoms start because they are similar to a common cold or even an allergy.

Flu viruses usually take hold in the respiratory system — the nose and throat. Once they take hold, they send the immune system into overdrive with symptoms that might include sore or itchy throat, sneezing, runny nose, teary eyes, and even conjunctivitis.

Unfortunately, the flu comes on pretty quickly. There won’t be a few days of sniffles or a sore throat. Symptoms tend to pile on, one after the other, sometimes within hours:

  • Sore throat
  • Cough
  • Body aches/headache
  • Fatigue
  • Chills
  • Fever

Fever, aches, chills, and fatigue are less common in head colds. That said, other common head cold symptoms like coughing, sneezing, and even a stuffy nose are seen in flu as well. And of course, they are different viruses, so a person can be infected with both cold and flu viruses at the same time. If this happens, pneumonia becomes a high risk.

5 Early Flu Symptoms

  1. Itchy or Sore Throat

Throat problems signal the start of just about any respiratory illness, with flu being among the most serious because it comes on quickly.

The nose and throat are particularly susceptible to viruses, which are spread in the air we breathe through the nose and often the mouth. Both the nose and throat offer warm, humid environments where cold and flu viruses thrive.

A persistent itchy or sore throat often indicates a virus has taken hold and your immune system is fighting it. At this point, it could either be caused by a cold or fly. Go ahead and help your immune system by getting a little extra rest and paying more attention to staying hydrated.

Hot beverages, especially teas, can be very soothing on a sore throat. Many people swear that teas with these herbal ingredients provide much-needed throat relief:

  • Basil
  • Black Elderberry
  • Catnip
  • Cayenne
  • Dandelion
  • Garlic
  • Ginger
  • Lemon or lemon balm
  • Nettle
  • Olive leaf

You’ll find a lot of teas with these herbs packaged for cold and flu symptoms. Add a few drops of honey to counteract some of the more bitter flavors. In fact, even drinking hot water sweetened with honey can soothe a sore or itchy throat.

While your immune system is kicking into gear, boost it with Vitamins C and D. You can take them as supplements or eat more foods that have them. You’ll find Vitamin C in citrus fruits and vegetables, and many foods and juices are fortified with Vitamin D. You’ll also find it in oily fish, so go ahead and treat yourself to a bagel and lox (smoked salmon).

Dairy products are famous for containing Vitamin D and, contrary to what you may have heard, it’s OK to eat dairy when you have the flu or cold. In fact, there is evidence that adding more Vitamin D to your diet builds up your immune system to better prevent flu.

But for now, the important thing to remember is to stay hydrated to help your immune system flush out the flu virus.

  1. Body Aches

If the sore or itchy throat persists and you develop body aches (including a headache), your body might be actively fighting the flu virus.

The flu is infamous for knocking people out with pain, particularly headaches and muscle aches. Head colds rarely include aches, so toss out any hope that your sore throat was a cold symptom. Go ahead and take some pain reliever and indulge yourself in a hot shower or bath and get some rest.

At this point, you probably don’t feel up to going to work or school. Our advice is to stay home and don’t share the joy of flu with friends or colleagues. The sooner you realize you might have the flu and take steps to contain it, the better off you’ll be (as well as others you normally see during the day).

Keep in mind that staying home not only gives you time to recover from the flu more quickly but protects you from further infection as well. Odds are, the flu is circulating everywhere. There’s no reason to put yourself at further risk with a setback, including secondary infections that can lead to pneumonia.

  1. Sudden Fatigue

If flu is going around and you suddenly feel tired, take that as one of the first signs of flu. For many people, it comes on even before an itchy or sore throat.

This isn’t the same fatigue you get from an extensive workout or all-nighter to complete a work or school assignment. We’re talking about a really deep sense of tiredness, so deep you might not be able to get out of bed without a serious effort. You may sleep for several hours beyond your usual time. All this is good; it’s giving your body the rest it needs so that the immune system uses the available energy you have.

Don’t fight the fatigue. Get some rest! And while fatigue may not seem like a good reason to take a day off work or school, try to make sure you do take it a bit easier if possible.

  • Eat more foods with Vitamins C and D; it’s very important to intake calories and nutrients to support your immune system
  • Drink more fluids
  • Go to bed earlier
  • If possible, work from home and use the extra time in the morning to sleep in a bit

If you haven’t taken a sick day in ages, now is a good time to do it. You really won’t be achieving much at work if you’re feeling run-down. And if you’re in school, see if there is a class you can miss and ask one of those people who are always borrowing your notes for theirs!

  1. Got a Fever? It’s Probably Flu

A fever with a sore throat is often a sign of flu. Colds rarely bring on fever and when they do they’re slight.

High, spiking fevers are a hallmark of flu. It’s not unusual for flu to bring a fever of 102° for up to a few days. Any fever that goes higher or that lasts more than three days should be carefully watched and reported to your doctor.

Keep in mind that a fever is a normal response to an aggressive virus like the flu. It means the immune system is active; by making the body hot, it’s creating an inhospitable environment for the virus. Avoid pain relievers with fever reducers. It’s often best to let the fever run out its course on its own.

  1. Chills are Not Always Related to Fever

Many people get chills during the early stages of flu, with or without fever. Fever and chills don’t always go together and in many people, chills are one of the first signs of flu and can be taken as a sign that a fever could be setting in.

Although it’s tempting to bundle up against the chills, use light coverings. It’s easy to overheat your body when it’s fighting a virus. You don’t want to sweat excessively and lose fluids your body needs.

The Flu is a Serious Disease

We encourage our patients to get a flu shot. If you’ve ever had the flu, you understand that it’s a miserable illness and worth the time and incidental, temporary discomfort of a vaccine.

Moreover, the CDC finds that a flu shot typically lowers the likelihood of getting flu by 40 to 60%. That might not sound like a lot, but consider that the vaccine reduces ICU admissions by more than 80%.

Even during years when the flu vaccine doesn’t exactly match the mutations going around, it still provides a degree of protection by lessening the intensity of the illness. Instead of missing a week or more of work or school, an absence might be two or three days and fewer aches and pains.

We encourage you to contact us with questions you have about the flu vaccine and reach us our 24 hour urgent care near me services. Call us today!

Influenza factsheet – Fact sheets

What is influenza?

Influenza, or flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. There are two main types of influenza virus that cause infection in humans – types A and B – and many sub-types or strains. Flu can occur throughout the year but influenza activity usually peaks in winter.

Flu is a vaccine-preventable illness but a new vaccine needs to be given each year because influenza viruses change (mutate) constantly. A new flu vaccine is prepared each year to best match the strains predicted for the coming flu season.

What are the symptoms of flu?

People with influenza typically experience some or all of the following symptoms:

  • fever and chills
  • cough, sore throat and runny or stuffy nose
  • muscle aches, joint pains, headaches and fatigue (feeling very tired)
  • nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea (more common in children than adults).

Some symptoms may last for more than a week. Some people may also experience very mild symptoms, particularly if they have some immunity from a previous infection or vaccination.

Seek immediate medical advice if the illness quickly becomes worse or if any of the following symptoms occur:

  • shortness of breath or rapid breathing
  • chest pain
  • confusion or sudden dizziness
  • persistent vomiting.

How is flu spread?

Influenza viruses are mainly spread by droplets made when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Influenza can also be spread through touching surfaces where infected droplets have landed.

People with influenza can be infectious from the day before their symptoms start. Adults are most infectious in the first 3-5 days of their illness, while children remain infectious for 7-10 days, and people with weakened immune systems may be infectious for longer.

Who is at risk of flu?

While anyone can get influenza, people at higher risk of complications from influenza infection (and who are eligible for free annual flu vaccine) include:

  • children aged 6 months to 5 years
  • people aged 65 years and older
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander people aged 6 months and over
  • pregnant women.

Individuals aged 6 months and over with certain medical conditions predisposing to severe influenza are also at increased risk (and also eligible for free annual influenza vaccine). These conditions include:

  • cardiac disease, including cyanotic congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure
  • chronic respiratory conditions, including suppurative lung disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe asthma
  • other chronic illnesses requiring regular medical follow up or hospitalisation in the previous year, including diabetes mellitus, chronic metabolic diseases, chronic renal failure, and haemoglobinopathies
  • chronic neurological conditions that impact on respiratory function, including multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, and seizure disorders
  • impaired immunity, including HIV, malignancy and chronic steroid use
  • children aged 6 months to 10 years on long term aspirin therapy.

How is flu prevented?

Get a flu shot

Influenza vaccination each year before winter arrives is the best way to prevent influenza.

  • Seasonal influenza vaccination is available for anyone aged 6 months and over to protect against influenza, provided they do not have a medical reason that precludes them from receiving influenza vaccines.
  • People at higher risk of influenza complications (see
    Who is at risk) are strongly recommended to have an annual influenza vaccination, and are eligible for free influenza vaccine under the National Influenza Vaccination Program.
  • In addition to people eligible for free vaccine, annual influenza vaccination is also recommended for those who frequently come in to close contact with other people at higher risk of influenza complications (such as health care workers and family members) to help protect vulnerable people from infection.

For more information on general influenza vaccine recommendations refer to latest edition of
The Australian Immunisation Handbook.

Sneeze into your elbow

Sneeze into your elbow instead of your hands, or cover your face with a tissue when you cough or sneeze and throw used tissues in a rubbish bin.

Clean your hands

Wash your hands thoroughly and often. Wash hands for at least 10 seconds, especially after coughing, sneezing or blowing your nose, or use an alcohol-based hand rub.

Stay at home if sick

If you are sick with flu, stay at home and avoid close contact with other people to prevent them from also becoming sick. Keep sick children away from school and other activities. Wait at least 24 hours after fever resolves so you that you are unlikely to infect other people.

This is especially important if you visit people who are more likely to get really sick if they get the flu – including pregnant women, infants, older people or people in hospital or residential aged care. Similarly, if you think you may have influenza and you need to see a doctor, call ahead so the clinic can take precautions to reduce the risk to other people.

How is flu diagnosed?

Doctors usually diagnose influenza based on symptoms. The diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a sample of fluid taken from the back of the nose and throat or a blood sample. These tests are usually only needed if the illness is severe or if there is an increased risk of complications.

How is flu treated?

The symptoms of influenza are usually managed by bed rest and taking simple analgesics for muscle aches and pains. Children under 16 years of age must not be given aspirin-containing medications while ill with influenza. This is due to the increased risk of children developing Reye syndrome, a form of encephalitis and liver degeneration.

Specific influenza antiviral medicines can reduce the severity and the duration of influenza but need to be taken within 48 hours of the first symptoms. These medicines need to be prescribed by a doctor, and are usually considered for people at higher risk of complications from influenza infection.

What is the public health response?

Laboratories must notify cases of influenza to their local public health unit. Individual cases are managed by their health care provider.

Public health action focuses on outbreaks in high-risk settings such as health care facilities, special schools, residential aged care facilities, and Aboriginal communities.

Further information

For further information please call your local public health unit on
1300 066 055.​​​​

90,000 Information on the prevention of influenza, ARVI and coronavirus infection

Hygiene for influenza, coronavirus infection and other acute respiratory viral infections

What should you do during the period of active circulation of pathogens of influenza, coronavirus infection and other pathogens of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) in order to prevent your own infection and protect those around you if you get sick?

The causative agents of all these diseases are highly contagious and are transmitted mainly by airborne droplets.

When sneezing and coughing in the air around a sick person, microdroplets of his saliva, sputum and respiratory secretions, which contain viruses, are spread. Larger droplets settle on surrounding objects and surfaces, small ones stay in the air for a long time and are transported to distances of up to several hundred meters, while viruses retain the ability to infect from several hours to several days. The main measures of hygienic prevention are aimed at preventing healthy people from contact with particles of a sick person’s secretions containing viruses.

Compliance with the following hygiene rules will significantly reduce the risk of infection or further spread of influenza, coronavirus infection and other ARVI.


How not to get infected

  • Wash hands after visiting any public places, transport, touching doorknobs, money, public office equipment in the workplace, before eating and preparing food. Pay special attention to thoroughly soaping (at least 20 seconds), and then completely drying your hands.
  • After returning home from the street – wash your hands and face with soap, rinse your nose with isotonic salt solution.
  • Touch the face, eyes – only with recently washed hands. If water and soap are not available, use alcohol-based hand sanitizers to clean your hands. Or use a disposable napkin, if necessary, touching the eyes or nose
  • Wear a disposable medical mask in crowded places and in transport. It is necessary to change the mask to a new one every 2-3 hours; the mask cannot be reused.
  • Give preference to sleek hairstyles when you are in crowded places, loose hair, often in contact with your face, increases the risk of infection.
  • Avoid close contact and stay in the same room with people with visible signs of SARS (coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge).
  • Do not touch doorknobs, handrails, other objects or surfaces in public spaces with bare hands.
  • Limit welcome handshakes, kisses, and hugs.
  • Ventilate the premises more often.
  • Do not use shared towels.

How not to infect others

  • Minimize contact with healthy people (welcome handshakes, kissing).
  • If you feel unwell, but have to communicate with other people or use public transport – use a disposable mask, be sure to change it to a new one every hour.
  • When coughing or sneezing, be sure to cover your mouth, if possible – with a disposable handkerchief, if not – with your palms or elbows.
  • Use only personal or disposable tableware.
  • Isolate your personal hygiene items from household members: toothbrush, washcloth, towels.
  • Carry out wet cleaning of the house every day, including the processing of door handles, switches, office equipment control panels.

Influenza, coronavirus infection and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI)

Influenza, coronavirus infection and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) are in first place in terms of the number of sick people annually

Despite constant efforts to combat the causative agents of influenza, coronavirus infection and other acute respiratory viral infections, they still have not been defeated.

Thousands of people die from complications of influenza every year.

This is due to the fact that viruses, primarily influenza viruses and coronaviruses, have the ability to change their structure and a mutated virus is capable of infecting a person again. So, a person who has had the flu has a good immune barrier, but nevertheless a new modified virus is able to easily penetrate through it, since the body has not yet developed immunity against this type of virus.

For whom is the most dangerous meeting with the virus?

Children and the elderly are especially hard to tolerate the infection; for these age groups, complications that can develop during the illness are very dangerous.Children get sick more seriously due to the fact that their immune systems have not yet met this virus, and for the elderly, as well as for people with chronic diseases, the virus is dangerous due to a weakened immune system.

Risk groups

  • Children
  • 90,023 People over 60 years old

  • People with chronic lung diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
  • People with chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system (congenital heart defects, coronary heart disease, heart failure)
  • Pregnant women
  • Medical workers
  • Public transport workers, catering establishments

How does the infection occur?

The infection is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person through the smallest droplets of saliva or mucus that are released during sneezing, coughing, talking.Contact transmission is also possible.


Depending on the specific type of pathogen, symptoms can vary significantly, both in severity and in combination.

  • Temperature rise
  • Chills, general malaise, weakness headache, muscle pain
  • Decreased appetite, possible nausea and vomiting
  • Conjunctivitis (possibly)
  • Diarrhea (possible)

On average, the illness lasts about 5 days.If the temperature lasts longer, complications may have arisen.


  • Pneumonia
  • Encephalitis, meningitis
  • Complications of pregnancy, development of fetal pathology
  • Exacerbation of chronic diseases

Treatment of the disease is carried out under the supervision of a physician who, only after examining the patient, prescribes a treatment regimen and gives other recommendations. The sick person must comply with bed rest, eat well and drink more fluids.


Taking antibiotics in the early days of the disease is a big mistake. Antibiotics are not able to cope with the virus, in addition, they adversely affect the normal microflora. Antibiotics are prescribed only by a doctor, only in case of complications caused by the addition of a bacterial infection. Taking antibacterial drugs as a preventive measure for the development of complications is dangerous and useless.

A sick person should stay at home and not pose a threat of infection to others.


The most effective way to prevent influenza is to get vaccinated annually. The composition of the influenza vaccine changes annually. First of all, it is recommended to get vaccinated for those who are at risk. The optimal time for vaccination is October-November. Influenza vaccination is possible from 6 months of age onwards.

Vaccines against most pathogens of acute respiratory viral infections have not been developed.

Universal prevention measures

  • Wash your hands often and thoroughly
  • Avoid contact with coughing people
  • Follow a healthy lifestyle (sleep, healthy food, physical activity)
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Regularly ventilate and humidify the air in the room where you are
  • Be in public places less often
  • Use a mask when in transport or in public places
  • Avoid hugging, kissing and shaking hands when meeting
  • Do not touch your face, eyes, nose with unwashed hands

At the first sign of a viral infection – consult a doctor!

Influenza, coronavirus, other acute respiratory viral infections – a mask will help!

During the period of active circulation of pathogens of influenza, coronavirus infection, and other pathogens of acute respiratory viral infections, we remind you of the advisability of using a disposable medical mask as an effective measure to prevent infection and limit the spread of infection.

These viruses are transmitted from person to person mainly by airborne droplets, through microdroplets of respiratory secretions that form when infected people talk, sneeze or cough.

With the air, these droplets can get onto the surface of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract of healthy people who are near an infected person.

Infection can also occur as a result of direct or indirect contact of a healthy person with the respiratory secretions of an infected person.

The use of a disposable medical mask prevents droplets of respiratory secretions, which may contain viruses, from entering the body of a healthy person through the nose and mouth.

  • Wear a mask when caring for a family member with symptoms of a viral respiratory illness.
  • If you are sick or have symptoms of a viral respiratory illness, wear a mask before approaching other people.
  • If you have symptoms of a viral respiratory illness and need to see a doctor, wear a mask well in advance to protect those around you in the waiting area.
  • Wear a mask when in crowded places.
  • Use the mask once; reuse of the mask is not allowed.
  • Change mask every 2-3 hours or more often.
  • If the mask is wet, it should be replaced with a new one.
  • After using the mask, discard it and wash your hands.

Disposable medical mask, if used correctly, is a reliable and effective method of reducing the risk of infection and preventing the spread of influenza, coronavirus and other pathogens of ARVI












Memo: Prevention of influenza and coronavirus infection

Influenza and coronavirus viruses cause respiratory diseases of varying severity in humans.Symptoms are similar to those of regular (seasonal) flu. The severity of the disease depends on a number of factors, including the general condition of the body and age.

Predisposed to the disease: the elderly, small children, pregnant women and people suffering from chronic diseases (asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases), and with weakened immunity.


Clean and disinfect surfaces using household detergents.

Hand hygiene is an important measure to prevent the spread of influenza and coronavirus infection. Washing with soap removes viruses. If you cannot wash your hands with soap and water, use alcohol or disinfectant wipes.

Cleaning and regular disinfection of surfaces (tables, doorknobs, chairs, gadgets, etc.) removes viruses.


Viruses are transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person by airborne droplets (when sneezing, coughing), therefore, it is necessary to maintain a distance of at least 1 meter from patients.

Avoid touching eyes, nose or mouth with your hands. The flu virus and coronavirus are spread by these routes.

Wear a mask or other available protective equipment to reduce the risk of illness.

When coughing, sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with disposable napkins, which must be thrown away after use.

Avoiding unnecessary travel and visits to crowded places can reduce the risk of illness.


A healthy lifestyle increases the body’s resistance to infection. Maintain a healthy schedule, including adequate sleep, eating foods rich in protein, vitamins and minerals, and being physically active.


Among other means of prevention, wearing masks occupies a special place, thanks to which the spread of the virus is limited.

Medical masks for respiratory protection use:

– when visiting crowded places, traveling by public transport during a period of increasing incidence of acute respiratory viral infections;

– when caring for patients with acute respiratory viral infections;

– when communicating with persons with signs of an acute respiratory viral infection;

– with the risk of infection with other infections transmitted by airborne droplets.


Masks can be of different designs. They can be one-time use or they can be applied multiple times. There are masks that last 2, 4, 6 hours. The cost of these masks is different due to the different impregnation. But you can’t wear the same mask all the time, so you can infect yourself twice. Which side to wear a medical mask inward is not a matter of principle.

To protect yourself from infection, it is extremely important to wear it correctly:
– the mask must be carefully fixed, tightly covering the mouth and nose, leaving no gaps;

– try not to touch the surfaces of the mask when removing it, if you touched it, wash your hands thoroughly with soap or alcohol;

– a wet or damp mask should be changed to a new, dry one;
– do not reuse the disposable mask;

– A used disposable mask should be discarded immediately.
When caring for a sick person, after contact with a sick person has ended, the mask should be removed immediately. After removing the mask, wash your hands immediately and thoroughly.

The mask is appropriate if you are in a crowded place, on public transport, as well as when caring for the sick, but it is not advisable in the open air.

It is useful to breathe fresh air while you are outdoors and you should not wear a mask.

At the same time, doctors remind that this single measure does not provide complete protection against the disease.In addition to wearing a mask, other preventive measures must be followed.


Stay at home and see a doctor urgently.
Follow your doctor’s instructions, stay in bed and drink as much fluids as possible.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF FLU / CORONAVIRUS INFECTION high body temperature, chills, headache, weakness, nasal congestion, cough, shortness of breath, muscle pain, conjunctivitis.

In some cases, there may be symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.


Viral pneumonia is the leading complication. Deterioration in viral pneumonia is rapid, and many patients develop respiratory failure within 24 hours, requiring immediate respiratory support with mechanical ventilation.

Promptly started treatment helps to alleviate the severity of the disease.


Call a doctor.

Give the patient a separate room in the house. If this is not possible, maintain a distance of at least 1 meter from the patient.
Minimize contact between sick and loved ones, especially children, the elderly and those with chronic illnesses.
Ventilate the area frequently.

Keep clean, wash and disinfect surfaces with household detergents as often as possible.

Wash your hands often with soap and water.

When caring for a sick person, cover your mouth and nose with a mask or other protective equipment (handkerchief, scarf, etc.).
Only one family member should take care of the sick.

Prevention of ARVI and influenza

Probably everyone knows that the main difference between influenza and acute respiratory infections (acute respiratory infections) is the severity of the disease and the risk of complications.

Therefore, if the temperature rises to 39 O we go to bed and call a doctor.If the disease proceeds in a milder form, we automatically classify it as a banal acute respiratory disease and transfer it on our feet. Meanwhile, there are over 2000 subtypes of influenza, many of which run without fever, but cause complications just like regular flu!

Why it is important to be able to distinguish influenza from acute respiratory infections

It is necessary to be able to distinguish influenza from acute respiratory infections, since specific drugs are prescribed for the treatment of influenza in order to avoid serious complications after the disease.

Most often, it is possible to distinguish acute respiratory infections from influenza by a complex of symptoms.




Onset of the disease

Sharp, after a prodromal period of several hours, the temperature rises very quickly

Smooth, the prodromal period can last up to a week, the temperature rises gradually, over several days, with daily fluctuations


Above 38.5 O C

Up to 38.5 O C


Rare, dry.Often gives complications in the form of bronchitis

Softer, usually after a day or two begins sputum separation



None, or moderate



None, or moderate

Eye redness



Catarrhal phenomena

Nasal congestion, hoarse voice are rare

Nasal congestion, hoarse voice are common

Swollen lymph nodes

Almost never

Often, in the prodromal period

Chest pain

Often, strong

Rarely, weak

Period of asthenia after illness

Up to 1 week

Up to 1 month

However, it should be remembered that the course of any disease is always individual, therefore, the flu can proceed without any temperature increase at all, at the same time, as some adenoviruses cause a temperature rise of up to 40 ° C for several weeks.


Vaccination is the best prevention against influenza. If one of your relatives or colleagues is sick with acute respiratory infections, it is very important to distinguish influenza from acute respiratory infections using test systems. Contact with someone with the flu increases the risk of infection. Getting the flu shot will greatly increase your chances of not getting sick.


The most common complication, both with influenza and acute respiratory infections, is bronchitis and pneumonia.

However, unlike acute respiratory infections, influenza often causes complications associated with the heart and kidneys.Therefore, at the first symptoms of the disease, people suffering from chronic diseases of these organs must definitely determine the type of pathogen by conducting diagnostic testing in order to start specific treatment on time and reduce the risk of complications.

When the patient is at home

If the illness is mild or moderate, the doctor recommends the patient to be treated at home. However, since the contagiousness of influenza is very high, there is a high risk of infecting other family members.To protect yourself from getting the flu, you must follow strict hygiene rules when caring for the sick.

When is it most likely to get the flu?

The highest risk of contracting the flu from a sick person in the first three days of illness. In most cases, virulence (the ability to infect other people) lasts for about a week, but in some cases it can persist for several weeks.

Therefore, everyone who during this time communicated with the patient, when signs of acute respiratory viral infections appear, it is imperative to do express tests for influenza in order to start treatment with special drugs on time and to protect themselves from complications.

How the disease is transmitted

The main routes of transmission of influenza are airborne and contagious. That is, you can get infected from a patient even during an ordinary conversation with him, through the use of common utensils and a handshake. Therefore, when caring for the patient, it is imperative to use masks or gauze bandages and thoroughly wash your hands with antiseptic agents. Do not forget that feeding and caring for the sick should be carried out after caring for healthy family members. This is especially true if there are several children in the family, one of whom is sick with the flu.

Naturally, it is necessary to limit the patient’s social circle. It should be approached only by the doctor and the caregiver.

Hygiene measures:

The most effective hygiene measure is to isolate the patient in a separate room.

In any case, it is necessary to carry out wet cleaning at least once a day and ventilate the room as often as possible – the virus quickly dies in a humid cool environment, but remains well in dry warm air.Many people fundamentally do not ventilate the room in which a patient with the flu is located, fearing that he will be overcooled. This is wrong not only from a hygienic point of view, but also from a purely medical point of view. Stagnant, low-oxygen air increases your risk of developing complications from influenza such as bronchitis and pneumonia. In addition, if the temperature is below 39 degrees and the patient does not have severe asthenia, he should not constantly lie in bed. In this position, ventilation of the lungs worsens, which also increases the risk of complications.

In addition, for the patient, special dishes should be allocated, different from those used by other family members, and washed with disinfectants after each meal and drink.

Clothes and bed linen of the patient should be folded into sealed plastic bags, and then soaked in boiling water.

Disposable hygiene items should also be folded into bags and immersed in a disinfectant solution (for example, with bleach) before disposal.

Mask mode

A mask must be worn during patient care. Gauze dressings should be changed every two hours and disinfected as well. Disposable masks must be changed at the frequency indicated in the instructions.

It is necessary for the patient himself to wear a mask, especially when he is in the same room with other family members.


Healthy family members need to increase the amount of fluid they consume, as well as moisturize the nasal mucous membranes at least several times a day.To do this, rinse the nose with saline or a weak solution of sodium chloride in boiled water.

In addition, healthy family members should eat well and walk in the fresh air as often as possible – this also improves the condition of the nasopharynx and reduces the risk of complications from the disease.

The diet of people caring for flu patients should be rich in protein and vitamins, especially ascorbic acid. It serves as a non-specific protective factor against viral infection.

It is recommended to use multivitamin complexes, especially those with a high content of B vitamins and zinc preparations – these substances are necessary for the normal functioning of the immune system. It will not be harmful to remember about simple folk remedies, for example, about the use of a couple of cloves of garlic a day.

We must not forget that influenza is a serious disease that should not be allowed to “drift”. Even if the patient has a mild flu, it cannot be ruled out that it will not be more severe or cause serious complications for someone who has become infected with family members.Young children, pregnant women, people with chronic lung or heart diseases, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are especially at risk.

You need to take care of your health, listen to the opinion of doctors, follow their recommendations, and then no flu is terrible. Be healthy!

90,000 How to protect yourself from FLU and what to do if a relative is sick?

How to protect yourself from FLU and what to do if a relative is sick?

Every year, about 20-30% of Russians carry the flu and acute respiratory diseases a year, 25-27 million cases of diseases are registered, and during epidemics, much more of the population is sick.

The influenza A (h2N1) virus is easily transmitted from person to person and causes respiratory diseases of varying severity. Symptoms are similar to those of regular (seasonal) flu. The severity of the disease depends on a number of factors, including the general condition of the body and age.

Predisposed to the disease: the elderly, small children, pregnant women and people suffering from chronic diseases (asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases), and with weakened immunity.


Wash your hands often with soap and water.

Clean and disinfect surfaces using household detergents.

Hand hygiene is an important measure to prevent the spread of influenza. Washing with soap removes and kills germs. If it is not possible to wash your hands with soap, use alcohol or disinfectant wipes.

Cleaning and regular disinfection of surfaces (tables, doorknobs, chairs, etc.)) removes and destroys the virus.


Avoid close contact with sick people. Maintain a distance of at least 1 meter from patients.

Avoid travel and crowded places.

Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze.

Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth with your hands. The influenza virus is spread by these routes.

Do not spit in public.

Wear a mask or other available protective equipment to reduce the risk of illness.

The virus is easily transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person by airborne droplets (when sneezing, coughing), therefore, it is necessary to maintain a distance of at least 1 meter from patients. When coughing, sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with disposable tissues, which should be thrown away after use. By avoiding unnecessary visits to crowded places, we reduce the risk of illness.


A healthy lifestyle increases the body’s resistance to infection.Maintain a healthy schedule, including adequate sleep, eating foods rich in protein, vitamins and minerals, and being physically active.


The most common symptoms of influenza A (H1N1) 2009:

  • high body temperature (97%),
  • cough (94%),
  • runny nose (59%),
  • sore throat (50%),
  • headache (47%),
  • rapid breathing (41%),
  • muscle pain (35%),
  • conjunctivitis (9%).

In some cases, symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders (which are not typical for seasonal flu) were observed: nausea, vomiting (18%), diarrhea (12%).

Complications of influenza A (H1N1) 2009:

A characteristic feature of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 is the early appearance of complications. If with seasonal flu complications occur, as a rule, 5-7 days or later, then with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 complications can develop as early as 2-3 days of illness.

Primary viral pneumonia is the leading complication.Deterioration in viral pneumonia is rapid, and many patients develop respiratory failure within 24 hours, requiring immediate respiratory support with mechanical ventilation.

Prompt treatment helps to alleviate the severity of the disease.


Stay at home and see a doctor urgently.

Follow your doctor’s instructions, stay in bed and drink as much fluids as possible.

Avoid crowded places. Wear a hygienic mask to reduce the risk of spreading infection.

Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you sneeze or cough. Wash your hands with soap and water as often as possible.


Give the patient a separate room in the house. If this is not possible, maintain a distance of at least 1 meter from the patient.

Minimize contact between sick and loved ones, especially children, the elderly and people with chronic diseases.

Ventilate the room frequently.

Keep clean, wash and disinfect surfaces as often as possible with household detergents.

Wash your hands often with soap and water.

When caring for a sick person, cover your mouth and nose with a mask or other protective equipment (handkerchief, scarf, etc.).

Only one family member should take care of the sick person.

Videos on the prevention of influenza:


https: // cloud.mail.ru/public/LLYQ/vTpgv8KZ5

Beware of flu



What is flu?

Influenza is a severe viral infection that affects men, women and children of all ages and nationalities. Flu epidemics occur every year, usually during the colder months of the year.In terms of the number of cases in the world, influenza and ARVI rank first, the share in the structure of infectious diseases reaches 95%.

Influenza and ARVI, gradually undermining health, reduce the average life expectancy of a person by several years. In a severe course of influenza, irreversible damage to the cardiovascular system, respiratory organs, central nervous system often occurs, provoking diseases of the heart and blood vessels, pneumonia, tracheobronchitis, meningoencephalitis. Common complications after influenza are rhinitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, otitis media, exacerbation of chronic diseases, bacterial superinfection.A bacterial infection (pneumococcal, hemophilic, staphylococcal) is often introduced into an organism weakened by influenza. The greatest victims of influenza are among the elderly population groups suffering from chronic diseases. Death with influenza can result from intoxication, cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary complications (pneumonia), heart or cardiopulmonary failure.

What is ARVI? What is the difference from the flu?

The term “acute respiratory disease” (ARI) or “acute respiratory viral infection” (ARVI) covers a large number of diseases, in many ways similar to each other.Their main similarity is that they are all caused by viruses that enter the body along with the inhaled air through the mouth and nasopharynx, and also that they are all characterized by the same set of symptoms. The patient has a high body temperature, sore throat, cough and headache for several days. The most common symptom of respiratory illness is a runny nose; it is caused by a number of related viruses known as rhinoviruses. Upon recovery, all these symptoms disappear and do not leave any traces behind.

The influenza virus is very easily transmitted. The most common route of transmission is airborne droplets. The household transmission route is also possible, for example, through household items. When coughing, sneezing, talking from the nasopharynx of a patient or a virus carrier, particles of saliva, mucus, sputum with pathogenic microflora, including influenza viruses, are thrown out. An infected area with a maximum concentration of aerosol particles is formed around the patient. Their dispersion range usually does not exceed 2 – 3 m.

Flu symptoms.

Influenza usually begins acutely. The incubation (latent) period usually lasts 2 – 5 days. Then the period of acute clinical manifestations begins. The severity of the disease depends on the general state of health, age, on whether the patient has been in contact with this type of virus before. Depending on this, the patient may develop one of four forms of influenza: mild, moderate, severe, hypertoxic.

Prevention of influenza and ARVI is divided into nonspecific and specific.

Methods of non-specific prophylaxis:
Personal hygiene.
In other words, many diseases are associated with unwashed hands. The source, as before, is a sick person. Handshakes should be avoided during this period. After touching door handles, toilet handles, handrails in public places, treat hands with an antiseptic or wash them thoroughly. Do not touch your nose, eyes, mouth with dirty, unwashed hands.
2. Rinse the nose.

Even if you don’t know how to do it, it’s time to learn. Now many doctors advise moisturizing or rinsing the nose during epidemics. This can be done using a saline solution (1 teaspoon of salt per liter of water) or special salt sprays, of which there are many in pharmacies.

3. Put on the masks .

Moreover, it is worth putting it on a sick person in order to exclude large particles of saliva from entering the space when coughing and sneezing, but it does not hold small particles.

4. Thorough cleaning of premises . The virus loves warm and dusty rooms, so it is worthwhile to devote time to wet cleaning and airing.

5. Avoid crowds . During this period, it is better to refrain from going to theaters, circuses, cafes and other places where infected people may be and where the chance of catching the virus is high.

6. Other methods , which include a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle, exercise, walking and much more.

The World Health Organization considers vaccination to be the only socially and economically viable measure to combat influenza. Vaccination reduces morbidity by 90% and hospitalization by 60%.

The main method of specific prophylaxis against influenza is active immunization – vaccination, when a particle of an infectious agent is injected into the body. The viruses (parts of it) contained in the vaccine stimulate the body to produce antibodies (they begin to be produced on average after two weeks), which prevent viruses from multiplying and infecting the body.

Vaccinations are best done in the fall as flu epidemics tend to occur between November and March.

In the pre-epidemic season 2015-2016. in the Arkhangelsk region it is planned to vaccinate 315 thousand people, including 90 thousand children. Currently, the vaccine has been delivered to the region’s medical and prophylactic organizations.

You can get a flu shot in the vaccination room at your local polyclinic – free of charge!

Press Service of the Rospotrebnadzor Directorate

in the Arkhangelsk region

Instruction for the population on the prevention of influenza
A (h2N1) 2009


The so-called “swine flu” ( influenza type A (h2N1) 2009) is a human disease.The influenza A (h2N1) virus is easily transmitted from person to person and causes respiratory diseases of varying severity. Symptoms are similar to those of regular (seasonal) flu. The severity of the disease depends on a number of factors, including the general condition of the body and age. Predisposed to the disease: the elderly, small children, pregnant women and people with chronic diseases (asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases), and with weakened immunity.How can you protect yourself from the flu?


Hand hygiene is an important measure to prevent the spread of influenza. Washing with soap removes and kills germs. If it is not possible to wash your hands with soap, use alcohol or disinfectant wipes.

Cleaning and regular disinfection of surfaces (tables, doorknobs, chairs, etc.) removes and destroys the virus.


Avoid close contact with sick people.Maintain a distance of at least 1 meter from patients. Avoid travel and crowded places. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze.

Avoid touching eyes, nose or mouth with your hands. The influenza virus is spread by these routes. Don’t spit in public. Wear a face mask or other available protective equipment to reduce your risk of illness.

The virus is easily transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person by airborne droplets (when sneezing, coughing), therefore, it is necessary to maintain a distance of at least 1 meter from patients.When coughing, sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with disposable tissues, which should be thrown away after use. By avoiding unnecessary visits to crowded places, we reduce the risk of illness.


Observe a healthy regime, including adequate sleep, consumption of foods rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals, physical activity.


The most common symptoms of influenza A (H1N1) 2009:

• high body temperature (97%),

• cough (94%),

• runny nose (59%),

• sore throat (50%),

• headache (47%),

• rapid breathing (41%),

• muscle pain (35%),

• conjunctivitis (9%).

In some cases, symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders were observed (which are not typical for seasonal flu) : nausea, vomiting (18%), diarrhea (12%).

Complications of influenza A (H1N1) 2009:

A characteristic feature is the early appearance of complications. If with seasonal flu complications occur, as a rule, 5-7 days or later, then with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 already on the 2-3rd day of illness.

Among the complications, the leader is primary viral pneumonia .Deterioration in viral pneumonia is rapid, and many patients develop respiratory failure within 24 hours, requiring immediate respiratory support with mechanical ventilation. Prompt treatment can help alleviate the severity of the disease.


Stay at home and see a doctor urgently. Follow your doctor’s orders, stay in bed and drink as much fluids as possible.Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you sneeze or cough. Wash your hands with soap and water as often as possible.


Give the patient a separate room in the house. If this is not possible, maintain a distance of at least 1 meter from the patient.

Minimize contact between sick and loved ones, especially children, the elderly and people with chronic diseases.

Ventilate the room frequently.

Keep clean, wash and disinfect surfaces with household detergents as often as possible.

Wash your hands often with soap and water.

When caring for a sick person, cover your mouth and nose with a mask or other protective equipment (handkerchief, scarf, etc.).

Only one family member should take care of the sick person.

(Based on materials from the site http://29.rospotrebnadzor.ru/)

Influenza vaccination: myths and reality

In all historical times, infectious diseases have been the main enemy of man.During certain periods of a pandemic of infectious diseases, incl. and influenza, claimed more lives than military action: in the 1918-20s, 40 million people died from the flu pandemic (the so-called Spanish flu), and the number of cases was 500 million. This is more than the losses on the battlefields of the First World War, where 8 million 400 thousand people died and 17 million were injured. Many people do not perceive the flu as a serious or fatal illness, but its consequences can be tragic.Complications associated with the flu are especially dangerous. Among them, the most severe is pneumonia, which is often fatal. Now, in the upcoming epidemic season of influenza and SARS in 2015-2016, the debate continues: to get vaccinated against influenza or not?

Myth 1 . You will get the flu from the vaccine. In fact, this is impossible under any circumstances, since the influenza vaccine contains not a live virus, but its fragments, against which antibodies are produced in the human body.Yes, you can get sick, but only ARVI.

Myth 2 . The vaccine protects against some types of flu, and you catch another. For this there is the World Health Organization, whose specialists carry out year-round epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses and give a forecast – which strains in the next season can cause influenza in humans. In accordance with this forecast, on the eve of the season, a vaccine is produced, including in the Russian Federation. The previous vaccine is destroyed.

Myth 3 After vaccination, there will certainly be a dangerous complication. If a person is vaccinated after examination and admission by a doctor, this will not happen. In world statistics, the official figure for the number of complications from vaccinations is recorded – 1 complication per 1 million vaccinations. Fever, malaise, weakness, muscle pain – this is just a reaction to the vaccine that passes during the day, leaving no consequences.

Myth 4 .The vaccine is contraindicated for people with chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, the elderly, etc. In fact, everything is exactly the opposite. A vaccine is a dosed calculated amount of antigen for which an adequate production of the required amount of antibodies will occur, capable of protecting the body when a live influenza virus enters it. Therefore, vaccination is shown to such categories of citizens from risk groups in the first place. It will be much harder for an organism weakened by a serious somatic illness to cope without consequences when a huge amount of live highly pathogenic influenza virus is introduced.

Myth 5 . Vaccination can be done until November, later it is absolutely impossible. The development of full-fledged immunity after vaccination occurs within 2, maximum – 4 weeks. The period of vaccination against influenza is set in September-October in order to have time to vaccinate at least 30% of the population before the fall rise in the incidence of ARVI, and in the Novgorod region it is 186 thousand people. Therefore, if you did not manage to get vaccinated in the mass vaccination campaign for one reason or another (temporary medical withdrawal, etc.), then you can get vaccinated in November-December in a paid vaccination office.
Vaccinate and be healthy!

Information provided by the Office of Rospotrebnadzor in the Novgorod Region

90,000 How not to get sick with influenza and ARVI

It is very easy to get sick during the cold period of the year, it is much more difficult not to get sick. It is impossible to isolate from ARVI sufferers who do not sit at home, no one is immune from hypothermia that provokes the disease.

How to keep the virus out of the body

1 .Frozen – stay at home

If you are very cold, go home or to any other warm room with few people. After hypothermia, immunity is weakened, and the body becomes more susceptible to viruses.

2 . Get away from people with manifestations of ARVI

If someone near you sneezes, coughs, or sniffles, it is likely that the person has an acute respiratory viral infection. And it is better to move five meters away from it – this is the minimum sanitary zone for the spread of respiratory viruses, there is a hope that it will not “reach” you.In transport, space is limited and insufficiently ventilated, which means that the virus accumulates and spreads in the air faster, so the likelihood of infection increases. But still, if possible, it is better to stay away from the probable source of infection.

3 . Don’t forget to change the mask

In order not to get infected, you can use a mask. When you have to stay in the same room with a sick person for a long time, for example, on a train, this option can be life-saving.But the mask must be changed every 4 hours, otherwise its use is pointless.

4 . Rinse your nose and rinse your mouth

When “suspicious” contacts cannot be avoided, the first thing to do is rinse your nose. For washing, experts advise using an isotonic solution. Such a solution can be prepared independently from water and ordinary table salt: 1 gram of salt per 100 milliliters of water. During an epidemic, the nose should be rinsed regularly: in the morning after sleep, in the evening after returning home and at night.If desired, this can be done every four hours during the day.

5 . Take vitamins and immunomodulators

Doctors recommend taking vitamin C 1 tablet or pill 3 times a day for a week or immunomodulators according to a prophylactic scheme (a monthly course of taking such a drug will provide protection against infections for 2-3 months).

6 . Get some sleep and eat

On the day when you are faced with the virus, you need to eat and sleep well – food and sleep strengthen the body’s defenses.Drink plenty of fluids. For example, green tea. It tones up well and gives the necessary energy. Monitor the quality of food. Prefer hot broths, dairy products, fruits and vegetables.

7 . Dress for the Season

Never go outside lightly dressed. Even if you just need to run to the car. Keep your feet warm. They are very sensitive to temperature.

8 . Follow the rules of personal hygiene

Wash your hands thoroughly.People with the flu often blow their nose, leaving the flu virus on their hands. You can get it through the usual handshake or by touching the same objects that the sick have touched. Keep your home clean, dusty regularly, and damp clean. Spend more time exercising.

9 . Cheer yourself up

Remember, the forces of resistance in a person in a depressed state are greatly reduced, immunity falls.

What not to do

1 . Do not rinse your nose with soap

Rinsing the nose according to the folk method – with soap, experts do not approve. Soap dries the mucous membrane, it becomes more vulnerable and microorganisms penetrate through it faster.

2 . Do not drink antibiotics for prevention

Under no circumstances should antibiotics or other antimicrobial agents be taken for prophylactic purposes. Until the first manifestations of the disease, such treatment is not just meaningless, but harmful.

Attention !

Vaccination is recognized as the most effective measure of influenza prevention. Modern vaccines are not only highly effective, they are safe, low-reactive and are intended for the prevention of influenza in children from six months of age and adults without age restrictions. The absence of a live virus in them allows you to avoid infection with influenza due to vaccination. Such immunization prevents various complications by 50 – 55%.
If, despite all efforts, you still get sick, see your doctor at the first sign of infection.

ARVI in children: typical manifestations, rules for parents

Acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) are the most common infections. They account for up to 90% of all infections. There are about two hundred types of viruses that cause ARVI. They affect children of all ages, including newborns. Most often ARVI is observed in children with weakened immunity, as well as in those who have numerous contacts in preschool institutions and schools.The source of infection is sick and virus carriers. The main transmission route is airborne. However, you can become infected with the general use of household items, for example, towels, handkerchiefs. The first symptoms of the disease appear within 1-7 days from the moment of infection.

One of the typical manifestations of the disease is intoxication (poisoning) caused by the activity of the virus. It can vary in severity: from mild malaise and decreased appetite to significant disturbances in the general condition with severe headache, bone aches, high fever, vomiting, impaired consciousness, convulsions.Nasal congestion, runny nose and cough are not long in coming. Discharge from the nose is at first transparent, and after the attachment of a bacterial infection – with a greenish tint. Cough is usually noted from the first days of the disease: at first dry, then wet. The baby’s throat is usually red.

Most patients are treated at home. Children are subject to hospitalization, regardless of age, with severe forms of the disease, with complications and in the absence of an opportunity to provide an appropriate regimen and care at home.

Rules for Parents

  1. Call a doctor at home and, if the diagnosis of ARVI is confirmed, carry out the prescribed treatment.
  2. Observe bed rest for all children, regardless of the severity of the disease, until the body temperature returns to normal and the condition improves, but not less than 3-5 days.
  3. Offer meals of a dairy-plant diet in the first 2-3 days of illness, then according to age.
  4. Do not give antibiotics and sulfonamides – they have no effect on the virus and are not needed in an uncomplicated course of ARVI.
  5. Have in your home first-aid kit antiviral drugs interferon (in ampoules – nose drops), viferon (suppositories), algirem (syrup), remantadine (for school-age children – in tablets). Doses and course of treatment should be agreed with your doctor.

Fever in children is in most cases a defensive reaction. When the body temperature rises, many viruses and bacteria stop multiplying or die, and the body stimulates the production of substances that fight the pathogen.For most children, a fever up to 38.5 degrees does not cause serious discomfort. Therefore, one should not rush to bring down the temperature if the child remains active. The exceptions are cases when the child has chronic diseases of the lungs, heart, nervous system, or previously had convulsions against the background of a rise in temperature, or the child is up to 2 months old. In all these cases, antipyretics are prescribed already at a temperature of 38 degrees.

Rules for Parents

  1. Give plenty of drink in frequent fractional portions to reduce the risk of dehydration – cranberry or lingonberry juice, sweetened lemon water, rosehip tincture, still alkaline mineral water.The daily volume of fluid for young children should be 150 ml per 1 kg of body weight for the period of fever, after a decrease in temperature – 100 ml.
  2. Ventilate the room where the child is located several times a day (cover the child or transfer to another room for the duration of the ventilation).
  3. Do not give aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) as an antipyretic drug due to the high risk of Reye’s syndrome, a disease characterized by cerebral edema, vomiting and confusion.
  4. Do not give analgin to children under the age of 12 due to the high risk of side effects such as blood disorders and impaired renal function.
  5. Use paracetamol as an antipyretic agent, which is available in various forms – for small children in the form of syrup, suppositories. Before giving the next dose of the drug, which the attending physician will calculate, it is necessary to measure the child’s temperature. If it is not increased after the previous dose of the medicine, then there is no need to give the next portion.Do not use paracetamol for more than 3 days in a row. If the drug is ineffective, it is replaced by another.

A runny nose is most often a manifestation of a viral disease. In this way, the body tries to stop the infection at the approaches to the throat and lungs – the nasal mucosa secretes mucus, which contains substances that neutralize the virus. With any diseases of the lungs and upper respiratory tract, the amount of mucus begins to increase in them, the excess of which the body removes through coughing.

Rules for Parents

  1. Do not drip antibiotic solutions into the nose. The use of vasoconstrictor drops for viral rhinitis is not recommended. If the mucus in the nose dries up and the child begins to breathe through the nose, then you can moisturize the nasal passages with drops of saline (it is available in all pharmacies). A runny nose is a protection, if you do not interfere with it, it will most likely go away on its own (the exception is the case when a complication joins).
  2. It is not permissible to use antitussives without consulting a doctor.At home, the main thing is to prevent the phlegm from drying out. In this case, cool air and plenty of drink will help.

Caution, flu!

What is flu

Influenza is a massive viral infection, outbreaks of which are more common in winter and early spring. The influenza virus has a pronounced ability to change its antigenic structure, so the diagnosis of “influenza” can be made repeatedly during the life of each person.Influenza differs from many infectious diseases in the ease of transmission from a sick person to a healthy one – by airborne droplets (when talking, coughing, sneezing), causing the disease a day after infection.

First symptoms of influenza

Influenza of any modification is characterized by symptoms: persistent high fever and chills, head and joint pain, photophobia and hemorrhages in the sclera, weakness and nausea, nasal congestion and dry cough. Influenza always suppresses the immune system and in severe cases is accompanied by complications, the most frequent of which are bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, toxic myocardial damage, encephalopathy.

Essential drugs for a home first aid kit

Arbidol (for adults and children) and Kagocel (for adults) are among the reliable antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs. They have high antiviral activity and are used for the prevention and treatment of influenza. Prescribed drugs during a flu epidemic, with direct contact with the patient in a dosage regimen detailed in the attached instructions.

Influenza dictates the following conditions :

  • Seek medical attention or call a doctor;
  • Do not take antibiotics or sulfonamides – they have no effect on the influenza virus;
  • , if possible, isolate the patient in a separate room or limit his contact with healthy family members who are advised to wear gauze bandages;
  • to follow the recommendations of the attending physician;
  • take medications for the prevention of influenza.

Remember ! Self-medication is dangerous! When the first symptoms of influenza appear, you must immediately seek qualified medical help!

90,000 how to get sick correctly, but it is better not to get infected at all?



The relatively warm December, combined with the already begun New Year’s Eve corporate festivities and the upcoming sickness viral infections (ARVI).And although doctors note with satisfaction the gradual formation of a culture of prevention of seasonal diseases among Russians, everyone has their own circumstances: it is not a fact that you regularly vaccinated against influenza in previous years, you did the same before this winter. So, perhaps, it will not be superfluous to remind you how to protect yourself and your loved ones from SARS and flu. And what to do if the insidious virus did attack, moreover, of course, at the most inopportune moment.

Vladimir Melnikov / Russian Look / Global Look Press

It’s not too late to get vaccinated

First of all, it is important to remember: although the season of colds and viral diseases has been on the rise since September, the peak usually falls in the second half of winter.This means that you still have time to acquire the necessary immunity by making a preventive vaccine. It takes the body from one to two months to produce a sufficient volume of antibodies. And just now, in December, there is no longer the excitement in the preventive offices that was created in the fall by those who are given vaccinations in the first place and without fail.

If you have any prejudice about vaccination, then immunologists remind: there is simply no better way to protect yourself from the flu.First, the composition of the vaccine is being developed based on the forecast of virologists about the activity of the strains that pose the greatest threat in the current season. And secondly, the prophylactic injection has a stimulating effect on the body, bringing the immune system into a “combat” state. This alone increases the chances that the disease will not take you.

– It is worth remembering that the influenza vaccine is called so because it protects against the flu itself and its complications, – emphasizes and. O. Olga Sorokina, Head of the Prevention Department of the Ministry of Health of the Chelyabinsk Region.- Many say: “I got vaccinated and still got sick.” There are more than one hundred different ARVIs, and a person can get any of them, even being vaccinated against the flu. But it is the flu that threatens with serious consequences, up to and including death. And it is from such a development of events that vaccination saves.

Martin Schutt / dpa / Global Look Press

Help your immunity

A few more words about general prevention, which, however, should be kept in mind all year round, and even more so during periods of increased morbidity.Build your body’s endurance by hardening and getting enough physical activity. Here it must be borne in mind that speaking about hardening, doctors still recommend dressing for the season, and not expose yourself to the risk of hypothermia and colds. If this happens, then at home or in a cafe, drink warming tea or eat a plate of broth.

Pay attention to your diet – it should contain enough vitamin C, which increases resistance to colds and viruses, including when you are still sick.

Get it in a pharmacy multivitamin, but even better, in natural form. Eat more fruits, especially citrus fruits (pay attention to such a seasonal fruit as pomelo), make salads from fresh vegetables if possible (bell pepper is not the most accessible vegetable in winter, but it is one of the record holders for vitamin C content), pamper yourself and yours close berries frozen from summer. Well, do not undermine your well-being with what is capable of causing harm: first of all, excessive consumption of alcohol.

Avoid places of infection

It is logical that during the period of an epidemic rise you should not appear where there is a high probability of catching an infection. Or keep out of your inner circle someone who can infect you. Of course, not always and not everyone has such an opportunity, but still try to assess the situation sensibly. If someone suspiciously sneezes and coughs in the office in the morning, drive them home with the whole team and let them be treated. If there are more than one or two of these in the team, think about whether you should go to the office yourself.Or is it better to try to come to an agreement with your superiors and work at home for some time.

Similarly, monitor the situation in the kindergarten or school your child is attending. If you have reason to doubt the sufficient level of responsibility of teachers and staff health workers, it is better to play it safe and temporarily remove the child from the focus of infection. After all, it is up to you to treat your child.

Reporters / ZUMAPRESS.com/ Global Look Press

Build Your Personal Antiviral Barrier

If temporary self-isolation is not an option, focus on keeping the virus from attacking you.You can start prophylactic intake of certain groups of drugs, such as antiviral, immunostimulating or immunomodulatory. A wide selection of everything that is heard, thanks to advertising, will be offered by any pharmacy. But it is extremely important to remember that the need and tactics of using drugs often depend on the individual characteristics of the organism. And pharmacy pharmacists are not interested in your features at all, but in their own sales plan. Therefore, an urgent advice: do not go to the pharmacy without first consulting a doctor.

What you should definitely not resort to is the antibiotics that are lying around in your home medicine cabinet.

In the fight against viruses, they are useless by definition: the action of antibiotics is directed against bacteria, that is, pathogenic organisms of a completely different nature. But hitting the internal microflora once again, you risk weakening your own body. And you will do it at the most inopportune moment, says Galina Borisevich, chief immunologist of the Sverdlovsk region.

This winter in Yekaterinburg, of all types of influenza, swine will dominate.

In the morning, before leaving the house, and in the evening, before leaving work, apply an antiviral ointment to the nasal mucosa.The same oxolinka is available in any pharmacy, although many health workers have great doubts about its proven effectiveness.

Warming balms like the well-known “Zvezdochka” are definitely not suitable for this – their irritating effect, on the contrary, will make the mucous membrane vulnerable. Better to smear under the nose, and for about half an hour, the essential oil will disinfect the inhaled air. By the way, the action attributed to necklaces made of garlic or onions is based on the same principle, although doctors recommend not relying too much on such methods of protection.Better to try to eat these foods. That being said, it’s a good idea to keep a lighted lamp filled with eucalyptus or tea tree oil on your desk or in the room.

Remember to ventilate the room at least every two hours. At lunchtime, go outside, but remember about crowded places and the risks of catching a cold. Wash your hands thoroughly every hour or two, use not just soap for this, but disinfecting (alcohol or antiseptic) solutions. In small and convenient packages, they are now sold not only in pharmacies, but also on the checkout line of any supermarket.Flush your nasal passages from time to time with cool tap water. It will be better if you dissolve a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water.

Do not neglect mask prophylaxis: just do not forget to change masks every two to three hours, at least.

The first rule in a situation where the flu has got into the house is, if possible, isolate the patient in a separate room. In any case, he should have separate sets of bed linen, towels, dishes. Someone should take care of a sick family member, but not a pregnant woman or a child – it is better to send these family members to relatives for the next few days.All recommendations for prevention in the home must be validated by the basic law. Their implementation will have to be supplemented with regular (at least once a day) wet disinfecting cleaning not only in the room where the patient lies, but also in the entire apartment.

imago stock & people / imago stock & people / Global Look Press

Get sick and get well right

If you do get sick, you have two tasks: not to contribute to the spread of the virus and not to get complications from the disease.Forget about getting back on your feet as soon as possible: improving your well-being can be deceiving and fleeting. At the same time, the virus, having not received an adequate response to the invasion, will continue its further expansion in your body, and this is already fraught with vital organs. Just a long sleep will help you cope with the disease faster and reduce side risks. In general, lie down and recover yours for several days, without endangering either your own health or those around you.

Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences about what Russians most often die from and how to live longer

The first signs of flu are not even snot, sneezing and coughing, but a sharp rise in body temperature, headache, joint aches and weakness.A characteristic symptom is that even the simplest movement of the eyes becomes painful, acute photosensitivity appears when it is unpleasant and even painful to look at the light. Felt such symptoms in the evening – warn your colleagues not to wait in the morning. And call a doctor.

– Many people know the main symptoms of influenza and how they differ from the signs of ordinary SARS. But the clinical picture can be blurry or atypical, and therein lies a great danger, so a professional should still make a diagnosis, – Olga Sorokina recalls.- You can not delay calling a doctor, and self-medication can be fraught. You especially need to be on your guard if a person from a risk group is sick: a child, a pregnant woman, an elderly person, a patient with chronic diseases of the cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine system. It is for them that the flu can bring the most dire consequences.

Do not try to bring down the fever by any means. This is a natural defense reaction of the body, without which it will be easier for the virus to attack you.

But it is still better not to overheat the brain, so resort to a tolerably cool compress on your forehead.It is also important to keep your feet and hands warm.

Siegfried Kuttig /imagebroker.com/ Global Look Press

Most likely, the appetite will disappear, and this is even for the best – for the digestion of food, especially protein, the body will have to expend a lot of energy, and it needs it in order to warm up and fight virus. It is better to drink – first of all, warming tea with lemon and other vitamin and diaphoretic supplements like raspberries and strawberries. A moderately hot drink, firstly, will help to cope with chills, and secondly, it will start the detoxification process.A good sign if after a few sips of this tea you fall asleep for a couple of hours and wake up drenched in sweat. If things go on like this, you’ll be back on your feet in four to five days.

Standing on your feet, gently take a warm shower, washing away the dirt from the painful condition. Change your bedding and gradually return to a healthy life. Gradually – the key word: the body must be given time to come to its senses, and not subject it to overloads, pouncing on a heap of accumulated cases.Well, and remember: in a year everything can repeat itself. So it is better to protect yourself from new attacks of seasonal viruses in advance and in a much less painful way.

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