About all

How to diagnose a gallbladder problem: Cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal) – Mayo Clinic


Gallbladder Scan | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is a gallbladder scan?

A gallbladder scan is a specialized radiology procedure used to assess the function and structure of the gallbladder. This procedure may also be referred to as a liver-biliary scan because the liver often is examined as well due to its proximity and close functional relationship to the gallbladder.

A gallbladder scan is a type of nuclear medicine procedure. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive substance is used during the procedure to assist in the examination of the gallbladder. The radioactive substance, called a radionuclide (radiopharmaceutical or radioactive tracer), is absorbed by normal gallbladder tissue.

The radionuclide used in gallbladder scans is usually a form of technetium. Once absorbed into the gallbladder tissue, the radionuclide emits a type of radiation, called gamma radiation. The gamma radiation is detected by a scanner, which processes the information into a picture of the gallbladder.

By measuring the behavior of the radionuclide in the body during a nuclear scan, the doctor can assess and diagnose various conditions, such as obstruction of bile ducts from gallstones, tumors, abscesses, hematomas, organ enlargement, or cysts. A nuclear scan may also be used to assess organ function.

The areas where the radionuclide collects in greater amounts are called “hot spots.” The areas that do not absorb the radionuclide and appear less bright on the scan image are referred to as “cold spots.”

Gallbladder disease may be caused by infection or by a blockage within the gallbladder or the ducts of the liver/gallbladder system (the biliary tree). If the gallbladder is infected or obstructed, the radionuclide cannot pass into the gallbladder. If there is a blockage within the biliary tree, passage of the radionuclide will stop at the point of the obstruction.

Other related procedures that may be used to diagnose problems of the gallbladder include abdominal X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan) of the liver and biliary tract, abdominal ultrasound, cholecystography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

About the gallbladder

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ located in the fissure between the right and left lobes of the liver. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, a substance produced by the liver and used to break down fat for digestion.

What are the reasons for a gallbladder scan?

A gallbladder scan may be performed in situations where gallbladder disease (cholecystitis) is suspected, such as with severe acute right upper abdominal quadrant pain or when jaundice (yellowed skin and/or eyes) is present. Elevated liver enzymes in a specific blood test may also indicate some type of gallbladder disease.

A gallbladder scan may also be helpful in diagnosing biliary duct obstructions and determining gallbladder function.

There may be other reasons for your doctor to recommend a gallbladder scan.

What are the risks of a gallbladder scan?

The amount of the radionuclide injected into your vein for the procedure is small enough that there is no need for precautions against radioactive exposure. The injection of the radionuclide may cause some slight discomfort. Allergic reactions to the radionuclide are rare, but may occur.

For some patients, having to lie still on the scanning table for the length of the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain.

Patients who are allergic to or sensitive to medications, contrast dyes, or latex should notify their doctor.

If you are pregnant or suspect that you may be pregnant, you should notify your health care provider due to the risk of injury to the fetus from a gallbladder scan. If you are lactating, or breastfeeding, you should notify your health care provider due to the risk of contaminating breast milk with the radionuclide.

There may be other risks depending on your specific medical condition. Be sure to discuss any concerns with your doctor prior to the procedure.

Certain factors or conditions may interfere with the accuracy of a gallbladder scan. These factors may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Presence of a radionuclide in the body from a previous nuclear medicine procedure within a certain period of time

  • Eating and/or drinking within two to eight hours of the procedure

  • Prolonged period of fasting (usually greater than 24 hours)

  • Administration of hyperalimentation (a form of IV nutrition)

  • Liver disease

How do I prepare for a gallbaldder scan?

PRECAUTIONS: If you are pregnant or think you might be pregnant, please check with your doctor before scheduling the exam. Other options will be discussed with you and your doctor.

BREASTFEEDING: If you are breastfeeding, you should notify your health care provider due to the risk of contaminating breast milk with the tracer.

CLOTHING: You may be asked to change into a patient gown. A gown will be provided for you. Lockers are provided to secure your personal belongings. Please remove all piercings and leave all jewelry and valuables at home.

EAT/DRINK: You will be asked to not eat or drink anything for up to eight hours. You should not fast any longer than the period specified by your doctor, as fasting for too long of time may affect the accuracy of the test as much as not fasting long enough.

ALLERGIES: Notify the radiologist or technologist if you are allergic to or sensitive to medications, contrast dyes or iodine. The injection of the radiotracer may cause some slight discomfort. Allergic reactions to the radiotracer are rare, but may occur.

What happens during a gallbladder scan?

A gallbladder scan may be performed on an outpatient basis or as part of your stay in a hospital. Procedures may vary depending on your condition and your doctor’s practices.

Generally, a gallbladder scan follows this process:

  1. You will be asked to remove any jewelry, or other objects that may interfere with the procedure.

  2. You will be asked to remove clothing and will be given a gown to wear.

  3. An intravenous (IV) line will be started in the hand or arm for injection of the radionuclide.

  4. The radionuclide will be injected into your vein.

  5. You will be asked to lie still on a scanning table. You will need to remain still during the procedure, as any movement may affect the quality of the scan.

  6. The scanner will be placed over the abdominal area in order to detect the gamma rays emitted by the radionuclide in the gallbladder tissue. A series of images will be taken at intervals until the gallbladder is visualized.

  7. In some cases, you may receive an IV injection of morphine during the procedure to allow better visualization of the gallbladder during an indeterminate test.

  8. If the radionuclide does not enter the gallbladder within a certain period of time, the scan may be repeated within a few hours to determine if there is a complete or partial obstruction in the biliary tree.

  9. When the scan has been completed, the IV line will be removed.

While the gallbladder scan itself causes no pain, having to remain still for the length of the procedure might cause some discomfort or pain, particularly in the case of a recent injury or invasive procedure such as surgery. The technologist will use all possible comfort measures and complete the procedure as quickly as possible to minimize any discomfort or pain.

What happens after a gallbladder scan?

You should move slowly when getting up from the scanner table to avoid any dizziness or lightheadedness from lying flat for the length of the procedure.

You may be instructed to drink plenty of fluids and empty your bladder frequently for about 24 hours after the procedure to help flush the remaining radionuclide from your body.

The IV site will be checked for any signs of redness or swelling. If you notice any pain, redness, and/or swelling at the IV site after you return home following your procedure, you should notify your doctor as this may indicate an infection or other type of reaction.

If you were asked to fast prior to the procedure, you may either be offered food and drink after the procedure or encouraged to have a meal, unless your doctor tells you differently.

You may resume your usual diet and activities, unless your doctor advises you differently. Your doctor may give you additional or alternate instructions after the procedure, depending on your particular situation.

What Causes a Gallbladder Attack?

Reviewed By:

David Thomas Efron, M.D.

A gallbladder attack can cause sudden and severe pain. If you’ve been diagnosed with gallstones, you might worry about this happening to you. But finding a gallstone on an ultrasound or CT scan doesn’t mean you need treatment.

“Gallstones are fairly common in Western countries because our diets have more processed and fatty foods,” says David Efron, M.D., chief of acute care surgery at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. “Many of us are walking around with gallstones and don’t know it. But that alone isn’t an indication that you’ll have a gallbladder attack or need it removed. Gallstones usually aren’t a problem until they cause symptoms.”

What does the gallbladder do?

The gallbladder is a storage pouch for bile, a liquid that aids digestion. The liver continually makes bile, which is stored in the gallbladder until you eat. When you consume food, the stomach releases a hormone that causes the muscles around the gallbladder to contract and release the bile.

Bile helps break down fat during digestion. It’s made up of several substances, including cholesterol, bile salts and water. Some of those substances, such as cholesterol, can pack together and form gallstones ranging in size from that of a grain of sand to a golf ball. Up to 15% of people have gallstones, but most never become problematic.

Gallbladder Attack Symptoms

When gallstones get stuck while traveling through the duct (tube) to the stomach, they block the outflow of bile, which causes the gallbladder to spasm. This usually leads to sharp pain, like being cut by a knife, under the rib cage in the upper right side or center of the abdomen. The pain can be so severe that it takes your breath away. You might mistake it for a heart attack, says Efron. 

Other common symptoms of a gallbladder attack include:

  • Pain that lasts several hours
  • Abdominal pain after eating
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Fever or chills
  • Light-colored stool
  • Brownish-colored urine
  • Yellowing of skin or whites of eyes

Seek immediate medical care if you are having some of these symptoms.

How long does a gallbladder attack last?

The attacks usually last several hours. Nothing can be done to stop an attack while it’s happening. The pain typically subsides once the gallstone has passed.

“Gallbladder attacks are often so painful that people end up in the emergency room,” says Efron. “That’s a good thing because it’s important to get evaluated when you have severe pain. Several serious conditions, like heart attacks, ulcer perforations and appendicitis, have similar symptoms to gallstones and need to be ruled out. Also, sometimes gallstones don’t pass on their own and can lead to complications like infection in the gallbladder or pancreas inflammation.”

How can gallbladder problems be prevented?

Gallstones are more likely to form if there’s an overabundance of cholesterol in the bile. So, the best way to prevent an accumulation of gallstones is to reduce your fatty food intake. Diets recommended for lowering high cholesterol levels, such as the Mediterranean diet, are helpful if you have gallbladder problems.

What treatment is available for gallbladder stones?

Medication can ease the pain of a passing gallstone. Your doctor may also prescribe antibiotics if your gallbladder or surrounding organs are infected (cholecystitis). 

If gallbladder attacks are a reoccurring problem, the best approach is to remove the gallbladder. “We don’t remove individual stones because new ones just reform,” says Efron. “If your gallbladder is chronically obstructed with stones, it’s not functioning as a healthy part of the digestive system anyway — it’s just causing problems.”

Gallbladder removal surgery (cholecystectomy) is frequently performed laparoscopically. During this minimally invasive procedure, a tiny camera is inserted into one of several keyhole-size incisions to guide the surgeon in the removal process. The benefits of laparoscopic surgery include less need for pain medication and a quicker recovery.

Can you digest food without a gallbladder?

You can still digest food, including fat, after your gallbladder is removed. Your liver will continue to produce bile. Instead of being stored in the gallbladder until you eat a meal, the bile is released directly into the intestines as it’s made. You don’t have to worry about following a strict diet — just eat healthy. 

“Some people will have a little bit of diarrhea in the postoperative period,” reports Efron. “But that usually settles down after about a month. The body adjusts and you can function just fine.”

Learn more about gallstone disease treatment.

Diseases of the gallbladder – pathology, symptoms

The gallbladder is a small reservoir for bile, located on the visceral surface of the liver in the right hypochondrium. The bladder is about 10 cm long.

The main functions of bile include:

  1. Fatty acid metabolism: without adequate excretion and utilization of bile, a person may have problems digesting fats and fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, K .
  2. Excretion of waste products: The job of the liver is to deactivate the toxins that bile captures and removes through the digestive tract.
  3. Destruction of microbial flora: Poor bile production can cause increased bacterial fermentation and an increase in small intestinal bacteria.
  4. Blood sugar metabolism: bile is essential for the breakdown of fatty acids and the normalization of fat metabolism, bile receptors, FXR and TGR5 help regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

Pathologies of the gallbladder

The most common pathologies affecting the gallbladder are:

  1. Gallstone disease (GSD). Substances contained in bile can crystallize, forming stones (calculi). Stones of small sizes do not cause serious discomfort, but with an increase in the size of a person, pain, spasms, and nausea begin to bother. Also, pain is preceded by physical activity, a deep breath. The pain syndrome in cholelithiasis begins suddenly and passes just as quickly.
  2. Cholecystitis. More often, cholecystitis is the result of gallstone disease. Inflammation causes severe pain in the right hypochondrium and epigastric region, fever. Rarely, pain will spread to the entire abdomen and intensify when lying on the left side. Exacerbation of chronic cholecystitis is characterized by severe cutting pains, nausea, vomiting with bile, pallor or yellowness of the skin. With recurrence of cholecystitis, surgical treatment is indicated in conjunction with drug therapy.
  3. Cancer of the gallbladder. This lesion is quite rare. It can be diagnosed in the later stages, when a vivid clinical picture appears. The symptoms of cancer are similar to those of gallstone disease.
  4. Gangrene or abscess of the gallbladder.
  5. Congenital defect of the gallbladder.
  6. Sclerosing cholangitis (damage to the bile ducts with further development of liver failure).


A common symptom of gallbladder disease is pain, or biliary colic. As a rule, the patient experiences constant squeezing or cutting pain in the upper right side of the abdomen, which may radiate to the upper back. Some patients experience chest pain, nausea, and vomiting. Strengthening of the pain syndrome is observed when eating fatty foods, fried or smoked.

It is not uncommon for people with gallstones to develop inflammation of the gallbladder (acute cholecystitis) when stones block the bile duct. The symptoms are similar to those of cholelithiasis, but are more severe and prolonged.

Clinical presentation of cholecystitis involves pain in the upper right abdomen that may last for several days and is aggravated by inhalation. Approximately one third of patients experience vomiting, fever, chills, and nausea.

When the disease passes into the chronic stage, a scar may form on the bladder. In this case, the patient is noted for constant diarrhea, constipation or diarrhea, nausea in the morning, discomfort in the abdomen after eating.

In addition to diseases of the gallbladder, the following symptoms are present:

  1. Yellowness of the skin, sclera (with blockage of the ducts).
  2. Redness of the tongue (a specific symptom in pathologies of the gallbladder, liver).
  3. Sensation of bitterness in the mouth.
  4. Heartburn after eating.
  5. Dark urine, light stools (due to lack of bile acids).
  6. Tachycardia, sudden drop in blood pressure.

Symptoms that persist for a long time and are not relieved by drugs are a reason to consult a gastroenterologist. Timely and thorough differential diagnosis will help to accurately determine the cause of discomfort and draw up the correct treatment regimen.


Borisova Anna Leonidovna


Experience 17 years

+7 (495) 032-15-21

Symptoms of gallbladder disease in women: signs and effective treatment


  • 1 Symptoms, signs and effective treatment of gallbladder disease in women
    • 1.1 What is gallbladder disease?
    • 1.2 Signs of gallbladder disease in women
    • 1.3 How to diagnose gallbladder disease?
    • 1.4 Major types of gallbladder disease
    • 1.5 Treatment of gallbladder disease in women
      • 1.5.1 Drug therapy
      • 1. 5.2 Surgery
      • 1.5.3 Dietary treatment 9000 8
    • 1.6 Treatment of gallbladder diseases: what helps ?
      • 1.6.1 Pharmaceuticals
      • 1.6.2 Diet and lifestyle changes
      • 1.6.3 Surgery
    • 1.7 When is gallbladder surgery necessary?
    • 1.8 Complications of gallbladder disease in women
    • 1.9 How to prevent gallbladder disease?
    • 1.10 Related videos:
    • 1.11 Q&A:
        • What are the signs of problems with the gallbladder?
        • What causes gallbladder disease?
        • What is the diagnosis of gallbladder disease?
        • What are the treatments for gallbladder disease?
        • What are the possible complications of gallbladder disease?
        • What are the most effective ways to prevent gallbladder disease?

In women, gallbladder disease can present with a variety of symptoms, including pain in the right hypochondrium, nausea, and vomiting. Learn about all the signs and treatments for this disease in our article.

The gallbladder is an important organ that performs one of the key functions in the body, namely, it participates in the process of digestion. It is located under the liver and is a reservoir where bile accumulates, which is necessary for the processing of food in the intestines.

Unfortunately, women often experience gallbladder problems. The reasons for this are varied: from a disturbed diet to hormonal changes in the body. Symptoms of gallbladder disease can manifest themselves in different ways and increase gradually, so it is important to know what signs you need to pay attention to.

In this article, we will talk about the most common gallbladder diseases in women, their symptoms and treatments. We hope that this information will help you identify problems in time and consult a doctor for the necessary assistance.

What is gallbladder disease?

Gallbladder disease is a pathology associated with impaired functioning of the gallbladder and biliary tract. The gallbladder is an organ that stores bile needed to digest fats. It is located under the liver and is connected to the hepatic ducts, which carry bile to the intestines.

Gallbladder disease can present in a variety of ways, including pain in the right hypochondrium, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, itching, and abnormal stools. These symptoms can be caused by a variety of causes, including biliary disorders, gallstones, inflammatory conditions, and others.

Treatment of gallbladder disease depends on its cause and severity. If the cause is stones, it may be necessary to remove the gallbladder. In other cases, medications are used, as well as a diet that promotes the proper functioning of the biliary tract.

  • Gallbladder disease can present with symptoms ranging from pain in the right hypochondrium to jaundice.
  • Before starting treatment, it is necessary to identify the cause of the disease and assess its severity.
  • Treatment may include removal of the gallbladder, medication, and a special diet.

Signs of gallbladder disease in women

Gallbladder disease in women can present with various symptoms. They may be subtle and not cause much discomfort, but they can also be very painful and become an integral part of life.

The main symptoms of gallbladder disease in women may be: sharp pain in the right hypochondrium, palpitations, nausea, vomiting. Women may also experience a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen, flatulence, constipation or diarrhea, as well as severe itching, jaundice, and dark urine.

All of these symptoms are signs of various forms of gallbladder disease. A doctor’s consultation will help to accurately establish the diagnosis and choose an effective treatment, including diet, possibly the use of drugs or surgery.

  • Don’t ignore the signs of gallbladder disease.
  • Call your doctor if you have any suspicious symptoms.
  • Regular check-ups and check-ups will help prevent disease progression.

How to diagnose gallbladder disease?

Gallbladder disease can present with a variety of symptoms, but a doctor should be consulted for an accurate diagnosis. Diagnosis begins with the collection of anamnesis and examination of the patient. Further, an ultrasound examination may be prescribed, which allows you to see the presence of stones in the gallbladder and other pathologies.

In addition, laboratory tests such as blood tests for inflammation and bilirubin levels may be ordered for additional diagnosis.

If the diagnosis reveals established gallbladder pathology, the doctor will prescribe treatment, which may include drug therapy, diet, physical therapy, and, in some cases, surgery.

Main types of gallbladder diseases

The gallbladder is a small organ located under the liver that helps the body digest fatty foods by secreting bile. Unfortunately, women can develop several types of gallbladder disease that require different treatments.

  • Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder that can be caused by a bacterial infection or blockage of the bile ducts. Women with cholecystitis may have severe right upper quadrant pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever.
  • Gallstone disease is a condition in which a stone forms in the gallbladder, which can lead to obstruction of the flow of bile. Women may experience acute pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, which may last for several hours or several days. In some cases, the stones do not cause symptoms and the woman is not even aware of their presence in the body.

Typically, treatment for gallbladder disease includes dietary changes, medication, and sometimes surgery. It is important to consult a gastroenterologist to find out the diagnosis and receive appropriate treatment. In some cases, symptoms may indicate a serious illness, and delaying treatment may lead to complications.

Treatment of gallbladder disease in women

Drug therapy

Most patients with gallbladder disease in the early stages of the disease are treated with drug therapy.

As a rule, in this case, doctors prescribe choleretic drugs that help to subdue the inflammatory process in the biliary tract, reduce pain and save the gallbladder. In addition, these drugs have choleretic properties that improve the flow of bile, which in turn helps to reduce the risk of stone formation.


If gallbladder disease progresses and drug therapy fails, surgery may be required.

Moreover, if the patient suffers from smooth muscle spasm of the bile ducts and choledochoduodenal zone, then the way out of the situation is the removal of the gallbladder. After the procedure, the body loses only some properties, and the patient’s life is in no way threatened. Surgical treatment is also successfully used for the treatment of diseases associated with diseases of the biliary tract.

Dietary treatment

For gallbladder disease, dietary treatment is another way to improve gallbladder health.

At the same time, it is recommended to refuse fatty, spicy, fried and smoked foods, as well as limit the consumption of alcohol and coffee. In addition, the patient’s diet should consist of easily digestible foods that contain a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals. A properly organized diet helps to reduce the burden on the biliary tract and reduce the risk of stones.

Treatment of gallbladder diseases: what helps?

Pharmacological preparations

The following pharmacological preparations can be used in the treatment of diseases of the gallbladder:

  • antisecretory preparations that reduce the production of bile and reduce pressure in the bile ducts;
  • antispasmodics that relieve pain and spasms of the biliary tract;
  • choleretic preparations that stimulate the flow of bile;
  • enzyme preparations that increase the digestibility of food and reduce the burden on the biliary tract.

When prescribing pharmacological preparations, it is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of the patient and the degree of development of the disease.

Diet and lifestyle changes

Lifestyle changes and proper nutrition are equally important for the successful treatment of gallbladder diseases.

The diet for cholelithiasis patients should be limited in fats and rich in proteins and carbohydrates. The body needs to absorb nutrients and take in calories, but without overloading the gallbladder.

It is also useful to engage in physical activity, but without overwork.


If gallbladder disease is not amenable to conservative treatment, it is necessary to use a surgical method of treatment. Gallbladder surgery is quite common. Either open cholecystectomy or laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed. With laparoscopic cholecystectomy, rehabilitation is much faster, but the individual characteristics of the patient are also taken into account.

When is gallbladder surgery necessary?

Gallbladder surgery may be required if gallbladder disease has reached a stage where it cannot be cured by medication or diet.

In addition, surgery may be needed if there are large stones in the gallbladder or its channels that cannot be removed otherwise.

Surgery may also be recommended in cases where the patient has biliary obstruction, which can lead to complications such as choledocholithiasis and jaundice.

The decision to operate depends on many factors, including the age and general condition of the patient, the presence of comorbidities, and the severity of the gallbladder disease.

However, as a general rule, if gallbladder disease reaches a stage where surgery is unavoidable, then the sooner it is performed, the less likely complications and the more favorable outcome for the patient.

Complications of gallbladder disease in women

Gallbladder disease is a serious problem that can lead to various complications. Among them, the most common in women are:

  • Choledocholithiasis is the formation of stones in the common bile duct that can block the flow of bile. This can lead to jaundice, liver failure, and other serious problems.
  • Cholangitis is an inflammation of the bile ducts that can lead to acute infection. Symptoms are jaundice, right upper quadrant pain, and fever.
  • Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that can be caused by gallstones blocking the bile ducts. Symptoms include severe pain in the upper abdomen, vomiting, and fever.

Complications of gallbladder disease can be serious and potentially life-threatening. If you notice symptoms of gallbladder disease in yourself or have previously been diagnosed with it, you should seek help from a doctor.

How to prevent gallbladder disease?

Many people experience gallbladder problems, one of which is cholecystitis. However, precautions can be taken to prevent the development of gallbladder disease.

  • Proper nutrition: Eat a balanced diet rich in vegetables, fruits and grains. At the same time, avoid fatty, fried and spicy foods.
  • Moderate physical activity: Regular exercise can help maintain gallbladder health.
  • Preventive measures: Smoking can worsen the condition of the gallbladder and cause various diseases. Therefore, it is recommended to avoid smoking and other bad habits.
  • Weight control: Obesity is a risk factor for gallbladder disease. Watch your weight, reduce the risk of disease.

It is important to remember that gallbladder pathology is a serious problem that can lead to serious consequences. Therefore, you should be attentive to your health and take precautions.

Video on the topic:


What signs indicate problems with the gallbladder?

One of the most obvious symptoms is a feeling of heaviness and discomfort in the right upper abdomen. Nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, and heartburn may also occur. The gallbladder can cause pain in the right shoulder and shoulder blade. Some women may develop a yellowish tint to the skin and whites of the eyes. If you find yourself experiencing these symptoms, it is recommended to see a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

What causes gallbladder disease?

The main causes are malnutrition and metabolic disorders. Excess consumption of fatty, fried, spices and smoking can lead to such diseases. Other risk factors are being overweight, having diabetes, high cholesterol and hypertension. In some cases, the condition may be due to genetic factors or a side effect of medications.

What is the diagnosis of gallbladder diseases?

An ultrasound of the gallbladder is usually used for diagnosis. If it is empty for several hours, then this may indicate a problem with the discharge of bile. In addition, other tests may be done, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and blood cholesterol levels. If gallbladder cancer is suspected, a biopsy may be ordered.

What are the treatments for gallbladder disease?

If caught early, lifestyle changes, including proper nutrition, regular exercise, and not smoking, can help. If the disease progresses, then you can use medication, for example, choleretic capsules or tablets, which help reduce pain and help remove bile. If all of these treatments have not worked, then surgery, such as removal of the gallbladder, may be required.

What are the possible complications in diseases of the gallbladder?

Complications may include conditions such as gallstone disease, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), and gallbladder cancer. Fortunately, the risks of these complications can be reduced with lifestyle changes and timely medical attention.

What are the most effective ways to prevent gallbladder disease?

Prevention starts with proper nutrition, which includes limiting fat and fried foods and increasing intake of fruits, vegetables, and grains.