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How to keep healthy digestive system: Digestive Health – Harvard Health

Eating for a Healthy Digestive System

Eating is not only one of the great pleasures in life, it’s also essential to your health and well-being. The foods you eat nourish your body, providing energy and enhancing the function of all your vital organs.

That’s why it’s important to maintain a healthy digestive system by consuming the right foods and adopting sensible eating habits.

For better digestive health, follow these simple tips:

Eat a high-fiber diet. One of the best ways to improve your digestive health is by maintaining a diet that is high in fiber and rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grains. This keeps the normal process of digestion running smoothly, helping to prevent constipation and maintain a healthy weight. In addition, a high-fiber diet helps prevent or treat conditions such as diverticulosis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and hemorrhoids.

Be sure you’re getting both soluble and insoluble fiber. These help your digestive system in different ways. Insoluble fiber – material in vegetable foodstuffs – can’t be digested by your body, but serves the purpose of adding bulk to your stools and thus enabling food and waste products to pass through your gut. Soluble fiber, on the other hand, draws in water and helps prevent stools that are too liquid.  You can get insoluble fiber from wheat bran, vegetables, and whole grains, while foods such as oat bran, nuts, seeds, and legumes provide soluble fiber.

Minimize your intake of foods high in fat. Fatty foods tend to slow down the digestive process, which can lead to constipation. Nevertheless, you do need some fat in your diet, so try to pair these fatty items with high-fiber foods to make them easier to digest.

Select lean meats. You need protein as part of a healthful diet, but you also need to avoid fatty cuts of meat that tend to make digestion difficult. Choose lean cuts of meat, such as skinless poultry or pork loin. It’s not only better for your digestive tract, but also more heart-healthy.

Add probiotics to your diet. These are microorganisms that are the same type of healthy bacteria naturally present in your digestive tract. Probiotics help keep your entire body healthy by counteracting the effects of a poor diet, antibiotics, and stress. Consumed on a daily basis, they may also improve nutrient absorption, break down lactose, guard against IBS, and generally strengthen your immune system. Good sources of probiotics include low-fat yogurt or kefir, on a daily basis.

Follow a regular eating schedule. Dieticians and other experts agree that eating breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks  around the same time each day allows for proper digestion of your food. When you don’t eat at consistent times, it causes your stomach to overwork, which often results in bloating and indigestion. Eat every 3 to 4 hours to allow your stomach to properly digest its contents.

Drink plenty of water. Keeping yourself hydrated is essential to your digestive health. That’s because fiber draws water into your colon to create bulkier yet softer stools, which allows them to pass through more easily.

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The 11 Best Ways to Improve Your Digestion Naturally

Diet and lifestyle changes, such as eating whole foods and avoiding late-night meals, can have a positive impact on your gut health.

Everyone experiences occasional digestive symptoms such as upset stomach, gas, heartburn, nausea, constipation or diarrhea.

However, when these symptoms occur frequently, they can cause major disruptions to your life.

Whole foods are minimally processed, rich in nutrients, and linked to a wide range of health benefits.

On the other hand, the highly-processed foods found in a typical Western diet are often high in refined carbs, saturated fat, and food additives. Processed foods have been linked to an increased risk of developing digestive disorders (1).

Food additives, including glucose, salt and other chemicals, have been suggested to contribute to increased gut inflammation.

Inflammation may impair the barrier function of your intestines, leading to increased gut permeabilility. In turn, increased gut permeability may contribute to a range of health conditions (1, 2).

Some processed foods may contain harmful trans fats. In the past, most of the trans fats found in processed foods came from partially-hydrogenated oils.

While the U.S. Food and Drug Administration banned partially-hydrogenated oils in 2018, small amounts of trans fats may still be found in processed foods (3).

It’s important to read the labels on processed foods to be sure they’re free of trans fats. These fats are well-known for their negative effects on heart health but have also been associated with an increased risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (4).

What’s more, processed foods like low-calorie drinks and ice creams often contain low-calorie or no-calorie sugar substititutes. Some of these sweeteners may cause digestive problems.

Sugar alcohols such as xylitol and erythritol are sugar substitutes that can cause bloating and diarrhea. One study found that eating 50 grams of xylitol led to bloating and diarrhea in 70% of people, while 75 grams of erythritol caused the same symptoms in 60% of people (5).

Studies also suggest that artificial sweeteners may increase your number of harmful gut bacteria (5, 6, 7).

Gut bacteria imbalances have been linked to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and irritable bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease (8).

Fortunately, scientific evidence suggests that diets high in nutrients protect against digestive diseases (9).

Therefore, eating a diet based on whole foods and limiting the intake of processed foods may be best for optimal digestion.


Diets high in processed foods have been linked to a higher risk of digestive disorders. Eating a diet low in food additives, trans fats and artificial sweeteners may improve your digestion and protect against digestive diseases.

It’s common knowledge that fiber is beneficial for good digestion.

Soluble fiber absorbs water and helps add bulk to your stool. Insoluble fiber acts like a giant toothbrush, helping your digestive tract keep everything moving along (10).

Soluble fiber is found in oats, barley, and legumes, while whole grains, nuts, and seeds are good sources of insoluble fiber. Fruits and vegetables can be rich in both soluble and insoluble fiber, so eating a variety of these foods will ensure you’re getting plenty of each type (11).

The daily reference intake (DRI) for fiber is 25 grams for females aged 19 to 50. For males aged 19 to 50, the DRI for fiber is 38 grams. However, most people in the United States consume only half of the daily recommended amount (11).

A high-fiber diet has been linked to a reduced risk of digestive conditions, including constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal cancel (12).

Prebiotics are another type of fiber that feed your healthy gut bacteria. Diets high in this fiber have been shown to improve barrier function and reduce inflammation in the gut (13).

Prebiotics are found in many fruits, vegetables and grains.


A high-fiber diet promotes regular bowel movements and may protect against many digestive disorders. Three common types of fiber are soluble and insoluble fiber, as well as prebiotics.

Good digestion may require eating enough fat. Fat helps you feel satisfied after a meal and is needed for proper absorption of certain nutrients, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K.

Some studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may decrease your risk of developing inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis, though more research is needed (14, 15).

Foods high in beneficial omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseeds, chia seeds, nuts (especially walnuts), as well as fatty fish like salmon, tuna, mackerel and sardines (16).


Adequate fat intake improves the absorption of some fat-soluble nutrients. What’s more, omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation, which may prevent inflammatory bowel diseases.

Low fluid intake is a common cause of constipation (17, 18).

Your total fluid intake comes from plain water, other beverages, and foods you eat. Experts recommend drinking plenty of water each day to make sure you are getting as much fluid as you need without extra sugar and calories.

You may need more water than usual if you’re in a warm climate or exercise strenuously, and when you’re feeling sick (19).

In addition to water, you can also meet your fluid intake with herbal teas and other non-caffeinated beverages such as seltzer water.

Another way to help meet your fluid intake needs is to include fruits and vegetables that are high in water, such as cucumber, peppers, broccoli, strawberries, apples, and oranges (20).


Insufficient fluid intake is a common cause of constipation. Increase your fluid intake by drinking water and non-caffeinated beverages and eating fruits and vegetables that have a high water content.

Stress can have a negative impact on your digestive system.

It has been associated with stomach ulcers, diarrhea, constipation and IBS (21, 22, 23, 24).

Stress hormones directly affect your digestion. When your body is in fight-or-flight mode, it thinks you don’t have time to rest and digest. During periods of stress, blood and energy are diverted away from your digestive system.

Additionally, your gut and brain are intricately connected — what affects your brain may also impact your digestion (22, 24).

Stress management, meditation and relaxation training have all been shown to improve symptoms in people with IBS (25).

Other studies have found that cognitive behavioral therapy, acupuncture and yoga have improved digestive symptoms (26, 27, 28).

Therefore, incorporating stress management techniques, such as deep belly breathing, meditation or yoga, may improve not only your mindset but also your digestion.


Stress negatively impacts your digestion and has been linked to IBS, ulcers, constipation and diarrhea. Reducing stress can improve digestive symptoms.

It’s easy to eat too much too quickly if you’re not paying attention, which can lead to bloating, gas and indigestion.

Mindful eating is the practice of paying attention to all aspects of your food and the process of eating (29).

Studies have shown that mindfulness may reduce digestive symptoms in people with ulcerative colitis and IBS (30).

To eat mindfully:

  • Eat slowly.
  • Focus on your food by turning off your TV and putting away your phone.
  • Notice how your food looks on your plate and how it smells.
  • Select each bite of food consciously.
  • Pay attention to the texture, temperature and taste of your food.


Eating slowly and mindfully and paying attention to every aspect of your food, such as texture, temperature and taste, may help prevent common digestive issues such as indigestion, bloating and gas.

Digestion starts in your mouth. Your teeth break down the food into smaller pieces so that the enzymes in your digestive tract are better able to break it down.

Poor chewing has been linked to decreased nutrient absorption (31).

When you chew your food thoroughly, your stomach has to do less work to turn the solid food into the liquid mixture that enters your small intestine.

Chewing produces saliva, and the longer you chew, the more saliva is made. Saliva helps start the digestive process in your mouth by breaking down some of the carbs and fats in your meal.

In your stomach, saliva acts as a fluid, which is mixed with the solid food so that it smoothly passes into your intestines.

Chewing your food thoroughly ensures that you have plenty of saliva for digestion. This may help prevent symptoms such as indigestion and heartburn.

What’s more, the act of chewing has even been shown to reduce stress, which may also improve digestion (32).


Chewing food thoroughly breaks it down so that it can be digested more easily. The act also produces saliva, which is needed for proper mixing of food in your stomach.

Regular exercise is one of the best ways to improve your digestion.

Exercise and gravity help food travel through your digestive system. Therefore, taking a walk after a meal may assist your body in moving things along.

Research suggests that short periods of low to moderate exercise may speed up your digestion, while longer and more intense exercise may slow things down (33).

In one review, gentle exercises such as Qigong, walking and physical movement significantly improved constipation symptoms (34).

Additionally, studies suggest that exercise may reduce symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases due to anti-inflammatory effects, such as decreasing inflammatory compounds in your body (35, 36).


Exercise may improve your digestion and reduce symptoms of constipation. It can also help reduce inflammation, which may be beneficial in preventing inflammatory bowel conditions.

When you’re not paying attention to your hunger and fullness cues, it’s easy to overeat and experience gas, bloating and indigestion.

It’s a commonly held belief that it takes 20 minutes for your brain to realize that your stomach is full.

While there’s not a lot of hard science to back up this claim, it does take time for hormones released by your stomach in response to food to reach your brain (37).

Therefore, taking the time to eat slowly and pay attention to how full you’re getting is one way to prevent common digestive problems.

Additionally, eating at a moderate-to-fast pace is associated with higher levels of indigestion, which can cause symptoms such as pain, bloating, nausea, and gas (38).

Taking your time when eating a meal may improve your digestive symptoms.


Not paying attention to your hunger and fullness cues can negatively impact digestion. Taking time to slow down and pay attention to your body’s cues may help reduce digestive symptoms after a meal.

Certain habits such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and eating late at night are associated with negative effects for your overall health.

And, in fact, they may also be responsible for some common digestive issues.


Smoking is a risk factor for the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD (39).

Furthermore, studies have shown that quitting smoking improves acid reflux symptoms (40).

Smoking has also been associated with stomach ulcers, increased surgeries in people with ulcerative colitis and gastrointestinal cancers (41, 42).

If you have digestive issues and smoke cigarettes, keep in mind that quitting may be beneficial.


Alcohol can increase acid production in your stomach and may lead to heartburn, acid reflux and stomach ulcers.

Excessive alcohol consumption has been linked to bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract (43).

Alcohol has also been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, increased gut permeability, and harmful changes in gut bacteria (44).

Reducing your consumption of alcohol may help your digestion.

Late-night eating

Eating late at night and then lying down to sleep can lead to heartburn and indigestion.

Your body needs time to digest, and gravity helps keep the food you eat moving in the right direction.

Additionally, when you lie down, the contents of your stomach may rise up and cause heartburn. Lying down after eating is strongly associated with an increase in reflux symptoms (45).

If you experience digestive issues at bedtime, try waiting three to four hours after eating before going to bed, to give the food time to move from your stomach to your small intestine.


Habits such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and eating late at night can contribute to digestive issues. To improve digestion, consider changing these lifestyle factors.

Certain nutrients may help support your digestive tract.


Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that may improve digestive health when taken as supplements.

These healthy bacteria assist in digestion by breaking down indigestible fibers that can otherwise cause gas and bloating.

Studies have shown that probiotics may improve symptoms of bloating, gas and pain in people with IBS (46).

What’s more, they may improve symptoms of constipation and diarrhea (47, 48, 49).

Probiotics are found in fermented foods such as sauerkraut, kimchi and miso, as well as yogurts that have live and active cultures.

They’re also available in capsule form. While research is ongoing, studies suggest that certain types of probiotic supplements may improve IBS symptoms.

For example, one meta-analysis found that three types of beneficial bacteria found in supplements — Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Lactobacillus acidophilus — were associated with reduced IBS pain (49).


Glutamine is an amino acid that supports gut health. Some studies suggest that glutamine supplementation may reduce intestinal permeability and inflammation, though more research is needed (50).

You can increase your glutamine levels by eating foods such as beef, eggs and tofu (51).

Glutamine can also be taken in supplement form, but talk to your healthcare practitioner first to ensure that it’s an appropriate treatment strategy for you.


Zinc is a mineral that is critical for a healthy gut, and a deficiency can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders (52).

Supplementing with zinc has been shown to be beneficial in treating diarrhea, colitis, increased gut permeability, and other digestive issues (53).

The recommended daily intake (RDI) for zinc is 8 mg for women and 11 mg for men.

Foods high in zinc include meat, fish, seafood, fortified cereals, and pumpkin seeds (54).


Certain nutrients are necessary for a healthy digestive tract. Ensuring that your body gets enough probiotics, glutamine and zinc may improve your digestion.

Simple diet and lifestyle changes may help improve your digestion if you experience occasional, frequent or long-term digestive symptoms.

Eating a whole-foods diet high in fiber, healthy fat and nutrients is the first step toward good digestion.

Practices such as mindful eating, stress reduction and exercise can also be beneficial.

Finally, changing habits that may affect your digestion — such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and late-night eating — may help relieve symptoms as well.


A pharmacist or pharmacist often hears from pharmacy visitors: “After taking antibiotics, the beneficial intestinal microflora also died along with pathogenic bacteria. ” “Disturbed by bloating, abdominal pain, loosening of the stool. How to restore the microflora? “I took a probiotic, but it did not help. What to do”?

Indeed, how to keep eubiosis in the intestines? What can and what can’t modern probiotics do?

There is a whole world inside us

The human intestine is inhabited by billions of beneficial microorganisms. If you put them all together, then their weight will be 2-3 kg. And this should be rejoiced, because the normal process of digestion is largely carried out precisely thanks to beneficial microorganisms. The intestinal microbiota synthesizes B vitamins, vitamin K, folic acid, and some enzymes. It is able to neutralize hazardous substances that come with food (nitrates, pesticides, salts of heavy metals). In addition, our microbiota ensures the colonization stability of the body, which is manifested by antagonism to foreign microbes and an obstacle to their adhesion to the mucous membranes. It is one of the key regulators of the body’s immune system. According to the latest data, resistance to colds, mood and even the appearance of a person are largely related to how the gut microbiota works.

With dysbiosis in the intestine, the proportion of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms increases, and the number of beneficial lactobacteria and bifidobacteria decreases, which ultimately leads to indigestion. The most frequent and unpleasant manifestations of dysbiosis are flatulence, abdominal pain, constipation or, conversely, diarrhea or unstable stools. Without treatment, a chronic inflammatory process develops in the intestines. Long-term dysbiosis is characterized by a violation of the absorption of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and vitamins, which can eventually lead to weight loss, the development of anemia and other diseases.

Causes of disorders of the intestinal microbiota

A disorder of the composition of the intestinal microbiota can develop after an intestinal infection, be a consequence of taking antibiotics, and accompany various diseases of the digestive system (gastritis, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, enterocolitis). Reduced immunity and chronic stress can provoke this condition. The impetus can also be a change in the usual diet. The question arises: is it possible to recover with the help of proper nutrition?

Nutrition is not everything

Of course, if you have problems with digestion, you always need to correct your diet and change your lifestyle. It is useful to include fermented milk products (kefir, curdled milk, live yoghurts), fruits and vegetables in your diet. However, the role of diet in maintaining gastrointestinal health is often of secondary importance. If an imbalance in the gut microbiota has already occurred, all efforts should be aimed at restoring the balance of the microbiota.

Why are lactobacilli useful?

The term “probiotic” was proposed in 1965 to refer to medicines containing cultures of microorganisms that stimulate the growth of beneficial intestinal microflora. The modern definition sounds like this: a probiotic is a living microorganism that, when used in sufficient quantities, is beneficial to human health. It’s great if the probiotic contains lactobacilli. The positive effect of lactobacilli in intestinal dysbiosis has been scientifically proven. They contribute to the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms, are a kind of protective barrier that prevents the growth of pathogens, and are involved in the synthesis of vitamins and enzymes.

For a probiotic to work

There is one important point when choosing a probiotic. Before getting into the intestines, the drug must pass through the stomach with its chemically aggressive environment, where beneficial bacteria can die without bringing the claimed benefits. Accordingly, such drugs do not have the proper therapeutic effect. What to do in this situation? Naturally, to advise a probiotic that meets modern requirements.

DR capsules for beneficial bacteria

Modern probiotic preparation contains 3 types of lactobacilli: L. Acidophilus, L. Casei, L. Rhamnosus. They create optimal conditions for digestion processes, participate in the biosynthesis of vitamins, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, help maintain the human immune system, and inhibit the growth of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms and Helicobacter pilory. The drug is available in special DR-capsules. DR-capsule protects lactobacilli from premature destruction. It is resistant to the action of hydrochloric acid of the stomach and dissolves only in the intestines. Accordingly, the DR-capsule releases lactobacilli at the destination and thus ensures the effectiveness of the probiotic. Thus, the manufacturer guarantees that lactobacilli will really help to cope with intestinal dysbiosis.

Author: Elena Leonidova

The article was published in the Aptekar magazine No. 5, 2019

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Good habits for healthy digestion

Almost everyone experiences discomfort from indigestion from time to time. It can be indigestion, constipation, bloating, nausea.

Experts believe that the main influence on the health of the gastrointestinal tract is a person’s eating habits. How to change them to keep the digestive system healthy for a long time?

Carefully assess your diet

The first step to improving digestion is to soberly assess your own diet. Modern people overeat fatty, sweet, processed and refined foods, forgetting about vegetables, fruits and grain products.

Diet for bowel disease

Bowel disease most often leads to malabsorption of nutrients. How should nutrition be organized so that the body gets everything it needs from food? We tell in the article “Diet for intestinal diseases.”

Learn to eat slowly

If you experience occasional bloating or indigestion, watch not only what you eat, but how you eat. People who are used to eating quickly and snacking on the run tend to overeat and swallow large amounts of air with their food.

Remember that every meal takes time. So stop looking at the clock and enjoy your meal.

Switch to fractional power

For many people, large meals three times a day have become the norm. However, in order not to feel hungry during the day, which makes you pass during lunch or dinner, it is better to divide the daily diet into five to six parts.

Healthy foods such as fruits, vegetables, nuts and dairy products will help you snack throughout the day, regulate digestion and avoid overeating.

Add fiber

A diet rich in dietary fiber has a beneficial effect on bowel function. Unfortunately, in the diet of an average resident of developed countries, there is an average of about ten grams of fiber per day, while experts recommend 25 to 50 grams dietary fiber daily.

Fiber can be found in a wide variety of foods. Raw vegetables, fruits, and whole grain foods are richest in it. They prolong the feeling of satiety, preventing overeating, and also stimulate the colon, increasing the volume of feces and protecting against constipation.

Get rid of excess fat

High-fat foods do more than just promote weight gain and cardiovascular disease. They provoke indigestion and often lead to indigestion and liver disease.

In addition, fat lovers often refuse vegetables and fruits, significantly impoverishing their diet.

Starting to control the amount of fat in the diet is quite simple. For starters, give up frying in oil. Baked and grilled foods are no less tasty, but much healthier.

Beneficial bacteria

More than 400 different microorganisms live in the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy person. To maintain the intestinal flora in a normal state, probiotics and prebiotics are used.

Start cooking

Processed foods – canned food, ready-made snacks and frozen convenience foods – have long been an essential part of the modern person’s diet.

They are popular for their convenience, but they tend to be high in calories, oily, salty, and do not provide the body with essential nutrients. In addition, prepared foods often contain too much sugar.

For example, refined grains used in white bread are devoid of dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates, but rich in simple carbohydrates. Such a composition turns out to be a “shock” for the body: it leads to sharp fluctuations in blood sugar levels and disruption of the digestive system.