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How to lower sodium intake: Low Sodium Diet & Low Sodium Foods

Low Sodium Diet & Low Sodium Foods

Sodium Guidelines

Sodium is a mineral found naturally in foods and also added to foods. Sodium plays an important role in maintaining normal fluid balance in the body. A low-sodium diet is important to follow in order to control your heart failure symptoms and prevent future heart problems.

  • Limiting your sodium and fluid intake will help prevent and control the amount of fluid around your heart, lungs, or in your legs.
  • When you carry extra fluid, it makes your heart work harder and may increase your blood pressure.

A low-sodium diet means more than eliminating the salt shaker from the table!

  • One teaspoon of table salt = 2,300 mg of sodium

General Guidelines

  • Eliminate the salt shaker.
  • Avoid using garlic salt, onion salt, MSG, meat tenderizers, broth mixes, soy sauce, teriyaki sauce, barbeque sauce, sauerkraut, olives, pickles, pickle relish, bacon bits, and croutons.
  • Avoid most “fast foods” and processed foods. Check the company’s website for the nutritional information or read the package label for the sodium content.
  • Use fresh ingredients and/or foods with no added salt.
  • For favorite recipes, you may need to use other ingredients and delete the salt added. Salt can be removed from any recipe except for those containing yeast.
  • Try orange, lemon, lime, pineapple juice, or vinegar as a base for meat marinades or to add tart flavor.
  • Avoid convenience foods such as canned soups, entrees, vegetables, pasta and rice mixes, frozen dinners, instant cereal and puddings, and gravy sauce mixes.
  • Select frozen meals that contain around 600 mg sodium or less.
  • Use fresh, frozen, no-added-salt canned vegetables, low-sodium soups, and low-sodium lunchmeats.
  • Look for seasoning or spice blends with no salt, or try fresh herbs, onions, or garlic.
  • Do not use a salt substitute unless you check with your doctor or dietitian first, due to potential drug or nutrient interactions.
  • Be aware of and try to limit the “Salty Six” (American Heart Association), which include:
    • Breads, rolls, bagels, flour tortillas, and wraps.
    • Cold cuts and cured meats.
    • Pizza.
    • Poultry (much poultry and other meats are injected with sodium. Check the Nutrition Facts for sodium content or read the package for a description of a solution, for example, “Fresh chicken in a 15% solution.”)
    • Soup.
    • Sandwiches.

Learn to read food labels. Use the label information on food packages to help you make the best low-sodium selections. Food labels are standardized by the U.S. government’s National Labeling and Education Act (NLEA). Nutrition labels and an ingredient list are required on most foods, so you can make the best selection for a healthy lifestyle.

Review the food label below. Determine the total amount of sodium in this product, or ask your dietitian or healthcare provider to show you how to read food labels and apply the information to your personal needs.

Maintain a healthy body weight. This includes losing weight if you are overweight. Limit your total daily calories, follow a low-fat diet, and include physical activity on most, if not all days in order to maintain a healthy weight. Eating a healthy diet to either maintain or lose weight often means making changes to your current eating habits.

In order to make sure you are meeting your specific calorie needs, as well as vitamin and mineral needs, a registered dietitian can help. A registered dietitian can provide personalized nutrition education, tailor these general guidelines to meet your needs, and help you implement a personal action plan.

Restaurant Dining Tips

  • Choose a restaurant that will prepare items to your request and substitute items.
  • Plan ahead by reducing your serving sizes of foods high in sodium.
  • Order food a la carte or individually to get only the foods you want.

Appetizers

  • Avoid soups and broths.
  • Request fresh bread and rolls without salty, buttery crusts.
  • Avoid breaded items.

Salads/vegetables

  • Avoid pickles, canned or marinated vegetables, olives, cured meats, bacon and bacon bits, seasoned croutons, cheeses, salted seeds, and nuts.
  • Order salad dressings on the side and dip your fork in them before taking a bite of the food item.
  • Request steamed vegetables.

Main courses

  • Select meat, poultry, fish, or shellfish choices that include the words broiled, baked, grilled, roasted, and without breading.
  • Request plain noodles or vegetable dishes.
  • Ask the server about the low-sodium menu choices, and ask how the food is prepared.
  • Request food to be cooked without salt or monosodium glutamate (MSG).
  • Avoid restaurants that do not allow for special food preparation, such as buffet-style restaurants, diners, or fast food chains.
  • Avoid casseroles and mixed dishes. Ask for gravies and sauces on the side or omit them all together.
  • At fast food restaurants, choose the salad entrees or non-fried and non-breaded entrees, and skip the special sauces, condiments, and cheese.*
  • Avoid breaded items.

*Avoid salted condiments and garnishes such as olives, pickles, and relish.

Desserts

  • Select fruit, sherbet, gelatin, and plain cakes.

Meat, Fish, Eggs, Poultry, Bean

  • Choose – 2-3 Servings Per Day
    • Fresh or frozen meat (beef, veal, lamb, pork), poultry, fish or shellfish.
    • Low-sodium canned meat or fish.
    • Eggs.
    • Dried or frozen beans and peas.
  • Go Easy
    • Low-sodium processed meats like ham, corned beef, bacon, sausage, luncheon meats, hot dogs.
    • Low-sodium frozen dinners (less than 600 mg sodium per meal).
  • Avoid
    • Frozen, salted meat or fish.
    • Processed meats like ham, corned beef, bacon, sausage, luncheon meats, hot dogs, spare ribs, salt pork, ham hocks, meat spreads.
    • Canned meat or fish.
    • Breaded meats.
    • Canned beans like kidney, pinto, black-eyed peas, lentils.
    • Frozen dinners or side dishes with salt.

Dairy

  • Choose
    • Naturally low-sodium cheese (swiss, goat, brick, ricotta, fresh mozzarella).
    • Cream cheese (light and skim).
  • Go Easy
    • Milk (1% or skim).
    • Ice cream and frozen yogurt (light and skim).
    • Yogurt (light and skim).
    • Pudding, custard (light and skim).
    • Sour cream (light and skim).
  • Avoid
    • Processed and hard cheeses (American, cheddar, muenster) and cheese spreads.
    • Cottage cheese.
    • Buttermilk.

Fruits & Vegetables

  • Choose – 5 or More Servings Per Day
    • Fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruits.
    • Fresh or frozen vegetables without added sauces.
    • Low-sodium tomato juice or V-8 juice.
    • Low-sodium tomato sauce.
  • Go Easy
  • Avoid
    • Canned vegetables.
    • Canned beans.
    • Marinated vegetables such as sauerkraut, pickles, olives.
    • Regular tomato juice or V-8 juice.

Breads & Grains

  • Choose – 6 or More Servings Per Day
    • Low-sodium breads.
    • Low-sodium cereals (old-fashioned oats, quick cook oatmeal, grits, Cream of Wheat or Rice, shredded wheat).
    • Pasta (noodles, spaghetti, macaroni).
    • Rice.
    • Low-sodium crackers.
    • Low-sodium bread crumbs.
    • Granola/li.
    • Corn tortillas.
    • Plain taco shells.
  • Go Easy
    • Regular bread.
    • Bagels.
    • English muffins.
    • Rolls.
    • Cold cereals.
    • Pancakes, waffles.
  • Avoid
    • Croissants, sweet rolls, Danish, doughnuts.
    • Regular crackers.
    • Pasta and rice prepared with cream, butter, or cheese sauces.
    • Scalloped potatoes.
    • Instant cooked cereal packs.
    • Bread, baking and stuffing mixes.
    • Frozen or boxed mixes for rice, pasta and potatoes.
    • Regular bread crumbs.
    • Muffins, biscuits, cornbread.
    • Flour tortilla.

Sweets & Snacks

  • Choose – In Moderation
    • Unsalted nuts.
    • Low-sodium potato chips, pretzels, popcorn, and other snacks.
    • Sherbet, sorbet, Italian ice, popsicles.
    • Fig bars, gingersnaps.
    • Jelly beans and hard candy.
  • Go Easy
    • Angel food cake.
    • Home cakes, cookies, and pies.
    • Brownies.
  • Avoid
    • Regular potato chips, pretzels, popcorn and other salted snacks.
    • Salted nuts and seeds.
    • Pork rinds.
    • Breaded meats.

Fats, Oils, & Condiments

  • Choose
    • Low-sodium butter and margarine.
    • Vegetable oils.
    • Low-sodium salad dressing.
    • Homemade gravy without salt.
    • Low-sodium soups.
    • Low-sodium broth or bouillon.
    • Lemon juice.
    • Vinegar.
    • Herbs and spices without salt.
    • Low-sodium mustard.
    • Low-sodium catsup.
    • Low-sodium sauce mixes.
  • Go Easy
    • Regular butter or margarine.
    • Regular salad dressing.
    • Regular mustard, catsup.
  • Avoid
    • Bacon fat, salt pork.
    • Pickles, olives.
    • Canned or instant gravy mixes.
    • Regular canned soups and broths.
    • Regular bouillon.
    • Soup mixes, seasoned salts.
    • Meat tenderizers and marinades.
    • Sodium preservatives or flavorings such as monosodium glutamate (MSG).
    • Lemon pepper.
    • Soy and teriyaki sauces.
    • Worcestershire sauce.
    • Steak sauce.
    • Barbeque sauce.
    • Shortening, lard.
    • Trans fats.

The Facts on Sodium and High Blood Pressure

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Everybody has sodium in their diet; it’s a fact of life. Sodium is an essential nutrient. Some of us, however, may be getting too much, and often we aren’t even aware of where it’s hiding in the foods we’re eating. Learn why lowering your sodium intake may benefit your health.

Sodium Intake Adds Up

The good news first: Salt has many uses. It raises the boiling point of water, tenderizes meats and enhances the flavor of many foods. The bad news is that table salt contains 2,300 milligrams of sodium per teaspoon. For most people and children 14 years and older, the recommendation is to limit sodium to less than 2,300 milligrams per day. For those with existing blood pressure or other health concerns, the recommendation may be even lower. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, children ages 1 through 3 are recommended to limit sodium intake to 1,200 milligrams per day; 1,500 milligrams per day for children ages 4 through 8; and 1,800 milligrams per day for ages 9 through 13.

It would be difficult to consume that much sodium in one concentrated bite. Instead, sodium intake adds up throughout the day. And based on estimates by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only a small amount of the average Americans’ daily intake comes from adding salt to food at the table. Salt in processed and ready-to-eat foods delivers the majority of sodium in our diets.

Sodium is prevalent in many of the foods we eat and in excess can be harmful to our health. However, a number of studies show that decreasing sodium intake can lower blood pressure. Consuming less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day for adults can have an additional impact of lowering blood pressure, especially when combined with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, or DASH, eating plan, a fruit and vegetable-centered diet that is lower in sodium and fat. Good sources of potassium — an important mineral of the DASH diet which has been shown to help decrease blood pressure — include potatoes, sweet potatoes, squash, beans and orange juice.

Sodium’s Hidden Sources

Beware: Sodium isn’t only in salty snacks or the table shaker. Many of the already prepared foods and meals you consume at restaurants, cafes and grab-and-go items at grocery stores have sodium, because it’s an inexpensive way to add flavor and is an effective way to preserve foods. Even foods with low to moderate sodium content can lead to a high sodium diet if you consume too much of them.

Topping the list for highest percentage of our daily sodium consumption are items such as bread, cold cuts and cured meats, pizza, fresh and processed poultry, soups, sandwiches (including burgers), cheese and pasta.

How to Reduce Sodium Intake

The best way to combat high sodium in your daily diet is to watch your intake of highly processed foods. Read the Nutrition Facts label and look for the Daily Value of sodium in the foods you eat. And consider these satisfying options to keep sodium under control: fruits and vegetables, unsalted nuts, legumes and whole grains (including brown rice, oats and barley).

Additional ways to lower sodium intake:

  • Get more natural sources of potassium in your diet by including additional servings of fruits and vegetables.
  • Watch portion sizes, especially when it comes to already prepared foods.
  • Limit cured foods, including cold cuts and sausages.
  • Rinse canned foods or look for no-salt added varieties.
  • Choose lower sodium packaged foods.
  • Remove the salt shaker from the table.
  • Increase your intake of whole grains such as brown rice, quinoa, oats, bulgur, whole-wheat pasta and bread, wild rice and popcorn.
  • Include beans, peas and more plant-based sources of protein.
  • Substitute crackers and chips with a small amount of unsalted nuts.

Reduce salt | Heart and Stroke Foundation

The blood pressure connection

About one-third of people are sensitive to the sodium component of salt. This means that eating foods with too much salt can increase the amount of blood in the arteries, raising blood pressure and increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke.

If you can lower your intake little by little each day, you can reduce blood pressure. Because our diets are generally so high in salt, everybody – even those with normal blood pressure – can benefit from reducing salt intake.

Foods with high salt content

About 80% of the salt we consume comes from processed foods, including:

  • fast foods
  • prepared meals
  • processed meats (like hot dogs and lunch meats)
  • canned soups
  • bottled dressings
  • packaged sauces
  • condiments (like ketchup and pickles)
  • salty snacks (like potato chips and crackers).
Steps you can take to lower salt intake

Make meals at home so that you can control the amount of salt you add to your food.

When you’re grocery shopping, check the Nutrition Facts table on food products for sodium or salt.  

Choose products that have a lower percentage daily value for sodium. Look for food products that are lower in sodium per serving. For example:

  • Packaged food products should have less than 15% of your recommended daily value. 
  • An entrée should have less than 30% of your recommended daily value. 

Canada’s Dietary Guidelines recommends selecting nutritious foods with little or no added sodium.

If you have been diagnosed with high blood pressure, please speak to your doctor about the amount of sodium you should be consuming on a daily basis.

To help reduce added, unnecessary salt:

  • Cut down on prepared and processed foods.
  • Look for products with claims such as low sodium, sodium reduced or no salt added. If the product claims to be sodium reduced, check the Nutrition Facts table to find the exact amount of sodium in the product. It may still have a high amount of sodium .
  • Eat more fresh or plain frozen vegetables and fruit.
  • Reduce the amount of salt you add while cooking, baking or at the table.
  • Experiment with other seasonings, such as garlic, lemon juice, and fresh or dried herbs.
  • When eating out, ask for nutrient information for the menu items and select meals lower in sodium.  
Related information

Find heart-healthy, low-salt recipes.

Learn more about the DASH diet.

Get low-salt shopping tips.

Read our policy statement on dietary sodium, heart disease and stroke. 

Use the salt calculator created by Project Big Life.

Tips, Food Lists, Sample Menu & More

Here’s your quick guide to mastering a low sodium diet for your health. Including simple food lists and tips to stay on track while eating out and at home.

What is Sodium?

Sodium is an electrolyte and mineral essential for life that is naturally occurring in small amounts in many foods including vegetables like celery and beets.  

It plays a role in many bodily processes such as regulating blood pressure, nerve transmission, muscle contractions, and maintenance of fluid balances. 

Sodium deficiency is rare because it is naturally present within most foods but also because it is commonly added to foods in the form of salt. 

How is Sodium Different From Salt? 

Salt and sodium are often used interchangeably, but they are actually different things. 

Salt is a mixture of sodium and chloride.

Salt is one of the most common sources of dietary sodium, as it is often added during the cooking or manufacturing process or as a preservation agent. Over 70% of the sodium Americans eat comes from packaged, prepared, and restaurant foods, not the salt shaker (1). 

We get into trouble when we intake too much sodium, no matter what form it comes in. 

Your kidneys regulate the amount of sodium in your body; if there is too much or you have underlying kidney complications, sodium may build up in your blood leading to a cascade of health problems (2,3).  

Sodium is a vital micronutrient beneficial to proper health, but too much sodium in our diet has been linked to health complications such as high blood pressure and heart disease (4).

What is a Low Sodium Diet?

The majority of people get way too much in their diet, with an average intake of around 3,400 mg per day (4). 

The daily recommendation of sodium is less than 2,300 mg per day (5,6).

To put this into perspective, one teaspoon of table salt = 2,300 mg of sodium!

When following this protocol, it’s recommended to limit high sodium foods or completely avoid them in order to keep your intake under the recommended level. 

Cutting back can feel challenging at first, but it doesn’t have to be. It starts by learning what foods to eat less of and which to stock up on. Plus you’ll reap the health benefits of building a healthier diet. 

One of the most popular low sodium diets used for heart health is the DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension).  

Health Benefits of Reducing Salt Consumption 

Low sodium diets are commonly prescribed for a variety of conditions because research suggests that restricting sodium intake may help prevent and manage certain medical conditions. 

These guidelines are even stricter for people following a cardiac diet or anyone with high blood pressure with experts recommending they may need less than 1,500 mg of sodium a day – this would be considered a low sodium diet (7). 

Patients with heart failure or high blood pressure often benefit from a lower intake because sodium can cause water retention, worsening symptoms of hypertension, edema, and fluid build-up (8,9). 

Studies suggest that patients with chronic kidney disease also benefit from a low sodium protocol as excess dietary sodium interferes with kidney function, and affects fluid volume, proteinuria, and immunosuppressant therapy (10,11). 

Sodium may also affect the development of osteoporosis as increased dietary sodium can lead to calcium deficiency; although we can combat this by eating more potassium-rich foods, a low-sodium protocol is a more sustainable option to protect us from bone loss (12).  

A low sodium diet means to ingest no more than 2,300 milligrams (mg) a day of sodium, with the ideal amount being less than 1,500 mg per day for most adults (13). 

Tips To Master a Low Salt Diet

Learning how to cut back on salt just takes a little practice and a little education from trusted sources. Get familiar with the best low sodium foods and stay on top of your daily intake using the following tips and tricks:

1. Track Your Intake

Start by tracking your current sodium intake by using a nutrition tracking app.

This is an easy way to understand where the majority of your dietary sodium is coming from, where to start making healthy swaps, and to ensure you are staying on top of the recommended guidelines and sticking to a low salt diet overall. 

There are multiple ways to track your intake, you can try using a fitness app like the Trifecta App, a food journal, or calculate how many calories you need per day.

Try this free calorie calculator to get your total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) in a few minutes: 

Try logging everything you eat and drink in a food tracking app and use your daily and weekly nutrition analytics to see exactly how much sodium per day you consume.

2. Plan Your Meals

Planning some or all of your meals in advance is another great way to take control of your nutrition – especially since you know exactly what you’re getting each day.

You don’t have to rely on complicated recipes and fancy ingredients to be successful, start with simple meal ideas and find what works best for you!

Use this free menu planning template to choose foods and map out your heart-healthy menu for the week.

There are a ton of diets out there, paleo, keto, vegan, whole-foods, flexitarian; all of these can be modified to be low sodium as long as you focus on consuming fresh whole foods and limiting the amount of salt you add to foods when cooking.  

A few key tips to remember when planning your meals for a low sodium diet:

  • Choose to start off preparing a few meals each week at home to slowly transition into eating more homecooked meals 
  • Limit your use of packaged sauces, mixes, “instant” products, and store-bought dressings. and sides. 
  • Focus on purchasing fresh ingredients: meat, poultry, whole fruits and vegetables, whole-grains 
  • Opt for fresh veggies over canned or frozen, or look for low sodium or no-salt-added canned goods 
  • Rinse canned foods such as beans to remove excess sodium 
  • Purchase unslated or no-salt snacks like unsalted nuts or go for veggie sticks
  • Drinks contain sodium as well, opt for water over anything else 

Take matters into your own hands by learning how to meal prep your lunches and cook healthy dinners at home. 

Eat More Fresh, Whole Foods 

The following foods are naturally low in sodium, use these as a resource when planning your grocery list!

Keep in mind that most fresh fruits, vegetables, raw unprocessed proteins, uncooked whole grains, and anything in its most natural whole form is probably low-sodium. If it’s a packaged food item, there is more likely added sodium. 

We’ve also put an asterisk next to foods high in Potassium as Potassium is thought to help counteract some of the negative effects of high sodium intake. Most fresh fruits and veggies tend to be a good source of potassium, along with other beneficial nutrients – making them an excellent choice all around.

Remember that your diet is an accumulation of everything you eat in a day, so although some foods may be higher in sodium, you can balance out your daily intake by being mindful of your meals. 

Fruits  Vegetables 

All fruits are low sodium as long as they are fresh and unprocessed. 

Bananas* 

Melons* 

Oranges* & Citrus 

Apples

Grapes

Berries (strawberries, blueberries etc.) 

Kiwi 

Papaya 

Guava 

 

All Fresh and frozen unsalted vegetables

No-salt-added or low-sodium canned vegetables or tomatoes 

Leafy Greens*

Potatoes 

Tomatoes

Zucchini

Butternut Squash 

Spaghetti Squash

Spinach

Kale 

Green Beans 

Cruciferous Vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts etc.

Whole Grains Beans and Legumes* 

Brown or Wild Rice

Quinoa 

Barley 

CousCous 

Whole-wheat or whole-grain pasta

Oats or shredded wheat 

Unsalted Popcorn 

Low-Sodium Chips and Pretzels 

Whole-Grain Bread, bagels, English muffins, tortillas, and crackers 

Homemade waffles & pancakes with no salt 

Rice Noodles/No-salt noodles 

Any processed grains or cereals with more than 180 mg sodium per serving 

If Canned, choose low-sodium or no-sodium:

Kidney Beans

Pinto Beans

Black Beans 

Lima Beans

Black-Eyed Peas

Garbanzo Beans (chickpeas)

Split Peas

Lentils 

 

 

 

 

Nuts & Seeds (Unsalted)  Unseasoned Proteins & Seafood

All seeds and nuts as long as they are unsalted:

Almonds

Peanuts

Pumpkin Seeds

Pine Nuts 

Sunflower Seeds

Chia Seeds

Flax Seeds 

 

All proteins as long as they are unseasoned, no marinades, etc:

Eggs

Salmon*

Chicken (breast, thigh, whole, ground) 

Turkey 

Beef (ground, steak, etc.

Pork 

Lamb & Veal 

Fresh or frozen fish and seafood 

Low-Sodium canned tuna 

Dairy Products Fats, Oils & Vinegar 

Low fat-milk* and milk products 

Yogurt (greek) 

Low-Sodium Cheese 

Soymilk 

 

All oils and vinegars are considered low-sodium:

Grapeseed Oil

Flaxseed Oil

Nut Oils (walnut, almond, sunflower etc.) 

Apple Cider Vinegar 

* Foods rich in potassium 

High Sodium Foods to Avoid 

The majority of salt intake happens when dining out at restaurants, eating fast food, or consuming a lot of packaged and prepared foods like the following:

  • Sauces like soy sauce, ketchup, marinara, teriyaki, BBQ, salad dressings, etc. 
  • Soups
  • Canned Foods
  • Salty Snacks foods: rule of thumb, if you can see the salt on the food then it’s probably a no-go. Salted pretzels, chips, salted nuts, crackers, etc.
  • Bread, bagels, tortillas, biscuits
  • Processed meats: these meats tend to be cured in or contain high amounts of sodium for preservation purposes; bacon, sausage, lunch meats, hot dogs,
  • Pizza
  • Frozen Meals or Foods: frozen processed meats, pizza, dishes
  • Cheese and cottage cheese
  • Pickled foods and veggies
  • Salted nuts and seeds
  • Salted butter
  • Seasonings with salt

Additionally, foods naturally higher in sodium include:

3. Read Food Labels

If eating a packaged food item, always check the nutrition facts label to check the sodium levels in your food choices. 

As a general rule of thumb, anything with lower than 5% of the daily value for sodium is considered “low”, and anything with more than 20% is “high” (7).

Use this simple chart to understand basic sodium claims and guide your food purchases next time you shop: 

Label Claim

Meaning

Salt/Sodium-Free

Less than 5 mg of sodium per serving

Very Low Sodium

35 mg of sodium or less per serving

Low Sodium

140 mg of sodium or less per serving

Reduced Sodium

At least 25% less sodium than the original product

Light in Sodium or Lightly Salted

At least 50% less sodium than the original product

No-Salt-Added or Unsalted

No salt is added during processing – but these products may not be salt/sodium-free

4. Avoid Salt While Eating Out, Or Opt to Cook at Home More

When eating at a restaurant or grabbing anything prepared outside of your home, ask your server to skip the salt if possible. 

You can also opt for dishes made without common high sodium ingredients like sauces, breading, and cheese, and stick more simple ingredients. For example, instead of chicken parmesan, try a grilled chicken breast. 

You can also check the restaurant’s website for nutrition information in advance or ask your server if this information is available. This will help you know exactly how much sodium you’re getting with your meal choice. 

5. Use Alternative Seasonigs 

It is entirely possible to add a ton of flavor to your food without reaching for the salt every time. Utlizing herbs, spices, and seasonings such as vinegar is the perfect way to skip the salt and pack the flavor. 

You’ll also get the added bonus of small amounts of healthy minerals and phytonutrients from using fresh and dried herbs and spices. 

Here are some great salt substitutes without all the sodium:

  • Fresh and dried herbs
  • Citrus juice and zest
  • Lemon pepper
  • Paprika
  • Garlic
  • Ginger
  • Onion powder
  • Vinegars such as apple cider or balsamic 
  • Chili flakes
  • Cumin
  • Coriander
  • Pepper
  • Any salt-free seasoning blend 

Sample Diet Menu 

To help you get started, here is an example of a simple, healthy low sodium diet that requires little food prep and won’t break the bank. 

  • Daily Calories: 1500
  • Total daily sodium: 566 mg 
  • Total daily potassium: 3,556 mg
Breakfast Nutrition 
  • 1/2 cup oatmeal cooked with 1/2 cup skim milk
  • 1 tsp honey
  • 1 banana

327 calories

128 mg sodium

1014 mg potassium

 

Lunch Nutrition 
  • 4 oz grilled chicken breast 
  • 2 cups of leafy greens
  • 1/8 cup shredded carrots
  • 1/8 cup cherry tomatoes
  • 1/4 cup dried apricots
  • 1/3 avocado
  • 1 tbsp fresh lemon juice
  • 1 tbsp olive oil 
  • Cracked pepper

513 calories

213 mg sodium

1569 mg potassium

 

Dinner Nutrition 

401 calories

222 mg sodium

590 mg potassium

 

Snack Nutrition 
  • 1 Apple
  • 1/4 cup unsalted almonds
  • 1 piece dark chocolate

273 calories

3 mg sodium

383 mg potassium

Not interested in making your own meals or having trouble balancing your salt intake? Put your sodium-controlled diet on autopilot by opting for a trusted meal delivery company that has pre-cooked proteins, grains, and veggies made with minimal seasonings. 

Trifecta Classic Meals and A la Carte can help you cut back on sodium while providing tons of nutritious, quality foods to your day. 

20 Health Benefits of a Low Sodium Diet plus Satisfying, Low Salt…

Did you know that you have five different taste receptors?

They are salty, sweet, bitter, sour and umami. Those first two are the ones that can cause health concerns. Salty and sweet cravings can be easily triggered. For example, when you eat foods with added salt, you will crave more salt.

Sodium is a mineral that is found in many types of food, but most often in salt as sodium chloride. A low sodium diet has numerous health benefits. The American Heart Association recommends that you consume only 1,500 mg of sodium per day. Foods with added sodium will often be:

  • Fast food
  • Convenience or packaged foods
  • Frozen meals
  • Snack foods

Salt is often added to food as a preservative, adding flavor and to keeping the foods its in moist. Foods with added salt put you at a higher risk for high blood pressure and heart disease.

20 Health Benefits of a Low Sodium Diet

A diet high in sodium has been connected to an increased risk for high blood pressure. High blood pressure is when the pressure of your blood against the walls of your arteries is too strong. This can lead to serious health problems. Reducing the amount of sodium in your diet can:

  1. Lower your blood pressure. The amount of fluid in your blood decreases, which leads to lower blood pressure.
  2. Reduce your risk of a heart attack. By managing high blood pressure, you relieve the pressure and potential damage to your heart. This reduces your chance of a heart attack.
  3. Lower your LDL cholesterol. High blood pressure is one of the factors in metabolic syndrome. This includes having a high cholesterol reading. Packaged foods high in sodium tend to be high in cholesterol as well.
  4. Prevent congestive heart failure. When your heart must pump harder to push your blood through your blood vessels it can lead to heart failure.
  5. Decrease your risk of kidney damage. Your blood vessels in the kidneys can become weakened and narrowed. This can cause kidney failure.
  6. Prevent your chance of stroke. The decreased blood flow to your brain can put you at an increased risk for a stroke.
  7. Lessen the chance of a brain aneurysm. When your blood pressure remains high it can cause the blood vessels in your brain to weaken. You can experience a brain bleed with life-threatening consequences.
  8. Protect your vision. Who knew you could really protect your vision with carrots? High blood pressure in the vessels in your eyes can lead to torn blood vessels and vision loss so incorporate more natural, low-salt foods like carrots.
  9. Reduce your risk of diabetes. A diet that is high in packaged or convenience foods will increase your chance of having diabetes.
  10. Improve your memory. Your ability to think and to build memories are related to the health of your brain. High blood pressure can affect the blood flow to your brain.
  11. Lower your risk of dementia. Vascular dementia is a type of dementia-related to slowed blood flow to the brain.
  12. Reduce the hardening and thickening of your arteries. Continual high blood pressure will cause the walls of your arteries to become thicker and harder. It is more difficult for blood to move through stiff vessels.
  13. Reduce bloating and swelling. A diet high in sodium causes your body to retain fluid. You will notice reduced bloating and swelling when you cut back on your sodium intake.
  14. Reduce the amount you drink. Salty foods will make you thirsty and dehydrated. Often, we will reach for high-calorie drinks like soda or alcohol to quench that thirst. By reducing the amount of sodium, you will have less of an urge for these unhealthy drinks.
  15. Curb your salt cravings. Your taste buds adapt to the increased level of saltiness. When you reduce the amount of sodium in your diet, you can decrease your salt cravings.
  16. Decrease your risk for headaches. A meal high in salt can cause the blood vessels in your brain to expand. These pounding blood vessels can be the culprit behind your latest painful headache.
  17. Build stronger bones. Salt controls how much calcium is pulled out of your bones. Calcium is important for strong bones and to prevent osteoporosis. A high sodium diet can lead to weak bones with the loss of calcium.
  18. Reduce the chance of kidney stones. When calcium is leached out of your body into your urine you are at a higher risk for kidney stones. A high salt diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys must process.
  19. Allow your heart to pump effectively. When your heart works overly hard to pump blood, the heart muscle can become thick. High blood pressure caused by high sodium puts stress on your heart walls. It can be like squeezing a full water balloon. It takes more force the fuller the balloon is. The heart can pump more easily when your blood pressure is at an ideal level.
  20. Lower your risk of stomach cancer. There is a bacteria called Helicobacter pylori. This bacteria can live in your stomach. The H. pylori bacteria thrives on high salt content. The bacteria is a major risk factor for stomach cancer.

How to Stop Craving Salty Snacks

Sodium is a mineral necessary for our health, but an excess amount of added sodium is harmful.

A major factor in being able to stop yourself from craving salty snacks is to gradually decrease the added salt in your diet. Salt will block your other taste receptors so when you cut back on salt, you will eventually be able to enjoy the more subtle flavors. It takes about two weeks to retrain your taste buds, so be patient.

The best way to reduce your sodium intake is to start with whole unprocessed foods. Think:

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Meats
  • Eggs
  • Nuts
  • Dairy
  • Grains

Try to imagine what foods you would be able to buy directly from a farmer. These foods in their natural states will contain no added sodium.


It takes time and effort to cater to the changing nutritional needs of seniors. That’s why we encourage our caregivers to cook healthy meals for their clients as part of our Balanced Care Method™ training. To learn more about how caregivers can support the well-being of your loved one, call a Care Advisor today at 650-770-1456 or click here to schedule a free assessment and learn more about how we can support your needs.


6 Ways to Reduce Salt in What You Eat

The quickest way to reduce your sodium is to eat more food in its natural state. That doesn’t mean you have to give up all flavor, sauces, dressings or eating out. These ideas can help you cut back on salt while increasing the yum factor.

  1. Boost the flavor. Up the flavor profile of naturally healthy food by adding herbs, spices and a splash of healthy oil or fat. You can add condiments like:
    • Flavored vinegars
    • Infused olive oil
    • Nuts
  2. Keep a well-stocked spice cupboard. Spices are the chef’s secret ingredients. Salt is a common food to add to increase flavor but spices offer more pizazz. For example, when preparing eggs for breakfast don’t finish with a sprinkle of salt. Spices and herbs can add a satisfying taste that makes you forget about salt. Reach for a new flavor by adding:
    • Smoked paprika
    • Fresh or dry dill
    • Chopped basil
    • An Italian spice blend
  3. Don’t guess at added salt. The recommended amount of salt in a day is less than one teaspoon. You might be surprised by how much that is. When you are cooking, reach for the measuring spoon instead of eyeballing the salt. Try to use half the amount or less of the salt the recipe calls for. When you are adding salt at the table, don’t sprinkle out of the shaker. You can try these methods:
    • Place a ¼ teaspoon of salt in your hand. Observe how much space that amount of salt takes. Take a pinch of salt and add it to your food.
    • Use a container and very small scoop for your salt, or sprinkle the salt on your spoon first. Seeing the amount of salt can help you be aware of how much you are using.
  4. Ask for less salt. When you are eating out you can ask for your dish to be made without extra salt. Another option is to ask for the sauce or dressing to be served on the side. You might find that you don’t eat as much of the dressing when you dress your own salad. Sauces and dressing tend to be where salt is added.
  5. Stay hydrated. Also remember to keep your body well hydrated. You may crave salt after working out, an illness or surgery. Try a glass of cool water with lime or lemon and a natural electrolyte replacement. You may find that when you quench your thirst, you no longer want the extra salt.
  6. Plan your meals in advance. Processed and convenience foods tend to be high in salt. Meal planning is an ideal way to add foods into your diet that are lower in sodium.

20 Satisfying, Low Salt Snacks

These 20 healthy and satisfying low salt snacks will help you next time you are craving a salty, crunchy mini-meal. Try replacing:

  1. Salted peanuts with unsalted almonds
  2. A fruit and nut bar with apples and nut butter (check the label for no added salt)
  3. Flavored popcorn with unsalted popcorn flavored with dill, chili powder or cinnamon
  4. Potato chips with carrot sticks dipped in olive oil, balsamic vinegar and thyme
  5. Pork rinds with snow peas
  6. An ice cream sandwich with banana and almond butter
  7. A popsicle with orange slices
  8. Ice cream with yogurt mixed with nuts and berries
  9. Commercial trail mix with homemade trail mix (mix unsalted almonds, peanuts, sunflower seeds. Toss with a drizzle of olive oil and cinnamon)
  10. Tortilla chips and salsa with cucumber slices and salsa (check the label for low sodium)
  11. Crackers and dip with celery sticks and hummus
  12. Pepperoni sticks with low sodium deli meat, wrapped with a lettuce leaf
  13. A bag of goldfish crackers with low sodium tuna scooped up with cucumber slices
  14. A cup of pudding with a homemade fruit salad (apples, oranges, grapes, melon)
  15. A milkshake with a fresh smoothie made with milk (or milk alternative), greens, ½ cup of fruit and a splash of vanilla extract
  16. Pretzels with pear slices and low sodium cheese
  17. An oatmeal cookie with a bowl of oatmeal served with fresh berries
  18. A can of soda with a cup of sparkling water and lime juice
  19. A donut with fresh watermelon slices
  20. An order of French fries with veggies such as cherry tomatoes, celery, carrots or cucumbers dipped in a low sodium ranch dressing

Give your body nutritious and delicious options for snacks and meals. By loading up on whole fruits, vegetables, nuts and meat you are meeting your body’s need for fuel.

Resources

Cut Down on Sodium

Sodium

DASH Eating Plan

Health Facts: Sodium and Potassium

The Salt Solution: Cutting Back on Sodium

Mayo Clinic: High Blood Pressure

Why Do I Crave Salt?

American Heart Association: Effects of Excess Sodium Infographic

Action on Salt

How To Reduce Sodium Intake: 24 Nutritionist-Approved Tips

The national dietary guidelines recommend that Americans consume less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day, yet most of us take in over a thousand milligrams more! While our bodies require sodium, eating too much of the stuff can lead to high blood pressure, kidney failure, heart disease, and stroke. While getting rid of the salt shaker on your kitchen table is a solid starting point, there are other ways to nix excess sodium from your diet. Below, we’ve compiled nutritionists and health experts’ top tips on how to reduce sodium intake. Use these tips below to eat healthier without sacrificing flavor.

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“When you’re trying to cut back on salt, using herbs and spices is the best approach. You can use a different set of herbs and spices each day to keep meals exciting. Even something as simple as a tomato can be exciting once you add herbs and spices. For example, you can add basil and oregano, tarragon, dill, or a spicy chili powder, and you wind up with four versions of the same tomato with a very different flavor profile.”

Kelly Krikhely, MS, RD, CDN

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“Use flavorful cooking fats such as olive oil, coconut oil, and butter for intense and rich flavor without the need for added salt.”

— Molly Devine, RD LDN founder of Eat Your Keto and advisor to Remedy Review

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“The majority of the salt we consume comes from pre-packaged and fast foods. Avoiding these and sticking to home-cooked meals will drastically reduce the salt in your diet.”

Devine

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“Fresh herbs like parsley, dill, mint, and cilantro and spices such as turmeric, cumin, cayenne, and black pepper are a great sodium-free way to amp up the flavor complexity as well as the nutritional value of your food. Sautéed onions and garlic are another healthy way to give your food more flavor. Try incorporating vegetables with a saltier flavor profile, such as diced celery and artichokes. Kelp is a salty sea vegetable that is low in sodium. You can buy kelp granule shakers and use it on everything from popcorn to salads to pasta dishes. If you can’t resist using a little salt, you’re much better off using a salt that has color to it, such as Himalayan sea salt, because colored salts contain healthy minerals, whereas ordinary table salt has been processed in a way that strips it of the majority of its mineral content.”

Jessica Rosen, Certified Holistic Health Coach and Co-Founder of Raw Generation

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“People who frequent restaurants might be surprised to learn how much sodium is actually in the food they eat, but a recent FDA rule requires chain restaurants with more than 20 locations to label their menus with nutrition information and make it available to consumers. So, before you eat out, visit the restaurant’s website to find the sodium content of your favorite menu items so you can make an informed choice—and a healthy swap—if necessary.”

— Nancy Woodbury, MA, MS, RD, LD/N Owner of Nancy Woodbury Nutrition 

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“Brighten the flavor of a dish immediately prior to serving it with citrus zest, a splash of flavored vinegar, or a squeeze of fresh lemon or lime.”

Woodbury

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“Excess dietary sodium (more than 2,300 milligrams per day for adults) may cause fluid retention, which raises blood pressure and increases the risk of heart and kidney disease. High-sodium diets have been linked to stomach cancer and can increase urinary calcium loss leading to osteoporosis and the formation of kidney stones. It’s important to scrutinize nutrition labels and eliminate these very high-sodium foods: canned soups, frozen dinners, soy sauce, deli meats, cheese, and processed meats such as bacon and ham. By definition, low-sodium foods have less than 140 milligrams of sodium per serving.”

Woodbury

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“One of my favorite ways to really increase flavor when I’m using less salt is to use mushrooms, which provide a rich umami flavor. If I don’t want to include actual mushrooms, a mushroom-based low-sodium broth can be used to cook rice or de-glaze a pan of chicken, and it adds such richness!”

Cassie Berger, MS, RDN

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“Canned beans and vegetables can be high in sodium. You don’t have to cut out canned foods completely, but you should look for ones that either state “no salt added” or “reduced sodium” on the packaging. Always rinse your canned items under water to get any excess salt off. Making these changes will lead to less sodium in your meals.”

Meredith Price, MS, RD, CDN, Priceless Nutrition & Wellness

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“Cured breakfast meats like bacon, sausage, and ham are packed with salt. Three strips of bacon can have 20 percent of your daily salt allowance! Don’t be fooled by turkey bacon—though it’s lower in saturated fat, it’s higher in sodium.”

Kelsey Peoples, MS, RDN

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“If you’re someone who eats frozen meals, the best step would be to cut them out completely. However, they’re convenient and a lot of people rely on them. Always check the nutrition facts label, and choose ones that have less than 400 milligrams of sodium per serving.”

Price

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“Deli meat is loaded with sodium to help it stay fresh longer, so three ounces of turkey or ham usually has about 1,200 milligrams of sodium (that’s 60 percent of your entire day’s limit!). Adding just one tablespoon of ketchup or mustard will contribute about another 150 milligrams of sodium, plus each pickle spear has 360 milligrams. Try switching to a low-salt version if you’re going to eat deli meat, and top with a little oil and vinegar instead.”

Peoples

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“It’s America’s beloved grab-and-go meal, but the tomato sauce, processed cheese, and savory crust combo can pack over 600 milligrams of sodium per slice—and that’s before you add salty toppings like pepperoni or olives.”

Peoples

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“Consume and cook with whole food ingredients such as fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, and heart-healthy oils most often. These foods are naturally low in sodium, and many of them are high in potassium, which is a great combination for keeping blood pressure at a healthy level. These foods are also great sources of fiber, protein, vitamins, minerals, and healthy fats, so they support health overall. And if using these types of foods in your cooking, adding a little salt isn’t necessarily a bad thing because the foods themselves are so low in sodium (and usually you’re swapping these whole foods in instead of something more processed that likely has more salt).”

Julie Andrews, RD and chef

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“Compare the nutrition facts (sodium content) of foods like bread, canned products, and snacks with similar products, and choose the one with less sodium. For example, one brand or variety might have 200 milligrams of sodium per serving, and another might have 450 milligrams of sodium per serving. Opt for the product with 200 milligrams.”

Andrews

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“Consume foods high in potassium, and drink adequate water. Both of these things can help keep your electrolytes in balance (and sodium is one electrolyte). High potassium foods include potatoes, melons, greens, broccoli, and bananas.”

Andrews

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“To limit your sodium consumption to optimal levels of 1,500 milligrams or less a day, the doctors and dietitians at the Pritikin Longevity Center & Spa recommend the ‘one milligram of sodium per one calorie’ rule. That is, curb your intake of foods that have more than one milligrams of sodium per calorie.”

Dr. Danine Fruge, Medical Director at Pritikin Longevity Center

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“Restaurant soups, even those full of healthy ingredients like veggies and beans, are notoriously high in sodium—they often contain over 2,000 milligrams per bowl. For a first course, you’re far better ordering a salad full of fresh vegetables.”

– Fruge

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“When cooking, instead of adding salt at the beginning like indicated in most recipes, add salt at the very end, or even better, in your plate. When cooking, salt and spices lose some of their flavors, so, for the same great taste, you will need more salt (as well as more spices and herbs) if you add them at the beginning.”

Stella Loichot, ACE-Certified Health Coach

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“The savory, cheese-like taste of brewer’s yeast or nutritional yeast is ideal for adding flavor without salt. It’s great for homemade dressings, pasta sauce, and sprinkling on snacks, and it’s loaded with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.”

Lindsey Bristol, MS, RD at Swanson Health

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“The majority of what we consider ‘taste’ is actually thanks to the sense of smell. So, make food smellier—in a good way! For instance, finish dishes with highly aromatic ingredients, like garlic, fresh mint, or a stinkier cheese, and then go ahead and use at least a pinch less salt in the dish.”

Jackie Newgent, RDN, CDN

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“If one bouillon cube calls for two cups of water, I find that no one notices when it’s diluted down to four cups of water for one bouillon cube. Consider adding more onion, garlic, celery, or black pepper to the soup to add more flavor if needed. Soup can be incredibly high in salt, which may increase blood pressure. By adding a lot of potassium-rich vegetables in the soup and diluting the broth, you’ll decrease that likelihood.”

Morgan Bettini, MS, RDN, E-RYT

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“When dining out, asking for sauces and dressings on the side can help. Sauces and salad dressings tend to be huge contributors to our daily sodium intake, especially when we eat out. When you ask for sauces on the side, you can control how much of the sauce, if any at all, you add to your food. This can make a huge difference!”

Krikhely

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“Making small changes can add up and result in large changes over time. You don’t have to revamp your diet and eliminate sodium overnight. If you’re used to adding lots of salt to your food, add less and incrementally decrease the amount of salt you add. Over time, your taste buds will get used to the small decreases, and you’ll be able to significantly decrease your salt intake.”

Krikhely

Five Easy Ways to Lower Your Sodium Intake

Date:

2020-03-02

Nine out of 10 Americans consume nearly double the amount of sodium that is recommended by the American Heart Association. Consuming excess amounts of sodium can cause high blood pressure and put you at risk for stroke and heart failure. Additionally, children are twice as likely to develop high blood pressure if they eat a high-sodium diet. In honor of National Nutrition Month, the health experts at Envolve, an integrated healthcare solutions company, have put together five low-sodium substitutes to keep your food tasting great without the extra salt.

1. Sub in Soup. Avoid canned or pre-packaged soups. Foods containing 140 milligrams or less of sodium per serving are considered low-sodium products, but you need to be mindful of how many servings are actually in your typical meal. If you are looking for a substantial reduction, you should consider making your own soup and using bone, vegetable, or mushroom broth. In some cases, the reduced sodium or low-sodium options end up being significantly better than the traditional broth, but making your own vegetable broth guarantees a low-sodium option allowing you to add salt to your taste. To make your own broth at home, take some veggies or veggie scraps from other meals of the week, put them into a large pot, cover them with water, and simmer for about 45-60 minutes. Then strain out the liquid and use in your favorite soup recipe.

2. Ditch the Bread. Even though it may not taste salty, bread is actually a large contributor to your daily salt intake. A slice of bread can contain anywhere from 200 to 400 milligrams of sodium per slice, even whole grain options. Comparatively, corn tortillas may have only five milligrams of sodium (depending on the brand). Or consider cutting the bread all together and get creative with lettuce wraps or an eggplant “bun!”    

3. Revisit Veggies. Not all vegetables are created equal! Even in their fresh state, some vegetables such as beets, carrots, and spinach are higher in sodium than others. Some naturally low or no sodium options are broccoli, cauliflower, and peppers. While canned vegetables are very convenient, you have to be aware of the amount of salt per can. Look for the no salt or canned in water options. Fresh is best, but if you are looking for something out of season head to the frozen section. Frozen vegetables typically have no salt added as long as they do not have any added sauce or butter.

4. Pick Protein. Meat on its own has a higher, natural sodium content. But you can save on sodium with the type of meat and how you prepare it. Chicken and turkey without the skin are your best bet for lower sodium meats. For beef and pork, leaner cuts are best. When preparing, use low-sodium/no salt seasonings and try to avoid adding iodized salt (also called table salt). Repurpose your freshly cooked meat by slicing it thin to use in place of deli meat. Avoid prepackaged lunchmeat, which contains a significant amount of salt to keep it fresh. Instead, go to your deli counter and get baked, low-sodium chicken and turkey breast for a reduced-sodium option.

5. Sub the Sauce. Bottled and prepared sauces are typically higher in sodium. Preparing your own substitute is your best bet for ensuring lower salt per serving. Try replacing Alfredo sauce with a simple creamy cauliflower sauce created by steaming cauliflower then pureeing it with a bit of skim milk. For red sauce, go with just the tomatoes or pureed steamed tomatoes. Use these sauces on pasta or prepared meats to keep sodium intake down and flavor up. Bottled salad dressing averages 300 mg of sodium per two tablespoons! Sub it out using extra virgin olive oil and vinegar or try a vinaigrette or balsamic, which are typically lower in sodium than creamy dressings.

About Envolve, Inc.®

Envolve, Inc.® is a family of health solutions, working together to make healthcare simpler, more effective and more accessible for everyone. As an agent for change in healthcare, Envolve is committed to transforming the health of the community, one person at a time. Envolve unifies specialty pharmacy, PBM, vision, dental, 24/7 nurse advice services, diabetes management, MSO solutions, and more. For more information, please visit our website www.envolvehealth.com or contact us at [email protected]

90,000 How to reduce salt intake – Federal State Budgetary Institution “NMITs TPM” of the Ministry of Health of Russia

Many people consume too much sodium from salt (corresponds to an average intake of 9-12 g of salt per day) and not enough potassium (less than 3.5 g). High sodium intake and inadequate potassium intake contribute to high blood pressure, which in turn increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Reducing salt intake to the recommended level of less than 5 grams per day could help prevent 1.7 million deaths per year.People often don’t know how much salt they are consuming. In many countries, most of the salt comes from processed foods (prepared meals; meats such as bacon, ham, and salami; cheese; and savory snacks) or from foods that are often consumed in large quantities (such as bread). Salt is also added to food during cooking (for example, by adding broth, bouillon cubes, soy / fish sauce) or during meals (by adding table salt).

Salt intake can be reduced in the following ways:
• Limit the amount of salt and high sodium condiments (such as soy sauce) added during food preparation;
• do not put salt and sauces with a high sodium content on the table;
• Limit the consumption of salty snacks;
• Choose foods that are low in sodium.

Some food manufacturers are modifying their products to reduce sodium, and labeling should be checked for sodium before purchasing or consuming foods.
Potassium may alleviate the negative effects of excess sodium intake on blood pressure. Potassium intake can be increased by consuming fresh fruits and vegetables.

Make an appointment with a nutritionist:
Petroverigsky per. 10: +7 (495) 790-71-72
Kitaygorodsky pr. 7: +7 (495) 510-49-10

90,000 Reducing sodium intake and problems of preventing cardiovascular diseases

People have long had a difficult relationship with salt.The most popular seasoning all over the world is not just such, but also vital for a person. According to L. Dahl, perhaps salt is the most important nutritional factor affecting blood pressure (BP) control [1]. Moreover, the consumption of table salt is such an important component of the diet that the elimination of salt from the diet can lead to irreversible disaster, namely death. Indeed, without salt, or rather without sodium chloride (NaCl), our body simply would not be able to perform its functions normally.It is about sodium, which is mainly found in salt, and will be discussed. For your information, 100 g of salt contains 38.183 mg of sodium.

The basic physiological functions of sodium are as follows:

– ensures the penetration of amino acids and carbohydrates into cells;

– stimulates the activity of digestive enzymes;

– participates in the passage of an impulse along the nerve fiber together with potassium;

– accumulates fluid in the body.

The most important property of sodium from a physiological point of view is its ability to bind water.So, 1 g of salt is able to keep up to 100 ml of water in the body. When tissues and blood vessels are oversaturated with salt, an excess of water arises in the body, which leads to an overload of the activity of all organs involved in a particular process. For example, the heart is forced to work harder, and the kidneys are forced to remove excess amounts of both water and salt from the body.

At present, in many countries, salt consumption ranges from 9 to 15 g per day [2]. Women consume slightly less salt than men.In our country, according to data collected in Moscow, they consume an average of 12 g of salt per day [3]. However, such an amount of salt, according to modern researchers, is excessively large and harmful to health, since the human body needs and needs only 2-3 g of sodium per day, and in the case of increased sweating and significant water loss – a little more. For a healthy person, 5-7 g of table salt per day does not pose any risk. However, the constant excess of this limit is fraught with consequences.For those who suffer from arterial hypertension (AH) or those who are prone to this disease, salt can harm. Why did salt receive such an unattractive status?

Salt intake and arterial hypertension

Although salt is highly regarded by many people as a universal seasoning, its use has long been associated with high blood pressure, and more recently with other health indicators [1-3].

Mechanisms linking salt intake and increased blood pressure include increased extracellular volume, peripheral vascular resistance, in part due to increased sympathetic nervous system activity.

The results of epidemiological studies show that the development of hypertension is associated with salt intake, there is a close relationship between sodium intake and the incidence of hypertension, and in addition, restriction of sodium intake contributes to a significant decrease in blood pressure [4]. The authors of a meta-analysis of several randomized trials lasting more than 1 month showed that a moderate reduction in salt intake caused a significant decrease in blood pressure in both people with hypertension and without: reducing salt to 6 g per day led to a decrease in blood pressure by 7/4 mm Hg.Art. in hypertensive patients and by 4/2 mm Hg. in normotonics [5]. One well-controlled, double-blind, crossover study examined three salt intake levels in 20 untreated hypertensive subjects who had reduced salt from 11.2 to 6.4 and 2.9 grams per day. Before the study, blood pressure was 163/100 mm Hg, salt intake – 11.2 g / day; with a decrease in salt intake to 6.4 g / day, blood pressure decreased by 8/5 mm Hg. and reached 155/95 mm Hg. With a further reduction to 2.9 g / day, blood pressure decreased by 8/4 mm Hg.Art. – up to 147/91 mm Hg 19 out of 20 participants were followed up for 1 year, their blood pressure did not exceed 145/90 mm Hg. with the lowest salt intake (up to 3 g / day).

According to H. Blackburn, who devoted his population studies to the study of hypertension: “… a decrease in blood pressure among the population by 1-3 mm Hg. will have the same effect as all antihypertensive drugs taken together currently prescribed to patients with hypertension ”[6]. And according to S. McMahon, based on the analysis of the results of numerous population studies, “… a decrease in diastolic blood pressure by 2 mm Hg.Art. reduces the risk of death from stroke by 13%, and by 6 mm Hg. – by as much as 43% ”[7].

The statements about the relationship between salt intake and hypertension have changed several times. The idea of ​​the dangers of excessive salt intake was expressed in ancient Egypt. And in 1948 W. Kempner hypothesized that an excess of salt can increase blood pressure and proposed a rice-fruit-sugar diet with limited amount of salt (less than 0.5 g per day) [8]. This diet contributed to a decrease in blood pressure in 64% of patients with hypertension and normalization of blood pressure in 25% of patients with heart failure.Later studies prove that the main reason for the decrease in blood pressure while following the Kempner diet was precisely the sharp restriction of salt intake [9].

In 2007, the daily sodium intake for humans was determined – from 2.6 to 4.8 g per day [10]. These numbers, according to the study authors, have remained unchanged in 45 countries for 50 years.

The peak of salt consumption was in the 1870s, and after the invention of the refrigerator and freezers, the importance of salt as a preservative decreased, but recently, an increase in salt consumption was noted again with an increase in the amount of salty foods or instant foods [2].

Nevertheless, not all people develop A.G. with regular increased salt intake. The whole point, as it turned out, is in the individual “sensitivity” to salt. The concept of salt sensitivity was originally put forward in the late 1970s, but this phenomenon is the subject of modern research supporting this theory. Some people may have increased sensitivity to salt, then, with its excessive consumption, they develop hypertension. In others who are insensitive, blood pressure remains normal even when eating food with a high sodium content.Salt sensitivity, as the author further notes, is a common biological phenomenon in human society. Depending on the method of determination and measurement, increased sensitivity to salt was observed in 25-50% of persons with normal blood pressure and in 40-75% of patients with essential hypertension [11].

An active study of salt intake and the relationship with health began in the 1960s, when L. Dahl published the results of interpopulation studies in the form of a now well-known graph (Fig.1), Fig. 1. Linear relationship between salt intake and blood pressure in different populations. which represents the entire spectrum of salt consumption around the world. The graph shows the influence or direct dependence of the spread of increased blood pressure on the amount of salt consumed, which makes an important contribution to the salt hypothesis of increased blood pressure. The presented data leave no doubt that high blood pressure does not occur or is extremely rare in those regions where the population has consumed a small amount of sodium for a lifetime (for example, among the Eskimos), it is often observed in areas where they consume a lot of salt (more than 20 g / day), as, for example, in the north of Japan, where increased blood pressure is noted in 40% of the population.The differences in the prevalence of hypertension in countries or regions with increased salt intake were proven in later studies, which confirmed the assumption that it is the sodium content in food that is the main factor determining the incidence of hypertension in the population. It is possible, as noted by the authors of later studies, that other factors, such as obesity, race, constitutional characteristics, diet, also affect the level of blood pressure, as well as the amount of sodium consumed [12].The results of a prospective 3-year study conducted in Russia showed that with a decrease in salt intake from an average of 12 to 6 g per day, a statistically significant decrease in blood pressure in women with high normal blood pressure within 3 years was 3.27 mm Hg. for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 2.09 mm Hg. for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) [3]. In men, a more modest decrease in blood pressure was noted: SBP decreased by 1.92 mm Hg, and DBP – by 1.91 mm Hg. With an increase in salt intake, blood pressure, on the contrary, increases.The Intersalt study estimated that a salt intake of more than 6 g / day for 30 years would result in a 9 mmHg increase in SBP. [13].

How much salt does the body need?

In the Stone Age, people consumed the minimum amount of salt, their diet consisted of natural fresh products. At present, tribes of Indians leading a primitive lifestyle have survived in North America.Their daily sodium intake was 20 times less than that of people living in developed countries and eating mainly processed refined food. It is noteworthy that the blood pressure of the Indians averaged 96/60 mm Hg. and did not increase with age, which is not typical for modern civilizations.

The results of epidemiological studies around the world show that the optimal daily requirement for salt is 6-7 g, the so-called. about half of the amount consumed in modern society [13].

It is extremely difficult to accurately estimate the amount of sodium consumed daily, since even the results of determining the excretion of sodium excretion in daily urine (the method that is considered the “gold” standard for determining the salt eaten per day) varies widely from person to person. M. Alderman [14] believes that there is no evidence that reducing salt intake to 3.5 grams per day will improve health outcomes. And in 2013, the Institute of Medicine recognized sodium intake up to 1.5 g per day as adequate [15].

The mechanism of increasing blood pressure with excess sodium intake remains unclear. It has been shown that in hypertension, the flow of sodium and potassium through the erythrocyte membrane is disturbed. Due to violations of the potassium-sodium pump in hypertension, the sodium content in the intercellular space of smooth muscle tissues increases. This leads to an increase in the excitability of the latter, which can cause an increase in blood pressure [16].

In the introduction to his work, L. Dahl et al. [1] state that salt is harmful and that the need for salt is less than actual consumption.It’s right. Most people eat more salt than necessary.

How can I reduce my salt intake?

For several million years, the ancestors of modern humans, like all mammals, ate food with a low salt content. Table Table 1 shows Table 1. Average salt content per 100 g of product, salt content in basic foodstuffs. From the data table. 1 shows that the least amount of salt (and, accordingly, sodium) is contained in fresh vegetables and fruits.

In 2003, WHO recommended limiting salt intake in adults to 5 g per day (or 2 g sodium per day) [17]. Since then, in all the recommendations that we use to date, including for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, these figures are repeated [18].

Patients with hypertension are advised to sharply limit salt intake. This is achieved due to the observance of several rules proposed in 2000 and thanks to which it is possible to reduce the daily salt intake by almost 2 times [14]:

– reduce salt addition during cooking by 50%,

– replace canned food with natural products,

– do not add salt to food while eating,

– reduce the consumption of pickles,

– use unsalted seasonings,

– avoid taking antacids because of the sodium they contain.

It seems so easy to reduce salt intake by following these simple rules, but still our contemporaries continue to eat more salt than is recommended by the medical community.

Why do we eat a lot of salt?

Despite the fact that as early as 2003, the WHO recommended reducing salt intake for all adults, actually reducing salt intake is an elusive goal.Here’s why: Due to sodium deficiency over an extended period, from the Stone Age to the present day, people have developed a powerful appetite for salt. This innate desire for salty food makes it difficult in practice to reduce salt in the diet. However, when the consumption of salt is still reduced (in particular in the elderly), due to a sharp change in taste habits, a person may lose their appetite altogether.

Humanity uses salt as needed to preserve food in order to avoid food poisoning, as salt is known to be a natural, effective and safe preservative.The fact is that 80% of the consumed salt (Fig. 2) Fig. 2. “Hidden salt” in food. Adapted from F. He and G. MacGregor, 2009 refers to the so-called “hidden” salt, which is found in all industrially processed foods, where salt is added for longer storage. The reviewers blame manufacturers for adding too much salt for profit [19]. When salt is added to meat products, their mass increases, since salt is able to retain water, and as a result, producers profit from it without much cost.It is estimated that the weight of the product with salt and water can be increased by 20% completely free of charge. The amount of salt in industrially processed foods is mainly due to the fact that it makes cheap, unpretentious food edible at no cost. Highly salty food is in high demand due to the habit of salty taste – and this also increases the profit of producers. With the constant consumption of salty foods, thirst arises, which encourages the consumption of soft drinks and mineral water, which also induce thirst, i.e.That is, there is a vicious circle for buyers and profit growth for producers. Food manufacturers attribute the addition of too much salt to consumer preference and report that if the salt content is reduced, consumers will skip shopping. However, this does not take into account a very important factor: only 1-2 months pass from a change in the sensitivity of taste buds in the oral cavity to a decrease in salt concentration [20]. This means that a lower salt concentration will still be perceived as a salty taste.There is evidence that when salt intake is lowered, people will choose foods with less salt and will be able to avoid the very salty foods they have eaten in the past [21]. In the experience of UK consumers, the reduction in salt in a particular brand of staple products has not led to a decline in sales, and no complaints have been made about taste. Therefore, it is unlikely that a decrease in salt concentration in food will lead to shopping abandonment. But salt is the main driver of thirst, and any decrease in its intake will reduce fluid intake, with a consequent decrease in the sale of soft drinks and mineral water, and some of the world’s largest companies producing salty snacks are part of the companies selling soft drinks.

Less is Better?

Should I still reduce my salt intake? The main focus of the study of salt intake has been on the beneficial effects on blood pressure. There is now growing evidence of a different, negative health impact of salt reduction that has nothing to do with blood pressure. By 2013, the results of studies on the effect of salt reduction on health indicators and the idea of ​​additional salt reduction in the diet of all adults, including those who do not suffer from and are not at risk of developing hypertension, had been published.In the same year, a special committee of the Institute of Medicine, after analyzing the research results, published a report in which it expressed its opinion on this matter [15].

1. No evidence was found for the effect of a modest decrease in blood pressure with a decrease in salt intake on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

2. The benefits of salt reduction for the general population have not been proven.

3. A safe range (namely the range, not the 5 g point) of salt intake exists.

4.The benefits or harms of sodium intake less than 2300 mg / day (5 g salt) have not been established, but there are concerns about sodium intake below 1.5 g / day (3 g salt).

Before changing the recommendations for an even lower salt intake due to the proven effective lowering of blood pressure, you need to understand that a person can suffer not only from an increase in blood pressure, but also from other diseases, metabolic disorders, or, finally, just be healthy [7] … Thus, in a study involving patients with heart failure (HF), a worsening of the course of the disease was noted in the group with salt restriction to 1-1.7 g per day: more hospitalization was required and there was an increase in mortality within 6 months from the start of the study compared with the group consuming 2-4.7 g per day.Therapy S.N. was the same in both groups. A worsening of the course of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus was also noted [22]. A recently published review demonstrated a 1% decrease in blood pressure in normotonics and 3.5% in hypertensive patients, while a significant increase in plasma hormones (Table 2): Table 2. Increase in hormone levels with a decrease in salt intake (adapted from N. Graudal et al., 2012) Here and in table. 4: * p <0.05 - statistically significant values. renin, aldosterone, adrenaline, norepinephrine.The demonstrated increase in adrenaline and norepinephrine is statistically insignificant, since, as can be seen from the data in Table. 2, there was an insufficient number of participants and the studies themselves. From the data table. 3, Table 3. An increase in lipid levels with a decrease in salt intake (adapted from N. Graudal et al., 2012) that an increase in cholesterol by 2.5%, triglycerides in plasma by 7% is significant ( p <0.05) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low lipoproteins (LDL) are statistically insignificant for the same reason (there are not enough participants and studies to identify statistical significance) [23].Moreover, as noted by F. He et al. [5], the adverse effect on lipids, especially triglyceride levels, is not just an acute effect on salt reduction, as previously assumed, but persistent and long-term.

How does the ancient health science of Ayurveda evaluate salt? The salty taste will help drive away longing and allow you to feel the joy of life, whatever it may be.

In this regard, a study on the effect of salt reduction on psychological status can be noted. In 2015Japanese scientists published the results of a study in which 1,014 adult men reduced their salt intake from 10.8 g per day (4.3 g sodium) to 7 g salt, or 2.8 g sodium, per day, which triggered the development of depression [24 ].

A decrease in salt intake with food leads to a decrease in blood pressure, but the possibility of a negative effect of low salt intake on health cannot be ignored, excluding A.G. To recommend a salt restriction for all healthy adults below 3 grams of sodium (i.e., less than 6 grams of salt or less than 1 teaspoon), the benefits and risks of this measure need to be weighed comprehensively, and studies across large populations are needed.Despite doubts about the benefits of reduced salt intake for all people, salt reduction is now an adjunct to drug treatment for hypertension and contributes to improved blood pressure control, which reduces the need for drugs. Table Table 4 shows Table 4. Contents of the daily salt intake in food (for persons from 19 to 65 years old) a list of foods that cover the daily salt requirement.

The impact of dietary salt reduction (other than BP reduction) on other health indicators should be considered.So, in fig. 3 shows Fig. 3. Salt intake and mortality from stroke, heart attack and hospitalization for heart failure. U curve that shows that both high and low salt intake increase mortality rates from cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, myocardial infarction, and hospitalizations for congestive SN. Several (but not all) observational studies have shown an increase in mortality not only at “higher levels” but also at levels below 2300 mg, indicating a U -like relationship between sodium intake and mortality [25].

In randomized trials carefully selected for statistical analysis, the effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure was shown not only in hypertensive patients, but also in healthy people with normal blood pressure (about 1 mm Hg) [25]. The question immediately arises whether such an impact is beneficial for the general population in terms of morbidity, CVD prevention and mortality, and whether it is possible that these unproven assumptions about the benefits of salt restriction should lead to a recommendation to reduce sodium intake for the entire population.The answer to this question can be found in the above report of the Institute of Medicine, one of the main provisions of which warns against further reduction of salt, i.e. below 3 g or below 1.5 g of sodium. The authors of several reviews are sincerely disappointed that the negative consequences of reducing salt intake in healthy people for the prevention of CVD are ignored, more precisely, the deterioration of the lipid and hormonal profile, and the fact that the recommendations for reducing salt in the diet have remained the same [25-28]. To address the issue of reducing salt intake below 5 g per day, it is advisable to conduct a large-scale long-term randomized clinical trial and determine whether such restrictions bring health benefits or not, how this restriction affects survival and quality of life.Until the results of such a study are received, it is premature to talk about a further reduction in salt in the diet. Many question whether it is even worthwhile to talk about the reduction of salt in the diet, if the results of lowering blood pressure are so modest [9].

In most countries, more than ½ of the salt comes from industrially processed foods, including convenience foods and sauces. In this regard, a gradual, sustainable reduction in salt in food during industrial processing is one of the easiest changes in nutrition in practice, since it does not require consumers to change their diet and nevertheless allows them to reach the recommended 5 g per day [20].

B s It should be noted that dietary recommendations for reducing salt should reflect all the variety of health consequences of this measure, including the impact on the quality and duration of life, and since we do not yet have such knowledge, no dietary recommendations can be scientifically justified [26]. There is still no unanimous point of view on the additional reduction of salt in the diet of the population. Discussions are ongoing, but the issue of reducing salt intake to prevent CVD for the entire population, including healthy people, has not yet been settled.

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Contribution of authors:

Concept – O.M.

Collection and analysis of material – O.M., A.B.

Editing – O.M., A.B., E.P.

90,000 Reduction in sodium chloride intake leads to a decrease in blood pressure in normotensive patients

WHO recommends reducing the intake of table salt to 2-5 g per day. In patients with arterial hypertension, this translates into a significant decrease in blood pressure.The feasibility of limiting the intake of table salt in normotensive patients is a matter of debate, especially after the publication of the results of the PURE study. This study showed that the risk of stroke increased with a salt intake of more than 5 g / day, but too low intake of sodium ion was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and mortality. Sodium is an essential micronutrient that the body needs in some amount, and its deficiency can lead to compensatory activation of the RAAS.

The BMJ published a large meta-analysis evaluating the effect of daily sodium excretion on blood pressure in adults. The meta-analysis included follow-up data for 12197 patients (133 studies). For every 50 mmol / L decrease in daily sodium excretion, there was a decrease in SBP by an average of 1.10 mm Hg. (0.66 – 1.54; P <0.001), DBP - by 0.33 mm Hg. (0.04 - 0.63; P = 0.03). Blood pressure decreased not only in hypertensive patients, but also in normotensive individuals.

To a greater extent, salt restriction reduced blood pressure in the elderly, non-Europoids, as well as in people with a higher baseline blood pressure.In the case of a duration of sodium restriction for more than 2 weeks, the degree of SBP decrease in response to a decrease in sodium excretion for every 50 mmol / L was 2 times higher than with a study duration of less than 15 days (see figure). In normotensive patients, restriction of sodium chloride, confirmed by the level of daily sodium excretion, significantly reduced blood pressure: at baseline SBP <120 0 = "" 39 = "" 95 = "" 061 = "" 18 = "" 120-129 = "" 1 = "" 21 = "" 87 = "" 55 = "" 130 = "" -139 = "" 2 = "" 23 = "" 89 = "" 57 = "" p = ""> The limitation of this analysis is one-time assessment of the level of daily sodium excretion, which can vary significantly.In addition, the effect of salt intake on cardiovascular complications has not been evaluated.

Based on materials:

Huang Liping, et al. Effect of dose and duration of reduction in dietary sodium on blood pressure levels: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. BMJ 2020; 368: m315.

https://www.bmj.com/

Text: Shakhmatova O.O.

Scientists have found a way to reduce the harm of salt

An excess of salt in the diet leads to the fact that too much fluid accumulates in the tissues.This causes high blood pressure and, with long-term use of large amounts of salt, increases the risk of hypertension, heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, salt is essential for life – chlorine ions are needed to produce hydrochloric acid, and sodium ions are involved in the transmission of nerve impulses and muscle fiber contraction.

According to the WHO, the rate of salt intake for an adult is about 5 g per day.

Many exceed it significantly, adding salt to food for the sake of improving taste.Since health problems arise from excess sodium, there are salts that are low in sodium and have added potassium. Although this salt has been on store shelves for a long time and is positioned to reduce the risk of developing hypertension and other diseases, no qualitative research has yet been conducted on its possible benefits.

An international team of researchers in collaboration with Chinese specialists from Peking University decided to do this.They talked about the work in more detail in an article in the magazine The NEJM .

Scientists observed elderly people in rural areas of China. In total, the study covered more than 200 thousand people from 600 villages. Scientists provided half of the participants free of charge with salt with potassium and a quarter-reduced sodium content, half ate as usual. In addition, the first group was generally encouraged to use less salt in order to reduce sodium intake.

The study was conceived as a five-year experiment, but ended earlier due to the COVID-19 pandemic.However, there was already a noticeable difference between the groups.

During the experiment, more than 4000 participants died, more than 3000 suffered a stroke, more than 5000 faced serious cardiovascular diseases.

In the low sodium salt group, the likelihood of stroke was significantly lower than in the regular group – 29.14 cases versus 33.65 cases per 1000 person-years. The likelihood of cardiovascular disease (49.09 cases versus 56.29) and death (39.28 cases versus 44.61) was also lower.

In other words, the risk of stroke decreased by 14%, the risk of major cardiovascular diseases by 13%, and the risk of death from all causes by 12%.

Researchers cite work from Chinese colleagues showing that replacing regular salt with salt with a low sodium content would prevent nearly 500,000 premature deaths in China each year. If people around the world switch to this alternative, millions of lives could be saved, they add.

“Almost everyone in the world is eating more salt than they should,” says clinical epidemiologist Bruce Neal.”If low sodium salt were used worldwide, several million premature deaths could be prevented each year.”

However, problems may arise with the exchange of one salt for another in many countries. And they are related to the approach to food preparation.

“In rural China, processed foods are not commonly used,” explains pediatrician Julie Ingelfinger.- Salt is added during cooking in every home. But in most parts of the world, commercial canning of food contains a lot of sodium chloride, and the use of salt substitutes will not significantly reduce overall consumption. ”

However, it is possible to replace salt with a less harmful one in industrial food production. But this will already require coordinated action by food producers and regulators.

In terms of cost, according to the researchers, the difference will not be that great: “alternative” salt is about 50% more expensive than ordinary salt, but ordinary salt itself is cheap and not so much is required, so such a replacement is quite affordable, especially considering Benefits.

90,000 Why avoiding salt is as harmful as too much salt

If an excess of salt is dangerous, then refusing it is harmful. How do you find the balance you need? How to properly limit sodium intake? And what foods can replace salt? Nutritionist, Doctor of Medicine Mikhail Ginzburg told about it on the air of the TV channel “Russia 1”.

The key element of salt is sodium, without which a normal balance of fluid in the body is impossible.Sodium is found in the blood and helps deliver oxygen and other nutrients to all organs. But sodium tends to be quickly excreted from the body, especially in hot weather. With its deficiency, a person experiences weakness in the body, nausea and headache appear. And with the constant rejection of salt, hyponatremia develops, which leads to a sharp decrease in the amount of this trace element in the blood to a critical level. Especially often those who are on a rigid hyponatric diet suffer from this ailment.

Table salt is the main source of sodium in the diet. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the daily salt requirement for an adult is 5 grams.

“This amount will be obtained if a person removes pickles from food, reduces the consumption of obviously salty foods and switches to foods that do not need additional salt: fruits, vegetables and herbs. And also includes additives in the diet that improve the taste of food, but at the same time which do not increase the amount of sodium – vinegar, garlic, lemon, “noted Mikhail Ginzburg.

The program noticed that salt sensitivity affects different people in different ways and depends on many factors. For example, low sodium levels can be caused by post-operative conditions and cancer.

An excess of salt in the body leads not only to morning edema, but also to an increase in blood pressure. It is important to monitor the amount of food consumed, which obviously contains a large amount of salt: these are bread and any sausages.100 grams of Parmesan cheese contains the daily sodium requirement for an adult. Foods containing potassium, a sodium antagonist, can help reduce the amount of salt in the body. To do this, you need to increase the consumption of dried fruits, bran and other cereals, as well as not forget about greens. 100 grams of parsley contains 32 percent of your daily value for potassium.

90,000 Diet for hypertension – recommendations of the doctors of the MediArt clinic

Eating the right diet will help you keep your blood pressure under control.

1. Reduce sodium intake. To do this, reduce your salt intake or switch to reduced sodium salt. The main component of salt is sodium. It retains water in the body. Because of this, the volume of circulating blood and pressure increases. Doctors believe that salt consumption should be reduced from 10-15 g per day, traditional for a modern person, to 3-4, which can be obtained from conventional products. That is, it is no longer necessary to add salt to the food.

2. Give up strong black and green tea, coffee and, most importantly, alcohol. All of these foods cause blood vessel spasms and stress on the heart.

3. Quit smoking. Nicotine has a vasoconstrictor effect, which means it raises blood pressure.

4. Switch to fractional meals. Distribute the daily ration in such a way as to eat evenly portions 5-6 times a day.And before going to bed, it is better to eat a small fruit or drink a glass of low-fat kefir.

5. Choose lean meat. Most often, hypertension occurs against the background of blockage of blood vessels by plaques of cholesterol, which is found in fatty meats and smoked meats. Chicken, turkey or veal cooked without oil is the best choice for those suffering from hypertension.

If dietary meat looks tasteless without salt and fat, think of lemon juice, parsley, dill or basil, which can safely give the meat a new flavor.

6. Eat as little food containing animal fats as possible: sausages, fat, butter and ghee. Take a closer look at vegan sausages and sausages, they will make it easier to switch to the right diet and stick to it. Try to have at least a third of the fat in your diet from plant sources. Fry without animal fat, and add sunflower or other vegetable oil to stews.

7. Eat more vegetables .Fiber-rich foods can lower the level of bad cholesterol in the blood by inhibiting its absorption. In addition, they allow you to maintain a feeling of fullness for a long time and not overeat.

8. Eat less sugar. Easily digestible carbohydrates that provoke a set of extra pounds should be excluded from the diet. This will reduce the risk of being overweight. So cakes, cookies, cakes and sweets will have to be consigned to oblivion, replacing them with fruits and dried fruits, vegetables and whole grains – everything that the body will digest for a long time and with pleasure.

9. Increase the dose of magnesium and potassium. This will strengthen the heart muscle and increase its endurance. Include cereals, cabbage, dried apricots, carrots and beets in the diet. The good news is these foods are not fattening.

No less rich in these important microelements are seaweed, seafood and lean sea fish. The rules for preparing fish dishes are the same as for meat – a minimum of salt and fat.

10. Don’t starve. Fasts and strict diets with a sharp restriction of any food groups are contraindicated in hypertension.

Basic rules of conduct for hypertension

With high blood pressure, fractional nutrition is very important; in no case should strict diets and fasts be followed. Smokers simply need to give up this bad habit.

It is necessary to reduce the consumption of salt, fats, give up foods that provoke an additional increase in blood pressure, and monitor weight, not forgetting to periodically consult with your doctor.

You can buy all the products listed in the recommendations for healthy eating in the “Food & Health” store at the address:

CJSC Moscow, m. Novoperedelkino, st. Sholokhov, 30

Phone: +7 (966) 103-05-67

Sodium reduction | ICL

Sodium Recovery | ICL

Global requirements are driving industry change and impacting consumer habits. The World Health Organization has recommended a global reduction in sodium intake. 1

Last year, countries reduced their sodium intake and / or purchased more low sodium foods to stay healthy.

countries have set targets for sodium in processed foods.

YOU CAN SEE THE ACTIVE CHANGES:

  • Government agencies
  • Country specific regulations
  • Retail regulations
  • Improving consumer education
  • Product packaging / labeling
  • Corporate initiatives

Manufacturers must be able to quickly adapt their product portfolios.

Salona Low Sodium Sea Salt is a natural sea salt from ICL Food Specialties that can replace up to 50% sodium chloride and as a complete replacement for potassium chloride. It is usually replaced one by one instead of sodium chloride and potassium chloride.

Due to its unique structure and cationic balance, Salona provides a palatable taste in many applications and markets.