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How to take l-glutamine: glutamine | Michigan Medicine


glutamine | Michigan Medicine

What is the most important information I should know about glutamine?

Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

What is glutamine?

Glutamine is an amino acid that affects the processes of growth and function of cells in the stomach and intestines.

Glutamine is a medical food product that is used to supplement dietary sources of glutamine. This medicine is used to treat a glutamine deficiency, or a loss of glutamine caused by injury or illness.

Glutamine is also used in combination with human growth hormone to treat short bowel syndrome.

Glutamine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my health care provider before taking glutamine?

To make sure glutamine is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:

  • liver disease; or
  • kidney disease.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether glutamine will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without a doctor’s advice if you are pregnant.

It is not known whether glutamine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medicine without a doctor’s advice if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take glutamine?

Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

When treating short bowel syndrome, you may need to take glutamine 6 times per day for up to 16 weeks.

The number of times per day you take glutamine depends on the reason you are using it. Always follow your doctor’s instructions.

Take glutamine oral powder with a meal or snack unless directed otherwise.

Take glutamine tablets on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal.

Dissolve your dose of glutamine oral powder in at least 8 ounces of hot or cold liquid. You may also mix the powder with a soft food such as pudding, applesauce, or yogurt. Stir the mixture and eat or drink all of it right away.

Do not pour dry glutamine powder directly into a tube feeding formula. Always mix the powder with water and infuse it directly into the feeding tube using a syringe.

While using glutamine, you may need frequent blood or urine tests.

Glutamine may be only part of a complete program of treatment that may also include a special diet, tube feedings, and IV fluids. It is very important to follow the diet and medication plan created for you by your doctor or nutrition counselor.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep each dose of the oral powder in its packet until you are ready to use the medicine.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

An overdose of glutamine is not expected to produce life-threatening symptoms.

What should I avoid while taking glutamine?

Follow your doctor’s instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

What are the possible side effects of glutamine?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • chest pain;
  • hearing problems; or
  • signs of infection such as fever, chills, sore throat, flu symptoms, mouth sores, unusual weakness.

Common side effects may include:

  • nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, gas;
  • swelling in your hands or feet;
  • muscle or joint pain, back pain;
  • headache, dizziness, tired feeling;
  • mild skin rash or itching; or
  • dry mouth, runny nose, increased sweating.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect glutamine?

Other drugs may interact with glutamine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell each of your health care providers about all medicines you use now and any medicine you start or stop using.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about glutamine.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. (‘Multum’) is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum’s drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum’s drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2021 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 2.01. Revision date: 10/9/2014.

Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

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Aquino, V. M., Harvey, A. R., Garvin, J. H., Godder, K. T., Nieder, M. L., Adams, R. H., Jackson, G. B., and Sandler, E. S. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of oral glutamine in the prevention of mucositis in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a pediatric blood and marrow transplant consortium study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;36(7):611-616. View abstract.

Bakalar, B., Duska, F., Pachl, J., Fric, M., Otahal, M., Pazout, J., and Andel, M. Parenterally administered dipeptide alanyl-glutamine prevents worsening of insulin sensitivity in multiple-trauma patients. Crit Care Med 2006;34(2):381-386. View abstract.

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Boelens, P. G., Houdijk, A. P., Fonk, J. C., Puyana, J. C., Haarman, H. J., von Blomberg-van der Flier ME, and van Leeuwen, P. A. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition increases in vitro interferon-gamma production but does not influence the in vivo specific antibody response to KLH after severe trauma. A prospective, double blind, randomized clinical study. Clin.Nutr. 2004;23(3):391-400. View abstract.

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Tripathi, P. and Misra, M. K. Therapeutic role of L-arginine on free radical scavenging system in ischemic heart diseases. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 2009;46(6):498-502. View abstract.

Tripathi, P., Chandra, M., and Misra, M. K. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase. Oxid.Med.Cell Longev. 2009;2(4):231-237. View abstract.

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Tuchman, M., Lee, B., Lichter-Konecki, U., Summar, M. L., Yudkoff, M., Cederbaum, S. D., Kerr, D. S., Diaz, G. A., Seashore, M. R., Lee, H. S., McCarter, R. J., Krischer, J. P., and Batshaw, M. L. Cross-sectional multicenter study of patients with urea cycle disorders in the United States. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94(4):397-402. View abstract.

van Bokhorst-De Van Der Schueren, MA, Quak, J. J., von Blomberg-van der Flier BM, Kuik, D. J., Langendoen, S. I., Snow, G. B., Green, C. J., and van Leeuwen, P. A. Effect of perioperative nutrition, with and without arginine supplementation, on nutritional status, immune function, postoperative morbidity, and survival in severely malnourished head and neck cancer patients. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2001;73(2):323-332. View abstract.

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Canovas, G., Leon-Sanz, M., Gomez, P., Valero, M. A., Gomis, P., and La Huerta, J. J. Oral glutamine supplements in autologous hematopoietic transplant: impact on gastrointestinal toxicity and plasma protein levels. Haematologica 2000;85(11):1229-1230. View abstract.

Carcillo, J. A., Dean, J. M., Holubkov, R., Berger, J., Meert, K. L., Anand, K. J., Zimmerman, J., Newth, C. J., Harrison, R., Burr, J., Willson, D. F., and Nicholson, C. The randomized comparative pediatric critical illness stress-induced immune suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial. Pediatr.Crit Care Med. 2012;13(2):165-173. View abstract.

Carroll, P. V., Jackson, N. C., Russell-Jones, D. L., Treacher, D. F., Sonksen, P. H., and Umpleby, A. M. Combined growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I in addition to glutamine-supplemented TPN results in net protein anabolism in critical illness. Am.J.Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2004;286(1):E151-E157. View abstract.

Castell, L. M., Poortmans, J. R., and Newsholme, E. A. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur.J.Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1996;73(5):488-490. View abstract.

Chen, G., Xie, W., and Jiang, H. [Clinical observation of the protective effect of oral feeding of glutamine granules on intestinal mucous membrane]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2001;17(4):210-211. View abstract.

Claeyssens, S., Bouteloup-Demange, C., Gachon, P., Hecketsweiler, B., Lerebours, E., Lavoinne, A., and Dechelotte, P. Effect of enteral glutamine on leucine, phenylalanine and glutamine metabolism in hypercortisolemic subjects. Am.J.Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2000;278(5):E817-E824. View abstract.

Coeffier, M., Claeyssens, S., Hecketsweiler, B., Lavoinne, A., Ducrotte, P., and Dechelotte, P. Enteral glutamine stimulates protein synthesis and decreases ubiquitin mRNA level in human gut mucosa. Am.J.Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2003;285(2):G266-G273. View abstract.

Coeffier, M., Hecketsweiler, B., Hecketsweiler, P., and Dechelotte, P. Effect of glutamine on water and sodium absorption in human jejunum at baseline and during PGE1-induced secretion. J Appl.Physiol 2005;98(6):2163-2168. View abstract.

Conejero, R., Bonet, A., Grau, T., Esteban, A., Mesejo, A., Montejo, J. C., Lopez, J., and Acosta, J. A. Effect of a glutamine-enriched enteral diet on intestinal permeability and infectious morbidity at 28 days in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a randomized, single-blind, prospective, multicenter study. Nutrition 2002;18(9):716-721. View abstract.

Darmaun, D., Hayes, V., Schaeffer, D., Welch, S., and Mauras, N. Effects of glutamine and recombinant human growth hormone on protein metabolism in prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2004;89(3):1146-1152. View abstract.

de Beaux, A. C., O’Riordain, M. G., Ross, J. A., Jodozi, L., Carter, D. C., and Fearon, K. C. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition reduces blood mononuclear cell interleukin-8 release in severe acute pancreatitis. Nutrition 1998;14(3):261-265. View abstract.

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Dechelotte, P., Hasselmann, M., Cynober, L., Allaouchiche, B., Coeffier, M., Hecketsweiler, B., Merle, V., Mazerolles, M., Samba, D., Guillou, Y. M., Petit, J., Mansoor, O., Colas, G., Cohendy, R., Barnoud, D., Czernichow, P., and Bleichner, G. L-alanyl-L-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented total parenteral nutrition reduces infectious complications and glucose intolerance in critically ill patients: the French controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. Crit Care Med 2006;34(3):598-604. View abstract.

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Duggan, C., Stark, A. R., Auestad, N., Collier, S., Fulhan, J., Gura, K., Utter, S., Teixeira-Pinto, A., Donovan, K., and Lund, D. Glutamine supplementation in infants with gastrointestinal disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Nutrition 2004;20(9):752-756. View abstract.

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Fuentes-Orozco, C., Anaya-Prado, R., Gonzalez-Ojeda, A., Arenas-Marquez, H., Cabrera-Pivaral, C., Cervantes-Guevara, G., and Barrera-Zepeda, L. M. L-alanyl-L-glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves infectious morbidity in secondary peritonitis. Clin.Nutr. 2004;23(1):13-21. View abstract.

Garrel, D., Patenaude, J., Nedelec, B., Samson, L., Dorais, J., Champoux, J., D’Elia, M., and Bernier, J. Decreased mortality and infectious morbidity in adult burn patients given enteral glutamine supplements: a prospective, controlled, randomized clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(10):2444-2449. View abstract.

Giris, M., Erbil, Y., Dogru-Abbasoglu, S., Yanik, B. T., Alis, H., Olgac, V., and Toker, G. A. The effect of heme oxygenase-1 induction by glutamine on TNBS-induced colitis. The effect of glutamine on TNBS colitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007;22(6):591-599. View abstract.

Goeters, C., Wenn, A., Mertes, N., Wempe, C., Van Aken, H., Stehle, P., and Bone, H. G. Parenteral L-alanyl-L-glutamine improves 6-month outcome in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2002;30(9):2032-2037. View abstract.

Griffiths, R. D. Outcome of critically ill patients after supplementation with glutamine. Nutrition 1997;13(7-8):752-754. View abstract.

Griffiths, R. D., Allen, K. D., Andrews, F. J., and Jones, C. Infection, multiple organ failure, and survival in the intensive care unit: influence of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition on acquired infection. Nutrition 2002;18(7-8):546-552. View abstract.

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Haisch, M., Fukagawa, N. K., and Matthews, D. E. Oxidation of glutamine by the splanchnic bed in humans. Am.J.Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2000;278(4):E593-E602. View abstract.

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Hallay, J., Kovacs, G., Kiss, Sz S., Farkas, M., Lakos, G., Sipka, S., Bodolay, E., and Sapy, P. Changes in the nutritional state and immune-serological parameters of esophagectomized patients fed jejunaly with glutamine-poor and glutamine-rich nutriments. Hepatogastroenterology 2002;49(48):1555-1559. View abstract.

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Hankard, R. G., Darmaun, D., Sager, B. K., D’Amore, D., Parsons, W. R., and Haymond, M. Response of glutamine metabolism to exogenous glutamine in humans. Am.J.Physiol 1995;269(4 Pt 1):E663-E670. View abstract.

Hankard, R. G., Haymond, M. W., and Darmaun, D. Effect of glutamine on leucine metabolism in humans. Am.J.Physiol 1996;271(4 Pt 1):E748-E754. View abstract.

Huang, E. Y., Leung, S. W., Wang, C. J., Chen, H. C., Sun, L. M., Fang, F. M., Yeh, S. A., Hsu, H. C., and Hsiung, C. Y. Oral glutamine to alleviate radiation-induced oral mucositis: a pilot randomized trial. Int.J.Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 2-1-2000;46(3):535-539. View abstract.

Huffman, F. G. and Walgren, M. E. L-glutamine supplementation improves nelfinavir-associated diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals. HIV.Clin.Trials 2003;4(5):324-329. View abstract.

Iwashita, S., Mikus, C., Baier, S., and Flakoll, P. J. Glutamine supplementation increases postprandial energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2006;30(2):76-80. View abstract.

Iwashita, S., Williams, P., Jabbour, K., Ueda, T., Kobayashi, H., Baier, S., and Flakoll, P. J. Impact of glutamine supplementation on glucose homeostasis during and after exercise. J Appl.Physiol 2005;99(5):1858-1865. View abstract.

Jacobi, C. A., Ordemann, J., Zuckermann, H., Docke, W., Volk, H. D., and Muller, J. M. [Effect of alanyl-glutamine in postoperative total parenteral nutrition on postoperative immunosuppression and morbidity. Preliminary results of a prospective randomized study]. Langenbecks Arch.Chir Suppl Kongressbd. 1998;115:605-611. View abstract.

Jacobi, C. A., Ordemann, J., Zuckermann, H., Docke, W., Volk, H. D., and Muller, J. M. [The influence of alanyl-glutamine on immunologic functions and morbidity in postoperative total parenteral nutrition. Preliminary results of a prospective randomized trial]. Zentralbl.Chir 1999;124(3):199-205. View abstract.

Jacobson, S. D., Loprinzi, C. L., Sloan, J. A., Wilke, J. L., Novotny, P. J., Okuno, S. H., Jatoi, A., and Moynihan, T. J. Glutamine does not prevent paclitaxel-associated myalgias and arthralgias. J.Support.Oncol. 2003;1(4):274-278. View abstract.

Juretic, A., Spagnoli, G. C., Horig, H., Babst, R., von, Bremen K., Harder, F., and Heberer, M. Glutamine requirements in the generation of lymphokine-activated killer cells. Clin.Nutr. 1994;13(1):42-49. View abstract.

Kalhan, S. C., Parimi, P. S., Gruca, L. L., and Hanson, R. W. Glutamine supplement with parenteral nutrition decreases whole body proteolysis in low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2005;146(5):642-647. View abstract.

Klek, S., Kulig, J., Szczepanik, A. M., Jedrys, J., and Kolodziejczyk, P. The clinical value of parenteral immunonutrition in surgical patients. Acta Chir Belg. 2005;105(2):175-179. View abstract.

Kozelsky, T. F., Meyers, G. E., Sloan, J. A., Shanahan, T. G., Dick, S. J., Moore, R. L., Engeler, G. P., Frank, A. R., McKone, T. K., Urias, R. E., Pilepich, M. V., Novotny, P. J., and Martenson, J. A. Phase III double-blind study of glutamine versus placebo for the prevention of acute diarrhea in patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy. J.Clin.Oncol. 5-1-2003;21(9):1669-1674. View abstract.

Krieger, J. W., Crowe, M., and Blank, S. E. Chronic glutamine supplementation increases nasal but not salivary IgA during 9 days of interval training. J.Appl.Physiol 2004;97(2):585-591. View abstract.

Krzywkowski, K., Petersen, E. W., Ostrowski, K., Kristensen, J. H., Boza, J., and Pedersen, B. K. Effect of glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced changes in lymphocyte function. Am.J.Physiol Cell Physiol 2001;281(4):C1259-C1265. View abstract.

Lacey, J. M., Crouch, J. B., Benfell, K., Ringer, S. A., Wilmore, C. K., Maguire, D., and Wilmore, D. W. The effects of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in premature infants. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1996;20(1):74-80. View abstract.

Lehmkuhl, M., Malone, M., Justice, B., Trone, G., Pistilli, E., Vinci, D., Haff, E. E., Kilgore, J. L., and Haff, G. G. The effects of 8 weeks of creatine monohydrate and glutamine supplementation on body composition and performance measures. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(3):425-438. View abstract.

Lima, A. A., Brito, L. F., Ribeiro, H. B., Martins, M. C., Lustosa, A. P., Rocha, E. M., Lima, N. L., Monte, C. M., and Guerrant, R. L. Intestinal barrier function and weight gain in malnourished children taking glutamine supplemented enteral formula. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2005;40(1):28-35. View abstract.

Lin, M. T., Kung, S. P., Yeh, S. L., Liaw, K. Y., Wang, M. Y., Kuo, M. L., Lee, P. H., and Chen, W. J. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition attenuates plasma interleukin-6 in surgical patients with lower disease severity. World J Gastroenterol. 10-21-2005;11(39):6197-6201. View abstract.

Lin, M. T., Kung, S. P., Yeh, S. L., Lin, C., Lin, T. H., Chen, K. H., Liaw, K. Y., Lee, P. H., Chang, K. J., and Chen, W. J. The effect of glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on nitrogen economy depends on severity of diseases in surgical patients. Clin.Nutr. 2002;21(3):213-218. View abstract.

M’bemba, J., Cynober, L., de, Bandt P., Taverna, M., Chevalier, A., Bardin, C., Slama, G., and Selam, J. L. Effects of dipeptide administration on hypoglycaemic counterregulation in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2003;29(4 Pt 1):412-417. View abstract.

MacBurney, M., Young, L. S., Ziegler, T. R., and Wilmore, D. W. A cost-evaluation of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 1994;94(11):1263-1266. View abstract.

May, P. E., Barber, A., D’Olimpio, J. T., Hourihane, A., and Abumrad, N. N. Reversal of cancer-related wasting using oral supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine. Am.J.Surg. 2002;183(4):471-479. View abstract.

Mok, E., Eleouet-Da, Violante C., Daubrosse, C., Gottrand, F., Rigal, O., Fontan, J. E., Cuisset, J. M., Guilhot, J., and Hankard, R. Oral glutamine and amino acid supplementation inhibit whole-body protein degradation in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 2006;83(4):823-828. View abstract.

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Ogden HB, Child RB, Fallowfield JL, et al. Gastrointestinal Tolerance of Low, Medium and High Dose Acute Oral l-Glutamine Supplementation in Healthy Adults: A Pilot Study. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):2953. View abstract.

Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61. View abstract.

Ong EG, Eaton S, Wade AM, Horn V, Losty PD, Curry JI, et al; SIGN Trial Group. Randomized clinical trial of glutamine-supplemented versus standard parenteral nutrition in infants with surgical gastrointestinal disease. Br J Surg. 2012;99(7):929-38. doi: 10.1002/bjs.8750. View abstract.

Peng TR, Lin HH, Yang LJ, Wu TW. Effectiveness of glutamine in the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Support Care Cancer. 2021. View abstract.

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Reeds PJ, Burrin DG. Glutamine and the bowel. J Nutr 2001;131:2505S-8S.. View abstract.

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Rohde T, Asp S, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. Competitive sustained exercise in humans, lymphokine activated killer cell activity, and glutamine–an intervention study. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998;78:448-53.. View abstract.

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Sands S, Ladas EJ, Kelly KM, Weiner M, Lin M, Ndao DH, et al. Glutamine for the treatment of vincristine-induced neuropathy in children and adolescents with cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2017;25(3):701-708. doi: 10.1007/s00520-016-3441-6. View abstract.

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Shabert JK, Winslow C, Lacey JM, Wilmore DW. Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation increases body cell mass in AIDS patients with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Nutrition 1999;15:860-4.

Shabert JK, Winslow C, Lacey JM, Wilmore DW. Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation increases body cell mass in AIDS patients with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Nutrition 1999;15:860-4.. View abstract.

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Tao KM, Li XQ, Yang LQ, Yu WF, Lu ZJ, Sun YM, Wu FX. Glutamine supplementation for critically ill adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Sep 9;9:CD010050. View abstract.

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Wada N, Kurokawa Y, Tanaka K, et al. Perioperative nutritional support with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine in surgery for abdominal malignancies. Wounds 2018;30(9):251-6. View abstract.

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Yong L, Lu QP, Liu SH, Fan H. Efficacy of glutamine-enriched nutrition support for patients with severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2016;40(1):83-94. doi: 10.1177/0148607115570391. View abstract.

Yoshida S, Matsui M, Shirouzu Y, et al. Effects of glutamine supplements and radiochemotherapy on systemic immune and gut barrier function in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Ann Surg 1998;227:485-91.. View abstract.

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Ziegler TR, Bye RL, Persinger RL, et al. Effects of glutamine supplementation on circulating lymphocytes after bone marrow transplantation: a pilot study. Am J Med Sci 1998;315:4-10.. View abstract.

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Ziegler TR, Young LS, Benfell K, et al. Clinical and metabolic efficacy of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:821-8.. View abstract.

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Health Benefits, Safety Information, Dosage, and More


Amino Acids: “Glutamine and intestinal barrier function.”

Amino Acids: “Glutamine and the immune system.”

Biology: “Minireview on Glutamine Synthetase Deficiency, an Ultra-Rare Inborn Error of Amino Acid Biosynthesis.”

Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology: “Glutamine: A Potentially Useful Supplement for Athletes.”

Canadian Society of Intestinal Research: “What is Glutamine?”

Critical Care: “Parenteral glutamine supplementation in critical illness: a systematic review.”

Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness: “Glutamine Supplementation in Recovery From Eccentric Exercise Attenuates Strength Loss and Muscle Soreness.”

Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: “Side effects of long-term glutamine supplementation.”

Mayo Clinic: “Glutamine (Oral Route.)”

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center: “Glutamine.”

Nutrients: “Glutamine as an Anti-Fatigue Amino Acid in Sports Nutrition.”

Nutrients: “Glutamine: Metabolism and Immune Function, Supplementation and Clinical Translation.”

Nutrition Reviews: “Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid?

Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: “Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine.”

The Journal of Nutrition: “Dosing and Efficacy of Glutamine Supplementation in Human Exercise and Sport Training.”

University of Michigan: “Glutamine.”

Glutamine (Oral Route) Proper Use

Proper Use

Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex

Take this medicine exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered.

For patients using the oral powder for solution:

  • Mix a packet of this medicine with water just before using it.

  • Take it with a meal or snack every 2 to 3 hours while you are awake. Be sure to drink all of the mixture.

  • Do not use the medicine during the night unless your doctor tells you to.

For patients using the oral powder:

  • Mix the oral powder with 4 to 6 ounces (oz) of food (eg, applesauce, yogurt) or 8 oz of cold or room temperature beverage (eg, water, milk, or apple juice). Complete dissolution of the mixture is not required.

  • Be sure to drink or swallow all of the mixture.


The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor’s orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For oral dosage form (powder for oral solution):

    • For short bowel syndrome:

      • Adults—30 grams (g) per day in divided doses (5 g taken 6 times a day) for up to 16 weeks. Taken with meals or snacks, 2 to 3 hours apart while awake.

      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

  • For oral dosage form (oral powder):

    • For sickle cell disease:

      • Adults and children 5 years of age and older and weighs greater than 65 kilograms (kg)—15 grams (g) per dose (3 packets per dose) 2 times a day or 30 g per day (6 packets per day).

      • Adults and children 5 years of age and older and weighs 30 to 65 kg—10 g per dose (2 packets per dose) 2 times a day or 20 g per day (4 packets per day).

      • Children 5 years of age and older and weighs less than 30 kg—5 g per dose (1 packet per dose) 2 times a day or 10 g per day (2 packets per day).

      • Children younger than 5 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.


Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Portions of this document last updated: May 01, 2021

Copyright © 2021 IBM Watson Health. All rights reserved. Information is for End User’s use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes.


When is The Best Time to Take Glutamine?

What Is Glutamine?

Glutamine, or L-Glutamine is one of the many amino acids that is a building block of protein. Glutamine is commonly found in large amounts within the bloodstream and helps with the production of nitrogen. Since glutamine is considered an essential amino acid, this means that it must be consumed through our diet as our body cannot produce glutamine for itself.

Why Do You Need Glutamine?

When we exercise, our body requires energy to be used and expended in order to keep on exercising at the intensity we are performing at. When we expend energy into our workout, we also end up using glutamine within our body simply to help with muscle building and recovery during the aftermath of a workout. However, since most people only obtain glutamine through one’s diet, it is common that many weightlifters do not consume an adequate amount of glutamine that their body requires to maximize performance.

Many studies have shown that by taking glutamine post-workout with either your post-workout protein shake or simply by itself, helps prevent the body from using muscle as energy and continues to use carbohydrates, even when you are in a low carbohydrate-depleted state. By taking glutamine intra or post-workout, you will prevent the body from breaking down muscle tissue to be used as energy and will allow you to maintain more lean muscle mass.

When Should You Take Glutamine?

By taking glutamine post-workout, you also help increase the production of natural HGH or human growth hormone within the body. This is a great advantage because higher levels of HGH results in an increase in muscle tissue, a decrease in body fat, and an increase in metabolic activity within our body.

When this happens, insulin levels will be suppressed, which means less sugar will be used up. This is a huge advantage for anyone who is diabetic, as maintaining high sugar levels within the bloodstream is important for daily functions. If you are diabetic and have low blood sugar, many issues can come about. Glutamine is a great supplement for any person suffering from insulin sensitivity or has complications maintaining blood sugar levels on a regular basis.


How Much Glutamine Should I Take?

I highly recommend anyone who is considering supplementing with Glutamine to either take it intra/during or post-workout on a regular basis. When it comes down to how much one should take, you’d be surprised to know that you will not require much at all.

Anywhere between 2-6 grams of glutamine post-workout is seen as an ideal amount to help replenish the amount that has been expended during a workout. It is also perfectly acceptable to consume higher amounts of glutamine post-workout considering the fact that if you consume a high amount of glutamine, resulting in an excess amount, the body will either use it up or simply excrete it. This means that you do not have to worry about consuming too much glutamine after a workout.

If you wanted to consume glutamine pre- and post-workout, this would be an ideal recommendation I would make to anyone looking to add this supplement to his/her diet. However, this is not needed, and simply consuming glutamine in around 2-6 grams post-workout will be more than enough for anyone looking to maintain lean muscle mass, prevent muscle waste post-workout, and help maintain proper blood glucose levels within the body.

So, post-workout you should be looking to consume 2-6 g within 20 minutes. If you buy Glutamine in powder form then it is very easy to mix with your post-workout whey protein shake.


Take Home Message

After reading this article hopefully, you have a better idea of what glutamine is and how it can benefit your workout routine. You should also know when is the best time to take it. Post-workout is the most beneficial time to take Glutamine to enhance recovery and the growth of lean muscle mass. If you aren’t supplementing with Glutamine already then I would recommend giving it a try and see if it has any benefits for your body and training goals.

Can your leaky gut benefit from Glutamine?: The Center for Internal and Integrative Medicine: Integrative Medicine Doctors

Because of this broad connection, it’s important that you understand what leaky gut is and how supplementing with a simple amino acid (glutamine) could be the first step toward making you feel better.

What is “leaky gut?”

The digestive tract in humans is a complex system that breaks down food in order to separate nutrients the body can use from any material that needs to be excreted.

In addition to this major function, the walls of the intestinal tract also act as a protective barrier for the bloodstream and the organs. Though the intestine seems solid it is actually permeable and is comprised of tiny spaces called tight junctions (specialized spaces left open between two cell membranes). While these spaces block harmful substances from entering the bloodstream they are also what allows nutrients and water to be absorbed into the body.

The tight junctions are not ridged openings. For example, research has shown that these junctions might loosen after a meal to allow greater nutrient absorption. These movable spaces can also be affected by other forces such as stress, bowel irritation, and non-nutrient rich food consumption (fast food). These forces can cause an over loosening which can increase the potential for harmful material to escape the intestine.

The escaping of this material from the intestine into the body is what is referred to as “leaky gut” or intestinal hyper-permeability.

When these spaces expand, harmful substances freely enter the bloodstream and can cause an aggressive immune system response. This response can include widespread inflammation, allergic reactionsmigraines, digestive issues, skin irritations such as eczema and acne, bloating, chronic fatigue, rheumatoid arthritis, hormone imbalances, autism, fibromyalgia and more.

Treating leaky gut with Glutamine

Because leaky gut exhibits through a wide variety of ailments, and symptom diagnosis is often difficult it is hard to point to this condition as a root cause. There is also a portion of the medical community that doesn’t acknowledge “leaky gut” as a formal diagnosis but chances are they still agree that intestinal hyperpermeability exists in certain chronic diseases and should therefore be treated.

The use of glutamine is one of these treatments.

To understand the role glutamine plays in treating leaky gut you first have to understand a little bit about proteins and amino acids. The body needs proteins to maintain healthy tissue growth and these proteins are made up of 20 amino acids, each serving a different function in the body. Glutamine is one of these amino acids and studies have shown that it is most beneficial in strengthening and rebuilding the intestinal lining.

What Glutamine supplements can do

According to a study published by the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, “In gut physiology, glutamine promotes enterocyte proliferation, regulates tight junction proteins, suppresses pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, and protects cells against apoptosis and cellular stresses during normal and pathologic conditions.”

The authors also note that:

“As glutamine stores are depleted during severe metabolic stress including trauma, sepsis, and inflammatory bowel diseases, glutamine supplementation has been examined in patients to improve their clinical outcomes.”

Naturally occurring glutamine in the body works to protect the intestine so it makes perfect sense that a supplement would also increase intestinal stability. When your intestinal lining is strong it can greatly decrease inflammation in the body. This decrease can in turn give your immune system a chance to recover.


What Glutamine supplement should you choose

If you are hoping to supplement your glutamine by diet alone you should know that this method would not be simple. When you eat foods containing glutamine it has to compete with all of the other amino acids those foods contain, so the amount you actually absorb is rarely enough to strengthen your intestinal wall. Luckily, for those needing real intestinal support, pure glutamine supplements exist.

When choosing a supplement I highly recommend talking to your doctor to determine which one would best for you. Once you decide on the supplement you have options regarding dosage.

For general application you can review the L-Glutamine Maintenance Protocol developed by the Food and Drug Administration. For my patients I recommend the following maintenance protocol for its simplicity and effectiveness: take 10 to 15 grams of 100% L-Glutamine powder with 8 ounces of water every morning and evening for a period of two weeks.


Dr. Eddie Fatakhov, M.D.
Eddie Fatakhov, M.D. is a board-certified physician, nutritionist, and author of “Dr. Fat Off: Simple Life-Long Weight-Loss Solutions.”

Why Take L-Glutamine on an Empty Stomach?

Taking L-glutamine on an empty stomach before bed can help with weight loss, according to ISSA.

Image Credit: tagphoto/iStock/GettyImages

Glutamine is key to building muscle and is also the most abundant amino acid in the human body, according to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Getting too little can cause your muscles to deteriorate, but how you supplement with L-glutamine can affect how well your body uses the compound.


Taking L-glutamine on an empty stomach before bed can help with weight loss, according to ISSA.

Know L-Glutamine’s Role

The human body makes glutamine, but we also get it through foods in our diet, such as meat, eggs, grains and dairy, according to a June 2019 scientific review of glutamine synthesis studies published by MDPI Cancers. L-glutamine acts to convert amino acids into protein, to fuel muscle growth. It’s also vital for other biological functions in the body, including maintaining the integrity of bodily tissues. This makes the supplement helpful for fitness and healthcare applications.

Read more: BCCA vs. Protein Powder

Athletes and bodybuilders use L-glutamine supplements to put on muscle and lose fat. According to ISSA, L-glutamine and other amino acids work together to act as building blocks for connective tissues in skin and joints, and are critical to supporting the body during training and exercise.

This amino acid helps regulate and produce energy, blood sugar and immune function, as well. Hormone and neurotransmitter synthesis, mineral absorption and nerve cell protection are other vital roles that L-glutamine assists.

A deficiency of glutamine can cause you to be more susceptible to infectious diseases. It can also contribute to a higher propensity for metabolic disorders, according to Texas A&M University.

People deficient in protein — such as those who are not taking in enough, based on their amount of exercise, or vegans who are not successfully getting enough complete proteins — are most at risk. The elderly can also be at risk as well as those who suffer from kidney or liver disease, according to a September 2019 study published in Translational Medicine of Aging.

Animal protein contains the most balanced levels of all amino acids needed for optimal functioning of the human body, according to Texas A&M University. Beef, for example, contains 63 to 68 percent protein, where vegetable sources include 12 percent on average. Animal sources contain complete proteins, but plant sources must be carefully combined for complete protein, as most are deficient in multiple amino acids.

If you are getting adequate protein, supplementing with L-glutamine can further your fitness goal. It can help the body produce more energy to fuel muscle, without storing it as fat, according to ISSA.

Stimulate L-Glutamine Weight Loss

L-glutamine can also help you lose weight, according to ISSA. One reason for L-glutamine weight loss is that the body can convert it to glucose, to fuel muscles, without triggering the body’s fat-storing hormones. One great L-glutamine side effect is that you’ll feel fewer cravings for sugar or alcohol, according to ISSA.

Read more: How Much L-Glutamine Should I Take Daily?

ISSA recommends taking the amino on an empty stomach before bed, for maximum fat-burning and weight loss. L-glutamine works in conjunction with two other amino acids — methionine and arginine — to ramp up the body’s production of somatropin while you sleep. Somatropin is a growth hormone that helps oxidize fat and promote muscle growth and is made mostly during the time that you’re asleep.

Arginine is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the human body can make its own. However, the body must ingest methionine from the diet. Animal proteins such as meat, eggs and dairy are good sources, according to Texas A&M University. Getting sufficient methionine from a plant-based diet can be trickier, as rice, wheat, corn and soy can convert to sugar in the body and get stored as fat.

Understand L-Glutamine Side Effects

Whether you prefer to supplement L-glutamine with or without food, it helps you recover faster after a workout or during times of illness or physical stress. However, you shouldn’t take it long-term, in amounts above 40 grams per day, according to a May 2019 review of studies published in MDPI Nutrients.

Too much L-glutamine, with or without food, increases ammonia in your system and can prevent your body’s detoxification process. It also competes for absorption with other amino acids, creating an imbalance of amino acids in your bloodstream. Too much L-glutamine in your system, over time, can also feed cancer cells, setting the stage for them to reproduce, according to a May 2019 review of studies published in MDPI Cancers.

Read more: The Best Foods to Eat if You Have Cancer

Taking glutamine is unlikely to cause a reaction, according to the University of Michigan. The university recommends only taking glutamine capsules on an empty stomach, however. When taking glutamine capsules, wait at least two hours after eating or take the pills at least one hour before your meal.

When using powder, the university advises mixing it with liquid or soft food such as apple sauce, yogurt or pudding. Don’t let it sit in the refrigerator, but instead eat it right away.

Call your doctor if you have chest pains, nausea, dizziness or any other unusual L-glutamine side effects after taking the supplement. Less-severe side effects can include a headache, stomach upset, swelling or fever, according to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

A better choice than supplementing with one amino acid is to take a supplement that includes all of the essential amino acids, as well as glutamine, recommends ISSA. Leucine, a branched-chain essential amino acid (BCCA), is potentially the most important for muscle growth. Isoleucine and valine are other BCCAs favored for muscle building. For best results, get a supplement that includes all nine essential amino acids, with extra leucine and glutamine, according to ISSA.

The University of Michigan recommends talking to your physician before supplementing with glutamine, particularly if you suffer from liver or kidney disease. If you’re pregnant or nursing a baby, make sure to get your doctor’s guidance, as it isn’t known how glutamine could affect an unborn or breastfeeding child. Your doctor might recommend frequent blood or urine tests while you’re on the supplement, to ensure you’re not harming your body.

what it is and how to take glutamine correctly

Glutamine (or glutamine) is an amino acid that is part of the protein. The most abundant amino acid in the body – it accounts for approximately 25% of all amino acids and 60% of the composition of muscle tissue. In the article we will answer the questions: What is glutamine? What is the correct way to take glutamine? Why do athletes need glutamine? Which Glutamine Is Better? What is the correct way to take glutamine?

Glutamine or Glutamine? In the pronunciation of Glutamine, both variants are used equally.

The amino acid is not included in the list of irreplaceable ones, the formation of glutamine in the body occurs naturally. Replenishment of glutamine stores with food is necessary only in case of urgent need, when the body loses its ability to produce it in sufficient quantities.

The peculiarity of glutamine is that 70% of it is used in the intestines, without even entering the bloodstream. But this has its own plus – glutamine can help both disorders and the treatment of intestinal diseases.

Glutamine has gained popularity in strength sports as an excellent tool for building muscle mass but there is no scientific evidence for these effects yet . All studies supporting these effects have been conducted in rats. In humans, there was no difference with placebo, either at a dosage of 1 g per kg of body weight, or at 0.3 g per kg.

But in endurance sports where energy costs are high, glutamine is effective as fuel for the immune system and muscles.

The use of glutamine for weight loss also turned out to be ineffective . No, it works, but a 100 kg person will need to take as much as 75 g of glutamine to burn 150 kcal. Agree, a meager benefit, when it will be much more useful and economical not to eat an extra piece of bread.

Glutamine gave 0 effect to suppress catabolism on different diets. The loss of muscle mass along with fat is the same as with glutamine and with placebo. For this purpose, it is much more effective to take complexes of BCAA and whey protein.

What foods contain glutamine

Main sources – animal products

  • Meat, fish, chicken, eggs
  • Cottage cheese, milk, kefir, cheese

Why do athletes need glutamine

Glutamine in the blood occurs during high volumes of endurance training, so supplementation with glutamine can improve performance during long training sessions. Strength athletes and sprinters do not need additional glutamine, becausebecause its level in the blood practically does not change during short intense workouts.

Glutamine is used by the immune system to keep it working, so low levels of glutamine in the body can pose health risks.

Especially useful for endurance athletes with large training volumes. However, a sufficient intake of carbohydrates during prolonged training, BCAA intake during and after training , an additional protein intake allows the body to not reduce the level of glutamine in the blood.The effect of glutamine supplementation on immunity remains controversial, but when protein, BCAA, and carbohydrates are deficient, glutamine may have immunity benefits.

Which Glutamine is Better?

We recommend paying attention to well-known, proven brands:

We buy Optimum more often. We order from the USA from the iHerb online store . With our promo code MIK0651 you can get a 5% discount on your entire order. Regardless, you are ordering for the first time or have already ordered.

Like any sports food, it is more profitable to buy glutamine in powder, but more convenient in tablets. The choice is yours.

How to take glutamine correctly?

It is optimal to take up to 10 g of glutamine per day , large doses simply will not be absorbed, and the excess will be excreted from the body. It is better to split intake by 2 times :

  • after training, but before eating and taking protein
  • before bedtime

It is important not to mix glutamine with protein shakes and other foods, they will interfere with rapid absorption, and in protein it is has already.Glutamine is highly compatible and absorbed quickly with BCAA and Creatine .

How to take glutamine powder?

Sports nutrition always has a measuring spoon. Look on the packaging for how much one measuring spoon holds and calculate how many spoons you need.

It is more effective to take powder glutamine by stirring 5 g in water or juice. Do not mix in protein shakes, milk, etc.

How to take glutamine capsules and tablets?

Similar to powder, we look at the content of substances in one tablet and calculate 5 g.Take 2 times a day with water 30 minutes before meals or protein.

Please note that manufacturers of sports food often overestimate the recommended dosages so that the packaging ends up faster and you go for a new one. Approach your sports nutrition intake wisely and do not waste your money.

Side effects of glutamine

Glutamine is completely natural and does not cause side effects. The only thing is that intestinal disorders can occur if taken constantly in high dosages of more than 10 g.But in such quantities it is pointless to use it.

What conclusions?

Glutamine is inexpensive and athletes take it on a “don’t be superfluous” principle. However, we recommend that you use sports nutrition wisely and scientifically, so think carefully about whether you are flushing money down the toilet.

Glutamine is effective for:

  • endurance athletes, especially marathon runners, triathletes, skiers and cyclists
  • Immune support at high volume training

Glutam is not effective for:

  • 37 muscle building
  • fat

Exercise, move, travel and be healthy! 🙂
P.S. Found a mistake, typo? Anything to discuss or add? – write in the comments. We are always happy to communicate 🙂

L-glutamine improves bowel function and metabolism

L-glutamine: health benefits, dosages

Have you ever heard of the benefits of L-Glutamine? First of all, this substance in the form of a powder is actively taken by athletes and just sports fans to protect muscle tissue. L-Glutamine (or simply glutamine) is an amino acid that the body uses in large quantities as a building block.

Most often, glutamine is used to burn fat, lose weight, and build muscle. But scientists argue that the benefits of the substance do not end there. Glutamine has been shown to improve digestion, brain function, performance, and help treat digestive problems and leaky gut.

In fact, it is one of the most commonly recommended supplements for treating leaky gut and building a leaner body.Let’s find out why.

What is Glutamine?

The chemical formula of glutamine looks like C 5 H 10 N 2 O 3 , the substance is naturally present in protein products. This amino acid is present in the bloodstream in a fairly large amount, accounting for about 30-35% of the total nitrogen of amino acids in the body.

Glutamine is known as a conditionally essential amino acid.This means that the body can produce a substance, but the amount received is not enough for it to work properly.

Its consumption also rises when the body is faced with diseases or muscle wasting, which can be caused by physical injury.

In addition, a conditionally essential amino acid is required in some catabolic conditions, including after bone marrow transplantation.

Surprisingly, about 60% of our skeletal muscle is made up of glutamine, and supplementation with this amino acid can promote protein synthesis and natural pH normalization.


Glutamine is found in both animal and plant foods (including casein and whey protein). It is also available in nutritional supplement form and is widely used in the fitness industry and beyond.

Glutamine is found in animal protein such as meat and dairy products, as well as plant foods such as beans, raw spinach, parsley, and red cabbage. However, it is worth noting that amino acids from animal protein are better absorbed than from plant protein.

Studies have concluded that an average person consumes about 3-6 grams of glutamine daily.

Foods with the highest concentration of L-glutamine include:

  • Eggs
  • Tofu Cheese
  • Milk
  • Bone broth
  • Meadow cow beef
  • Spirulina
  • Peking cabbage
  • Curd
  • Asparagus
  • Broccoli Rabe
  • Wild fish (cod and salmon)
  • Venison
  • Turkey
  • Corn
  • Rice

To get the proper amount of glutamine, it is recommended that you consume at least three servings of foods rich in this amino acid daily.

Health Benefits

New research suggests that L-Glutamine is beneficial to our bodies for a number of reasons:

1. Improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and strengthens the immune system

L-Glutamine is able to improve the overall health of the body by normalizing bowel movements and digestion. It can be useful for diseases such as:

  • irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • inflammatory bowel disease, e.g. Crohn’s disease
  • ulcerative colitis
  • diverticulosis
  • diverticulitis
  • Leaky gut syndrome or related disease (eg, joint pain, rosacea, autoimmune responses)

It is worth noting that the person who discovered the Krebs cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) was the first to recommend taking L-glutamine for bowel problems.Hans Adolph Krebs, a German-born English biochemist who won the 1953 Nobel Prize in Physiology with Fritz Lipmann, discovered that this amino acid helps improve bowel function and related immune responses. Additional research has only confirmed its results.

Thus, a study published in the journal Clinical Immunology showed that L-glutamine normalizes the effect of the TH2 immune response, which stimulates inflammatory cytokines.Research has shown that L-Glutamine can reduce inflammation in the gut and help cope with food sensitivities.

It is also known to play an important role in the normalization of the intestinal microbiota and in strengthening the immune system. This amino acid is likely to be able to block the growth and spread of pathogenic bacteria, thus reducing the risk of many diseases, from constipation to weight gain.

In 2018, the journal Nutrients published an article stating that “studies of in vitro and in vivo proved that glutamine is necessary for lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, phagocytic and secretory activity macrophages, as well as for the destruction of bacteria by neutrophils. “In fact, glutamine is currently part of a range of nutritional supplements recommended for boosting immunity.

2. Helps in the treatment of leaky gut and ulcers

Leaky gut syndrome is a very common condition that is primarily caused by an autoimmune disorder.

Leaky gut can lead to thyroid problems such as Hashimoto’s disease, arthritis, psoriasis, and other ailments.

Clinical studies have shown that since glutamine is the primary fuel for cells in the small intestine, it is able to maintain bowel function and heal leaky gut.

The study presented above and published in the medical journal Lancet involved 20 hospital patients. It has shown that L-glutamine supplementation reduces intestinal permeability.

An animal experiment published in the British Journal of Surgery found that L-glutamine has a beneficial effect on the development of ulcerative colitis and inflammatory bowel disease.It also offers promising results in ulcer treatment and protection from further damage. In addition, glutamine may provide a safer natural alternative to antibiotics for treating stomach ulcers.

3. Supports brain function

The precursor to the neurotransmitter glutamate in the human brain, glutamine, is one of the most important components in promoting brain health. Why? Disruption of the glutamine-glutamate cycle can lead to brain disruptions, including:

  • Reye’s syndrome
  • epilepsy
  • bipolar disorder
  • schizophrenia
  • alarming
  • depression
  • alcohol dependence

Glutamine also helps slow brain aging.Mitochondrial dysfunction causes abnormal growth of the neurotransmitter glutamate, which increases the risk of developing brain problems.

A study by the School of Medicine at New York University, USA, has shown that even mild traumatic brain injury can cause brain atrophy, and most of this damage can be caused by disruption of the glutamine-glutamate cycle and abnormal increases in glutamate levels.

4. May help manage IBS symptoms and diarrhea

Glutamine helps relieve IBS symptoms and fights diarrhea by normalizing mucus production.

For Hashimoto’s disease and an underactive thyroid, L-glutamine supplementation may become mandatory. The same recommendations apply to patients with IBS symptoms such as persistent diarrhea or ulcers.

5. Promotes muscle growth

Research suggests that L-Glutamine may be effective in boosting metabolism, increasing performance, improving athletic performance, accelerating injury recovery, and building muscle.During an intense workout, your body is under stress, and your muscles and tendons need more glutamine.

After exercise, the level of glutamine in cells can drop by up to 50%, and plasma levels by up to 30%. During this period, the body can begin to use muscles instead of carbohydrates as an energy source, in which case glutamine can protect them from depletion.

Supplemental intake of this amino acid allows muscles to grow, strengthening skeletal muscles and making them stronger.

Research has shown that glutamine supplements promote faster recovery from intense weight training by helping to maintain fluid in the muscles. Thus, the process of muscle recovery, as well as recovery from injuries and burns, is accelerated.

For this reason, glutamine supplements are popular not only with professional athletes, but also with anyone looking for a beautiful athletic body.

6.May increase stamina

One of the main functions of L-glutamine is to aid in the elimination of toxins and decrease the level of ammonia in the body. Acting as a buffer, it converts excess ammonia into other amino acids, amino sugars and urea.

An hour’s workout can lower your body’s glutamine levels by 40%, leading to a weakened immune system. This can negatively affect long-term training results and cause overtraining syndrome.

L-Glutamine is very beneficial for long distance runners as it helps support the immune system (T-helper cells). Animal studies have shown that increasing helper T cells can reduce the stress associated with overtraining syndrome.

However, not every study proves that the amino acid can increase endurance performance. One 2019 review, which includes data from 55 studies, concluded that glutamine improves markers of fatigue, such as increased glycogen synthesis and decreased ammonia storage, but these changes do not always lead to increased physical performance.

7. Supports metabolism and heart health

One study found that human growth hormone levels increased by almost 400% after a course of glutamine supplementation. This hormonal response leads to an increased resting metabolic rate and improves post-workout post-workout post-workout post-workout post-workout post-workout post-workout post-workout post-workout or post-workout EPOC or EPOC .

This “afterburn” effect is especially important for fat burning, weight loss and muscle gain.

Is Glutamine Effective for Weight Loss? There is evidence that this amino acid promotes fat burning and muscle gain by decreasing insulin levels and stabilizing blood glucose levels. Thus, the body uses less muscle mass to maintain sugar levels and insulin sensitivity in cells.

For example, 6 weeks of supplementation with 30 grams of glutamine per day “will significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and improve body condition in patients with type 2 diabetes,” says one study.For this reason, taking L-glutamine is recommended for diabetics and people with sugar and carbohydrate cravings.

Recently, new data have emerged that also prove that L-glutamine plays a key role in maintaining the health of the cardiovascular system, acting as a substrate for the synthesis of DNA, ATP, proteins and lipids. In addition, the amino acid appears to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, helping to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, including:

  • hypertension
  • hyperlipidemia
  • glucose intolerance
  • obesity
  • diabetes


L-glutamine is synthesized by the body from glutamic acid or glutamate.If the body is unable to produce enough of this substance, it needs an additional source in the form of food.

Scientists estimate that about 70 million Americans suffer from diseases of the digestive system. Obviously, there is a shortage of substances in the diet that support the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. There may be several reasons for this:

  • insufficient amount of protein food in the diet
  • a lot of stress
  • too intense training
  • presence of infections and diseases
  • undergoing a course of treatment, including radiation or chemotherapy
  • Disruption of the immune system
  • the presence of a chronic gastrointestinal disorder

Additional intake of glutamine will help not only strengthen the immune system, but also increase the body’s resistance to fight infections and diseases.

Glutamine is also recommended for critically ill patients. According to a study published in the medical journal Critical Care , parenteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine dipeptides “is associated with significant reductions in hospital stay and mortality.”


Types of L-Glutamine

L-glutamine comes in two forms. The so-called “free” form of L-glutamine can be obtained from food.Its other form, trans-alanyl-glutamine or alanyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid attached to another amino acid. This form is much better absorbed and, unlike the free form, can be consumed on an empty stomach.

Both are best used immediately before or immediately after exercise, along with a small amount of food, to support metabolism and endurance, build muscle, and burn fat.

Recommended dosage

Typically, 2-5 grams of L-glutamine is taken twice a day, but no more than 10 grams per day (for professional weightlifters).

What is the best time of day to consume L-Glutamine? Replenishing glutamine deficiencies after intense exercise can take up to five days, for this reason, the substance should be taken regularly.

Some athletes believe that glutamine is more effective when combined with certain branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), especially leucine.

Others take the amino acid post-workout along with creatine to help restore muscle and maintain energy.

Risks and side effects

Glutamine is safe in moderation, especially with a short course of administration. Even with the use of 20-30 grams of glutamine per day (this dosage is considered quite high and was used, as a rule, in the course of research), the likelihood of side effects remains relatively low.

However, excess glutamine when taken orally for a long time can cause unwanted effects.For this reason, it is recommended to combine the intake of amino acids with vitamins of group B. Thus, vitamin B12 helps to control the amount of glutamine in the body.

Who Should Not Take Glutamine?

Patients with kidney, liver, Reye’s syndrome, or cancer should consult with their healthcare professional before taking glutamine supplements, as these conditions can interfere with amino acid absorption.

If you are undergoing or have received anti-cancer treatment, consult your doctor to determine together what dietary supplements may be useful for you.

On rare occasions, glutamine can cause an allergic reaction. If you experience any symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, rash, dizziness or pain, you should stop taking your medications right away.


  • Glutamine is one of 20 amino acids found in high protein foods. It is present in large quantities in human blood.
  • L-glutamine is called a conditionally essential amino acid, since our body cannot produce this substance in the amount that it needs.This means we need additional sources of glutamine.
  • Research suggests that L-Glutamine may be beneficial for digestion, muscles and the brain. If you want to increase endurance, build muscle mass, or improve your health (for example, with diabetes or leaky gut syndrome), L-glutamine should be part of your daily diet.
  • Most of this amino acid is found in meat, fish, bone broth, spirulina, cottage cheese and vegetables such as cabbage and asparagus.
  • As a dietary supplement, glutamine is usually taken twice a day in an amount of 2-5 grams.

You can make an appointment with an oncologist on our website.

Peculiarities of taking glutamine for sports achievements

Glutamine is one of the amino acids that make up protein. In the human body, its amount reaches 60%. This is an indispensable component not only for athletes, bodybuilders, but also for people with a normal life rhythm.

Very often, the natural amount of glutamine in the body becomes insufficient. It is in such cases that special drugs come to the rescue that make up for its shortage. With their help, you can accelerate the growth of muscle mass, support the immune system, normalize the functioning of internal organs, and overcome stress.

Who Needs Glutamine?

Attention! Glutamine is an essential and essential amino acid for everyone’s health.It is he who is the building material for muscle mass, skeleton and lungs.

Very often it is prescribed to patients who are in critical condition for various reasons. This can be associated with severe burns, postoperative recovery, and serious injury. At such moments, the body uses up all its glutamine reserves, trying to overcome stress and repair damaged areas.

The list of those in need of glutamine is supplemented by people who face serious physical activity on a daily basis. That is why athletes often use glutamine in the form of special preparations.

The benefits of glutamine for vigorous training

The main rule of all athletes who take glutamine is to give their body the opportunity to fully recover. To do this, you need to take temporary pauses to strengthen the muscular skeleton between major athletic achievements. Heavy loads can play a bad role, causing:

  • stress;
  • irritability;
  • drop in immunity.

It is during this period that the level of glutamine in the blood plasma is very low, even if the drug is taken in sufficient quantities. At a low level, it can stay long enough until the body gets stronger again and gains strength.

What is the correct way to take glutamine?

Studies show that already 45 minutes after taking the drug, the concentration of growth hormone in the blood plasma increases. It reaches 400-420%. After a few hours, this effect completely disappears. In this regard, you need to take glutamine directly on schedule, before serious workouts.

Attention! How do I take glutamine? Athletes use the drug in small doses (3-5 g) 5-6 times a day between meals. The main rule is not to take glutamine for a few hours before bed. When calculating doses, many factors are always taken into account: body weight, training intensity, health status, dietary habits.

It is worth remembering that in addition to the benefits, the drug can also cause side effects. It is very rare, but there is a possibility of rejection by the body. This is fraught with poor health, nausea, vomiting. Most often, symptoms disappear after a single dose of glutamine is reduced.

90,000 Benefits of L-Glutamine | FIZCULT.BY

Research has shown that L-Glutamine minimizes muscle breakdown and improves protein metabolism.In this article, we’ll go over all the health benefits of this supplement and how it can help you maintain muscle and promote health!

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in muscle. It forms 61% of the amino acid profile of skeletal muscle. Glutamine is 19% nitrogen, making it the main carrier of nitrogen for muscle cells.

During intense training, the body’s glutamine levels are significantly depleted, which affects strength, endurance and recovery.It takes up to 6 days to normalize glutamine levels – with glutamine playing a key role in protein synthesis. Research has shown that taking L-Glutamine in supplement form helps minimize muscle breakdown and improve protein metabolism.

What is L-Glutamine

Supplement For

Glutamine plays a key role in protein metabolism, increasing cell volume and inhibiting catabolism. Thanks to its powerful anti-catabolic properties, glutamine prevents muscle breakdown.This property is invaluable in the drying phase, especially in the summer, when you are trying to get rid of body fat without the risk of muscle loss.

Glutamine is essential for the optimal functioning of the body as a whole. Most of glutamine is required for normal functioning of the small intestine, and the immune system also needs this amino acid. Athletes are often more susceptible to illness precisely because glutamine levels are depleted during exercise. This is why it is so important to take an L-Glutamine supplement – not only because it helps build muscle, but also because it “supports” important bodily functions.

In addition, L-Glutamine supplementation helps maintain a positive nitrogen balance and prevents muscle loss.

How much should I take?

Bodybuilders are advised to take 10-15 grams of L-glutamine daily. It is better to take the supplement 2-3 times a day, in portions of about 5 grams. Note that L-Glutamine is often found in other supplements, most abundant as an ingredient in various proteins.Consider this fact when determining the optimal dose. The best times to take L-Glutamine are in the morning after exercise and late at night before bed.

Does L-Glutamine Have Side Effects?

Should I worry about the side effects of glutamine? If taken correctly, no. Studies have shown no side effects with L-glutamine supplementation. However, as with any supplement, the recommended intake should not be exceeded.Taking too much L-glutamine can lead to stomach upset.

Benefits of L-Glutamine

Glutamine is a key carbon and nitrogen donor and helps replenish glycogen stores, which are responsible for energy recovery. Also, glutamine is an essential component of muscle protein and promotes muscle recovery and growth.

Already taking L-Glutamine? If not, take a close look at its essential health benefits, and you may find that this supplement is essential for your stack:

• Glutamine supports protein synthesis.It prevents catabolism (muscle breakdown) and allows glutamine to flow into other cells in the body.

• L-Glutamine supplementation helps replenish muscle glutamine levels that are depleted during intense exercise.

• Glutamine stimulates the immune system. For athletes, this property is extremely important, as heavy training tends to severely deplete glutamine levels, an amino acid that is the main source of energy for the immune system.

• Glutamine is an essential nutrient for optimal bowel function.

Many scientists agree that glutamine is the most important amino acid for athletes. It is responsible for key components of muscle protein and cellular metabolism that no other amino acid can support, making the benefits of L-Glutamine supplementation clear and tangible.

L-Glutamine – Not Just For Athletes?

While L-Glutamine is considered to be an effective supplement for athletes in the first place, it is actually not just for people who exercise regularly. Glutamine is essential for maintaining bowel function and improving the immune response. Once synthesized in skeletal muscle, glutamine is released into the bloodstream and transported to the kidneys, liver, small intestine and cells of the immune system, where it plays another vital role.

Glutamine is used by white blood cells and contributes to the normal functioning of the immune system. It is imperative for people who suffer from muscle wasting and immune system diseases (such as cancer or AIDS) who cannot replenish their glutamine stores on their own. By the way, soreness and decreased muscle mass are potential signs of glutamine deficiency.


Glutamine is good for everyone: for athletes, it helps to preserve muscles and increase energy, for ordinary people – to improve health and normalize a number of essential body functions, all without any side effects.Need more information? Then take a closer look at the characteristics of the different brands of L-Glutamine and choose the right supplement for your taste!

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.

Trade names: USA

Endari; NutreStore [DSC]

What is this drug used for?

  • Used to replace the amount of glutamine in the body.
  • Used to treat short bowel syndrome.
  • Used to treat sickle cell anemia.
  • This medicinal product may be used for other indications. Check with your doctor.

What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?

  • If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances. Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.

Combination of this drug with certain medications and medical conditions may be adverse.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the medicines you take (prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems. You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical conditions and in combination with other drugs you are already taking.Do not start or stop taking any drug or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.

What do I need to know or do while taking this drug?

  • Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug. These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
  • Follow your doctor’s recommended diet.
  • Perform blood tests as directed by your healthcare practitioner.Please consult your doctor.
  • If you have Crohn’s disease, talk to your doctor. Crohn’s disease may worsen with this drug. This can be very serious sometimes. Check with your doctor.
  • If you are 65 years of age or older, use this drug with caution. You may have more side effects.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.The benefits and risks for you and your child will need to be discussed.

What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?

WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can cause serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your doctor or doctor right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of a problem with the pancreas (pancreatitis) such as severe abdominal pain, severe back pain, severe stomach upset, and vomiting.
  • Feeling of the need to empty the bowels frequently.
  • Rectal irritation.
  • Vomiting of blood or vomit in the form of coffee grounds.
  • Black, tarry, or bloody stools.
  • Pain or pressure in the chest.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

Any medicine can have side effects.However, many people have little or no side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if these or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • Gas.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Constipation.
  • Pain in the intestines.
  • Headache.
  • Cough.
  • Pain in the arms or legs.
  • Back pain.

This list of potential side effects is not comprehensive.If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor. Talk to your doctor about side effects.

You can report side effects to the National Health Office.

You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

What is the best way to take this drug?

Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner.Read all the information provided to you. Follow all instructions strictly.

All forms of issue:

  • Continue taking this drug as directed by your doctor or other healthcare professional, even if you feel well.

Tablets and capsules:

  • Take with water or fruit juice as directed.
  • Some drugs must be taken with food and some must be taken on an empty stomach.There are medications that can be taken with food or on an empty stomach. Ask your pharmacist how to take this drug.

Chewable Tablets:

  • Chew thoroughly before swallowing.

Powder sachet (for stomach or intestinal disorders):

  • Before taking this drug, dissolve it in water. Do not swallow dry powder.
  • Take with meals or snacks.

Powder sachet (for sickle cell disease):

  • Mix with 8 ounces (240 ml) of liquid such as water, milk, or apple juice. Do not mix with hot liquids. Can also be mixed with 120-180 ml (4-6 ounces) of food such as applesauce or yogurt. This drug may not completely dissolve.
  • Take the dose immediately after mixing. Do not store for future use.

What should I do if a dose of a drug is missed?

  • Take the missed dose as soon as you can.
  • If it’s time to take your next dose, do not take the missed dose and then return to your normal dose.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or an additional dose.

How do I store and / or discard this drug?

All forms of issue:

  • Store at room temperature in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.
  • Store all medicines in a safe place.Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Dispose of unused or expired drugs. Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, consult your pharmacist. There may be drug recycling programs in your area.

Powder sachet:

  • Protect from light.

General information on medicinal products

  • If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
  • Do not give your medicine to anyone or take other people’s medicines.
  • Some medicines may come with other patient information leaflets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • Some medicines may come with other patient information leaflets. Check with your pharmacist. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • If you think an overdose has occurred, call a Poison Control Center immediately or seek medical attention. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.

Use of information by consumer and limitation of liability

This summary information includes a summary of the diagnosis, treatment, and / or drug. It is not a comprehensive data source and should be used as a tool to help the user understand and / or evaluate potential diagnostic and treatment options. It does NOT include all information about conditions, treatments, medications, side effects or risks that may apply to a particular patient.It should not be considered medical advice or a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a physician based on a medical examination and assessment of the patient’s specific and unique circumstances. Patients should consult a physician for complete information about their health, medical issues and treatment options, including any risks or benefits in relation to the use of the medication. This information does not guarantee that a treatment or drug is safe, effective, or approved for specific patients.UpToDate, Inc. and its subsidiaries disclaim any warranties or obligations related to this information or its use. Use of this information is governed by the Terms of Use found at https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/lexicomp/about/eula.


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90,000 L-glutamine (L-glutamine)

Glutamine is the amino acid most commonly found in muscle in its free form.It very easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier and passes into glutamic acid and vice versa in the cells of the brain. Glu.amine increases the amount of gamma-aminobutyric acid, which is needed to maintain normal brain function. Glutamine also maintains normal acid-base balance in the body and a healthy state of the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary for the synthesis of DNA and RNA.

Glutamine is an active participant in nitrogen metabolism.Its molecule contains two nitrogen atoms and is formed from glutamic acid by the addition of one nitrogen atom. Thus, the synthesis of glutamine helps to remove excess ammonia from tissues, primarily from the head, and can transport nitrogen within the body.

Glutamine is found in large quantities in muscles and is used for the synthesis of proteins in skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, food supplements with glutamine are used by bodybuilders and with various diets, as well as for the prevention of muscle loss in diseases such as malignant neoplasms and AIDS, after surgery and with prolonged bed rest.Additionally, glutamine is also used in the treatment of arthritis, autoimmune diseases, fibrosis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, peptic ulcers, and connective tissue diseases.

Glutamine improves brain activity and is therefore used in epilepsy, chronic fatigue syndrome, impotence, schizophrenia and senile dementia. L-glutamine reduces the pathological craving for alcohol, therefore it is used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism.

Glutamine is found in many foods, both plant and animal, but it is easily destroyed when heated.

Spinach and parsley are good sources of glutamine, provided they are consumed raw.

Michael Riesman Dietary supplements Unknown about known.

How to Take Glutamine Correctly – Dosage, Timing and Other Rules

Glutamine is an amino acid that is part of the protein.It plays an important role in the growth of muscle tissue, recovery of the body after injuries, training. Glutamine is found in foods and is also sold as a finished sports supplement. During thermal processing of products, it is partially destroyed, therefore, it can be obtained in full from a ready-made sports supplement.

General rules for the use of glutamine

To achieve the maximum positive effect of the intake of this amino acid, you should adhere to the recommendations for its use regarding when, how much and how to drink glutamine .

Knowing what glutamine is for and how to take it correctly, you can only benefit for your body, not burden it with excess amounts of substances that will simply be excreted from the body.

When to Take Glutamine

The daily dose of glutamine (up to 8 grams) is recommended to be divided into 2 doses. One is taken before training, and the other is taken before bed. Taking this amino acid before bed stimulates the production of growth hormone, which is produced in the human body during the first hours of sleep.

It is advisable, before how to use glutamine , do not eat or drink anything, but take it on an empty stomach half an hour before any food or cocktail. This period of time is enough for most of the amino acid to be absorbed.

On days when there is no workout, you need to drink glutamine twice: at lunchtime half an hour before meals and in the evening before bedtime.

What can you drink glutamine with

Glutamine is combined with sports supplements .Effective intake of creatine and glutamine, as well as pre-workout complexes containing taurine, vitamin B, as well as other groups of vitamins and minerals. Glutamine is combined with glucose, alpha-ketoglutarate, citrulline.

It is also effective to combine the intake of glutamine with protein, but you need to drink them according to the following scheme: glutamine + creatine, and after a while protein. Drinking all three ingredients together is not recommended as protein will reduce glutamine absorption.

How long can you drink glutamine

This amino acid is natural for the human body.It is constantly ingested with food, so supplementation with glutamine is not harmful to your health. It is especially important to take this supplement during intense training, strength training, endurance training. How long to drink glutamine depends on the intensity of the exercise, the recommendations of the trainer. The duration of the amino acid intake is not limited. It does not require interruptions or cycling.

Features of taking glutamine powder

Before drinking glutamine powder , take a measuring spoon, collect the required amount of amino acid and dissolve it in fruit juice or a glass of water.Do not mix powder with a heap, so as not to exceed the daily dose.

Thoroughly mix the powder with the liquid and drink the prepared solution in slow sips. It is not recommended to combine glutamine with dairy and fermented milk products.

Features of taking glutamine in capsules / tablets

Calculate the number of capsules so that you consume no more than 5 grams of the amino acid at a time. Before drinking glutamine capsules / tablets prepare a glass of room temperature water and drink the supplement in slow sips.

Powder and capsules are taken before meals, gainers and protein shakes.

You can choose glutamine in the aresport.