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What does pregnant pee look like: Causes & When to See Doctor


Causes & When to See Doctor

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If you are pregnant, you must have noticed a change in the colour of your urine. When you look down in the toilet bowl after peeing, instead of seeing the usual light-yellow colour, you might see a darker shade of yellow. A change in the urine colour can be a sign of pregnancy as well as of some problems during pregnancy. This change can be from yellow to a brighter or darker shade of yellow and is governed by several factors.

Also Read: Is Cloudy Urine During Pregnancy a Cause of Concern?

Does the Colour of Urine Change During Pregnancy?

A healthy person’s urine colour can range from a very light, almost transparent yellow to a slightly darker shade of yellow. During pregnancy, however, this change can be more pronounced. It can range from an intense bright yellow to a darker, almost orange-yellow colour.

The colour of the urine is caused by the pigment urochrome, which is also known as urobilin. Urobilin is made when the body breaks down haemoglobin from dead red blood cells. The appearance of the pigment will depend on the consistency of your urine. If your urine is diluted (when you are hydrated), the pigment in your urine will be of a lighter shade. However, if your urine is in concentrated form, the pigment will have a darker shade.

Apart from this, there are a lot of factors which will decide the colour of your urine during pregnancy. There is a profound change in how kidneys filter water during pregnancy. Additionally, changes in the intake of food during pregnancy and the additional intake of vitamins and medicines prescribed can also bring about a change in the colour of urine.

Also Read: Smelly Urine During Pregnancy – Reasons and Remedies

Why Does the Colour of Urine Change During Pregnancy?

The factors that decide the colour of urine during pregnancy are mentioned below:


Pregnancy Diet

During pregnancy, your diet takes a 180-degree turn. You become more conscious of your eating habits. Your diet will include fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and other healthy foods. Certain fruits and vegetables can bring about a change in the colour of your urine during pregnancy.

2. Vitamins and Other Medicines

Many pregnant women are advised to take prenatal vitamins and supplements during pregnancy. A woman’s body cannot break down the vitamins in their entirety. The absorbed vitamins and other supplemented nutrients are discarded from the body through urine, which could result in a darker shade of urine.

3. Dehydration

Intake of water also decides the colour of your urine during pregnancy. Many women experience the problem of dehydration during pregnancy even though if they are drinking more than enough water. Another cause of dehydration is a condition known as hyperemesis gravidarum. Hyperemesis gravidarum is a condition characterised by severe morning sickness, nausea, and weight loss. This condition causes severe morning sickness and is common in about one per cent of all pregnancies. Hyperemesis gravidarum causes excess vomiting in pregnant women resulting in dehydration. In cases where there are no apparent signs of dehydration, dark urine could be a sign of liver complications. You should consult a doctor soon.

4. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

An infection in the urinary tract can also bring about a change in the colour of your urine. A urinary tract infection (UTI) should not be taken lightly as it can have serious consequences like premature labour or underweight baby. Bright yellow-coloured urine, an increase in the frequency of urination, pain in the lower abdomen or blood in the urine are all signs of a urinary tract infection.

5. Hematuria

Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. The excess red blood cells need to be eliminated from the body; they are discarded by the body through urine and can result in very dark yellow or red-coloured urine.

6. Urinary Bladder Infections

A bladder infection is a type of UTI and is a bacterial infection. Pregnancy can result in an increased frequency of hormonal changes in a woman’s body. Such changes usually result in the enlargement of the urinary bladder, which weakens the bladder lining and makes it prone to infections. Bladder infections can result in a change in the colour of urine.

Also Read: Protein in Urine During Pregnancy

7. Kidney Diseases

Kidneys are the organs that filter and discard waste matter from the body. Any disorder in the kidneys can easily result in a change in the colour of urine.

8. Kidney Stones

Kidney stones interfere with normal kidney functions and can cause severe pain, nausea, and vomiting, and can result in a change in the colour of urine.

Also Read: Ketones in Urine During Pregnancy – Causes, Tests and Prevention

Urine Tests During Pregnancy

Conducting urine tests from time to time during pregnancy is crucial as it will reveal your health status. Urinalysis at different stages of pregnancy will help your doctor detect any possible condition that requires treatment. Tests will be done to monitor for bladder infections, kidney infections, diabetes, and even dehydration. High levels of protein in urine are a sign of urinary tract infection or kidney disease. Having high glucose (sugar) levels during pregnancy could indicate to gestational diabetes, which generally develops in the second trimester of pregnancy. The presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria could be a sign of UTI. Conducting urine tests during pregnancy is very important, so don’t skip them. Furthermore, don’t hesitate to visit your doctor if you experience any problem while urinating.

Also Read: Urine Leakage during Pregnancy – Is It Normal?

When to Visit a Doctor

Although a change in colour of urine could be a result of various harmless reasons, ranging from vitamin intake to dehydration, they can sometimes be caused by more severe conditions. A burning sensation while urinating could indicate a UTI. After an increase in the intake of water, if the colour of your urine is still dark, it could indicate liver and kidney malfunctions. If you notice that the colour of your urine is pale-yellow or dark, then you should consult a doctor.

Like many other bodily changes, a change in urine colour is common during pregnancy. You could have dark-coloured urine because of dehydration. It merely indicates that you should be drinking more water. If you notice a change in your urine colour, do not panic. Drink water and stay hydrated; however, if the problem persists, visit the doctor.

Also Read:

Urine Pregnancy Test – At Home and Clinic
Urine Test and Urine Culture during Pregnancy
Leukocytes in Urine during Pregnancy

Cloudy Urine During Pregnancy (Should You Be Worried?)

Has your urine has become cloudy lately? Should you be worried about your unborn baby?

When pregnant, most of us watch our bodies for any unusual changes, so cloudy urine during pregnancy can be enough to freak out an expectant mom.

Having experienced this ourselves, we decided to dive into the facts to determine if cloudy urine is a concern or just a normal part of a healthy pregnancy. What we found was encouraging. We’re sharing our findings here, so you can have one less thing to worry about during your pregnancy.

Is Cloudy Urine in Pregnancy Common?

You’re not alone in your worries about cloudy urine during pregnancy — it’s a common concern for pregnant women. As several factors can cause cloudy urine, especially during pregnancy, most pregnant women experience it at one time or another.

Causes of Cloudy Urine During Pregnancy

Out of the many causes of cloudy urine during pregnancy, most aren’t a reason for alarm. But some may warrant a trip to the doctor.

It’s okay to take a little while to figure out at home what might be causing your cloudy urine. But if you notice any other symptoms, you should call your doctor immediately. Even if it turns out to be nothing, your doctor should be kept in the loop.

Let’s look at some of the potential causes of your problem.

Pregnancy Hormones

When you first suspected you were pregnant, you likely peed on a pregnancy test stick to find out for sure. Those tests measure the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) levels in your urine. This hormone is produced in pregnancy, and for the first trimester, its level increases quickly.

The Most Likely Cause

When you pee, the additional hormones in your body may make your urine appear cloudy. These hormones are harmless, and the cloudy effect should pass by the time your second trimester rolls around.

If you see cloudy urine during the first trimester of your pregnancy, mention it to your health practitioner at your next prenatal appointment. They may want to rule out other causes, but breathe easy; it could be as harmless as pregnancy hormones.


If you aren’t drinking enough water, you may notice cloudy urine. In addition to cloudiness, your pee will also be darker in color.

If you notice both cloudiness and a dark color when trying to judge how healthy your urine looks, drink a big glass of water. Then check later in the day if it has improved things.

Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections are a common problem for women, especially during pregnancy. You’ll have a higher chance of getting one between weeks 6 and 24 of your pregnancy because your growing uterus can stop you from fully emptying your bladder.

If you have pain or burning while peeing or feel like you have to pee more frequently, you can suspect a UTI. Other symptoms may include chills, fever, or cramping in the low abdomen (1).

If you suspect a UTI, get into your OB’s office for an examination as soon as possible. They’ll test your urine, and if you do have a UTI, give you a course of antibiotics.

Too Much Protein in Your Urine

Another cause of cloudy urine is protein — especially during the later stages of pregnancy, anywhere from four to nine months.

Sometimes, excess protein in your urine can signal preeclampsia, a dangerous condition for you and your baby. It can cause severe consequences like kidney damage and elevated blood pressure, and it can even be life-threatening (2).

If you are leaving a urine sample at each OB appointment, your OB provider is likely checking your urine for protein. They will keep close tabs on you if you have too much protein in your urine to ensure you aren’t developing preeclampsia. If you’re concerned your cloudy-looking urine could be preeclampsia, look for other symptoms and discuss with your doctor.

One sign is swelling in your hands, face, or feet. Another common sign is sudden excessive weight gain. The sudden weight gain is usually caused by your body retaining extra fluid.

Take Note

Protein in the urine also causes bubbly urine, so if you see bubbles and cloudiness, see your doctor or midwife.

Diet Changes

Pregnant women are often at the mercy of their food cravings. When I was pregnant, I wanted chocolate and french fries all the time, but I didn’t let myself eat them at every meal, although I would have liked to.

Sometimes, you crave a certain food and want to eat nothing else for a day or two straight.

Keep In Mind

If you make an abrupt change to your diet, you might be setting the stage for cloudy urine. Certain foods, like asparagus and dairy products, may make the matter worse.

If you think your diet could be causing your cloudy urine, try eating healthy consistently, and see if it goes away.


You might not want to think about this one, but pregnancy doesn’t make you immune to sexually transmitted diseases. Gonorrhea is one of those diseases that can make your urine cloudy.

Unfortunately, this disease is on the rise in the U.S., with over 580,000 million people diagnosed in 2019 (3).

Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics, but if you don’t seek treatment when you have a suspected case, it can cause serious consequences for you and your baby. Signs you may be fighting gonorrhea include painful urination and a lot of vaginal discharge. Unfortunately, gonorrhea and other STDs can have no symptoms at all. Make sure you get regular prenatal care and vocalize any concerns about unsafe sex to your OB provider.

Vitamin Overload

Both you and your baby can benefit from prenatal vitamins and other supplements during pregnancy.

Usually, those vitamins give you neon yellow urine, but it’s also possible they could make your urine appear cloudy. The two biggest culprits are vitamin C and vitamin B.

How Quickly Should I Act?

Better Safe Than Sorry

Pregnancies can quickly take a turn for the worse, seemingly out of nowhere, particularly in the case of preeclampsia. For that reason, it’s always best to put all your cards on the table with your doctor right away.

Some moms-to-be don’t like to call when they’re worried about something because they’re afraid to feel ridiculous if it turns out to be nothing. They may also worry about missing more time at work to attend yet another pregnancy appointment.

I used to feel the same way, but I had to remind myself I was now responsible for two people; I couldn’t dismiss any concerns.

So, if you’re concerned about cloudy urine, call your medical practitioner, and let them sort it out for you.

Keeping It Together

It can be hard to keep your composure when you notice concerning changes, like cloudy urine. But you’ve made it this far, and if you pay close attention to your body’s signs, you’ll be fine.

Cloudy urine is common during pregnancy and can be the result of a variety of things. Some of these, like pregnancy hormones, diet changes, and dehydration, are fairly harmless and can be rectified at home. Others, like gonorrhea, a UTI, or too much protein, may require a visit to your doctor.

Watch out for other symptoms like pain or burning during urination, sudden excessive weight gain, swelling of the face or limbs, and excessive vaginal discharge. Never be afraid to call your doctor if you feel concerned about the state of your urine. After all, it can be a crystal ball for your pregnancy health.

Why urine tests are routine during pregnancy

Will my practitioner ask me for a urine sample at each prenatal visit?

Maybe. Practices vary a lot from office to office, and your provider will be testing for different things at different points in pregnancy.

Your practitioner will likely ask you for a urine sample at your first prenatal visit and send it to a lab for a complete urinalysis and possibly culture (to check for bacteria). Some practitioners will continue to ask for a urine sample at each visit (or once a trimester), and they will usually test it by dipstick right in the office. Others will not ask for a sample again unless you’re having symptoms that would warrant a urine test.

Some will give you specific instructions for how to produce a “clean-catch midstream specimen,” while others will just ask you to pee a little bit into a cup.  

How do I produce a “clean-catch midstream specimen”?

You’re given a specimen cup and an antiseptic wipe and sent to the rest room to produce a urine sample.

  • Wash your hands.
  • With clean fingers, separate your labia and clean your vulva from front to back with the wipe.
  • Urinate for a few seconds into the toilet, and then slip the cup under the stream until you collect enough for the sample. (Avoid touching the inside of the cup with your fingers.) Then finish urinating into the toilet.
  • Put the cap on the cup and deliver it to the medical assistant.

How is the dipstick testing done?

A medical assistant checks your urine by dipping a colored test stick in it and comparing the results to a chart. The results are written on your medical chart for your midwife or doctor to review.

What is my urine tested for?


It’s normal to occasionally have a small amount of sugar (glucose) in your urine during pregnancy, but if you have elevated levels at a couple of prenatal visits in a row or a very high level at one visit, it could mean you have gestational diabetes.

Your practitioner may have you take a glucose challenge test to find out whether that’s the case. (Even if your urine test results are normal, you’ll have a glucose challenge test between 24 and 28 weeks to check for this relatively common condition.)


Excess protein in your urine can be a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI), kidney damage, or certain other disorders. Later in your pregnancy, it can also be a sign of preeclampsia if it’s accompanied by high blood pressure.

If you have protein in your urine but your blood pressure is normal, your provider may send a clean-catch midstream sample to the lab in a sterile container to test for a UTI.


Ketones are produced when the body starts breaking down stored or ingested fat for energy. This can happen when you’re not getting enough carbohydrates (your body’s usual source of energy). It can also be a sign that you’re dehydrated.

If you’re suffering from severe nausea and vomiting or you’ve lost weight during pregnancy, your practitioner may check your urine for ketones. If your ketone reading is high and you can’t keep any food or liquid down, you may need intravenous fluids and medication. If ketones are found in combination with sugar in your urine, it could be a sign of diabetes.

Bacteria and blood cells

On your first prenatal visit, your urine sample will most likely be screened for bacteria that indicate a UTI. This is done through a laboratory urinalysis and a culture and sensitivity test. The culture shows any bacteria and isolates it, and the sensitivity test shows which antibiotics can effectively treat the infection.

The test is done even though you may not have symptoms of a UTI. (While UTIs usually cause painful symptoms when you’re not pregnant, it’s possible to have a UTI with no symptoms during pregnancy.) If left untreated during pregnancy, even a painless, symptomless UTI can progress to a full-blown kidney infection, which almost always requires hospitalization. So screening is done at the beginning of pregnancy to catch and treat a UTI early.

If this initial test is negative, your risk of developing a UTI later in pregnancy is small, unless you have a history of chronic or recurrent UTIs.

You may continue to have dipstick tests during your pregnancy or you may only have one if you show symptoms. The dipstick test checks for a certain enzyme (produced by white blood cells) and nitrites (produced by certain bacteria), both of which signal a UTI. If either of these shows up on a dipstick test, a sterile urine sample will be sent to the lab for a culture and sensitivity test.

You usually have to wait about 48 hours for the results of a urine culture and sensitivity test. However, your practitioner may start you on some kind of antibiotics before the testing is complete, particularly if you have symptoms of a urinary tract infection.

You’ll be tested again after treatment of a UTI and at regular intervals during your pregnancy if your provider feels you’re at risk for recurrent UTIs. In addition, if you have a history of kidney infection or frequent UTIs, your provider may recommend a mild daily antibiotic during pregnancy to prevent infection.

 In addition to a urine test, you’ll also have blood tests at your first prenatal visit. Our article on common first trimester blood tests explains what those are looking for.

Learn more:

Prenatal tests: An overview

The ultimate pregnancy to-do list: First trimester

Ultrasound during pregnancy

Prenatal genetic counseling

Pee is for Pregnant: The history and science of urine-based pregnancy tests

by Kelsey Tyssowski
figures by Olivia Foster

Let me look at your pee, and I’ll tell you your future.

For over 3000 years, women wondering if they’ll be mothers have heard some variation of this phrase. In the first known pregnancy tests, ancient Egyptian women urinated on barley or wheat seeds: quickly sprouting seeds indicated pregnancy. While this may sound like pseudoscience, several modern studies have shown that it works pretty well, correctly identifying 70-85% of pregnancies.

The ancient Egyptians were certainly onto something, as modern pregnancy tests work in much the same way: they detect a hormone in urine. But it’s still taken thousands of years of scientific progress to get us from peeing on seeds—and waiting a week to see if they sprout—to the fast, convenient pregnancy tests found in all pharmacies today.

“Piss Prophets”: Early history of the pregnancy test

Although it’s not intuitive that analysis of urine would be the key to pregnancy detection, most historical pregnancy tests have, for unknown reasons, focused on just that (Figure 1). In Europe, starting in the Middle Ages, “Piss Prophets” claimed to be able to predict pregnancy with a variety of bizarre urine tests. They believed that pregnant women’s urine would rust a nail, change the color of a leaf, or be home to tiny, living creatures. Based on what we know today, it’s unlikely that any of these tests were actually able to correctly detect pregnancy.

However, the first of the modern tests that could accurately detect pregnancy was no less bizarre. This test was developed in 1927 by German scientists, Aschheim and Zondek. They found that injecting a pregnant woman’s urine into sexually immature female mice would cause the mouse’s ovaries to grow and produce eggs.

Figure 1: A timeline of pregnancy testing. From ancient Egypt to today, the urine-based pregnancy test has improved in speed, accuracy, and feasibility. The oldest known test involved urinating on grain seeds and seeing if they sprouted. The late 1920s marked the first modern pregnancy tests, in which urine was injected into animals: pregnant women’s urine made them ovulate. These tests required shipping urine to a lab and took at least a week to get results. Starting in 1960, antibodies allowed testing for pregnancy to be done in doctor’s offices, making pregnancy testing faster and more routine. By 1971, an at-home version of this antibody-based test was available in Canada, although at-home testing didn’t reach the USA until 1977. The first stick tests similar to at-home tests on the market today were developed in 1988.

What’s so Special About Pregnant Women’s Urine?

If you’re like me, you’re now left with a burning question that you probably weren’t expecting to ask today: why does a pregnant lady’s pee make a juvenile mouse ovulate?

The short answer is that the urine of pregnant women has a unique blend of hormones (Figure 2). A woman (actually, anyone with a uterus, though throughout the article I’ll refer to women) becomes pregnant when an egg released from her ovary is fertilized by sperm. This fertilized egg then starts growing into an embryo and releases a hormone called hCG (a.k.a. human chorionic gonadotropin), which builds up in a woman’s body during early pregnancy. Like all hormones, hCG sends a signal. hCG’s particular job is to tell the uterus to stop the woman’s regular menstrual cycle and prepare itself for pregnancy.

Since hormones are excreted into the urine after they’re done sending their signals, the urine of pregnant women has hCG in it, whereas the urine of anyone who is not pregnant does not. hCG, it turns out, makes mice ovulate, allowing Aschheim and Zondek’s test to detect pregnancy. Since the invention of this test, all modern pregnancy tests have focused on detecting hCG.

Figure 2: Hormone levels during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The hormones, or signal-sending molecules, in a woman’s body change during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. All successful urine-based pregnancy tests have detected hormones, which are secreted into the urine. During the menstrual cycle (right), the reproductive system changes throughout the month. Hormones signal for each of these changes to happen (left-top). Most notably, high levels of lutenizing hormone stimulate ovulation. When a woman becomes pregnant, her reproductive system must change in a different way to support the growing fetus. Upon pregnancy, a pregnancy-specific hormone, hCG, accumulates in a woman’s body (left-bottom). hCG is very similar to lutenizing hormone. Because of this similarity, hCG can send an ovulation signal, causing animals to ovulate when injected with the urine of pregnant women.

But why does hCG make young mice ovulate? hCG is very similar to another hormone called luteinizing hormone. In humans and in mice, luteinizing hormone stimulates the ovaries to release an egg every month of the menstrual cycle, and hCG can mimic that signal. Aschheim and Zondek’s test worked because the level of hCG in the urine of pregnant women is much higher than that of luteinizing hormone in non-pregnant, ovulating women: there’s never enough luteinizing hormone in urine to make a mouse ovulate.

Mice, Rabbits, and Frogs: Animal-based pregnancy tests

Although Aschheim and Zondek had developed an accurate test, it wasn’t exactly simple, especially compared to the drug store tests available today. They had to inject five mice per woman and wait about a week before getting the result. And even then, they could only detect the high levels of hCG that women have starting around 2 weeks after a missed period. In addition, the use of so many animals made it so that the test was expensive and relegated it to a few labs that received shipments of urine through the mail.

Today, women can know that they are pregnant as soon as 10 days after conception—a few days before a missed period—using tests they can buy for less than $10 in any drug store. But up through the 1930s, women had to wait until at least a month after conception, visit a doctor, mail her urine to a lab, and then wait at least another week to get the result of the test. Unsurprisingly, pregnancy testing in this era was not routine, used only by those who were wealthy or needed to know if they were pregnant for medical reasons.

The juvenile mouse test was slightly improved in 1931 by an American doctor, Maurice Freidman, who swapped juvenile mice for adult rabbits, which were easier to inject.

However, a test using frogs, developed the British scientist Lancelot Hogben, marked the pinnacle of these animal tests. Frogs lay eggs, so they don’t need to be killed or dissected to assess ovulation and could therefore be reused, lowering test costs. This test also gave results faster: within twelve hours. The frog test increased the availability of pregnancy testing, but it still required shipping urine to a select number of frog labs.

Tens of thousands of frogs were injected with urine throughout the 1940s-1960s, but pregnancy testing in this era was still not the norm. Most labs would only test urine sent by a doctor, meaning that women had to rely on their doctors to get tested. And many doctors—and health insurance companies—would only grant a woman a test if she had some urgent medical reason that she needed to know she was pregnant. Most women instead relied on morning sickness and sore breasts as early clues to their pregnancy, not visiting a doctor to confirm until months after conception.

Blood and Test Tubes: The pee-on-a-stick precursors

This all changed in the 1960s when scientists began to develop pregnancy tests that didn’t require the use of live animals and could therefore be done in doctor’s offices. At first, these tests had similar sensitivity for hCG, but by the early 1970s, Drs. Vaitukaitis, Braunstein, and Ross had developed a test that could detect pregnancy just 2-3 weeks after conception—on the first day of a missed period. These new tests used antibodies.

Antibodies are molecules that recognize and stick to other molecules. In their usual job, they’re sticking to the molecules of bacteria or viruses to alert the immune system to these invaders. In pregnancy tests, however, scientists engineered antibodies that recognized and stuck to hCG. Armed with these hCG antibodies, the urine of pregnant women, and, strangely enough, sheep’s blood, we had a new pregnancy test.

To perform the test, scientists attached hCG to the outside of the sheep’s blood cells, decorating the blood cells with hCG. They then mixed these blood cells with the other test components: hCG antibodies and urine.

Based on the way that antibodies stick to hCG and to each other, the hCG-decorated blood cells would clump if they were mixed with the urine of a woman who was not pregnant. On the other hand, if the blood cells and hCG antibody were mixed with the urine of a woman who was pregnant, the blood cells would not clump. So by looking at the clumpiness of the blood cells, doctors could tell if a woman was pregnant (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Early antibody-based pregnancy tests. Early antibody-based pregnancy tests, including the first at-home tests, used hCG antibodies and hCG-decorated blood cells. The person performing the test would mix these two components with a woman’s urine. If she was not pregnant, the hCG antibodies would stick to the hCG-decorated blood cells and to each other, causing the blood cells to clump together (left). On the other hand, if the woman was pregnant, the high levels of hCG in her urine would stick to the hCG antibodies, preventing them from sticking to the blood cells (right). Therefore, if the woman was pregnant, her urine would prevent the blood cells from clumping. When reading the results of the test, the operator would look at whether the blood cells clumped to determine pregnancy.

These and other, similar antibody-based tests could give doctors results in a few minutes to hours and finally made pregnancy testing mainstream. At first, women still had to visit their doctor to get a pregnancy test.

But that, too, changed in the 1970s (1971 in Canada, 1977 in the US) when the first at-home pregnancy test hit the market, using this same blood-and-antibody technology. This test looked like a kid’s chemistry kit, including test tubes, droppers, dried capsules of sheep’s blood cells, and hCG antibody serum. Success in completing the test required carefully following a 10-step process all while keeping the test tubes in a place free from vibrations for two hours. But if used correctly, it was 97% accurate for a positive result and 80% accurate for a negative one. And for the first time, a woman could confirm that she was pregnant without ever contacting a doctor.

Pee on a Stick: The birth of the modern pregnancy test

Since the 1970s, at-home pregnancy tests have become the norm, with about 20 million sold per year in the US alone. Current stick tests, which were developed in 1988, are much easier to use, don’t involve sheep’s blood or test tubes, and are still extremely accurate: about 99% for a positive result. But they are doing the same thing we’ve been doing for thousands of years: detecting hormones in women’s urine. Modern pregnancy tests still use hCG antibodies, but instead of interacting with hCG-decorated blood cells, the antibodies interact with dye-activating molecules. These dye-activating molecules are what causes the blue line, or other symbol, to appear on positive pregnancy tests.

Women today usually find out that they’re pregnant just after (and sometimes before) missing a period in the comfort of their own bathroom without the involvement of a doctor. But as recently as the 1950s, women could not definitively confirm pregnancy until they started to noticeably gain weight or feel the fetus move—several months into the pregnancy. And until the 1970s, women relied on doctors to tell them that they were pregnant.

The development of the pregnancy test was not just a feat of scientific advance, but also allowed for a cultural revolution. The at-home pregnancy test became available a time when women were fighting back against the male-dominated medical establishment, trying to learn more about their health and their bodies. And it granted women more information about and control over their bodies. Women could use this information as they liked, without pressure from a doctor: they could decide for themselves to get a safe, early abortion or start prenatal care.

As a woman who is grateful for this cultural advance, I want to say thanks to the first person who thought, “I bet I can tell if she’s pregnant by looking at her pee.”

Kelsey Tyssowski is a graduate student in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School. She is also a former editor-in-chief of the SITN Blog. You can find her on Twitter: @kelseytyss.

For more information:

  • A Thin Blue Line: a pregnancy test history put together by the NIH
  • An academic article about the science and culture of animal-based pregnancy tests
  • An excellent, but hard-to-access, academic review article about the history of the pregnancy test, and a less-descriptive, but similar, open-access article
  • An article in The Atlantic that describes the history of the pregnancy test from a more historical perspective
  • A video explaining the science behind modern pregnancy tests

Frequent Urination During Pregnancy | Pampers

You may be wondering whether peeing a lot is a sign of pregnancy or whether this urge to pee so often will ever go away. Frequent urination is a common early pregnancy symptom, but it can also reappear later on during pregnancy as your uterus and baby grow, putting pressure on your bladder. Although it can definitely be annoying, in most cases, it’s nothing to worry about. Read on to find out what causes frequent urination during pregnancy, get some tips to help you manage it, and learn the signs that indicate it may be linked to another condition, like a urinary tract infection.

What Causes Frequent Urination During Pregnancy?

What makes you need to pee more is often the increased amount of blood in your body. To process this blood flow, your kidneys need to produce extra fluids, which then end up in your bladder. Although peeing often during pregnancy is annoying, it’s also a normal and common pregnancy symptom. Here are some frequently asked questions about this symptom:

  • What is considered frequent urination in pregnancy? There’s no set number of visits to the bathroom – it’s simply needing to go more often than you usually would.

  • When does frequent urination start during pregnancy? How soon it may start differs for each woman, but you may find yourself needing to pee more often from around six to eight weeks of pregnancy.

  • Will I need to pee this often the whole pregnancy? It may ease up for a while after you enter the second trimester, but you may find the increased urge to pee returns later on, as your growing baby places more pressure on your bladder. Toward the end of the third trimester, when your baby “drops,” the extra pressure on your pelvis and bladder might have you rushing to pee even more frequently.

  • How often should you pee? Whenever you have to! It’s better not to hold it in.

Tips to Manage Peeing Often While Pregnant

You can’t really avoid more frequent urination, and you really wouldn’t want to, as it’s a natural consequence of drinking lots of fluids to stay well hydrated and healthy during pregnancy. Here are some tips that might help make your life easier:

  • Lean forward when you pee so that you properly empty your bladder

  • To prevent increased urination at night, try not to drink too much water just before going to bed

  • Avoid beverages and foods containing caffeine, which can make you need to pee more often. (Read our article to find out more about what not to eat or drink while you’re pregnant.)

  • Practice Kegel exercises to strengthen your pelvic floor muscles, as this can help prevent leaking when you cough, sneeze, or laugh, both before and after giving birth. (If you do find yourself peeing when you sneeze, consider wearing a panty liner.)

  • If your urine is dark yellow or orange, this may be a sign of dehydration − try to increase your fluid intake until your urine is back to a normal pale yellow

  • If you’re heading out the door, or you know you’re going into a long meeting, consider one more dash to the toilet beforehand. You can also try to scout out where the nearest bathroom so you’re not caught off guard.

Can Pregnancy Peeing Be a Sign of a Problem?

More frequent urination is usually a normal pregnancy symptom. However, sometimes it can be a sign of a medical condition that may require treatment by your healthcare provider. These conditions include:

  • Urinary tract infection (UTI). Many women wonder whether frequent urination is part of pregnancy or a UTI. If it’s a UTI, you may notice a painful, burning sensation while peeing, have a fever, notice cloudy urine, or see blood in the toilet. You may also feel the strong urge to pee, but then only a few drops will come out. Pregnant women face an increased risk of UTI from week 6 to week 24, because the growing uterus can place pressure on the urinary tract, increasing the chance of bacterial infections. If you suspect you have a UTI, consult your healthcare provider, as this infection requires treatment – often antibiotics.

  • Gestational diabetes. Frequent urination can sometimes be a sign of gestational diabetes, generally a temporary form of diabetes that affects a small percentage of moms-to-be. Healthcare providers usually test for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. If gestational diabetes is treated, then the baby’s health isn’t adversely impacted, and the diabetes will usually go away after you give birth. If you notice symptoms like frequent urination combined with persistent thirst, nausea, or fatigue, consult your healthcare provider.

Frequent urination during early pregnancy is common and usually nothing to worry about. Although it may feel as if you are peeing all the time, keep in mind that it may ease up for a time, before returning later on. Once your baby is born, your urge to pee more often should go away, and you’ll only have your newborn’s pee to worry about!

Urine Tests During Pregnancy – Why Urine Analysis Is So Important

Three of pregnancy’s more common complications are gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and urinary tract infections — all of which have markers that show up in your urine. That’s why at every prenatal visit, you’ll have to give your doctor a urine sample.

What urine tests detect during pregnancy

A quick urinalysis during each prenatal checkup gives your practitioner a heads-up if you potentially have a condition that requires treatment. Urine tests during pregnancy look for the following:

  • Diabetes. High levels of glucose (or sugar) in your urine may indicate pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes or, later on in pregnancy, gestational diabetes (GD). Gestational diabetes is also tested for with a glucose (blood sugar) screening between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy.
  • Preeclampsia. Protein in your urine is sometimes a sign of preeclampsia, or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure.
  • A urinary tract infection (UTI). Red or white blood cells in your urine may be a sign of a UTI.
  • Dehydration. Dark, tea-colored urine usually signals that you need to drink more water. Two common causes for preterm contractions include dehydration and UTIs, but luckily practitioners can treat both easily.

How prenatal urine tests are done

You provide the sample, so strategically up your water intake before each visit. For the most accurate results, practitioners recommend that you:

  • Wash your hands and wipe the labia clean from front to back (usually with a wipe provided by the doctor).
  • Start peeing in the toilet.
  • Catch the urine midstream with the collection cup.
  • Continue filling to the mark indicated by your practitioner (usually about 1 to 2 ounces).

A nurse or technician will insert a dipstick into the sample or place a few drops of urine onto testing strips to check for sugar, protein or blood cells. A color change indicates a positive test. 

Urine is also sometimes analyzed under a microscope to check for red and white blood cells.

What it means if you have glucose in your urine

Try not to stress: Many women test positive for glucose at some point during pregnancy. It’s a normal and expected part of being pregnant — especially in the second trimester — as more sugar circulates in your bloodstream to support your baby. 

The body will continue to adjust your insulin levels over time, so that most people will not develop gestational diabetes. 

If you continue to have glucose in your urine and blood tests as your pregnancy progresses, you may have gestational diabetes. The condition can be confirmed with a glucose tolerance screening and test. 

Your practitioner will likely do a glucose screening test much earlier in your pregnancy, maybe even at your first prenatal visit, if you have risk factors for gestational diabetes. Those include being overweight, being over the age of 35, having a history of diabetes in your family, or experiencing gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy.

What it means if you have protein in your urine during pregnancy

Protein in the urine sometimes means you could have preeclampsia (though not always, so talk to your practitioner). You may have preeclampsia if you have high blood pressure along with one or more other symptoms of the condition after week 20 of pregnancy.

To diagnose preeclampsia, your doctor may ask you to collect your urine for 24 hours. A total of 0.3 grams or more of protein in this urine sample is considered preeclampsia. 

Your practitioner may also measure other markers, like your liver enzyme levels and blood platelet count, to make a diagnosis.  

If it turns out that you do have preeclampsia, your doctor will continue to test your blood and urine regularly. He or she will also suggest other measures to help you manage the condition, such as doing a daily kick count and making changes to your diet. See your practitioner regularly so you and your baby get the care you need.

What it means if you have a UTI during pregnancy

UTIs are more common during pregnancy thanks in part to an increase in muscle-relaxing pregnancy hormones that allow more bacteria to enter your urethra. An overgrowth of bacteria in the urethra or bladder is known as a UTI. If the bacteria makes it into your kidneys, it may lead to a kidney infection.

A urine test at your doctor’s office checks for red and white blood cells (also known as leukocytes). Having red blood cells and leukocytes in your urine may indicate that you have a urinary tract infection. Your doctor will send the sample to a lab for further analysis. 

A UTI in your urethra or bladder can be easily taken care of with a course of pregnancy-safe antibiotics prescribed by your doctor. A kidney infection may require a round of IV antibiotics at the hospital.

Risks of urine tests during pregnancy

There are no risks associated with prenatal urine tests to you or your baby. Although the mechanics of peeing into a plastic cup get pretty interesting in your ninth month (!) just try to “go with the flow.”

What color is your urine? | UCI Health

Chances are you rarely think about what your urine looks like, but your urine’s clarity and color can alert you to both health and hydration issues.

“The color of your urine is a great barometer of whether you’re hydrating well enough. If it’s clear or straw-colored, then you’re drinking sufficient fluid. If it becomes dark yellow or brown, then you are likely somewhat dehydrated,” says UCI Health urologist Dr. Ralph Clayman, a pioneer in the minimally invasive treatment of kidney disease.

He recommends drinking at least three quarts of water per day for proper hydration in order to make at least 2. 5 quarts of urine a day.

Clayman and the other specialists at UCI Health Center for Urological Care are urging everyone to pay attention to their kidney health and be alert to signs that a medical checkup is needed.

  • Clear to yellow urine falls within the normal, healthy range, Clayman says.
  • Odd colors such as blue or orange are usually the result of medications such as certain antibiotics, antidepressants and laxatives.
  • But there are two colors you should never ignore: dark brown and red.

Colors of concern

Sometimes urine will turn pinkish a few hours after you’ve eaten foods with intense red color, such as beets, blackberries and rhubarb. But your urine should return to normal within a day.

If you haven’t recently eaten beets or any other red-hue foods, pink to reddish coloring is cause for concern. It means red blood cells are likely present in a large enough amount to discolor the urine. These blood cells in your urine can be a sign of infection, kidney stones or even cancer. Even if you see your urine turn pink or red one time, you should contact your doctor and get evaluated.

Related: Hard facts about kidney stones ›

Dark brown and foamy urine can indicate the presence of liver disease or possibly old blood and should also prompt you to visit your doctor.

“Dark brown doesn’t always mean disease. It could be that you’re extremely dehydrated. But if you take in more fluid and it remains brown, then it is concerning and you should pay a visit to your physician,” says Clayman, former dean of the UCI Health School of Medicine. “Of course red is really most concerning. It’s a literal and figurative red flag and should never be ignored. See your doctor.”

Best times to check

You don’t have to look in the toilet bowl every time you urinate to keep tabs on your health. Clayman recommends you check twice a day — first thing in the morning and right before bed.

Morning is when your urine will be most concentrated. So, if your morning urine is a pale, straw color, you’re probably well hydrated and healthy. At bedtime, it should look as clear as water or at least pale yellow. If it doesn’t, you may need to boost your fluid intake.

What you can’t see

The best health information you can get from your urine comes not from its color but rather from its unseen qualities. That’s why the “urinate in the cup” routine at your annual checkup is so important. It detects things you cannot see, such as the presence of sugar, which may suggest early-onset diabetes, or proteins that may indicate early kidney disease.

“It’s very important to have an annual urinalysis,” says Clayman. “It can detect not only early signs of disease, but also the presence of red blood cells too few in number to turn the urine red, bacteria or white blood cells that can reveal whether you have a silent infection.”

So pay attention to your urine, Clayman advises. “You should be your own health power advocate — monitor your health and stay well. Problems caught early are the easiest to resolve.”

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    90,000 Urine tests during pregnancy – what they look at

    1. Why take a urine test during pregnancy
    2. How to correctly donate urine for analysis
    3. What the urinalysis shows and how the assessment is done
    4. Special urine tests

    During pregnancy, a woman undergoes many different tests. The most frequent, and at the same time, the simplest test is urine analysis. It is rented regularly, before each visit to the antenatal clinic, that is, at least 12 times per pregnancy.

    Why take a urine test during pregnancy

    Urine is formed in the kidneys when the blood is filtered, with it, decay products formed during metabolism, salts, vitamins, hormones are excreted from the body. This analysis can be used to judge the work of the kidneys and other organs. The main component of urine is water (92-99%). Every day, about 50 – 70 dry substances are removed from the body with urine, most of which are urea and sodium chloride. The composition of urine changes significantly, even in healthy people, depending on the diet, drinking regimen and medication.During pregnancy, a regular study of a general urine analysis allows you to suspect in time the initial pathological processes in the body of the expectant mother, for example, the development of a urinary tract infection or toxicosis in the second half of pregnancy. For a correct assessment of the results of the analysis, urine must be correctly collected.

    How to properly donate urine for analysis

    On the eve of the test, it is recommended to refrain from intense physical activity, not to eat a lot of meat products, salty, sour and spicy foods, as well as coloring products (beets, carrots, etc.). This can lead to a distortion of the result – the appearance of protein and salts in the urine. For a general urinalysis, it is preferable to collect the morning urine sample.

    Preliminary, a thorough toilet of the external genital organs is carried out with warm water and soap. It is better to close the vagina with a cotton swab to exclude the ingress of secretions into the urine sample. The urine is collected in a clean, dry container. For the analysis, an average portion of urine is used, that is, for the first few seconds you need to urinate into the toilet, then into a jar, and the rest back into the toilet.

    It is necessary to deliver urine to the laboratory within two hours from the moment of collection and it is advisable to try not to subject it to strong shaking during transportation. It is allowed to store urine in the refrigerator at a temperature of + 2- + 4 degrees, but not more than 1.5 hours. It is desirable that the amount of material collected for research be at least 70 ml.

    What the urinalysis shows and how the assessment is done

    In the study of a general analysis of urine, many parameters are assessed.


    Normal urine is yellow in various shades. The shade depends on the degree of saturation of urine with a special pigment – urochrome. A change in the color of urine can be when taking certain medications (for example, vitamins can give a bright yellow coloration, aspirin – pink). However, much more often a change in the color of urine indicates the presence of any pathological processes in the body. When blood appears in the urine, which occurs in diseases of the kidneys and bladder, the urine becomes bright red (with renal colic, cystitis) or the so-called “color of meat slops” (with acute inflammatory kidney damage).With increased destruction of red blood cells (erythrocytes), urine becomes reddish-brown. Yellow-brown (or beer-colored) urine occurs with liver diseases.


    Normally, transparency should be complete. Clouding of urine may result from the presence of erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelium, bacteria, fatty droplets, and precipitation of salts in the urine.

    Relative density (specific gravity)

    This is an indicator characterizing the amount of trace elements, salts, various compounds. Normally, the specific gravity is 1003 – 1035 g / l. This indicator may decrease in the presence of glucose or protein in the urine, with toxicosis in the first half of pregnancy, and dehydration. An increase in specific gravity occurs in chronic renal failure, diabetes insipidus, and drinking plenty of fluids.


    The protein content in urine is one of the most important indicators of kidney function. Normally, it should not be. A small amount of protein in urine (physiological proteinuria) can be present in healthy people, while the protein concentration does not exceed 0.033 g / l, in modern laboratories with more sensitive equipment – 0.14 g / l.The appearance of protein in the urine is noted in kidney disease, inflammatory diseases of the bladder and urinary tract. The presence of protein in the urine, combined with an increase in blood pressure and edema, is a sign of a serious complication of pregnancy – late gestosis, which can lead to seizures and even death of a pregnant woman and fetus.


    Normally, glucose is absent in the general urine analysis. However, in the second half of pregnancy, the presence of glucose in the urine (glucosuria) can normally be detected.This is due to the increased filtration of glucose in the kidneys. Since the appearance of glucose in the urine can be a sign of a serious illness – diabetes mellitus, acute inflammation of the pancreas, all patients with glucosuria need additional examination – blood glucose control, sometimes even a glucose tolerance test with a sugar load – determination of fasting blood glucose and 2 hours after ingestion 75 grams of glucose.


    It is a blood pigment that is formed as a result of metabolic processes in the body and is excreted with bile into the gastrointestinal tract.With an increase in the concentration of bilirubin in the blood, it begins to be excreted by the kidneys and is found in the urine. This occurs mainly with liver damage or mechanical obstruction of the outflow of bile.


    This is a product of the conversion of bilirubin. Normally, it is excreted in the bile and practically does not enter the urine. The appearance of urobilinogen in urine is found in liver diseases, poisoning, increased decay of red blood cells – erythrocytes.

    Ketone bodies

    These are products formed during the breakdown of fatty acids in the body.Normally, ketone bodies are absent in urine analysis. Their determination is very important in diagnosing the adequacy of diabetes mellitus therapy. The appearance of ketones can occur in the first trimester of pregnancy with early toxicosis and indicate dehydration.


    These are salts of nitrous acid, they are not normally found in urine. Their appearance indicates the presence of an infection of the urinary system.


    These are white blood cells.Normally, in the general analysis of urine, leukocytes are found up to 5 in the field of view. If the number of leukocytes is increased, this indicates the presence of an inflammatory process in the kidneys, bladder or urethra, while the higher the number of leukocytes, the more pronounced the inflammation. A slight increase in the number of leukocytes can be observed if vaginal discharge enters the urine with poor toilet of the external genital organs.


    Red blood cells. Normally, in the general analysis of urine, there should be no more than 2 erythrocytes in the field of view.An increase in their number occurs in the presence of kidney or urinary tract stones, kidney inflammation, and trauma.


    Elements of cylindrical urine sediment, consisting of protein or cells, may also contain various inclusions. Normally absent. Found mainly in kidney disease.


    These are inorganic substances that can precipitate when urine is standing. Normally, there are no salts in the urine. The appearance in the urine of urates occurs in kidney disease, as well as in the first trimester of pregnancy with vomiting of pregnant women.

    Amorphous phosphates

    Also found with vomiting of pregnant women, with inflammation of the bladder, and can occur normally with the predominance of plant and dairy foods in the diet.


    Occurs with inflammation of the kidneys, diabetes mellitus, as well as with the predominance of foods rich in oxalic acid (spinach, sorrel, tomatoes, asparagus) in the diet.


    Urinary excretion of bacteria is of significant diagnostic value during pregnancy.The appearance of bacteria in the urine indicates the presence of an inflammatory process in the kidneys, bladder or urethra and requires mandatory treatment, even if the expectant mother is not worried about anything. Bacteria can also enter the urine from the vagina if the toilet is not good. To determine the number of bacteria, their type and sensitivity to antibiotic therapy, an additional culture of urine on the flora is required. To obtain the correct result of this analysis, it is necessary, after a thorough toilet of the external genital organs, to close the vagina with a cotton swab, collect the middle portion of urine in a sterile container, screw the lid tightly and deliver it to the laboratory within one and a half to two hours. The urine culture takes an average of 7 to 10 days and allows the doctor to decide whether or not to use antibacterial treatment and with what drugs.

    Special analyzes of urine

    Urine culture

    It is mandatory if bacteria were detected in the general analysis of urine.

    Purpose of the study. Performed to determine the number of bacteria, their type and sensitivity to antibacterial drugs.

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    Rules for collecting urine for analysis. To obtain a correct result for this test, urine must be collected after a thorough toilet of the external genitalia by covering the vagina with a cotton swab. It is necessary to collect the middle portion of urine in a sterile container, screw the cap tightly and deliver it to the laboratory within one and a half to two hours.

    Urine culture takes an average of 7 to 10 days to prepare and allows the doctor to decide whether or not to use antibacterial treatment and with which drugs. In the presence of a clinical picture of inflammation, antibacterial treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic is carried out before obtaining the results of inoculation (it acts on a large circle of bacteria), and in the case of an asymptomatic course of the disease or mild inflammation, treatment is not carried out until the results of the analysis are obtained.

    Urine analysis according to Nechiporenko

    This is a special urine test that shows the content of erythrocytes, leukocytes and casts in 1 ml of urine.

    Purpose of the study. This analysis is prescribed if there is a suspicion of the presence of an inflammatory process in the organs of the urinary system in a pregnant woman, in the event that there are changes in the general analysis of urine. It gives more accurate results than a general analysis of urine, and also allows you to monitor the dynamics of the treatment.

    Rules for collecting urine. Urine for Nechiporenko analysis is collected in the same way as for a general urine analysis.

    Investigated parameters

    • The number of leukocytes – normally they should be less than 2 thousand in 1 ml . An increase in the number of leukocytes indicates the presence of pyelonephritis (an inflammatory disease of the renal pelvis and cups).
    • The number of erythrocytes is normally less than 1 thousand in 1 ml. An increase in the number of erythrocytes indicates the development of glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the renal glomeruli).
    • Number of cylinders – normally less than 20 in 1 ml. The detection of an increased content of cylinders indicates arterial hypertension, diseases of the cardiovascular system, and can occur with early toxicosis of pregnant women.

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    Urine analysis according to Zimnitsky

    Purpose of the study. This test is prescribed to clarify the ability of the kidneys to concentrate and dilute urine, revealing hidden edema. A study may be needed if there is a suspicion of the development of gestosis, renal failure, with infections of the urinary system, as well as with diabetes mellitus.

    Rules for collecting urine. For the analysis of urine according to Zimnitsky, urine is collected during the day (24 hours) in 8 containers (cans), while the amount of fluid drunk is necessarily taken into account (the pregnant woman writes down how much fluid she drinks during the day, taking into account soups, fruits and vegetables). At 6 in the morning, a woman urinates in the toilet, then all subsequent urine is collected in cans.

    Total 8 Servings:

    • 1 portion – from 6-00 to 9-00 o’clock,
    • Serving 2 – from 9-00 to 12-00,
    • Serving 3 – from 12-00 to 15-00,
    • Serving 4 – from 15-00 to 18-00,
    • Serving 5 – from 18-00 to 21-00,
    • 6 portions – from 21-00 to 24-00,
    • 7 portion – from 24-00 to 3-00,
    • 8 portions – from 3-00 to 6-00 o’clock.

    Banks are signed and delivered to the laboratory.

    Investigated parameters. The amount and specific gravity of urine in each portion is estimated. Normal kidney function is characterized by:

    • the volume of daily urine is about 1.5 liters;
    • predominance of daytime urination over nighttime;
    • excretion in the urine of about 70-80% of the liquid drunk per day;
    • the specific gravity of urine in at least one of the portions is not lower than 1.020-1.022;
    • significant fluctuations during the day in the amount of urine in individual portions (from 50 to 400 ml) and the specific gravity of urine (from 1.003 to 1.028).

    Deviations from these standards indicate a violation of the kidneys.

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    Rehberg’s test

    Purpose of the study. This test is used to measure the ability of the kidneys to filter urine. It is mandatory for all pregnant women with gestosis, urinary tract infections, kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus.

    Rules for collecting urine. Before the test, exclude intense physical activity, strong tea and coffee.Urine is collected during the day in one container, which is stored in the refrigerator during the entire collection time. After completing the collection of urine, measure the contents of the container, be sure to mix and immediately pour 70-100 ml into a special container or jar and deliver to the laboratory, reporting the total volume of urine collected per day.

    At the time of delivery of urine to the laboratory, blood is donated for creatinine from a vein.

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    Investigated parameters. The method is based on the assessment of glomerular filtration by the rate of clearance of blood plasma from creatinine, a special product of protein breakdown. This indicator can be determined if you know the concentration of creatinine in the blood, in the urine and the daily volume of urine. This indicator is calculated according to a special formula and is called creatinine clearance. Normally, the value of this indicator ranges from 75 to 134 ml / min / 1.7 m2. A decrease in the level of renal filtration indicates kidney damage and occurs in severe complications of pregnancy – gestosis, kidney disease (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis), diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, urolithiasis.

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    Urine on 17-KS

    This test was previously widely prescribed to pregnant women to determine the hormones produced by the cortex of the endocrine glands – the adrenal glands. For analysis, urine was collected during the day, mixed, a small part of it was cast, which was delivered to the laboratory with an indication of the total amount of collected urine. An increase in the concentration of 17-ketosteroids in the urine indicated an excess production of hormones in the body of a pregnant woman, on the basis of which the doctor prescribed hormonal drugs.However, at present, the determination of these substances in urine is considered uninformative and is not used during pregnancy.

    Urine tests are very easy to perform and very informative for the doctor, they allow you to timely identify the slightest changes in the body of the expectant mother and promptly begin treatment, which helps prevent serious complications from the pregnant woman and the unborn baby.

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    🧬 Urine analysis during pregnancy, transcript, bad or normal

    Poor urinalysis during pregnancy

    The presence of a “bad” urine analysis during pregnancy may indicate asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnant women, preeclampsia, pyelonephritis of pregnant women, cystitis, urethritis and other diseases.In most cases of intense proteinuria, micro- and macrohematuria, the detection of bacteria, a large number of leukocytes and cylinders in the urine requires additional diagnostics (ultrasound, urine analysis according to Nechiporenko, urine culture with determination of sensitivity to antibiotics) and observation of a pregnant woman in a hospital.

    In late pregnancy, preeclampsia, that is, toxicosis of the second half of pregnancy, poses a particular danger to the mother and fetus. When detecting growing edema, protein in the urine, high blood pressure, a woman needs urgent hospitalization.Launched cases of preeclampsia lead to eclampsia: the progression of edema, arterial hypertension, the development of pain in the epigastrium, the appearance of intense headaches, progressing to seizures and loss of consciousness. In some cases, even emergency delivery does not save the fetus from death.

    In addition, a poor urinalysis combined with a high body temperature, general weakness, and back pain indicate an infection of the kidneys or urinary tract. And the treatment of infection, as you know, consists in the appointment of antibacterial drugs.To exclude the development of dangerous infectious complications, it is also necessary to be treated in an obstetric department.

    Therefore, if a gynecologist detects a “bad” urine test during pregnancy and insists on additional examination and inpatient treatment, the recommendation of a specialist should not be neglected.

    To undergo a complete diagnosis of the genitourinary system, including ultrasound, to identify the causes of violations of the general urine analysis and not only, you can get advice from an experienced obstetrician-gynecologist and doctors of other specialties at the GMS Clinic medical center in Moscow.

    Interpretation of urine analysis during pregnancy

    Deciphering the analysis of urine during pregnancy, by law, can only be performed by a practicing physician. Despite the obvious indicators of the general analysis, only a specialist with clinical thinking can evaluate the results of the study, not abstractly, but in conjunction with complaints, examination data and additional diagnostics.

    Urine is known to be produced in the kidneys by filtration of blood plasma in the renal glomeruli.This glomerular filtrate is the primary urine and contains all the constituents of blood plasma, except for proteins: water (96%), dissolved mineral salts, a small amount of urinary tract epithelium and blood cells, metabolic end products such as pigments, uric acid and urea. Further, the epithelium of the renal tubules is reabsorbed, that is, reabsorption of 98% of the primary urine into the blood.

    Interpretation of the general analysis of urine includes an assessment of odor, color and transparency, volume, acidity, relative density, microscopic examination of urinary sediment.

    Color Urine in healthy people has a straw-yellow color due to the urochrome pigment. A darker color of urine can acquire with edema and loss of fluid, as well as in the presence of a high concentration of bile pigments in the urine (cirrhosis, hepatitis, obstructive jaundice), hemolysis. Redness of urine can be associated with the use of certain medications and colored vegetables, as well as with serious diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, in which a large number of red blood cells enter the bloodstream (nephritis).The urine gets whitish color when there is a high concentration of phosphates or fatty inclusions.

    Transparency. Healthy urine is usually clear. Pathological clouding of urine appears when a large amount of salts (oxalates, urates, phosphates) or pus are excreted.

    Smell. Normally, urine does not have a pronounced unpleasant odor. With a large number of ketone bodies (diabetes mellitus), urine takes on the smell of soaked apples, and a pungent smell can be associated with the consumption of large amounts of garlic and asparagus.

    Daily amount of urine. The average daily urine output in a healthy person is 1.5-2 liters, accounting for three quarters of the fluid consumed. Decrease (oliguria) or cessation of urine output (anuria) are associated with:

    • Significant drop in blood pressure and blood volume during bleeding, shock, dehydration.
    • Blockage of both ureters with stones or tumor.
    • Acute renal failure.

    Relative density of urine.The specific gravity of urine depends on the content of proteins, glucose, mineral salts and urea and is normally 1.010 – 1.025. Changes in the density of urine in one direction or another occurs both with physiological changes (from the volume of fluid consumed), and with pathological processes (diabetes mellitus, edema, taking diuretics, chronic renal failure, diabetes insipidus).

    Urine reaction. The reaction of urine normally has a slightly acidic or acidic reaction of pH 5-7. Eating plant foods shifts the acidity of urine to the alkaline side, and eating meat foods – to the acidic side.In case of impaired renal function, an increase in temperature, diabetes mellitus, the urine reaction shifts to the acidic side, and vomiting, inflammation of the bladder and the convergence of edema, the reaction shifts to the alkaline side.

    Protein. In the urine of a healthy person, protein is contained in a very small amount – no more than 0.002 g per liter. With diseases of the kidneys and urinary system, nephropathy of pregnant women, fever, leptospirosis, severe heart failure, anemia, hemorrhagic vasculitis, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria appears, that is, increased excretion of protein in the urine.There are also physiological causes of proteinuria:

    • Increased muscle loads
    • Eating large amounts of protein food

    Urine sediment. The study of urine sediment is to identify salts and cellular elements (epithelium, erythrocytes, leukocytes, cylinders). Normally, the number of red blood cells in the urine is no more than 3 in the field of view. An admixture of blood in the urine appears in the following diseases:

    • Toxic kidney damage
    • Nephroses
    • Glomerulonephritis
    • Pyelonephritis
    • Kidney injury
    • Amyloidosis
    • Kidney tuberculosis
    • Hemorrhagic diathesis
    • Hemorrhagic fever
    • Urolithiasis
    • Cystitis

    The number of leukocytes in the urinary sediment is normal in women up to 5 in the field of view, and in men up to 3 in the field of view.An increase in the content of leukocytes in the urine (leukocyturia) is observed in inflammatory diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, less often in tuberculosis and renal amyloidosis, acute and chronic glomerulonephritis.

    Cylinders are formed in the kidney tubules from protein under the influence of the acidic reaction of urine. Therefore, casts appear only in parallel with the appearance of protein in the urine and for the same reasons.

    Epithelial cells line the urinary tract and appear in the urine during inflammatory processes in the mucous membrane.Normally, there are only a few of them in the field of view.

    The number of bacteria in the urine of healthy people does not exceed 2 thousand per 1 ml, and in patients with inflammation in the urinary organs it reaches 100 thousand per 1 ml.

    Urine analysis during pregnancy – norm

    The analysis of urine during pregnancy is normal does not differ from the average rate. But, given all the features of the functioning of the urinary system in pregnant women, any deviations from the norm can be interpreted differently.90,015 90,000 What is the reason for urinary incontinence in pregnant women

    One of the signs of pregnancy is increased urination. As the term increases, the phenomenon is expressed more often, especially at night. Unfortunately, this is often not the only change in the work of the urinary organs of the expectant mother. Against the background of metamorphosis in a woman’s body, various disorders in the functioning of the kidneys and bladder appear. One of these troubles can be urinary incontinence in pregnant women.The condition is uncomfortable, but not a serious health threat. The main symptoms are the involuntary flow of urine in small portions. This usually manifests itself at the moment of tension of the abdominal muscles. If a woman laughs, sneezes or coughs, the laundry will suddenly become wet. There is no need to be afraid of this, in most cases the condition intensifies in the 2-3 trimester, but after childbirth the body returns to normal. However, in order to rule out the presence of serious problems, it is worth consulting your doctor.

    Types of urinary incontinence during pregnancy

    Most often, there are 3 types of urinary incontinence in a pregnant woman, and in each case there are characteristic signs.

    1. Stressful. It manifests itself with tension of the abdominal muscles and vibrations of the diaphragm. That is, it is enough to sneeze, cough or laugh for a couple of drops of urine to appear on the linen. The condition is typical for the first trimester.
    2. Urgent. The symptoms are a sudden urge to urinate.They appear so unexpectedly that the expectant mother simply does not have enough time to reach the bathroom. One of the causes of the condition lies in the irritation of the urinary tract. You can also blame a malfunction of the nervous system and hyperextension of the muscles in the pelvis. The condition is typical for the last trimester, but also occurs after childbirth.
    3. Overflow bladder syndrome. The symptom is an inability to completely empty the bladder. A woman often feels an acute urge to urinate, and after leaving the toilet, it seems that there is still urine in the ureter.The reason may lie in the stretched and therefore flaccid bladder walls.

    Regardless of the cause of urinary incontinence in a pregnant woman, the condition causes discomfort and stress. This is not a reason to panic, in fact, the situation is not so critical – most often not the entire volume of urine is released from the bladder, but only a small amount. To calm down in such a difficult period, it is enough to consult a doctor and get an appointment if necessary.

    Main causes of urinary incontinence in pregnant women

    Given that it is not difficult to find an explanation for urinary incontinence in a pregnant woman, it should not cause much concern. You just need to identify the causes and make sure that this is due to physiology, and not diseases of the genitourinary system. The doctor who leads the pregnancy will help allay fears.

    Weakened muscles in the pelvic area are the main cause. Excessive stretching of muscle tissue leads to loss of tone.As a result, the urinary sphincter, urinary wall, and other muscles are weakened. The blame for everything is hormonal changes, as well as changes in the size of internal organs. For example, the uterus growing during pregnancy compresses the bladder. As a result, its volume decreases, and urination occurs more often.

    Another cause of urinary incontinence in a woman during pregnancy is the blows of a child’s leg to the bladder. This phenomenon does not happen to everyone. Doctors explain its severity by the position and size of the fetus, as well as the physical form of the expectant mother.

    The number of previous pregnancies and childbirth is also thought to be a factor in increasing the risk of uncontrolled urination. Especially if the pregnancies go one after the other, and the woman’s muscles simply do not have time to recover.

    Other factors associated with urinary incontinence in a woman during pregnancy are overweight and a sedentary lifestyle. A protracted labor process provokes a problem already in the postpartum period.

    Healthy urinary retention occurs when the following conditions are met:

    • with the normal position of the bladder;
    • immobility of the urethra;
    • good work of the muscles surrounding the bladder and the muscles of the pelvic floor;
    • with functional and anatomical integrity of the closure apparatus of the urethra and bladder.

    What to do to deal with the problem

    As mentioned above, urinary incontinence in women during pregnancy is most often associated with physiological changes, therefore, no treatment is required. However, given the responsibility for the baby’s health during this period, you need to consult a doctor and, according to his appointment, pass a urine test. This is necessary to exclude or identify genitourinary infections and diseases associated with them.

    If the tests show no abnormalities, all that remains is to calm down and practice hygiene more often.The doctor will give recommendations regarding hygiene products – their choice and frequency of linen change. But even without a specialist, we can say that the replacement of pads and panties is carried out as needed. The underwear should be appropriate for the size, and it is better to choose a special cut for expectant mothers so that it does not press anywhere. Decorative details on linen are not welcome, you should give preference to simple panties made of natural fabric.

    If you have a problem, you will have to wash yourself more often, go to the toilet on time.Doctors advise leaning forward slightly when urinating. This will allow the urethra to open fully. At the end, you need to slightly push (without fanaticism) to completely empty the bladder.

    Reducing the pressure on the diaphragm can help reduce the risk of urine leakage when sneezing and coughing. To do this, you need to open your mouth, normalizing the pressure.

    Examination and treatment

    Before dealing with incontinence, it is imperative that you determine the cause by contacting your doctor.The doctor, in turn, will prescribe the necessary examination. It usually consists of several stages:

    • Urodynamic examination. It evaluates the work of the upper and lower urinary tract.
    • Clinical examination. It includes a routine urine test and urine culture for flora, as well as a study in a gynecological chair – during an external examination, the doctor can assess the mobility of the bladder neck during a cough test or straining, an assessment of the state of the vaginal mucosa and skin, and also identify a possible prolapse of the genitals.
    • Ultrasound examination. It is carried out to study the functioning of the renal system, the urethrovesical segment, the state of the urethra in a pregnant woman with stress urinary incontinence, and also to confirm the presence or absence of genital pathologies.

    In addition to analyzes and examinations, you will most likely be asked to keep a special diary, in which for several days you will record several parameters of urination, such as the amount of urine excreted in one urination, the number of urinations per day, all cases of urinary incontinence, the number of during the day pads and physical activity.

    Only after the examination are conclusions drawn about the methods of treatment, which are often necessary only in extreme cases. If no pathology or inflammatory processes have been identified, then most likely no special treatment will be carried out, since after childbirth, most often incontinence goes away on its own or occurs less and less often.

    If incontinence is associated with weakening of the pelvic floor muscles, then the situation can be significantly improved with special exercises.Currently, there are a large number of intimate gymnastics complexes. One of the most popular was developed by the American gynecologist and doctor of medicine Arnold Kegel. The simplest and perhaps the most effective exercise that can be done several times a day is repeated tension and relaxation of the “intimate muscles” (slow or intense, without delay).

    It is important to know that if you have never strengthened intimate muscles before pregnancy, you need to do this with caution, in no case overdo it.

    It is possible that your doctor will prescribe you some herbal medicine that supports the function of the bladder and has an antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effect.

    Treatment with herbal decoctions (rosehip, sage, dill, lingonberry) can also be recommended. They have not only prophylactic, but also medicinal properties.

    Pelvic (intimate) muscle training

    To reduce the risk of urinary incontinence in a pregnant woman at night and during the day, doctors recommend doing special exercises.These are Kegel exercises that are useful not only for expectant mothers, but for all women, without exception, regardless of age. The essence boils down to alternating tension and relaxation of intimate muscles. It is not difficult to determine the zone for training – during urination you need to interrupt the process for a couple of minutes. At this moment, just those muscles that are involved in gymnastics will tighten. Exercise should be done before childbirth, during pregnancy and after the baby is born. A simple and straightforward set of exercises will reduce the risk of any problems with the urinary system.You can read more about gymnastics in another article.

    How to provide yourself with comfort and tranquility

    So that urinary incontinence in pregnant women in the early, and especially in the later stages (weeks 38-39) does not cause increased discomfort, manufacturers of hygiene products produce special pads. One of the options is the German urological pads MoliMed. They are specially designed to provide comfort during involuntary urine flow. Features of such gaskets:

    • Anatomical shape that prevents urine from flowing out;
    • absorbent layer that instantly absorbs liquid and odors;
    • secure fit on underwear;
    • Small thickness so that the lining is not visible under clothes;
    • safety even for sensitive skin;
    • the ability to select a product taking into account the volume of discharge.

    If you need help choosing the right hygiene products, the specialists of the PAUL HARTMANN hotline will advise you.

    How else can you help yourself

    Use the toilet as often as possible during the day. At the same time, you should not reduce the consumption of liquids you drink. The expectant mother should drink as much as she wants. But you need to try not to drink a lot of liquid an hour before bedtime.

    Many women use disposable pads to avoid trouble. This should be done only if necessary, since the frequent use of sanitary napkins can provoke colpitis, and this, in turn, infection of the membranes, and as a result, miscarriage or premature birth due to rupture of the membranes.

    It is possible to alleviate the condition somewhat with the help of a prenatal bandage. Its regular, correct wearing allows you to somewhat ease the load on the bladder, and accordingly reduce the number of urges to urinate.

    90,000 Physiological changes in blood counts during pregnancy


    The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic tests should be prescribed only by the attending physician. For a diagnosis and correct prescription of treatment, you should contact your doctor.

    Change in indicators of coagulogram and clinical blood test.

    Changes in the coagulogram (No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 190, 164, 194) * of a pregnant woman is a physiological process associated with the appearance of the uteroplacental circle of blood circulation. This process is associated with the evolutionary, adaptive reactions of the body of a pregnant woman. A woman’s body prepares for the costs during gestation and possible blood loss during childbirth. During the physiological course of pregnancy, the activity of the procoagulant link increases. Already at the 3rd month of pregnancy, fibrinogen increases (this is factor I (the first) of the plasma coagulation system) and reaches its maximum values ​​on the eve of childbirth.Therefore, gynecologists reasonably recommend monitoring this indicator during pregnancy (once a trimester, if there are deviations in these indicators, more often, once a week). At the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentration of fibrinogen increases, which may correspond to an increase in the processes of intravascular coagulation in the uteroplacental bloodstream.

    Simultaneously with an increase in fibrinogen and the activity of the external pathway of coagulation, the activity of the internal mechanism of blood coagulation also increases, while a shortening of APTT is noted. During pregnancy, other links of the hemostasis system also change, such as the coagulation inhibitor antithrombin III, which has a protein structure and has the ability to inhibit two or more fibrinolysis coagulation factors and the compliment system. As pregnancy progresses, there is a gradual decrease in the activity of antithrombin III. In pregnant women, from early pregnancy, the level of D-dimer in the blood gradually rises. By the end of the gestation period, its values ​​can be 3 to 4 times higher than the initial level.Lupus anticoagulant should not be produced normally in a pregnant woman. Pregnant women may experience minor changes in the complete blood count (No. 5). Indicators such as hemoglobin, hematocrit may decrease in the second half of pregnancy, and leukocytes may increase (No. 119) *.

    Changes in biochemical parameters

    During pregnancy, a decrease in the total concentration of protein in the blood plasma is due to both partial dilution, as a result of fluid retention in the body, and a decrease in the concentration of albumin (No. 10) *.The decrease in albumin is due to its increased consumption for biosynthetic processes. However, it is impossible to exclude the factor of increasing vascular permeability and redistribution of fluid and protein in the intercellular space, violation of hemodynamics. Changes in the concentration of blood proteins are also detected on the proteinogram. In the first and second trimester of pregnancy, albumin decreases, which is associated with physiological hypervolemia. In the third trimester, an increase in the alpha-1-globulin fraction (No. 29) *, alpha-fetoprotein (No. 92) * is revealed.The alpha-2-globulin fraction (No. 29) * can increase due to proteins associated with pregnancy (they begin to increase from 8-12 weeks of pregnancy and reach a maximum in the third trimester). Betta globulins (no. 29) * increase due to an increase in the concentration of transferrin (no. 50) *. Also, in most cases, there is a slight increase in the level of gamma globulins (No. 29) *.

    Minor changes in C-reactive protein (No. 43) *, observed more often in the early stages of pregnancy, may be the body’s response to proliferation processes (increased cell division).A change in the volume of circulating blood (BCC) and blood supply to the kidneys leads to changes in the nitrogen-excreting function of the kidneys. There is a delay and accumulation of nitrogenous substances, while the amount of urea (No. 26) * decreases, especially in late pregnancy due to increased utilization of protein (positive nitrogen balance).

    Creatinine (No. 22) * decreases as much as possible in the I-II trimester (its concentration can decrease by almost 1.5 times), which is associated with an increase in the volume of muscle mass of the uterus and fetus.The level of uric acid (# 27) * is often reduced due to increased blood supply to the kidneys, but even minor impairment of kidney function can lead to an increase in this indicator, and this is regarded as symptoms of toxemia.

    Lipid metabolism changes significantly during pregnancy (profile no. 53) *. Since oxidative processes are intensified, there is an increased utilization of cholesterol in the adrenal glands, placenta. This leads to compensatory transient hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in cholesterol, HDL.The level of LPPP practically does not change. An increase in estrogen levels leads to hypertriglyceridemia, which is facilitated by hypoproteinemia, functional cholestasis. At the same time, the deposition of fat in the mammary glands, subcutaneous fat increases, this process is also associated with an increase in the conversion of carbohydrates into fats by increasing the production of insulin.

    An indicator reflecting the level of endogenous insulin secretion is C-peptide (No. 148) *. Glucose values ​​(# 16) * may vary slightly without reaching the level of hyperglycemia.Since the rate of glomerular filtration increases during pregnancy and the permeability of the epithelium of the renal tubules increases, glucosuria (physiological) may periodically be observed. Most often, glucosuria appears at a gestational age of 27 to 36 weeks. The peculiarities of mineral metabolism in healthy pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant women is a delay in the body of salts of sodium, potassium, chlorine (No. 39) *, phosphorus (No. 41) *, it is the changes in the parameters of phosphorus in the body of a pregnant woman that are associated with an increase in alkaline phosphatase (No. 36) *.This is due to changes in the bone tissue during pregnancy and changes in the liver. As you know, during pregnancy, the need for calcium salts, which are necessary for the formation of the fetal skeleton, increases, and the mother may have a calcium deficiency (No. 37) *. Hypocalcemia in pregnant women can manifest itself in muscle cramps, spastic phenomena. Increased iron intake during pregnancy can lead to anemia. This condition is characterized by a decrease in iron (No. 48) *, ferritin (No. 51) *, vitamins: B12 (No. 117) *, folic acid (No. 118) *.Changes in the endocrine system

    The pituitary gland, especially the anterior lobe, is enlarging. The pituitary hormones ACTH (No. 100) *, prolactin (No. 61) * play an important role in changing the metabolic processes of the pregnant woman’s body. Therefore, these hormones can be increased. The placenta also has hormonal activity. It produces progesterone (No. 63) *, free estriol (No. 134) *, b-hCG (No. 66) *, these hormones are similar in their action to somatotropin (No. 99) *. The thyroid gland also undergoes changes, it slightly increases, and in the first half of pregnancy its hyperfunction is noted.There is an increase in free T4 (No. 55) *, with normal values ​​of T4 (No. 54) *. There is also an increase in the function of the parathyroid glands by a relative increase in parathyroid hormone (No. 102) *. The production of FSH (# 59) * decreases during pregnancy.

    * – Research numbers in the Independent Laboratory INVITRO.

    In preparing the article, the data of the Bulletin of the Laboratory Service No. 9, 2001,

    were used


    The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic tests should be prescribed only by the attending physician. For a diagnosis and correct prescription of treatment, you should contact your doctor.

    How to pass a urine test correctly?

    Factors affecting the results of urinalysis

    The quality of any type of diagnosis, its reliability , directly depend on the fulfillment of all conditions of preparation for the examination.This is true when studying any biomaterial, blood, saliva, feces, secretions from the cervical canal, etc. To obtain a reliable result, information is useful, and how to correctly pass a urine test. The composition and characteristics of this physiological fluid depend on many factors, food and drink consumed, medication intake, emotional factor. To prevent these prerequisites from influencing the results of the survey, clear rules have been developed on how to prepare for the survey.

    How to prepare for various urine tests

    How to pass a general urine test, or undergo other examinations, you can check with your doctor. You will be able to get the necessary advice at the clinic. Correct treatment. The recommendations are quite simple, however, the reliability of the result will depend on the strict adherence to them.

    On the eve of collecting urine and sending it to the laboratory:

    • Exclude from the menu foods and drinks that can affect the color of urine (beets, citrus fruits).
    • Avoid foods that contribute to fluid retention in the body, salinity, smoked meats, marinades.
    • Refuse alcohol, vitamins, bioadditives, and diuretics. If a doctor directs you for an analysis, tell him about the medications you are taking. On the day of passing urine, you will have to wait with a cup of coffee.

    When preparing for the study, it should be taken into account that an acute infectious process, hyperthermia, high blood pressure figures will negatively affect the indicators.The reliability of the analysis for studying the work of the urinary system will be questionable. For the same reason, the result will be distorted when passing a urine test within a few days after such a traumatic procedure as cystoscopy.

    In order to fully comply with all requirements, the dishes should be carefully prepared before taking the material. It is better to use a pharmacy container for this purpose. Traces of soap and disinfectant solution from ordinary containers can negatively affect the results.

    There are special instructions on how to correctly pass a general urine test to a woman. The presence of menstruation is a reason to postpone the examination, since, with a high degree of probability, the result will not be reliable.

    To ensure a high-quality collection, you need to take care of the hygiene of the external genital organs. After that, having parted the labia with your hands, you can start collecting urine. How to properly pass a urine test during pregnancy is also clear. All actions are carried out even more carefully, since the likelihood of getting mucus from the vagina is higher.

    Similar recommendations exist regarding how to properly pass a general urine test for a man. The patient’s actions are also preceded by hygienic care of the external opening of the urethra.

    The process of collecting urine from children depends on their age. In newborns, it is recommended to use pharmacy products – a sterile bag-urine bag. If it is absent, you can use a new plastic bag, tying it around like a loincloth. It is contraindicated to use a diaper to collect urine, since in this case there is nothing to count on the reliability of the result.For older children, it will be possible to make a fence in accordance with the same requirements as for adults.

    Rules for collecting urine for various analyzes

    For general urinalysis, only morning urine is suitable, which accumulates in the bladder during the night. It is also important that the sample of material collected in the container is not contaminated with foreign matter. The optimal volume is 100-150 ml. At the same time, there are rules regarding its storage.If the trip to the laboratory is expected not earlier than in 2 hours, then at this time it is better to put the container in a cool place.

    Based on the results of the general analysis of urine, it is possible to determine the physiological parameters of the test fluid, transparency, color, the presence of impurities, microscopy of the sediment, specific gravity, which is important for determining the concentration function of the kidneys. The survey will show

    1. Pathological processes affecting the kidneys and excretory system;
    2. Endocrine disorders;
    3. Changes in the acid-base parameters of the body;
    4. Exchange violations;
    5. Signs of dehydration;
    6. Problems associated with pregnancy;
    7. Intoxication of the body with salts of various poisons, etc.

    Carefully time the technology was worked and how to correctly pass a urine test according to Nechiporenko. In this, from the ray, the middle portion of urine should be collected. The initial part of the stream and the final part go into the toilet, and the container is filled exclusively with an intermediate portion. It is best to deliver it warm. Having identified an increased level of leukocytes, erythrocytes and cylinders, the study will confirm the inflammatory process affecting the urinary system, assess its severity.

    Bacteriological examination of urine has its own characteristics. It is better to inquire in advance about how to correctly pass a urine test for a culture tank and sensitivity to antibiotics. You will need sterile dishes. In the morning, after a thoroughly conducted external toilet, it is necessary to collect in it the entire volume of urine accumulated overnight, extract up to 100 ml from it and then, after closing the container with a lid, deliver it to the place as quickly as possible. This method makes it possible to detect the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the urine, to determine their type, concentration and sensitivity to antibiotics, which will provide serious assistance in prescribing the most effective therapy.

    The analysis according to Zimnitsky involves the collection of a daily amount of urine. Since sampling is done every 3 hours, 8 containers are required. The technique allows you to study the concentration function of the kidneys during the usual drinking regime, which is of great importance for assessing the degree of their damage.

    Among men, a diagnostic option is gaining popularity, such as the PCR study of urine, which allows to identify the DNA of the STI pathogen in the biomaterial. Compared with urogenital scraping, among its advantages is the absence of a feeling of awkwardness, unpleasant sensations during collection and subsequent urination.To send urine for examination, it is enough to collect its first portion in the morning in a sterile cup and deliver the sample to the laboratory.

    Advantages of the center Correct treatment for testing

    You can pass any types of tests in a multidisciplinary clinic. Correct treatment. Thanks to the use of modern techniques, equipment and test systems, the laboratory guarantees the reliability of any conducted research, high speed of obtaining the result.By contacting our center, you can be convinced of the affordable pricing policy.


    90,000 When to do a Pregnancy Test? Maternity Hospital Leleka | Blog

    Pregnancy in the life of every woman is a significant event and most often unexpected.

    But, even if the pregnancy came in the form of a “surprise”, you must definitely confirm your suspicions or refute them. And this can be done using an instant express pregnancy test, in a matter of seconds.

    Rapid pregnancy test is a very convenient, fast and inexpensive device that determines pregnancy (if any) as accurately as possible.

    Erroneous result is minimized and amounts to only 1%.

    The most informative are digital and tablet tests (the strip is placed on a plastic device with two “windows”). However, the most popular are test strips, which means that the price of the test does not affect the result.

    If after the test there are any doubts, you need to make an appointment with the gynecologist.

    How does the pregnancy test work

    Despite the entire range of pregnancy tests, the principle of action is the same for everyone – to determine the level of hCG (the first hormone of pregnancy) in the urine.

    hCG – is secreted by the villi of the embryo from the period of attachment of the fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus.

    Can be detected in the urine and blood of a pregnant woman.

    Procedure for a pregnancy test

    A pregnancy test is carried out no earlier than the first day of the delay in menstruation or approximately 2 weeks after the expected day of conception. Until the zygote attaches to the wall of the uterus, hCG is not secreted, which means that before ten days of pregnancy, it is inappropriate to carry out a test or any other tests.

    At the beginning of the test, you should carefully study the instructions for its use. Although the principle of operation is always the same: one part of the test (paper) is immersed in a container with urine, the other (with the presence of a chemical indicator) determines the result in the form of red / blue stripes, symbols “+” / “-” or the words “yes” / “no “.The result is assessed after the time specified in the instructions (from 1 to 5 minutes).

    Mini pipettes for dosing urine are sometimes found in tests, which are very convenient to use.

    But it is not recommended to put the test under the urinary stream, since this method can technically disrupt the express screening and give an error.

    It is impossible to rely on the result of one test carried out; for complete confidence, a second express test should be carried out in 1-3 days.

    If two strips are determined each time, it is imperative to make an appointment with a gynecologist.

    When to take a pregnancy test

    In order not to get confused in numbers, dates and to know exactly when it is advisable to do a pregnancy test, you need to keep a calendar, control your well-being and know the basic process of how the fertilization of an egg takes place.

    In every woman with a regular monthly cycle, the egg goes through several physiological stages of development, one of which is called “ovulation”.

    Ovulation is the process where a mature egg is released from the ovary into the fallopian tube to connect with the sperm. If there is no sperm in the tube, the egg dies and menstruation begins.

    Ovulation lasts approximately 2 days. All this time, the egg is active.

    If during ovulation the sperm were inside the woman’s genitals and conception did occur, the fertilized egg (zygote) begins to “move” into the uterine cavity, with the help of the ciliated epithelium and the muscles of the fallopian tube itself.

    This entire process takes about 1 week.

    After the fertilized egg enters the uterine cavity, it attaches there, hCG rises in the blood, cell division and further development of the fetus take place.

    The level of hCG (the first hormone of pregnancy) increases only after the fertilized egg is fixed in the uterine cavity.

    Therefore, a reliable result on the presence of pregnancy can be obtained only on the seventh to tenth day of conception.

    In this case, the result must be supported by a doctor’s opinion.

    Some rapid tests can determine the presence of the hormone as early as the fourth day, but it is still better to be checked after at least 1.5 weeks. Then the level of the hormone becomes high enough to confidently determine the condition of the woman.

    A delay in menstruation does not always indicate pregnancy, but it is better to immediately check the cause and do a test on the first day.

    When is a pregnancy test false?

    Two strips on the test do not always delight women, since pregnancy is not a cherished dream for all women, for most it is a surprise.

    However, if you really do not plan a child and your test has suddenly become “striped” do not rush to panic, since an error in the result is not excluded here.

    The reasons for a false-positive or false-negative response can be very different, ranging from a technical malfunction of a screening test to the identification of serious gynecological pathologies.

    As you can see, pregnancy is not the “worst” thing that a test can determine, so once again we emphasize the importance of a gynecological examination.

    Gynecologists of the private maternity hospital “Leleka” strongly recommend not to be limited to the results of an express test to establish pregnancy.

    • The development of the fetus must be confirmed / refuted at an appointment with a specialist.

    Since today there is a tendency for the growth of ectopic pregnancies, which lead to serious complications and gynecological pathologies in the future.

    However, a positive test result is only the first step towards determining pregnancy. The second step is a visit to the gynecologist, who must confirm / deny the information received. Since there are situations when express screening gives a false positive answer.

    Root Causes of False Positive Results

    A false positive is a result that indicates pregnancy, if not.


    1. Incorrect express test.

    Misuse of test is the main reason for false positives. Therefore, you always need to read the instructions and perform the specified sequence of actions. Evaluation of the result should be carried out strictly within the specified time range, from 3 to 10 minutes. After this period, a weak second strip may appear on the test (due to the evaporation of urine), and the woman will perceive the result as a pregnancy.

    2. Marriage.

    A defective test is a very rare occurrence, but no one is immune from such a situation. Knowing this, women buy several tests from different brands and thus the problem is leveled.

    3. The postpartum period.

    The pregnancy test remains positive throughout the pregnancy and 3-4 weeks after delivery. Therefore, if the test after the recent birth of a child shows a positive answer, and you do not plan to have children of the same age, you should not worry.However, you still need to check with your doctor about the absence of pregnancy.

    4. Miscarriage, abortion.

    After a frozen pregnancy, spontaneous or medical abortion, the level of hCG cannot immediately decrease, this takes time. And, as a rule, this process takes 2 to 4 weeks. Therefore, there is simply no point in doing a pregnancy test during this period, since the result will be false positive.

    If doubts remain, it is necessary to take a blood test for the hCG level or conduct a control ultrasound of the abdominal cavity.

    5. Preparation for IVF.

    Some women dream of pregnancy so much that they do tests even when they don’t need to. As, for example, in preparation for IVF.

    During this period, ovulation is stimulated with hormonal drugs, which also increase the level of hCG, although there is no pregnancy itself. Therefore, a pregnancy test taken during this period can misinform a woman.


    Sometimes a positive pregnancy test, in its absence, indicates serious pathological processes that increase the level of hCG. These are ovarian tumors, lung cancer, brain cancer, breast cancer, or stomach cancer.

    In order to dispel all suspicions and fears, with a positive pregnancy test result, you need to immediately contact a gynecologist to exclude an ectopic pregnancy and oncopathology.

    Root Causes of False Negative Test

    A false negative is a result that indicates the absence of pregnancy, if any.


    1. Fertilization occurred before the onset of menstruation, and the hCG level did not have time to increase to the desired concentration.
    2. There is a threat of miscarriage.
    3. A woman is taking diuretics (diuretics).
    4. Technical damage to the test.

    If the pregnancy test showed a negative answer, but the woman has specific pregnancy symptoms (morning sickness, dizziness, frequent urination, pain in the lower abdomen and chest), you need to see a doctor.

    What to do if in doubt?

    There are situations that make a woman doubt the correct pregnancy test. For example, different tests show different results, there is spotting (similar to menstruation), the screening gave a positive answer, and there are no specific pregnancy symptoms.

    What to do in this case?

    1. Do not look for the cause on your own, but go for a consultation with a gynecologist and approach the solution of the problem in a comprehensive manner.
    2. Do not get rid of unwanted and unconfirmed pregnancies on your own.
    3. Find the exact reason why the test showed a false positive result in the absence of pregnancy.


    Leading gynecologists of the private maternity center “Leleka” strongly recommend that after passing the test with a positive answer, immediately contact a medical institution.

    Even if you do not plan to give birth to a child, pregnancy in any case must be confirmed or denied.

    You should not rely only on the test result, and in no case should you resort to criminal abortions, buy the “necessary” pills at the pharmacy yourself, use traditional methods to terminate a pregnancy.

    All this is fraught with serious consequences and complications, up to and including death.

    Maternity hospital “Leleka” is a modern medical institution, where you will always be provided with specialized highly qualified obstetric-gynecological and neonatological medical care at the level of world standards.

    Only timely diagnosis and competent treatment will preserve the woman’s reproductive health and there are no other options here.

    Maternity hospital number 9 :: Hospitalization rules

    Provision of assistance to emergency patients with a referral from the antenatal clinic or with complaints is carried out around the clock in the emergency room on the basis of a compulsory medical insurance policy (free of charge).

    Routine admission to the antenatal department is carried out on weekdays from 9.00 to 15.00


    1. Regular labor activity. Regular labor means contractions lasting at least 2 hours with an interval for primiparous 5-7 minutes, leading to dynamic changes in the cervix.

    Often, at term pregnant women are concerned about preparatory uterine contractions, which are not an indication for hospitalization.

    2. Discharge of amniotic fluid. In pregnant women, urinary incontinence, physiologically increased leucorrhoea, as well as profuse discharge associated with inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, occur. If you suspect that amniotic fluid is leaking, you must come to the maternity hospital. If water leakage is not confirmed, you will be allowed to go home.


    For admission to the antenatal department, you must have good

    bases in the form of severe complications of pregnancy requiring inpatient treatment.

    1. Gestosis. It is accompanied by the appearance of edema, protein in the urine, increased blood pressure. Most mild forms of preeclampsia require outpatient monitoring and treatment. The decision on hospitalization is made by the doctor of the emergency room, since only a certain small category of patients needs inpatient treatment.

    2. Re-maturation. According to international recommendations, women with a gestational age of 40 weeks and 4 days are subject to hospitalization. The doctor of the emergency room calculates the gestational age based on some ultrasound ducts, the date of the last menstruation and using other data.If your obstetric time is shorter, you will be allowed to go home after an additional examination.

    3. Placental insufficiency. Hospitalization is necessary only for women with severe forms of placental insufficiency, accompanied by impaired fetal activity. Most mild forms of placental insufficiency are subject to observation and treatment in a antenatal clinic.

    4. Threatening premature birth. May be accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen, discharge from the genital tract, shortening of the cervix.The need for hospitalization is determined by the doctor in the emergency room.

    5. Rh-conflict pregnancy. When anti-Rh antibodies are detected in Rh-negative women, inpatient treatment is not always required. As a rule, if there are no disturbances in the vital functions of the fetus, the question of hospitalization arises at 37 weeks.

    There are other, more rare indications. But in each case, the need for hospitalization is determined by the doctor of the emergency room. If there is no evidence, you will be allowed to go home.


    1. Passport

    2. Insurance certificate of pension insurance with a copy.

    3. Medical insurance policy

    4. Generic certificate.

    5. Card of a pregnant woman.

    The following data must be entered in the pregnant woman’s exchange card:

    – smear for gonorrhea (gN) – three times per pregnancy

    – markers of viral hepatitis (HBsAG, HCV) – twice per pregnancy

    – blood test for HIV infection (f 50) – three times per pregnancy

    – blood test for syphilis (RW) – three times per pregnancy

    – data on reconciliation with the anti-tuberculosis dispensary –

    two reconciliations for pregnancy, stamped and signed by a doctor

    Nonresident citizens must bring, if any,

    temporary registration in St. Petersburg.

    Foreign citizens must have (with copies):

    1. Passport with notarized translation of information into Russian.

    2. Migration card.

    3. Temporary registration in St. Petersburg.

    4. Visa.

    5. OMS policy, insurance certificate of pension insurance.

    ATTENTION! When discharged from the hospital, the mother is given

    medical certificate of birth of a child, as well as discharged

    epicrisis of children’s and postnatal departments.The exchange card of the pregnant woman remains in the archives of the maternity hospital. If you wish to save this data for home use, please make a photocopy of the card in advance.


    POSITIONAL PERIOD within 1 month

    after delivery, maternity hospital patients may

    contact the maternity hospital for advice by calling

    by phone: 7260780 (around the clock)