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I have had a fever for 3 days: The request could not be satisfied


This Is When to See a Doctor for Your Fever

Fevers are not always serious. Typically, they’re just your body’s way of fighting off an infection. If you’re concerned about a fever or wondering what temperature is too high, these tips will help you. While there is no specific reading that is going to send you to the hospital in most cases, there are several things to take into consideration.

​Illustration by JR Bee, Verywell

When Can a Doctor Help?

You should contact your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms along with fever:

  • The fever lasts for more than 48 hours
  • A baby under 3 months old with any temperature over 100.3 F
  • Vomiting or diarrhea that lasts more than 12 hours or is bloody
  • A cough that produces yellow, green, tan, or bloody mucus
  • The fevers come and go and you have night sweats and swollen lymph nodes
  • The fevers come and go for a week or more, even if they are low-grade
  • A mild fever comes and goes along with a sore throat and tiredness
  • A sore throat and headache for more than 48 hours
  • An earache
  • When you have recently started taking a new medicine and have no other symptoms
  • When your temperature remains above 103 degrees despite medication and other cool-down measures such as taking a cool bath, cool compresses on your head and under your arms or drinking cool drinks

When a Fever Is an Emergency

Seek medical treatment immediately if any of the following occur with fever:

  • A severe headache
  • Exposure to high temperatures outside and you can’t get your temperature down after attempting cool-down measures
  • Mental confusion
  • A strange skin rash, particularly if it starts to get worse and/or spread
  • Breathing difficulties or chest pain
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Pain and stiffness in your neck when you look down
  • Seizures
  • Severe stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting
  • Pain or burning when urinating possibly accompanied by stomach or back pain
  • Having unusual sensitivity to light

Fevers Aren’t Harmful in Themselves

Although people worry about fever, it’s only a symptom of an illness, not an illness itself. 

A fever is the body’s way of fighting off an infection and is almost never harmful.

Most of the reasons listed above for seeking medical attention are so you can be evaluated and treated if the cause of the fever is something serious. If you’re unsure if your fever requires medical intervention, try this symptom checker for fever to help you decide.

Children and Fevers

Kids frequently have high fevers and although it may be concerning as a parent, paying attention to your child’s behavior is far more important than the number on the thermometer (with the exception of infants under 3 months old, as stated above).

If your child feels better and plays after you give her a fever-reducing medicine, you probably don’t need to worry. However, if your child doesn’t have any energy, can’t keep food down, has a bad headache or stomachache, or has the fever for more than three days, be sure to call your doctor.

When to Worry, When to Relax – Health Essentials from Cleveland Clinic

Fevers can be a very scary thing for parents, especially for first-time moms and dads. (How high is too high? Should I call the doctor immediately?)

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

But every child will eventually experience a fever, no matter how careful you are, says pediatrician Tracy Lim, MD. And it’s important for parents to know what to do when this happens. That starts with taking your child’s temperature using any variety of thermometers available, from standard oral thermometers to the newer temporal artery scanners.

“You can use any of these
devices, but a digital thermometer is generally all you need,” she says.

It’s most accurate to use a
rectal thermometer for infants and young children. “If you feel uneasy doing
this, use whichever device makes you most comfortable,” Dr. Lim says. “In older
children, an oral temperature is most accurate, if the child is able to
tolerate it.”

to keep your cool

So what is a fever? Fever is
defined as a temperature over 100.4 F (38.0 C). Normal body temperature is 98.6
F (37 C). Everyone’s body temperature varies throughout the day and can differ
by age, activity level and other factors.

Don’t be alarmed if your child’s temperature varies. The magic number for fever is 100.4 F.

When should you not worry about your
child’s fever? Dr. Lim says doctors tend not to worry about:

  • Fevers of less than five days if your child’s behavior is relatively normal. You don’t need to be concerned if your child continues to be playful and is eating and drinking normally. (He or she may seem more tired than usual).
  • Temperatures of up to 102.5 F if your child is 3 months to 3 years of age, or up to 103 F if your child is older. These temperatures can be common, but not necessarily worrisome.
  • Low-grade fevers if your infant or child was recently immunized. These can be normal if they last less than 48 hours.

to call your doctor

Now for the important
question: When should
you be worried about a fever? Call a doctor when:

  • An infant younger than 3 months of age develops a fever. Fevers may be your infant’s only response to a serious illness. In newborns, a low temperature can also be a sign of serious illness. Call your pediatrician if your baby temperature drops below 97.7 rectally.
  • Your child’s fever lasts more than five days. Your pediatrician may need to investigate further for underlying causes.
  • Your child’s fever is higher than 104 F (> 40 C).
  • Your child’s fever does not come down with fever reducers.
  • Your child is not acting himself or herself, is difficult to arouse, or is not taking in enough liquids. Babies who aren’t wetting at least four diapers per day and older children who are not urinating every eight to 12 hours may become dangerously dehydrated, she says.
  • Your child was recently immunized and has a temperature above 102 F or a fever for more than 48 hours.
  • You are concerned. If you are uncomfortable with your child’s temperature or illness, call your doctor or nurse practitioner to discuss it.

to do if a seizure occurs

Seizures are a very scary side effect of fevers in some children, Dr. Lim notes. “Febrile seizures” occur in 2 to 4% of all children under age 5. Not all seizures cause jerking movements in the body. Some seizures look like “passing out.” If your child develops a seizure:

  1. Put your child on his or her side.
  2. Do NOT put anything in your child’s mouth.
  3. Call 911 if the seizure lasts more than five minutes.

If the seizure lasts less
than five minutes, call your physician or seek immediate medical attention.

to do about multiple fevers

If your child has persistent
or multiple episodes of fever and a pediatrician cannot figure out what is
causing them, they may refer your child to a specialist, Dr. Lim says. A
pediatric infectious disease expert or pediatric rheumatologist may be able to get
to the bottom of the issue.

Adult Fever Symptoms, Treatment and When to Call a Doctor

When you’re riding the waves of chills, followed immediately by an increase in body temperature, it can be exhausting. For most adults, this is a familiar roller coaster experience where all signs and symptoms point in one direction: the onset of a fever.

But how can you be sure that you have a fever? Here’s what you need to know:

What temperature is a fever?
The average normal body temperature for an adult is 98. 2°F (37°C)1. Most medical professionals consider a temperature above 100.4°F (38°C) as a sign of a fever2.

How long will a fever last?
The length of a fever can vary significantly – in some cases it can last a few hours, while in other circumstances it can be drawn out over several days.3 How long a fever lasts depends on its cause and how you care for yourself while you are sick. Among a long list of possibilities, common triggers include: respiratory infections such as a flu or cold, or an ear or sinus infection. 4

What are the signs and symptoms of a fever?
Common symptoms of a fever include: Mild or moderate headaches, rapid heart rate, skin flushing, excessive sweating, quivering or shivering, loss of appetite and general weakness.5

On the plus side, if you have a fever, there is some good news: It’s usually a sign that your body is fighting an illness or infection. A fever is simply your body’s natural way of defending itself.

Tips for feeling better:
Stay home and rest. Listen to your body; it’s telling you loud and clear that you need to rest, and if you ignore it, you can cause further stress which will likely postpone your recovery. 6

Drink plenty of fluids. A fever will likely cause excessive perspiration, and if you don’t replenish the fluids you lose, you risk becoming dehydrated.7 If you’re tired of drinking water, fruit juices, clear soups and herbal teas will help nourish your body and speed up the healing process.

Take medication. Acetaminophen (found in TYLENOL® products) will help lower your body’s temperature8, giving you relief.

Relax and stay cool. For relief, dress comfortably in light layers and if necessary, reduce the temperature of your home. Both of these can help you feel more comfortable.

When to seek medical attention:
Call your doctor or seek medical attention if any of the following conditions exist:9

  • Your temperature climbs to 103°F or higher.
  • The fever has lasted more than three days.
  • You have previously fainted or feel like you are about to faint.
  • You experience confusion or excessive drowsiness.
  • You have chest pain or trouble breathing.










Fever in Adults – Consumer Health News

Adults usually don’t spend much time worrying about fevers — unless they happen to have a sick child. But children aren’t the only ones who get overheated. At one time or another, adults eventually have to face fevers of their own.

As with childhood fevers, most fevers that strike adults are short-lived and harmless. Occasionally, however, a prolonged fever may be a symptom of a serious illness. In extreme cases, the fever itself may pose a real threat to health.

When is it a fever?

Not everybody sticks to the 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit benchmark. Some people typically run higher than 99 degrees, while others go down to 97 degrees or lower. Temperature varies during the day — usually it’s a little higher in the afternoon than in the morning. When your temperature rises higher than normal, you have a fever.

What causes a fever?

If you have a fever, chances are you also have an unwelcome virus or bacteria. When your immune system detects an intruder, it releases chemical messages that reset your internal thermostat. As your body fights the infection, your body temperature slowly rises, making life a little harder for the invading germ. Of course, your life will get a little harder, too. But in the end, you’ll likely be on the winning side.

Usually, there isn’t much mystery to a fever. When you have the flu, for instance, you won’t be surprised when your temperature rises. Occasionally, however, adults will develop a lingering fever with no obvious cause. Doctors call this a fever of unknown origin or FUO. Many such fevers turn out to be hard-to-spot infections, such as infections of internal organs. Other possible causes include reactions to drugs or medications, cancer (especially lymphomas), or certain inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and Still’s disease.

How should I treat a fever?

Most fevers will go away on their own within a day or two. But instead of just waiting around for relief, you can take steps to speed your recovery and increase your comfort.

Fevers can usually be brought down quickly with common pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Aspirin will work too, but it should never be given to children or teens. In children and adolescents it can trigger Reye’s syndrome, a potentially lethal liver disease.

You should also be sure to drink plenty of liquids such as water or fruit juices. Liquids cool you down from the inside and help prevent dehydration.

You may be tempted to turn down the thermostat in the house or slip into a lukewarm bath, but these steps probably won’t help bring down your fever for very long. In fact, they may encourage your body to conserve heat, making you even warmer than you were before.

Some common wisdom dictates that a fever should be allowed to run its course without interference to help it eliminate the germ that’s making you sick. Indeed, some studies show that intervening to reduce a fever may prolong the infection, but doctors disagree on this.

When should I call the doctor?

According to an article in the Mayo Clinic, you should call a doctor if:

  • Your temperature climbs above 103 degrees
  • Your fever has lasted for more than three days.

When should I seek emergency help?

In some cases, a fever can be an emergency situation. For instance, a fever that climbs above 106 degrees can cause a coma or brain damage: If you have a 106 degree fever, call 911 or go to an emergency room right away.

In addition, call 911 or go to an emergency room right away if:

  • You have a fever without sweating after being out in the sun or after spending some hours in a very hot place and experiencing a rapid heartbeat, confusion, dizziness, or coma: You may have heat stroke.
  • Your fever is accompanied by a painful headache, nausea, confusion, a stiff neck, drowsiness, and a red or purple rash: You may have meningitis.
  • Your fever is accompanied by a stiff jaw, sweating, muscle spasms and pain, and trouble swallowing: you may have tetanus.
  • A high fever is accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea, red rash, tiredness, confusion, headache, and dizziness: You may have Toxic Shock Syndrome.

Call your doctor immediately if:

  • You have a sudden fever with chills, confusion, a pounding heart, and signs of infection: you may have blood poisoning. If you can’t get your doctor, call 911 or go to the emergency room.

You should also call a doctor immediately if one of these symptoms occurs along with the fever:

  • Confusion or extreme sleepiness
  • Stiff neck
  • Rash
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Painful urination
  • Swollen legs
  • Red, hot, or swollen patches of skin
  • Hallucinations or confusion
  • Convulsions
  • Extreme weakness

What can a doctor do about my fever?

The best way to treat a fever is to attack it at its source. Unfortunately, that source can be very hard to find. If the cause of your fever isn’t immediately obvious, your doctor will treat the symptoms and begin the search.

Among other things, your doctor may take samples of blood, mucus, urine, and stool to look for signs of hidden infections. Other possible tests include liver tests, spinal taps, X-rays, and CT scans. Once the cause has been determined, your doctor can develop an appropriate treatment plan.

As with any tricky diagnosis, personal information can be extremely valuable. Be sure to tell your doctor if you’ve recently traveled somewhere with poor sanitation. You should also list all of your current medications (including illicit drugs) and any recent surgeries. Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may also ask about your sexual history.

Even in this age of high-tech medicine, some fevers still can’t be explained. If your doctor can’t pinpoint the source of your problem, don’t panic. Keep in mind that serious diseases — including cancer — usually don’t escape detection for long.

That’s the way it is with fevers: In most cases, cooler heads eventually prevail.


Ellis KA. Fever, adults. eMedicine, Vol. 1(11).

Johns Hopkins Family Health Book, HarperCollins.

Hirschmann JV. Fever of unknown origin in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases,24: 291-302.

Mayo Clinic. Fever. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fever/DS00077

Fever in Adults – Infections

Doctors first ask questions about the person’s symptoms and medical history. Doctors then do a physical examination. What they find during the history and physical examination often suggests a cause of the fever and the tests that may need to be done.

A doctor begins by asking a person about present and previous symptoms and disorders, drugs currently being taken, any blood transfusions, exposure to infections, recent travel, vaccinations, and recent hospitalizations, surgeries, or other medical procedures. The pattern of the fever rarely helps the doctor make a diagnosis. However, a fever that returns every other day or every third day is typical of malaria. Doctors consider malaria as a possible cause only if people have traveled to an area where malaria is common.

Recent travel may give the doctor clues to the cause of a fever because some infections occur only in certain areas. For example, coccidioidomycosis (a fungal infection) occurs almost exclusively in the southwestern United States.

Recent exposures are also important. For example, people who work in a meatpacking plant are more likely to develop brucellosis (a bacterial infection spread through contact with domestic animals). Other examples include unsafe water or food (such as unpasteurized milk and milk products, and raw or undercooked meat, fish, and shellfish), insect bites (such as ticks or mosquitoes), unprotected sex, and occupational or recreational exposures (such as hunting, hiking, and water sports).

Pain is an important clue to the possible source of fever, so the doctor asks about any pain in the ears, head, neck, teeth, throat, chest, abdomen, flank, rectum, muscles, and joints.

Other symptoms that help determine the cause of the fever include nasal congestion and/or discharge, cough, diarrhea, and urinary symptoms (frequency, urgency, and pain while urinating). Knowing whether the person has enlarged lymph nodes or a rash (including what it looks like, where it is, and when it appeared in relation to other symptoms) may help the doctor pinpoint a cause. People with recurring fevers, night sweats, and weight loss may have a chronic infection such as tuberculosis or endocarditis (infection of the heart’s lining and usually the heart valves).

The doctor may also ask about the following:

  • Contact with anyone who has an infection

  • Any known conditions that predispose to infection, such as HIV infection, diabetes, cancer, organ transplantation, sickle cell disease, or heart valve disorders, particularly if an artificial valve is present

  • Any known disorders that predispose to fever without infection, such as lupus, gout, sarcoidosis, an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism), or cancer

  • Use of any drugs that predispose to infection, such as cancer chemotherapy drugs, corticosteroids, or other drugs that suppress the immune system

  • Use of illicit drugs that are injected

The physical examination begins with confirmation of fever. Fever is most accurately determined by measuring rectal temperature. Then the doctor does a thorough examination from head to toe to check for a source of infection or evidence of disease.


Is this your child’s symptom?

  • An abnormal high body temperature
  • Fever is the only symptom. Your child has a true fever if:
  • Rectal (Bottom), Ear or Forehead temperature: 100.4° F (38.0° C) or higher
  • Oral (Mouth) temperature: 100° F (37.8° C) or higher
  • Under the arm (Armpit) temperature: 99° F (37.2° C) or higher
  • Caution: Ear temperatures are not accurate before 6 months of age
  • Caution: Forehead temperatures must be digital. Forehead strips are not accurate.

Causes of Fever

  • Overview. Almost all fevers are caused by a new infection. Viruses cause 10 times more infections than bacteria. The number of germs that cause an infection are in the hundreds. Only a few common ones will be listed.
  • Viral Infections. Colds, flu and other viral infections are the most common cause. Fever may be the only symptom for the first 24 hours. The start of viral symptoms (runny nose, cough, loose stools) is often delayed. Roseola is the most extreme example. Fever may be the only symptom for 2 or 3 days. Then a rash appears.
  • Bacterial Infections. A bladder infection is the most common cause of silent fever in girls. Strep throat is also a common cause of unexplained fever.
  • Sinus Infection. This is a problem caused by a cold. The main symptom is the return of fever after it has been gone for a few days. The sinus congestion also changes to sinus pain. Color of nasal discharge is not very helpful for making this diagnosis.
  • Vaccine Fever. Fever with most vaccines begins within 12 hours. It lasts 2 to 3 days. This is normal and harmless. It means the vaccine is working.
  • Newborn Fever (Serious). Fever that occurs during the first 3 months of life can be serious. All of these babies need to be seen as soon as possible. The fever may be due to sepsis (a bloodstream infection). Bacterial infections in this age group can get worse quickly. They need rapid treatment.
  • Meningitis (Very Serious). A bacterial infection of the membrane that covers the spinal cord and brain. The main symptoms are a stiff neck, headache and confusion. Younger children are lethargic or so irritable that they can’t be consoled. If not treated early, can suffer brain damage.
  • Overheated. The fever is usually low grade. Can occur during heat waves or from being overdressed. The temp becomes normal in a few hours after moving to a cooler place. Can also occur during hard exercise. Fever goes away quickly with rest and drinking extra fluids.
  • Not Due to Teething. Research shows that “getting teeth” does not cause fevers.

Fever and Crying

  • Fever on its own shouldn’t cause much crying.
  • Frequent crying in a child with fever is caused by pain until proven otherwise.
  • Hidden causes can be ear infections, kidney infections, sore throats and meningitis.

Roseola: Classic Cause of Unexplained Fever in Young Children

  • Most children get Roseola between 6 months and 3 years of age.
  • Cause: human herpes virus 6
  • Rash: pink, small, flat spots on the chest and stomach. Rash is the same on both sides of the body.
  • Then spreads to the face.
  • Classic feature: 2 or 3 days of high fever without a rash or other symptoms.
  • The rash starts 12 to 24 hours after the fever goes away.
  • The rash lasts 1 to 3 days.
  • By the time the rash appears, the child feels fine.

Normal Temperature Range

  • Rectal. A reading of 98.6° F (37° C) is just the average rectal temp. A normal low can be 96. 8° F (36° C) in the morning. It can change to a high of 100.3° F (37.9° C) late in the day. This is a normal range.
  • By mouth. A reading of 97.6° F (36.5° C) is just the average mouth temp. A normal low can be 95.8° F (35.5° C) in the morning. It can change to a high of 99.9° F (37.7° C) late in the day. This is a normal range.

When to Call for Fever

Call 911 Now

  • Not moving or too weak to stand
  • Can’t wake up
  • Severe trouble breathing (struggling for each breath; can barely speak or cry)
  • Purple or blood-colored spots or dots on skin
  • You think your child has a life-threatening emergency

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Trouble breathing, but not severe
  • Great trouble swallowing fluids or spit
  • Fever in baby less than 12 weeks old. Caution: do NOT give your baby any fever medicine before being seen.
  • Fever over 104° F (40° C)
  • Shaking chills (shivering) lasting more than 30 minutes
  • Nonstop crying or cries when touched or moved
  • Won’t move an arm or leg normally
  • Dehydration suspected. No urine in more than 8 hours, dark urine, very dry mouth and no tears.
  • Pain or burning when passing urine
  • Weak immune system. Examples are: sickle cell disease, HIV, cancer, organ transplant, taking oral steroids.
  • Your child looks or acts very sick
  • You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Age 3-6 months old with fever
  • Age 6-24 months old with fever that lasts more than 24 hours. There are no other symptoms (such as cough or diarrhea).
  • Fever lasts more than 3 days
  • Fever returns after being gone more than 24 hours
  • Recent travel outside the country to high risk area
  • You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Fever with no other symptoms and your child acts mildly ill

Seattle Children’s Urgent Care Locations

If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.

Care Advice for Fever

  1. What You Should Know About Fever:
    • Having a fever means your child has a new infection.
    • It’s most likely caused by a virus.
    • You may not know the cause of the fever until other symptoms develop. This may take 24 hours.
    • Most fevers are good for sick children. They help the body fight infection.
    • Use the ranges below to help put your child’s level of fever into perspective:
    • 100° – 102° F (37.8° – 39° C) Low grade fever: helpful, good range. Don’t treat.
    • 102° – 104° F (39 – 40° C) Average fever: helpful. Treat if causes discomfort.
    • Over 104° F (40° C) High fever: causes discomfort, but harmless. Always treat.
    • Over 106° F (41.1° C) Very high fever: important to bring it down. Rare to go this high.
    • Over 108° F (42.3° C) Dangerous fever: fever itself can be harmful.
  2. Treatment for All Fevers – Extra Fluids
    • Fluids alone can lower the fever. Reason: being well-hydrated helps the body give off heat through the skin.
    • Offer your child extra water or other fluids by mouth. Cold fluids are better. Until 6 months old, only give extra formula or breastmilk.
    • For all children, dress in 1 layer of light weight clothing, unless shivering. Reason: also helps heat loss from the skin.
    • Caution: if a baby under 1 year has a fever, never overdress or bundle up. Reason: babies can get over-heated more easily than older children.
    • For fevers 100°-102° F (37.8° – 39°C), fever meds are rarely needed. Fevers of this level don’t cause discomfort. They do help the body fight the infection.
    • Exception: if you feel your child also has pain, treat it.
  3. Fever Medicine:
    • Fevers only need to be treated with medicine if they cause discomfort. Most often, that means fevers above 102° F (39° C). Also use for shivering (shaking chills). Shivering means the fever is going up.
    • For fevers above 102° F (39° C), give an acetaminophen product (such as Tylenol).
    • Another choice is an ibuprofen product (such as Advil).
    • Goal of treatment: bring the temperature down to a comfortable level. Most often, the fever meds lower the fever by 2° to 3° F (1 – 1.5° C). They do not bring it down to normal. It takes 1 or 2 hours to see the effect.
    • Do not use aspirin. Reason: risk of Reye syndrome, a rare but serious brain disease.
    • Do not use both acetaminophen and ibuprofen together. Reason: not needed and a risk of giving too much.
  4. Sponging with Lukewarm Water:
    • Note: sponging is an option for high fevers, but not required. It is rarely needed.
    • When to Use: fever above 104° F (40° C) AND doesn’t come down with fever meds. Always give the fever medicine at least an hour to work before sponging.
    • How to Sponge: use lukewarm water (85 – 90° F) (29.4 – 32.2° C). Sponge for 20-30 minutes.
    • If your child shivers or becomes cold, stop sponging. Other option: you can also make the water warmer.
    • Caution: do not use rubbing alcohol. Reason: can cause a coma.
  5. Return to School:
    • Your child can return to school after the fever is gone. Your child should feel well enough to join in normal activities.
  6. What to Expect:
    • Most fevers with viral illnesses range between 101° and 104° F (38.4° and 40° C).
    • They may last for 2 or 3 days.
    • They are not harmful.
  7. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Your child looks or acts very sick
    • Any serious symptoms occur such as trouble breathing
    • Fever goes above 104° F (40° C)
    • Any fever occurs if less than 12 weeks old
    • Fever without other symptoms lasts more than 24 hours (if age less than 2 years)
    • Fever lasts more than 3 days (72 hours)
    • You think your child needs to be seen
    • Your child becomes worse

And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Last Reviewed: 04/07/2021

Last Revised: 03/11/2021

Copyright 2000-2021. Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.

COVID-19 – Frequently Asked Questions

We’ve received hundreds of questions in the past several weeks. Many of those questions had clear themes – we’ve attempted to address as many of those themes as possible below.

Let’s talk about fevers.

Thus far, I’ve held off on talking about fevers because fever ranges are so age-specific. But. We’ve received a lot of questions about fever-related concerns, so here’s the low-down:

Here’s the fever chart we use at Kinsa:







96.5° – 99.99°

100.0°- 100.99°101.0° – 102.99°103.0° – 106.99°


96.0° – 98.99°

99.0° – 99.99°100.0° – 101.99°102.0° – 106.49°


97.0° – 100.39°100.4° – 101.99°102.0° – 103.99°

104.0° – 107.49°


97.0° – 100.39°100.4° – 101.99°102.0° – 103.99°

104.0° – 107.49°

Mild to moderate fevers: Embrace them. They’re an indicator your body is working effectively to fight off a virus. You don’t actually need to medicate unless your fever is high, or if you are feeling really uncomfortable. In general, if you were running a fever for 3 days, I’d ask you to give your doctor a call.

High fevers: If your fever hits 103° (under the tongue) or 104° (in the bum or ear), give your doctor a call to touch base.

Fevers in the age of coronavirus: If you think you’ve been around someone with a confirmed case of coronavirus and you have a fever (mild, moderate or high), give your doctor a call. If you don’t think you’ve been exposed, follow the guidance above.

I have xyz condition. Am I considered “higher risk?”

We got a lot of specific questions relating to chronic health conditions (everything from cancer to allergies to sleep apnea). The gist is this: if you have any official diagnosis at all, consider yourself higher risk. Anything that is well-controlled lowers your risk – even with something like diabetes or an autoimmune disease. If you had surgery as an infant but have been healthy since, I’d consider you low-risk. If you have sleep apnea but no other issues – lower risk. Those with allergies and asthma would be lower risk if it’s controlled, but with any flare-up of symptoms, be on high alert.  If you are unsure about your own or family member’s risk category, assume that you are higher risk and take extra precautions.

Is ordering takeout safe?

Yes. There is very low risk associated with food. Dr. Ian Williams of the CDC notes that even if you did eat food with the virus in it, the harsh conditions in your digestive tract would get rid of it. If you’re really worried, ask for your food to be left on the doorstep, use gloves or a tissue to transfer it to a dish, then dispose of the packaging and your gloves. Wash your hands well and bon appétit!

Is xyz activity safe right now?

Taking my baby to the doctor to get scheduled vaccines

Yes. Regularly scheduled vaccines are always a good idea! Doctors have been taking extra precautions to limit their exposure, so be ready to be flexible if yours asks you to move your appointment based on closures, or to ensure there are minimal patients in the office at one time.

Breastfeeding my baby if I’m starting to feel sick

Absolutely, yes. This virus spreads primarily via respiratory droplets and will not transfer through your milk or skin. Breastfeeding actually helps boost the immunity of your little babe. Make sure you wash your hands thoroughly before picking up your baby to feed, and do wear a mask during the feeding. No baby smooches until your symptoms pass.

Going outside for a walk

YES, YES, YES. I encourage this. Remember, social distancing (keeping 6 ft of personal space) still applies, so don’t invite all your friends to hang out at the park together. You and anyone you live with should definitely go on a walk together though!

Using a disinfectant wipe on more than one surface

What an interesting question! The manufacturer should have instructions on the bottle or canister. I just grabbed wipes from my shelf and they tell me that a wipe is effective if the surface I use it on remains visibly wet for at least 4 minutes. So it sounds like if your wipe is getting dry, it’s time to toss it and use a new one.

Wearing my CPAP machine if I’m starting to feel sick

Absolutely, yes. This virus mostly compromises the lungs so shoot to keep your lungs as healthy as possible. The CPAP gently forces air into your airway and lungs while you’re sleeping to provide enough pressure to keep your airway open – this will do nothing but help your lung health!

Allowing my teen to have friends over

What a perfect question. Can you imagine being a teenager again and having to interpret these rules while maintaining your social life? It’s impossibly hard.

If you’re in a state with a Stay At Home or Shelter In Place order (check here, if you’re unsure), people shouldn’t be going anywhere that is not considered essential. So teens, I apologize, but this means no group hangouts. Stick with the people that live in your household.

If you’re in a state that hasn’t issued those orders yet: consider following strict social distancing rules anyway. The more social distancing we do, the sooner we get this pandemic under control. Technically though, teens can be in groups under 10 people, while still keeping 6 feet of distance between each person. Unless you live in a very large house, this is more practical outdoors.

Seeing family/friends who I don’t live with after isolating for 14 days, symptom-free?

It depends what you mean by “seeing.” If you mean meeting them somewhere outside where there’s ample (6ft. +) of space around each of you, then yes. If you mean visiting them at home, avoid that for now.

How can I limit exposure from surfaces, packages and clothing?


Depending on the type of surface, the virus can live for anywhere from a few minutes to several days. Because this virus behaves like other coronaviruses (like the one that causes the common cold), it likely lives longer on hard, non-porous surfaces (like tables, keyboards and doorknobs) for 2-3 days. Remember, transmission from surfaces is far less likely than from person-to-person, but the best thing to do is remain diligent about wiping down frequently-touched surfaces.

Start by cleaning the surface with soap and water, then disinfectant with an alcohol solution containing at least 70% alcohol, a bleach solution, or a disinfectant that’s registered on the Environmental Protection Agency’s list (you can check using the search bar here.)


You only need to change clothing if you’ve been taking care of someone known to have COVID-19 (ex. healthcare workers after their shift). If that’s you, here’s how to handle your laundry:

  • Wear disposable gloves while dealing with infected laundry
  • Avoid shaking dirty laundry
  • Wash with the warmest water possible
  • Disinfect your laundry hamper (running a registered disinfectant along the sides works well here. If you have a cloth hamper, consider putting a washable/disposable liner or trash bag inside it. )

Note: it’s okay to mix “infected” laundry with “healthy” laundry.

Groceries (and other packages from outside your home)

You don’t need to be concerned about mail or packages infecting you. You also don’t need to sanitize your groceries. Best practice here is this – wash your hands thoroughly after putting both away, especially before touching anything else (mostly your face!). Then, disinfect your cabinet handles.

What should I know about coronavirus and pets?

If you’re feeling ill

Stay away from your fur pal. Have a healthy member of your household care for your pet until your symptoms go away, if possible. If you live alone, try to limit unnecessary contact until symptoms disappear.

If you don’t have symptoms

Be diligent about washing your hands after snuggling with your pet, but don’t agonize about catching the virus from her. If you and your partner are both snuggling your cat (cute), just keep your face away from her fur and wash your hands for 20 seconds with warm water and soap post-snuggle.

Similarly, don’t agonize about your dog tracking the virus in on his paws. As long as you’re disinfecting surfaces often, washing your hands after petting him and keeping your hands away from your face, you’re mitigating viral spread in your household.

Can you give me more detail about symptoms?

Are there symptomatic differences in infants vs. children vs. adults?

Most cases in children have been more mild than adults and typically mimic an upper respiratory infection: fever, cough, sore throat, stuffy or runny nose.

There are some very early-stage studies surrounding COVID-19 and the possibility of rashes (hives, blisters, chickenpox-like, “COVID toes”). It’s still unclear if these are related to coronavirus. We’ll keep you updated as we learn more.

Also in the early stages of research is a new syndrome named multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Symptoms vary greatly but often present with a fever and include multi-organ dysfunction, such as the skin, heart, brain, kidneys, lungs, stomach and intestines.

This sounds very scary – and it is! – but keep in mind that these symptoms represent <1% of confirmed COVID-19 cases in children. Be aware of them but don’t panic, and if your child suddenly has something going on that you cannot explain, give the doctor a call.

Every time I feel something in my body these days, I worry it’s COVID-19. Are there other symptoms I should look out for?

Look out for anosmia (loss of smell) and ageusia (loss of taste). In many cases, these symptoms seem to appear before any others.

Other cases have presented with chills, muscle/body aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Fatigue and lethargy are normal when you’re running a fever and are ill. If the lethargy is so extreme that someone isn’t waking up, isn’t hydrating or is acting confused, call your doctor to determine the best place to be seen. If your newborn is lethargic or running a fever, give your doctor a call as well.

Can you describe the cough more?

The cough caused by COVID-19 is typically dry, meaning there is no phlegm/mucus production. We have not been seeing croup-like coughs. If you’re prone to getting dry coughs (say, from allergies) but have no other symptoms, your symptoms are likely not due to coronavirus.

How long do symptoms take to appear and how long do they last?

If you’re exposed to the virus, symptoms will start showing within a 14-day window for most people. Some people may actually have the virus and show no symptoms at all.

The length of symptoms and severity of fever varies case-by-case. According to WHO-China Joint Mission, recovery has been about 2 weeks in more mild cases and 3-6 weeks for more severe cases.

How long do I need to stay at home if I have symptoms?

Per the CDC, you need to stay at home until all your symptoms are gone (without the help of medication) for at least 24 hours and ensure it’s been at least 10 days since your symptoms began. That means you’re looking at a minimum of 10 days cozied up at home.

*Some doctors may choose to test you for coronavirus and wait for two negative tests before you’re “released.” This is up to your doctor and local health department, so make sure you’re keeping in touch with them!

Let’s talk about contagiousness.

You’re most contagious 2-3 days before symptoms appear. That puts us in a weird spot, eh? You may be spreading the virus before even knowing you have the virus. The good news is this: staying at home and wearing a non-medical, cloth face mask when you’re out for essential activities (e.g. grocery shopping) where it may be difficult to maintain 6+ ft. of personal space are great ways of limiting risk that you’re spreading the virus unknowingly.

If you develop symptoms, consider yourself contagious until all symptoms have been gone for a full 3 days, sans medication.

What about the rate of spread?

R0, pronounced R-naught, is a mathematical term used to estimate the number of people who could catch a virus from just one infected person. The R0 value for the flu is about 1.3, which means each person infected with the flu would likely spread it to 1.3 people.

For comparison, early studies of the R0 value for COVID-19 is between 2 and 3. Which means each infected person is infecting 2 to 3 other people. This snowballs into a much faster viral transmission than the flu.

Keep in mind that those numbers are not static. The R0 is different by location, social distancing measures, etc. For reference, the goal is to keep the R0 value below 1.

Once you get coronavirus, are you immune (like with chicken pox)?

The short answer is: it’s too soon to know for sure. We do know that with other coronaviruses (like the one that causes the common cold, for example), we can be infected with the same virus more than once in the same year. The hope is, however, that our immune system will at least “remember” the virus and be better equipped to fight it.

Because it is too soon to know the lasting effects of this novel coronavirus, it would be irresponsible to suggest that everyone expose themselves to this bug. The level of immunity will remain unknown until the virus has been around long enough to study.

What is the treatment?

Researchers are working hard to develop antivirals and a vaccine, but they’re not yet available. Stay tuned for more information. According to the CDC, a vaccine likely won’t be ready for the general population for another 1-1.5 years. Getting the pneumonia or flu vaccine will help protect your overall health and can lower your risk of complications, but neither of them will protect you from COVID-19, unfortunately.

The good news is that most cases are mild and self-resolve at home. Current treatment focuses on alleviating your symptoms. A teaspoon of honey may help with your cough (for anyone older than 1 year old) and cool-mist humidifiers can help with dry or stuffy noses. Medication can help to bring your fever down if it’s uncomfortable, but remember that fevers help fight off infection. Don’t be afraid to let your temp hover in the mild to moderate range, medication-free. Eat and drink whatever you’d like – no special limitations. Increasing fluids (water, tea, ginger ale, popsicles, unsweetened sports drinks) is always a good idea to prevent dehydration and other complications.

Are there any medications that have been approved for treating COVID-19?

Remdesivir is an antiviral medication that is showing some promise in speeding up the recovery time for those with COVID-19. The improvement is minimal so far but researchers are optimistic and studies are ongoing. Keep in mind that this medication does not prevent someone from catching the virus and it doesn’t reverse the virus’ effects. The primary objective of treating patients with Remdesivir is to stop the virus from replicating and getting worse.

Hydroxychloroquine is another medication you’ve likely heard about. It is being trialed in patients with COVID-19 as a potential treatment, but there’s not enough data available yet to determine if it’s helpful alone or in combination with other medications. It has been studied for decades as a possible treatment for many viruses, it hasn’t yet been proven successful. Absolutely do not take this medication unless your doc has approved its use.

What’s up with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen when it comes to treating symptoms of COVID-19?

There’s been a lot circulating about this. We’ll update you as the official verdict changes. Currently, the WHO does not recommend against the use of ibuprofen during this illness.

If you’ve used caution with ibuprofen in the past (ex. those with kidney disease or gastrointestinal issues), continue to do so.

Tylenol is a good alternative if you’re worried. (Again, if you’ve used caution with this in the past due to poor liver function, continue to do so.)

If I (or a family member) cannot work from home, how do I limit risk of exposure?

We see you, Long Island railroad workers! First off, thank you – so much – for your service.

These precautions are most applicable to healthcare workers who are in direct contact with patients who either have confirmed cases of COVID-19 or are suspected to have it. That said – grocery store workers, railroad workers, pharmacists, janitors, our other heroes – err on the side of caution. These measures will help to protect your families too. When you get home from work:

  • Remove shoes outside your house, or take them off right when you get in.
  • Head directly to a spot where you can strip off your work clothes and place them in a hamper. (If you can finagle putting a hamper in your bathroom, this is helpful. You’ll see why in a second.) Avoid touching anything along the way.
  • Shower or wash your hands really, really well with warm water and soap. (Don’t agonize about scrubbing yourself raw or washing your hair. Remember, the biggest risk comes from hand-to-face contact.)
  • Change into a fresh set of clothes.
  • Go enjoy some well-earned time with your family.

How do I talk to stubborn loved ones about the seriousness of coronavirus?

Whether it’s a loved one, a neighbor or that acquaintance on Facebook, we all know someone who is not taking “this coronavirus stuff” seriously. If you are taking it seriously, it can be extremely frustrating (and scary!) to witness others refusing to wear a mask or wash their hands. Even more so if this person lives in your household.

Here’s my recommendation:

  • Nudge them, kindly and logically. Gently remind them that this is not about them. They’ll respond more to people they have emotional ties to, so remind them that by staying vigilant, they’re protecting their grandma, or the elderly neighbor they love that lives down the hall. Steer away from using numbers and tell stories instead. Chances are, your stubborn partner has already seen the statistics plastered across newspaper headlines for months. Using a community member as a protagonist in a story about the fear of dealing with the virus can be much more powerful. Here is a fantastic article from the Atlantic that goes into more detail about what you can do to appeal to stubborn relatives.
  • Take care of yourself. No matter what anyone is doing around you, if you follow all of the precautions in place, you are far less likely to catch the virus. Keep washing your hands and disinfecting door knobs and light switches, and keep your distance from the naysayer in the house. Wear your face covering anytime you’re around said person. Lean on your friends and family (virtually) who have the same concerns you have – you are not alone and this will not last forever.

After we stop social distancing, won’t it just start spreading again?

Yes. BUT, the goal of social distancing right now is to slow down – not necessarily stop – the spread of the virus. You may have heard this referred to as “flattening the curve.” With more of us taking 6 ft. of personal space, the virus is less able to pass from person-to-person, meaning there are just fewer sick people overall.

With fewer sick people overwhelming local labs and hospitals, our healthcare providers and scientists can spend more time developing antivirals to treat the severe symptoms of coronavirus and vaccines to prevent us from developing the disease in the first place. Manufacturers can use this time to build and ship more ventilators and ICU beds to hospitals so every hospitalized patient can receive adequate care.

By choosing social distance now, we’re pressing pause on the virus’ spread, buying our healthcare system and economy precious time to adapt so – if and when coronavirus spreads again – we’re better equipped to handle it.

Have a new question? Submit one here.

90,000 Coronavirus pneumonia. My history. Maxim, 56 years old.

Patient Maxim, 56 years old, who was treated in April 2020 with a diagnosis of bilateral polysegmental pneumonia, covid +, tells about how the disease developed, what he had to endure and what saved his life.


Now I am at home and I feel good. And it all started normally. On March 31st, from early morning, I felt some malaise, weakness, and measured my temperature.37.5 about Since there was already a call for me, I realized that perhaps I was getting sick, but there was little hope that it was ARVI and nothing more. However, further, as they say, more. By the evening, the temperature rose to 38. And at night up to 38.5 about C.

The next morning, April 1, the temperature and chills were already dominating in me and the virus was doing its job.

I called a district doctor who examined me and diagnosed ARVI. I have comorbidities – type 2 diabetes and grade 1 hypertension, plus age 50 and overweight.But, since the breathing was still even, there were no wheezing and coughing, there was a certainty that it was ARVI, not otherwise. Nevertheless, the doctor promised that a specialist would come to me to take swabs for coronavirus. I took antipyretic and pain relievers, as my head was cracking at the seams. On April 3 I endured all day, struggled with fever, pain and chills and was so exhausted that, looking at all this, in the evening my family members called an ambulance. The doctor examined me and made a decision about hospitalization, since he had no doubts that I had a coronavirus, since the temperature was already stable – about 39.0-39.5 about C, and all the accompanying facts were present. It was far from ARVI.


I could catch the virus anywhere – in public transport, in a taxi, since people do not wear masks, many cough without even covering their mouths. All this time I walked around in masks that were purchased earlier, and when they ended, in masks that I made myself. Gloved hands. He constantly treated his hands with an antiseptic solution. This virus is easily transmitted by airborne droplets, the risk zones are public transport and crowded places, taxis.In any place where you are not alone, there may be carriers of a viral infection.

Later, in the hospital, I learned that everyone who lives with me in the same apartment fell ill.


On the night of April 3rd to 4th, I was taken to the 52nd city hospital. In the emergency room, the usual work was going on, the medical staff did their job as it should be. I was placed in a ward for four people, in a state of varying severity, from the symptoms it was clear to me that these were all patients with coronavirus.Examined, transferred to the department of rheumatology, repurposed to fight the coronavirus.

I was immediately prescribed treatment: injections, pills, droppers – everything went into action. But the virus did not recede either – the process of the development of the disease was in full swing.
It was a life-and-death war. Me and the doctors fought for my life, and the virus fought to do its dastardly deed.


Behind, a terrible week – the Week of Hell. Everything that I remember and will never forget, apparently until the end of my days.I had a very high temperature, fever, my whole body ached. Periodically constrained breathing with bouts of dry cough. Through the fear of pain, you try to breathe in and cough, first slightly, then harder. You get chills, you are wet all the time. You cannot fix anything, nothing depends on you, you are powerless, it shakes and breaks you, you are broken from despair and pain, from the thought that you will simply die now. Thirsty. Very thirsty. Dry mouth, throat dry. You try to call someone for help, to ask someone to give you water, but your tongue does not treacherously turn.A wild headache, the feeling that your head was squeezed in a vice and pierced with a long, crooked, thick, rusty nail and you are unable to remove it …

You want to sleep, but the pain and chills do not give you sleep. Doctors are scurrying around you. You are constantly injected with something – droppers, injections, you take pills in handfuls, but nothing is helping yet. Doctors come and go one by one, tell you something, suggest treatment options, you agree with them. I want to survive at any cost.You agree to the administration of plasma with antibodies. It will be introduced, but then, and everything will go differently for you, according to a good scenario. But while you’re fighting.


I do not know how long this terrible torment would have lasted. Everything has been tried. Salvation from these undesirable and irreversible consequences, from death, in the end came from the simplest people, from these lovely women, the doctors of the rheumatology department of the 52nd hospital, who were called upon to save such hopeless sick patients like me.For whom, alas, no treatment has helped before.

Thanks to their high professionalism, courage in making the only and correct decision, I was saved. They pulled me out of the clutches of the merciless coronavirus. I was injected with plasma with antibodies – thanks to this procedure, its operative application, I literally got to my feet two days later.

I am very grateful to fate and the Lord God for the fact that I ended up in the 52 hospital with the best attending physician Elena Nikolaevna Simonova and her head, head of the rheumatology department, Zinaida Yuryevna Mutovina, for whom I am even more grateful.

I want to say to these lovely doctors a big human thanks for their work and for their skill, which save a huge number of patients. They are doctors by vocation. Thank you and God bless you!


My friends, relatives – all support me and wish a complete and speedy recovery. People understand perfectly well that what happened to me is not the result of my carelessness and irresponsibility, but a coincidence. It’s scary to think that each of them could be in my place.The same thing could happen to anyone. And maybe worse. God forbid.

What can each of you do to confront the coronavirus? Everyone should be aware of their personal responsibility. My friends and acquaintances are now taking all security measures and trying to be more circumspect and collected. I wish them all and all other people good health and in no case repeat my experience. Be happy and healthy. Take care of yourself and your family and people close to you. Good luck to all.

* The author’s text is published with the consent of the patient.

90,000 Acute respiratory viral infections

Acute respiratory viral infections are a whole group of infectious diseases characterized by similar symptoms: cough, runny nose, fever, headache, sore throat and sore throat. Depending on the pathogen, certain symptoms prevail during the course of the disease. The most pronounced clinical picture is caused by influenza viruses, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, which allows a diagnosis to be made without virological examination.

Influenza begins acutely against the background of complete health, with a rise in temperature immediately to high numbers (39-40⁰ C), often accompanied by chills. The symptoms of general intoxication come to the fore: headache, weakness, pain in muscles and joints, lacrimation, pain in the eyeballs. Sometimes delirium, hallucinations are observed. In young children, general symptoms are expressed: anxiety or weakness, refusal to breast, sleep disturbance, frequent regurgitation or vomiting, frequent loose stools. Cough, runny nose, sore throat, soreness behind the breastbone may be absent on the first day and join later.A favorite place for the localization of influenza viruses is the tracheal mucosa, so “scratching” and pain behind the breastbone when coughing is a constant symptom of the disease. Almost a third of patients do not have a runny nose, but dryness of the nasal mucosa is noted, which leads to repeated nosebleeds. In the first days of the disease, the cough is dry, painful, and hoarseness of the voice may appear.

In uncomplicated flu, the fever lasts 3-4 days, at least 5-6 days. If after a week the temperature does not decrease, complications may have joined.The most common complication is pneumonia. Other complications include inflammation of the paranasal sinuses and middle ear.

The main goal of health care is not the treatment of diseases, but their prevention. This fully applies to influenza, which has a pronounced winter seasonality, high infectivity and rapid spread.

Urgent isolation of patients and separation of children at risk of infection is of great importance in the prevention of influenza. Epidemiologists propose to declare unscheduled vacations during the epidemic.This measure significantly reduces the incidence of influenza in children’s groups. Parents should also do their bit in anti-epidemic measures and refuse to attend public events, trips on excursions, shopping and guests.

Preventive vaccinations begin in October, so that protective factors (interferon, macrophages, antibodies) are developed in the body in advance, which will prevent the development of the disease. The insidiousness of the influenza virus is manifested in its rapid variability.He is able to change the antigenic structure and acquire new properties during one epidemic. Therefore, the fight against influenza should be aimed at strengthening nonspecific immunity, at increasing the body’s ability to resist the pathogen.

If the flu is already “sweeping across the planet” and has reached your city, or even to family members, it is necessary to provide the child with emergency prevention, which is at the same time preventive treatment. Interferons and drugs that enhance their production in the body (interferon inducers) are widely used as a means for emergency prevention.Human leukocyte interferon is used in the form of a solution, which is prepared from a powder, and is instilled into the nose when there is a threat of influenza infection during the entire epidemic period, 2-3-5 drops in both nasal passages 2 times a day for children of any age.

Grippferon – nasal drops of antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating action. Recommended for children over 1 year old, 2 – 3 drops 2 – 3 times a day.

Viferon – suppositories for rectal administration, used 2 times a day, morning and evening.

Among the inducers of interferon we will name amiksin, poludan, cycloferon, anaferon.

Do not forget about herbal preparations that help fight viruses of respiratory infections: onions, garlic, tincture of echinacea, aralia, zamanihi, ginseng, eleutherococcus extract, etc.

Great importance is attached to activities that enhance the non-specific, general immunity of the body. This includes good nutrition, rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals, hardening procedures, a healthy lifestyle, physical education and sports.

Parainfluenza begins gradually, does not give a high temperature, does not cause severe intoxication. But its malignancy is manifested in the fact that the virus especially often infects the larynx, causing the development of false croup with symptoms of respiratory failure. The disease begins with a slight runny nose or coughing against the background of a normal or slightly elevated temperature (37.2 – 37.5 ° C). But in the middle of the night, the child wakes up from an attack of rough “barking”, “croaking” cough, shortness of breath, causing fear and anxiety, and this further increases the spasm.Call an ambulance, but before the team arrives, try to help the suffering child. Fill the tub with hot water, add baking soda, and let your child breathe warm, moist alkaline air in the confined space of the bathroom. At the same time, give the child hot baths for hands and feet with a water temperature of 40 ° C. Give a warm alkaline drink: milk, to which you can add a little soda, any mineral hydrocarbonate water without gas Warm humid air helps to relieve spasm of the muscles of the larynx, and alkaline steam promotes the liquefaction of phlegm and its discharge.The arrived ambulance team will inhale drugs through a magic device – a nebulizer, and the child will immediately feel better.

If the doctor insists on continuing treatment in the hospital, do not argue and do not convince him that “everything has already passed and the child is breathing well.” The croup has an undulating course, and the favorable period can unexpectedly quickly be replaced by suffocation, requiring emergency assistance.

– do not use mustard plasters and rubbing containing essential oils and having strong odors.They are able to cause a reflex spasm of the muscles of the larynx;

– do not use honey, raspberry jam, citrus juices – in allergy sufferers, they can contribute to increased edema;

– do not give your child cough suppressants (sinecode). Remember that cough has a protective function and should not be suppressed, but stimulated.

Adenovirus infection can be recognized by a pronounced runny nose, a moist cough with copious phlegm, and red, purulent eyes.

Adenoviruses are widespread throughout the world.They did not bypass our long-suffering homeland either. The incidence rises during the cold season, and among all respiratory infections, it accounts for almost one third of all cases of illness. It does not disappear even in the sultry summer, manifesting itself in the form of individual cases. The disease blooms especially magnificently in children’s groups, where an outbreak can drag on for several months in a row, passing from one child to another.

The disease begins with a rise in temperature, which can have two waves and last up to 12-14 days.Along with a cough and a runny nose, redness and tearing of the eyes, swelling of the eyelids and purulent discharge from the eyes appear. During sleep, eyelashes stick together, and, upon waking up, the child cannot open his eyes, which gives him additional suffering.

The virus loves to infect adenoid tissue, lymph nodes, including the abdominal cavity. Therefore, children often complain of abdominal pain and upset stools. On the neck and in the submandibular region, you may find enlarged lymph nodes. And, looking into the throat, you will see hypertrophied edematous tonsils, often with purulent deposits.Pneumonia in adenovirus infection may be primary, caused by the virus itself. It is more common in young children. And the later development of pneumonia indicates the addition of a bacterial infection. Other complications include otitis media, tonsillitis, pleurisy.

For the treatment of all respiratory infections that occur with an increase in temperature, it is very important to fulfill the following conditions:

• Increase heat transfer. To do this, first of all, remove disposable diapers from the baby, which, covering almost a third of the body, prevent heat transfer and play the role of a warming compress.This is easy to see with your own eyes: the skin under the diaper is red, moist, with irritation in the groin and gluteal folds. As soon as you removed the disposable diaper and dried the folds, do not be too lazy to measure the temperature, and you will be pleasantly surprised: it will drop by at least 1 degree. Do not wrap the child, do not load him with quilts and feather beds. Take off tight tights, turtlenecks and sweaters with high tight collars. Wipe off with wet wipes moistened with 1 – 2% vinegar solution or vodka.Wear lightweight pajamas, a nightgown, or a T-shirt with panties. All clothes should be made of cotton fabrics that can actively absorb sweat, because the next important step is to make the child sweat.

• Increase perspiration. It closely adjoins the previous one, since the evaporation of sweat from the surface of the skin, willy-nilly, contributes to an increase in heat transfer. In order for the child to actively sweat, it is necessary to water him abundantly. Remember that sweat is not just water, but a liquid containing mineral salts.That is, by sweating, the child also loses the vital minerals for the body. Therefore, think about what you will become to make up for the deficiency of salts. It would be ideal from time to time to give the baby any glucose-saline solution (rehydron, oralit, glucosolan), but not every capricious person during illness will agree to drink tasteless water. Therefore, combine business with pleasure and prepare a decoction of raisins, dried apricots, dried fruit compote – these drinks have a lot of potassium and fructose, add a little salt (sodium and chlorine) and a little bit of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate).You will get a delicious and healing drink, let the kid drink with pleasure. Tired of compote? Please: mineral water, juice, herbal teas, rosehip broth, tea with honey, lemon, raspberries (if you are not allergic to these products). If a child drinks willingly, do not limit him, “water will find a hole,” as the people say. It is bad when the stubborn refuses to drink at high temperatures. Lack of fluid leads to thickening of the blood, from which all organs suffer, and primarily the urinary system.If you notice that a feverish child has not urinated all day or has excreted a small amount of concentrated, darker than usual urine, then the kidneys are really thirsty, and they need to be provided with fluid. In any way, get the child to drink, taking into account his wishes in the choice of drinks.

• Provide frequent ventilation of the room in which the sick child is located and maintaining a cool temperature in it – ideally not higher than 18 ° C. Inhalation of cool fresh air also provides a decrease in temperature, since the body spends heat to warm it.Many mothers are panicky afraid to open a window or balcony in the nursery: “She will get even more sick.” Put a hat or scarf on your head, cover it with a warm blanket and let your child breathe in the fresh frosty air. As a last resort, transfer the patient to another room while airing. I assure you that it is impossible to “get even more sick” from clean air, but breathing stale air filled with pathogenic pathogens is difficult not only for the patient, but also for the surrounding household.

Fighting with a high temperature justifies itself only in those cases when it “rolls over” beyond the mark of 39 degrees, causes a disturbance in the condition and behavior, the child has a tendency to seizures or neurological diseases in history.If the fever is accompanied by vomiting, do not force the child to take medications by mouth – they will immediately come back. In such cases, suppositories are used, medication is administered with an enema, and in case of emergency, injections.

Taking antipyretic drugs must be discussed with a doctor and do not allow self-activity. Uncontrolled use and systematic excess of the dose of even the most “harmless” drug can cause toxic or allergic effects.Calpol, Tylenol, Panadol, Efferalgan, Cefecon – all these drugs are prepared on the basis of paracetamol, in fact, they are one and the same drug. You need to know this in order to prevent overdose. Exceeding the dose has a toxic effect on the liver and kidneys. Paracetamol is contraindicated in children with diseases of these organs.

Nurofen for children, produced in the form of a suspension and suppositories, is in second place in terms of frequency of use. The drug is prepared on the basis of ibuprofen, which is a representative of the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and has not only antipyretic, but also anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.Compared to paracetamol, nurofen is more effective, but, unfortunately, gives more complications. Approved for use only in children over 3 months old. Nurofen begins to act in 30 minutes and lasts for 6 to 8 hours.

A very effective drug is ibuklin, which consists of ibuprofen and paracetamol. In children’s practice, dispersible (water-soluble) tablets are used. One tablet of baby ibuclin contains ibuprofen 100mg and paracetamol 125mg. Before use, dilute 1 tablet in 5 ml of chilled boiled water.Ibuclin dosage depends on the age and body weight of the child.

Beloved by many generations, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is used only in children over 12 years of age due to the possible development of severe complications.

Often mothers note that against the background of a high temperature, the child has cold extremities (“he himself is like boiling water, and the hands and feet are ice cold”). This indicates a spasm of peripheral vessels.

Once again, it is necessary to emphasize the need to give plenty of water to a feverish patient, since during this period, water losses with sweat and rapid breathing increase.As a result, the excretion of fluid through the kidneys decreases, urine becomes concentrated, and the renal tubules can become clogged with salts, protein, casts, which disrupts kidney function and can lead to complications.

Do not forget about the “omnipresent and omnipotent” vitamin C. It plays an important role in increasing the body’s defenses. During illness, its dose should exceed the prophylactic several times and be at least 300 mg per day. Add ascorbic acid to fruit drink, compote, juice, tea, jelly.It improves the taste of the drink and helps the body defeat the enemy.

For the treatment of viral infections, antibiotics and sulfa drugs are not used, since the virus is not afraid of them. Therefore, do not rush to stuff the patient with ampicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, beloved for many generations, and other antibiotics from the first day.

The anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir (trade name Tamiflu) and zanamivir (trade name Relenza) have been successfully used to treat influenza.Prescribed only by a doctor, self-medication is unacceptable.

90,000 Acute respiratory viral infections

Date of publication: . Category: Doctor’s advice.

Four faces of a cold

It’s no secret for experienced doctors: even during a flu epidemic, its closest associates – respiratory viral infections – account for the lion’s share of the sick. There are more than 300 types of such provocateurs who make us sneeze and cough.

At first glance, there is not much difference between them. And yet, there are some distinctive features in the behavior of “cold” viruses.

Provocateur No. 1 – parainfluenza

Its special features are a voice that is hoarse beyond recognition in a person who has fallen ill with it, a “barking” cough. But in general, parainfluenza is milder than the flu, with a low temperature, which, if it rises, then gradually. True, if adequate measures are not taken in time, parainfluenza can turn into laryngitis, bronchitis and even pneumonia.Parainfluenza is especially dangerous for babies, in which this virus can cause false croup, fraught with the development of acute stenosis (edema) of the larynx. Therefore, it is so important in the treatment of parainfluenza to connect moisturizing inhalation to the traditional drug therapy. Parainfluenza lasts a week and a half.

Provocateur No. 2 – respiratory syncytial infection

Unlike parainfluenza, it manifests itself even when it affects the small bronchi and bronchioles. And this is the greatest insidiousness of a respiratory syncytial infection, which can last for two weeks or more.At the same time, the state of the person who picked it up often resembles an asthmatic one: the poor fellow suffers from suffocation (especially on exhalation), his lungs whistle in every way.

At risk are the elderly, small children (up to three years old) and those with chronic ailments.

Respiratory syncytial infection is especially dangerous for heart patients, allergy sufferers and persons with pulmonary pathology. They carry this virus the hardest. Salvation lies in timely diagnosis, which in this case is best to start with a chest X-ray.

Provocateur No. 3 – adenovirus infection

You have a high temperature for several days, your body is filled with lead, and you can feel enlarged lymph nodes on your neck and armpits? Most likely, an adenovirus “settled” in your body.

In addition to the symptoms listed above, a distinctive feature of this infection is the so-called “pharyngoconjunctival fever”, manifested by a feeling of pain in the eyes (first in one, then in the other), so strong that after a couple of days tears begin to flow like a river, and under the eyelids and noticeable white or grayish films appear in the corners of the eyes.Unlike influenza and parainfluenza, cough with adenovirus infection is usually wet. In young children, the disease is often accompanied by diarrhea (diarrhea).

Provocateur No. 4-rhinoinfection

It does not represent a particular danger for the person who has caught it, but by joining the flu or parainfluenza, for example, it becomes a champion in the production of snot. One of the most unpleasant complications of rhinitis is sinusitis. In order not to bring oneself to this state, it is important to begin treatment of the common cold as early as possible.

Fighting by the rules

Given the difficulty in diagnosing acute respiratory viral diseases, it is best to entrust it to your doctor. And, having begun to fulfill his instructions, adhere to ten simple and effective rules for dealing with respiratory viral infections.

  1. One of the most important conditions is bed rest. Lie at home for at least a week. And the disease will pass faster, and do not “reward” those around it.
  2. Drink at least 2 liters of fluid a day.What it will be – tea, hot milk or mineral water, does not play a special role. The products of intoxication are excreted from the body with the liquid.
  3. Switch to a plant-based, milk-based diet while you are sick. Such food will not require your body to consume large amounts of energy to digest it and will save energy to fight the scourge.
  4. If you have a temperature, do not rush to bring it down. The rise in temperature itself is a natural phenomenon, a protective reaction to the introduction of foreign viruses and microbes into our body (the same as pain, vomiting, diarrhea).With the onset of a microbial attack, special brain centers responsible for thermoregulation are irritated in our head. This leads to an increase in temperature, which is not comfortable not only for us, but also for the infection itself. And therefore, if the fever is normally tolerated and does not exceed 38 degrees, many doctors do not recommend bringing it down. By reducing it, we thereby reduce the body’s defenses; In addition, popularly popular aspirin can cause heartburn and stomach problems, and if the effervescent tablets are taken in the evening or at night, it can contribute to the formation of kidney stones.
  5. Do not forget about vitamins. Especially about vitamin C. It increases the production of interferon by stimulating the immune system. By the way, most of this vitamin is found in grapefruits. One grape a day – and your physiological norm of a vital vitamin is provided.
  6. Humidify and ventilate the room regularly. In a dry atmosphere, it is more difficult for the respiratory tract to resist infection.
  7. To avoid further infection, ditch traditional cloth handkerchiefs and replace them with disposable handkerchiefs or napkins, and change towels and wash your hands more often.Especially after blowing your nose.
  8. Do not abuse vasoconstrictor drops. By pouring everything into their nose that can ease their torment, many become real drug addicts, not suspecting what kind of harm they are doing to themselves. Vessels very quickly get used to them and require more and more “doses”, the function of the cilia of the epithelium of the nasal mucosa, which removes mucus, is disrupted.
  9. Same with cough. In the early days of the disease, when the cough is dry due to irritation of the respiratory tract, drinking and inhalation of emollient and anti-inflammatory decoctions of chamomile, plantain, sage, marshmallow root, and lime blossom help.You can add a teaspoon of baking soda to a glass of the finished broth. When the cough “gets wet”, it is better to use a decoction of herbs with a drying and expectorant effect – snake mountaineer, lingonberry and eucalyptus leaves, licorice and marshmallow root, wild rosemary and yarrow herb.
  10. Do not take medicine without talking to your doctor. Especially when it comes to antibiotics. They do not act on viruses, and when used uncontrolled, they quickly develop drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria.

There are no children without snot

Both children and adults get colds in the same way: the same runny nose, the same cough. But there are some peculiarities in the treatment of children.

Dating time

In the first three years, children suffer an average of 6-8 respiratory diseases per year. Children in large cities get sick up to 10 times a year. In nurseries and kindergartens, babies get sick especially often. This is understandable – they meet with a mass of new infections brought from different families.But, since respiratory diseases leave behind an immunity that lasts for several years, kindergarteners begin to get sick less often by school. And domestic children in the first 7 years of life get sick less than “organized” children, but in the first grades – much more often.

Oh, temperature

Parents of a child with a cold are usually most worried about fever. They want to knock her down by all means.

It is not worth lowering the temperature if it has not reached 39 ° C.

Firstly, most microbes and viruses stop multiplying at temperatures above 38 °. In the past, some infections were even treated by artificially inducing fevers.

Secondly, the temperature is a valuable witness: with most viral infections that cause colds, it lasts only 2-3 days, or even less, while with bacterial infections, for example, otitis media or pneumonia, the high temperature will not subside even 4 , and 5 days. And this symptom is a signal to the doctor that the child needs to be prescribed antibiotics.If you constantly knock down the temperature, the doctor will not be able to correctly diagnose.

But there are exceptions to this rule. It is necessary to reduce the temperature, starting from 38 °: 90 150

  • infants of the first two months;
  • children who previously had convulsions at a high temperature.
Household remedies

If the temperature still needs to be reduced:

  • Give your child a diaphoretic drink: tea with honey or raspberries, with lime blossom.Offer to drink often, but little by little. Too much liquid at one time can cause vomiting.
  • Dry his body with a warm, damp towel. Water evaporates and increases heat transfer. Do not use vinegar or vodka to wipe down. After such a procedure, the child will begin to tremble, the trembling will increase the body temperature again.
  • The student can be placed under a warm shower. But don’t expect the temperature to return to normal immediately. Both rubdown and shower will lower it by 1-1.5 degrees.
  • Remove the diaper from the baby and hold him naked for a couple of minutes.
Panties procedures

To treat a little patient is a real punishment. Either he does not allow himself to drip into his nose, then the medicine does not want to swallow. Or you can do this:

Soak cotton wicks with runny nose drops or saline and insert them into your nostrils. What kind of tusks you got, just a sight for sore eyes.

Nobody wants to wrestle with you? Does the kid want? Then we will make him the same.

Mustard plasters are an intolerable torture for children: thin skin is burned before the chest has time to warm up. Boil the potatoes in their uniforms, wrap them in plastic, and then in a towel. One potato – on the breast, one – on the back, the baby sits in the arms of his mother and listens to fairy tales – what a pleasant treatment. Inhalation will help with coughing and sore throat. Breathe over the steam of freshly boiled potatoes, covering yourself with a towel, of course, together, head to head, pretending that you are hiding in a warm house from an evil wolf.

Children ‘s colds are an inevitable phenomenon, it is not necessary to make a tragedy out of them, children who are not prone to colds have not yet been invented.


Aspirin is contraindicated in children under 15 years of age with acute viral infections. In no case should you give it to them to lower the temperature. Aspirin can cause Reye’s syndrome, a severe liver and brain damage. The lethal outcome in this disease exceeds 50%.

Caution won’t hurt

One of the most popular medicines today are those for enhancing immunity.

Most people treat them as ordinary vitamins, believing that these drugs are absolutely safe and useful for everyone, without exception. But is it?

And immunity is ok

Many knowledgeable doctors are sure: before prescribing immunomodulators to a patient, a doctor must:

  • to have on hand a study of the patient’s immune status;
  • have a rationale for the recommendation of the drug, confirmed by clinical and laboratory data;
  • Be familiar with the efficacy and safety criteria for such drugs.

By the way, recently, after a detailed examination of a group of frequently ill children, it turned out that only half of them have immunity disorders. In 40%, bronchial asthma was found, and in 10% of the diseases were associated with the structural features of the respiratory system.

By the way

Most of the drugs used in immunology are only 10–15 years old, so long-term studies on their safety have not yet been conducted. But on the other hand, it is known that the production of several immunomodulators has already been closed abroad, since it was found that they provoke the development of autoimmune diseases.Therefore, immunostimulating drugs should be used with caution and in no case should they be prescribed on their own.

Antibiotics: benefit or harm?

Antibiotics are completely powerless against viruses. That is why these drugs are contraindicated for ARVI or influenza, hepatitis and some other acute infectious diseases.

But, if a secondary infection joins ARVI, if there is a danger of bacterial pneumonia, antibiotics are necessary to protect the patient from complications.

However, the doctor must have serious reasons for this. Antibiotics may be prescribed if a fever suddenly returns after being normal for several days.

Or coughing intensified, shortness of breath appeared – that is, there are symptoms that indicate a bacterial infection.

What to assign?

In case of an infectious disease, the doctor, having established a diagnosis, most often prescribes one of the drugs that are used to treat this particular disease.But in order to make a “targeted choice”, the doctor must know: are you allergic (and to what exactly), chronic diseases, what antibiotics you were treated with before and when.

The fact is that bacteria quickly develop resistance to the drug, and when used again, it is not able to cope with them. Therefore, in such situations, a second-generation antibiotic is immediately prescribed, which has a wider spectrum of action. The effectiveness of the drug is assessed within three days from the start of treatment, if there is no improvement, the antibiotic is canceled and another is prescribed.


Antibiotics should not be taken with milk – because of this, the process of absorption of the drug in the intestine is disrupted. To reduce possible side reactions, before taking the medicine, you can drink half a glass of jelly, it envelops the intestinal mucosa, protects its beneficial microflora, but does not interfere with the absorption of the drug.

Autumn without colds

If you catch a cold at the very beginning, it is quite possible to cope with the disease with the help of folk remedies.

To prevent sore throat
  • When discomfort in the throat begins, slowly chewing raw lemon, especially the zest, helps. So that essential oils and citric acid have time to act on inflamed mucous membranes, after chewing lemon, do not eat anything for an hour. Repeat the procedure two to three times a day.
  • Fragrant violet is an excellent remedy for angina, pharyngitis and other inflammations of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract.It is used in the form of a decoction or alcohol tincture. Broth: pour 1 teaspoon of flowers with a glass of boiling water. Rinse and take orally 2 tbsp. spoons 4-5 times a day. Tincture: 1 tbsp. pour a spoonful of flowers with 100 ml of alcohol. Take 1 tbsp. spoon of tincture 3 times a day before meals. To prepare a gargle, dilute 10 ml of tincture with a glass of warm water.
  • Spice lovers will love this warming cocktail: 4; cups of caraway seeds pour 1.5 cups of hot water and bring to a boil. Strain, add 1 tbsp.a spoonful of brandy or vodka. Drink 1 tbsp. spoon of the mixture 3-4 times a day.
  • Garlic inhalation. Crush a few cloves of garlic in a mug, bend over it, and breathe for five minutes. First with the mouth, then with the nose.
  • Gargling with freshly squeezed beetroot juice will help to cope with inflammation of the mucous membrane of the throat.
  • If your voice is low, try anise infusion. Boil 1 teaspoon of anise seeds with a glass of boiling water and let it brew for 20 minutes.Drink ¼ cup warm infusion 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals.
Breathe Deeper
  • Barely begun runny nose is treated with steam inhalation. Boil dry mint or eucalyptus leaves with boiling water and breathe over the steam for several minutes. These plants counterbalance the inflammatory effect and prevent disease from developing.
  • When the nose is stuffy, and there are no drops at hand, you can make a medicine from what is in any home, namely, from ordinary green tea.

The infusion is easy to prepare: pour 1 teaspoon of dry tea with a glass of boiling water. We are waiting for the tea leaves to infuse and cool. We bury it in the nostrils so that the mucous membrane is abundantly washed with a solution. The procedure should be repeated 6-8 times a day.

Cough suppressants
  • Decoction of leaves of coltsfoot: 1 tbsp. a spoonful of leaves of mother-and-stepmother, brew a glass of boiling water, let it brew for 30 minutes and take 1 tbsp.spoon every hour.
  • Apple tea: 2 tbsp. Pour tablespoons of chopped dried apples with a glass of water and boil for 10-15 minutes. Drink warm.
  • Aloe with honey: Cut off some aloe leaves, chop and squeeze the juice. Mix the juice with honey in a 1: 1 ratio. Take the mixture 1 teaspoon 3 times a day.

This agent has an expectorant effect, relieves inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.

  • Sage infusion: 2 tbsp.Pour tablespoons of dry sage herb with a glass of boiling water and leave for an hour. Take a warm infusion ½ cup 2-3 times a day.
  • Lemon oil: Scald the lemon in hot water, then mince it with the zest, mix with 100 g butter and 1 tbsp. a spoonful of honey. Lemon oil is a wonderful preventive measure that will keep you from colds.
  • Milk with poppy seeds: If a cough keeps you awake, drink a glass of warm milk before bed, to which add 2 tsp.spoons of poppy.
  • Radish juice: Take a large radish, peel it, grate and squeeze the juice. Mix the juice with 1 tbsp. spoon of honey and take 2 tbsp. spoons 2-3 times a day.
Increasing protection

In the season of colds, all forces must be directed to strengthening the body’s defenses, which will help not to get sick. These tools are simple. Among them:

Drink a glass of orange or grapefruit juice on an empty stomach in the morning, and a salad with onions in the evening.This will help you strengthen your immune system and deal with viruses that have entered your body. But this method of prevention is not suitable for people with a number of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Extra sleep
Lack of sleep reduces the immune defense several times. Therefore, to reduce the risk of infection, increase your sleep time by 1–2 hours. Sometimes it’s difficult, but it’s better to give up watching your favorite TV show or going to the theater, where you’re likely to get an infection.
Acupressure massage
Massaging active points in a clockwise direction provides toning of the body, while massage in the opposite direction – relaxation. Find the point at the intersection of the lines from the thumb and forefinger in the indentation of the hand. When you press on it, you should feel a little pain. Make 50-100 massaging movements: clockwise in the morning, counterclockwise to quickly fall asleep in the evening.
Over the past ten years, American scientists have studied several dozen plants that can affect immunity and provide protection against SARS. It turned out that only one thing has the maximum and proven effectiveness: Echinacea purpurea. Taking an aqueous tincture of this plant for two weeks reduces the likelihood of getting the flu by 30%, and using it during illness cuts the duration of the illness in half. To protect yourself, take Echinacea as a preventive measure – 20 drops in the morning and evening.Gives a result and massive reception of echinacea in an emergency situation – 40 drops at intervals of 1-2 hours.
Garlic Therapy
In the midst of the cold season, garlic is essential. Whether you love it in its natural form or prefer to get by with the garlic oil capsules, it doesn’t matter. Allicin contained in garlic works effectively in any company and is excellent at destroying microbes.
Homeopathy and adaptogens
Homeopathic complexes are an excellent means of preventing influenza.The reception of Eleutherococcus, ginseng, pantocrine and other adaptogens, which increase the tone of the body’s defenses, also works well.
Proper food
Postpone the idea of ​​losing weight until spring. If in the cold season you deprive your body of the necessary fatty deposits, immunity suffers first of all. Low-fat diets are especially harmful because the walls of lymphocytes and macrophages – our defense cells – are made up of lipids. Including – from cholesterol, which many supporters of a healthy lifestyle are so terribly afraid of.
Remember: Your winter diet should have enough protein from both plant and animal sources. After all, immunoglobulins that ensure the body’s resistance to diseases are proteins, the synthesis of which requires the entire set of essential amino acids.
But you shouldn’t overeat either. Excess fat suppresses the immune system. Large amounts of protein overload the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys. Excess sugar is a direct path to obesity, which is an even greater enemy of immunity than excessive thinness.


90,000 Enterovirus infection

Enterovirus infection

Enterovirus infection is caused by a large group of viruses from the picornavirus family. Viruses are stable in the external environment, persist for a long time in soil, water, on infected objects, but quickly die when boiled, under the influence of disinfectant solutions and ultraviolet radiation. Most often they get sick in the autumn-summer period. Infection occurs from patients with enterovirus infection and virus carriers, which are most often preschool children.The infection is transmitted both by airborne droplets when coughing, sneezing, and by contact – when using objects contaminated with the patient’s secretions. Infection through contaminated food and water is possible. Overcrowding and unsanitary conditions contribute to the spread of infection. Children aged 3-10 years get sick more often. Breastfed babies rarely get sick, as they receive immunity from the mother. After the transferred enterovirus infection, repeated cases of the disease are possible due to the variety of the pathogen.

Periods and forms of the disease

The following periods of the disease are distinguished:

• incubation, latent period – from 2 to 10 days;
• period of pronounced manifestations of the disease;
• convalescence period.

The duration of the disease may vary depending on its form and severity. For enterovirus infection, common symptoms are characteristic that are detected in all patients.

The onset of the disease is acute: the condition worsens, weakness, lethargy, headache, and sometimes vomiting appear.The temperature rises, sometimes up to 39-40 °. There may be redness of the skin of the upper half of the body, especially the face and neck, redness of the eyes – scleritis. In the pharynx, reddening of the soft palate, arches, granularity of the posterior pharyngeal wall is visible. Tongue coated with white bloom. A rash of a different nature may appear on the skin of the torso. The cervical and axillary lymph nodes are enlarged, an enlargement of the liver and spleen is possible. In addition to these general symptoms, enterovirus infection can take various forms. Against the background of the general symptoms of the disease, a leading symptom arises, which determines the form of enterovirus infection.

Herpetic sore throat is one of the most common forms. It occurs more often in young children. Against the background of an elevated temperature, which lasts for 1-3 days, on the oral mucosa, small raised spots (papules) appear in the pharynx, which quickly turn into bubbles (vesicles), which last for 24-48 hours, after which they open up, forming erosion with a white bloom. The upper anterior cervical lymph nodes are often enlarged.

Epidemic myalgia (Bornholm’s disease, “devil’s disease”) is the most striking form of enterovirus infection, which makes it possible to diagnose on the basis of severe intoxication and pain in the muscles of the chest, abdomen, lower back and legs of a paroxysmal nature, lasting from several minutes to an hour.The disease often has an undulating course, sometimes the temperature drops by 1-3 days, and then rises again. The liver is enlarged; in boys, especially during adolescence, the testicles may be involved.

Enterovirus exanthema is characterized by a rash that appears 2-3 days after the temperature drops. The rash can be varied – punctate, spotty, with minor hemorrhages. It appears instantly, is located on the body, less often on the legs and feet, lasts 2-3 days, after which it disappears without a trace.

As with other forms of the disease, a combination of a rash with changes in the pharynx, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes is possible.

Enterovirus infection can affect the nervous system: the meninges (serous meningitis), brain tissue (encephalitis) and spinal cord (myelitis). These forms are characterized by manifestations of intoxication, headache, vomiting, convulsions, even loss of consciousness and paralysis are possible. In such cases, you should immediately consult a doctor and hospitalize the patient.Severe infections in newborns with heart and brain damage are very rare. Heart damage is also possible in older children.

Enteroviral diarrhea is one of the forms of enterovirus infection that occurs more often in children in the first years of life. Within 2-3 days, against a background of moderately elevated temperature and intoxication, loose stools appear, sometimes with an admixture of mucus.

With enterovirus infection, it is also possible to damage the eyes in the form of hemorrhagic conjunctivitis and inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye – uveitis.With hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, photophobia, lacrimation, eyelid edema, redness and punctate hemorrhages in the conjunctiva of one or both eyes are observed.

The listed forms do not exhaust the whole variety of clinical manifestations of enterovirus infection. With this disease, damage to the kidneys, biliary system, liver, lungs, pancreas is possible. Combined forms of enterovirus infection are often observed, for example, herpangina and myalgia, etc.


Patients with enterovirus infection can be treated at home, children with moderate and severe forms of the disease, with damage to the central nervous system, eyes, heart, liver, as well as young children are hospitalized.For home treatment, bed rest is prescribed for 5-7 days. The diet should be appropriate for the patient’s age, an abundant drink is necessary. Medical treatment is carried out according to the doctor’s prescription. A child is considered healthy after normalization of temperature and disappearance of all manifestations of the disease, which usually occurs no earlier than 10-12 days. Follow-up after recovery, depending on the form and severity of the disease, is carried out by a pediatrician, neuropathologist, cardiologist, ophthalmologist.


No vaccine against enteroviruses has been developed.

A patient with an enterovirus infection is isolated for at least 10 days from the onset of the disease.

Contact children are monitored for 7 days. The patient’s room and belongings should be washed and disinfected.

90,000 Muscovite told how she was treated for coronavirus at home for 26 days

It took a resident of Moscow almost two weeks to receive confirmation of the diagnosis of COVID-19.The woman was able to achieve a computed tomography scan and a test for coronavirus infection only on the eleventh day after the onset of the first symptoms. During this time, her eldest son also became infected.

In detail, a Muscovite told Real Time how she sought treatment, how she deals with a non-working monitoring telephone and how she feels almost a month after the onset of the disease.

– My children and I went into isolation earlier than all of Moscow, because the children were transferred to distance learning.I am an individual entrepreneur, I work for myself. Accordingly, we settled at home so as not to go to public places once again. Once I went to a store near the house, went out wearing a mask and gloves. I came home, took everything off, processed my hands and managed to get infected.

April 10

My temperature has risen to 38 [degrees]. I was at a loss, I thought: it can’t be. I laughed at this, drank a little brandy, because in all the networks it is written that alcohol prevents. Just in case, I think.The next day my temperature was about 37.3, I felt great. I decided that I wouldn’t bother the doctors once again, they are already under heavy load, I’ll wait and see how it will be next. The second, third day – I feel great, but the temperature of 37.3 is still holding. I thought that it would pass, that I caught a cold somewhere. And on the sixth day my shoulder blades began to hurt.

April 16

I decided to call an ambulance, dialed for a very long time: apparently, there was a large flow, I called for 30 or 40 minutes.A girl arrived in a disposable mask, with bare hands on the call. She examined me, gave me ARVI and said that the next day she would call a local therapist for me, and he should guide me in the future: take smears, examine them, and everything else.

The next day the therapist came – I still had the same: fever, shoulder blades ached and plus shortness of breath appeared. Minor, but nevertheless: it’s hard to talk, walk as if you were playing sports. And to the shortness of breath was added clammy sweat and weakness.The therapist said it was nonsense, now everyone is sitting at home, panicking, no need to panic, drink more water. Surely, aired, slipped through, take yourself a motherwort, brew it to put your nerves in order, you panic a lot. I didn’t argue with anything, I don’t know what the symptoms are – I’m not a doctor.

An hour after his arrival, I had a strong chill, and the temperature jumped up to 38.5. This was the seventh day after the start. The sacrum ached terribly, the head ached terribly. I could not find a place on the bed to fall asleep in some position for at least half an hour.I started having such a severe headache that it made me vomit. Eyes hurt, hurt, could not look at the light or move them. Turning my eyes was accompanied by severe dizziness and vomiting.

I called the therapist again, she did not look at me, but immediately wrote out a prescription – the antibiotic “Azithromycin”, also said to drink a lot and left. She was at my house, probably for 30 seconds. She did not examine anything at my throat.

I began to drink this “Azithromycin”. I was on my own these days, I was in a terrible state.Friends said: “You need a CT scan,” but I didn’t want to look for anything, because I just didn’t have the strength to even look at my phone and talk. Absolutely sick head, vomiting all the time, it’s all dizzy.

April 21

A few days later, they suddenly called me from the clinic and asked how I felt. I was very much surprised that they suddenly remembered about me. She said that I was terribly bad. The operator was worried: “Let us send you to CT, now we will arrange everything for you.”After some time, they called me back and said that they had recorded me for a CT scan at a special center for COVID diagnostics: “Take a taxi, go there yourself.” I was surprised that you can go somewhere with ARVI. Moreover, I already understood that I probably did not have a simple ARVI, and by that time I began to lack air. You seem to be breathing, but there is no air. And this dizziness remained, shortness of breath – all these symptoms. My eldest son – 14 years old – ran to my pharmacy for medicines. He bought me a Betaserc for dizziness.I took these pills, took them from the pressure, got behind the wheel, went myself to this center for a CT scan so as not to infect anyone.

The center is very well equipped. There I was immediately greeted in a protective suit, given a mask, gloves, shoe covers, disinfected my hands before putting on gloves. And there the line was located on two floors so that we, the sick, would not crowd. In total, I spent four to five hours there, because there were so many people. Many have already come there again, that is, with a confirmed COVID.

I had the 11th day of illness, I had a CT scan, an EKG, I donated blood, and took a smear. Then a therapist examined me and gave me antibiotics for two weeks. I signed the documents that I will be treated at home. I was diagnosed with viral pneumonia with frosted glass infiltration foci. They photographed me, brought me to the base, sent me home for treatment. I asked: “How do I find out the results of tests, smears? What’s next? You gave me the medicine, who will follow me next?” I was told that they would accompany me from the clinic.

But further – silence again. From April 21 to April 26, no one from the polyclinic accompanied me. The smear, I was told, will be ready within two to three days. If it is positive, I will be contacted immediately, I will immediately know about it. Nobody contacted me.


I have two sons – 14 and 8 years old. The eldest son fell ill after me. He had a fever, shortness of breath, and a high pulse. I called an ambulance, and on April 24 he was admitted to the children’s hospital.He has confirmed COVID. At the hospital, smears are quickly prepared, and my son quickly received a smear. They did an X-ray – he has bilateral pneumonia, like me.

Nevertheless, our polyclinic does not know that my child is in the hospital, because on the sixth day, when my son was in the hospital, they brought me a decree that he was being treated at home. And on the eighth or ninth day, they came to the son to take a smear. That is, the information is not transmitted.

The youngest child, eight years old, showed no signs of illness.Accordingly, I did not call a doctor specifically for him, and, as a contact, they came to take a smear from him just a few days ago – on the 23rd day of my illness.

April 26

I got a call from the clinic five days later. They asked how I felt. I say again that I feel terrible, that I just can’t. This is the state, it does not get better. If we have the flu, then after a few days we feel better and gain strength. And here, it turns out, some kind of constant nonsense, constantly bad, and there is no respite.I said that I felt bad.

A general practitioner came to me – for the first time they came to me from the clinic wearing an anti-plague suit: glasses, a mask, a fully packed doctor. She listened to me, said that I have weakened breathing, wheezing, whistles in my lungs. She gave me serious drugs: antimalarial, and they changed my antibiotic. The doctor suggested that I be hospitalized, but I was scared: I have a child in the next room – my second, eight-year-old son. She offered me to put the child in, so that a person who will come to our house and will live here, because the child cannot be taken out, would look after him.

I turned to my ex-spouse – the child’s father, and he agreed to sit with his son.

The therapist and I had an agreement that I would put the child in for two hours, and she would call the ambulance. And then it so happened that in two hours I did not attach it, the therapist’s phone then sat down – I could not get through. And I began to call myself an ambulance. The ambulance that came to me began to say that I was stressed, panicked, that if I had COVID, a smear would already be ready.And this was from April 26 to April 27, and I took a smear on April 21. And they say: “This cannot be, positive smears come quickly – within a couple of days.” It seemed to me that they were making some kind of crazy person out of me, what I was making up here. I say, “I have a CT scan on my hands,” the only thing I had. They looked, lowered the degree a little. I say: “My son is in the hospital, he has confirmed COVID.” And they say: “Probably, you are just a contact.” But my son fell ill after me on the 11th day.

The ambulance did not take me to the hospital, but they took me to the CT scan for a second one, to another center. CT scan showed a positive trend: the affected area became slightly smaller. I was told that I need to endure a little more and complete the treatment at home, it is clear that it is very bad, but now people with intoxication are not taken to hospitals, they only take heavy people, whose lungs are really very badly affected, who cannot breathe on their own. And in my case, of course, it would be good for me [to put on] a dropper in order to remove this intoxication.But in this case, hospitals are now overcrowded, and people like me are not accepted.

April 29

A couple of days after that, I received a positive smear in the mail — that is, eight days [after the test]. The smear came to the post office on April 29, can you imagine, and on April 30 I received a letter in the mail that it was sent to me by mistake. I began to call all the services to find out what was the matter. But Rospotrebnadzor says, call the Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health says, call the clinic.The polyclinic knows nothing. This is football where you are in the form of a ball. I could not get any information from anyone, wasted time and effort. And on the 11th day after they took a smear from me, it reached my clinic, they called me from the clinic and said that I was positive.

Telephone for monitoring

When I was on CT for the first time and when it became clear that I had COVID-type pneumonia, it was April 21, the next day I received a call from the social monitoring service and said that I would be provided with a phone that would be behind me follow: monitor me – geolocation and face.If he calls, I have to take a photo of the face, and [they] get the data. They also told me that I have no right to refuse this phone. I was not going to refuse – I am being treated at home. They said they would deliver the phone within 24 hours, but they delivered it to me six days later.

The monitoring telephone is generally an interesting thing, because I have it and has not worked for four days for sure. I receive text messages on my phone that I urgently need to be identified, but I can’t, because this phone says that the application has crashed.I have already called the technical support service several times, and every time they told me: restart the phone. I reboot it, it still doesn’t work. The last time I called yesterday and said: “Look, I don’t want to be nervous about this phone, I just want to be treated, and not make excuses whether I’m at home or not at home, because this phone does not work.” And I was told that now everyone in Moscow is having a problem with this application.

May 6

Today is the 26th day.I still have a low-grade fever – 37.2-37.3 – there is a cough, it is rare, but dry. If I start to cough, then, of course, it is deep. To be quite frank, diarrhea still accompanies me for almost the entire period of the illness. Perhaps there are already drugs here. Great weakness, bad head, ears still clogged. But nevertheless, of course, I gained strength. After two days of taking the antimalarial drug, I felt better. Perhaps it helped, perhaps a coincidence, but it really became easier for me, I gained strength, because before that I could not even speak at all.

I want to tell everyone, if you want to achieve something, so that a doctor comes to you, you need to twitch yourself. I sat more and waited that they should come to me to do this and that, because they told me that they would monitor me. But it doesn’t work that way.

90,000 “Don’t listen to advice.” Voronezh chief pulmonologist – on the dangers of self-medication. Latest news from Voronezh and region

In the Voronezh region continues
the number of cases of coronavirus is growing. What is the difference between the first and second, autumn,
pandemic waves, which patients need urgent medical attention and why
it is dangerous to be treated with antibiotics without a doctor’s prescription, said the main
freelance pulmonologist of the Voronezh Region Health Department Natalya

– Natalya Eduardovna, what is the difference between the second wave
coronavirus from the first?

– The virus has become more contagious,
spreads more easily through the population. The interval from the first
clinical manifestations of the disease until the moment when patients develop
aggravation of symptoms. This is an average of one to two days. From a human point of view
the gap is insignificant, but from the medical one it is very significant. The rest
the virus behaves in the same way as in the first wave: initially it gives catarrhal
manifestations – slight sore throat, nasal congestion.Then during
two or three days the temperature rises to sufficiently high numbers – from 37 to 39
degrees, which is standard for all viral infections. It’s unpleasant but natural
the process of the body’s fight against the virus. Most patients then have the virus
leaves the body, and then everything flows quite well.

– And how do those who have it carry the disease
in a more severe form?

– For a part of patients in the seventh-eighth
days from the onset of the disease begins to move into the so-called pulmonary phase.These are exactly those patients who, on chest X-ray examinations,
cells are detected by lesions of the lung tissue. But for most of these patients
the very fact of the presence of these changes in the lung tissue is not dangerous: they do not give any deterioration
quality of life, no significant respiratory disorders, no decrease
oxygen content in the blood. Maximum, than such lung damage is manifested,
Is an unproductive, dry cough. It is unpleasant, paroxysmal, but still not
less it is simply a marker that the virus has entered the mucous membrane of the bronchial tree.Thus, most patients, even when this pulmonary
phase, they still recover safely. Changes in the lungs during
months, as a rule, spontaneously regress. Should not be consumed
a huge number of antibiotics, take some drugs according to the advice
friends and acquaintances. In general, such a course of the disease is not an indication for

About 30% more patients
tolerate covid harder. For them, it is not the virus itself that is dangerous, but the body’s reaction to
him – by the type of formation of the so-called hyperinflammation.The body is so
seriously struggles with the virus, which begins to defeat itself. For such patients
hospitalization and completely different methods of treatment are required. For them, it is fundamentally
it is important to extinguish this storm.

– How to know that the patient is in danger and it is time for him
call an ambulance?

– Hospitalization criteria: temperature
above 37.5 degrees for more than five days or shortness of breath – more than 22 respiratory movements in
minute. Of course, not everyone can objectively count their breaths per minute.
or measure the saturation, which is also a criterion.We hospitalize patients
when the oxygen level in their blood falls below 95%. Moreover, such a level
oxygen is not yet considered a critical indicator: they are hospitalized in Moscow
at saturation below 92%, but in this situation we are insured.

“Storm” most likely in patients
over 65 years of age, as the immune system changes with age and occurs more often
hyperinflammatory reactions. Therefore, if the temperature is kept in people older
65 years old, you need to call an ambulance.

Second contingent – patients
having serious concomitant diseases.First of all, it is diabetes,
which is very poorly compensated. If the patient knows they have a sugar level
10-12 and poorly compensated, it is better to call an ambulance too. With another
hand, when the temperature persists for several days, this is not
necessarily “storm”. There are many other reasons that support this
temperature. If a young patient has a high fever without
chronic diseases, it is better for him to call a general practitioner at home to
figure out what caused it.

– You say that antibiotics do not cure coronavirus …

– In the Voronezh region
there is a tendency to eat a huge amount of antibiotics in the outpatient
stage. Antibiotics have no effect at all on the treatment process.
coronavirus. Moreover, they aggravate the situation in several
directions. First, they contribute to the development of fungal superinfections,
which in themselves maintain the temperature, especially in obese people. Them
then have to be treated for candidiasis.

The second point – from the big
the amount of antibiotics, antibiotic-associated diarrhea occurs with a large
the amount of watery discharge. And this state also maintains
temperature, such patients often require hospital treatment.

In addition, by themselves
antibiotics are very toxic. Even one antibiotic. And if more than one, then they inhibit the hematopoietic sprouts of the bone
brain and can in themselves cause leukopenia – a sharp drop in leukocytes in
blood. That is, by absorbing antibiotics, we do the same thing that the coronavirus does:
it presses on the sprouts, on our immune defenses, and antibiotics press on it.We end up with a really hard case.

– But doctors in
polyclinics are prescribed antibiotics …

There are indications for antibiotics for coronavirus. A number of patients have
own bacterial flora, which during immunosuppression – for example, in the case
virus – capable of being activated. These are, for example, patients with chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease. They have Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the airways.
wand. When immunity is suppressed by a virus, it is activated, develops
heavy processes.A certain set works against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
antibiotics, which the doctor prescribes.

patients with severe diabetes mellitus have trophic disorders of the lower
limbs, with a tendency to suppuration. They usually have their own
staphylococcus, against which antibiotics of a different class are required. And such
diseases that may require antibiotic therapy are enough
many. The general practitioner can differentiate them and prescribe the necessary
drugs.But we have the patients themselves, after hearing and reading various information,
drink handfuls of antibiotics. And not simple, but from the category of the upper classes, then
there are very toxic, including neurological toxicity, cardiotoxicity,

the same can be said about blood thinning drugs: they are by no means harmless.
They can be taken strictly according to indications – and only certain classes of these

– If the patient feels better, the danger has already passed
or are complications possible?

– There are two critical
points in the development of the disease: the first – from the seventh to the ninth day from the beginning
diseases, the second – from the 11th to the 14th.This is very conditional, since the terms for different
categories of patients can shift. But when during these periods there is
return temperature – febrile fever above 38 degrees – this is also
a reason to call a doctor at home. This may be an indirect sign of delayed
hyperinflammation reactions.

As for the temperature
not higher than 37 degrees, it can last up to a month during the recovery process. Complications
at the same time are unlikely.

– Many of those who have had coronavirus are very
recover for a long time, complain of severe weakness.

– Yes, the coronavirus is so bad,
that during the recovery period gives pronounced symptoms of asthenization: weakness,
sweating, fatigue, headache that persist
for a long time – up to a month. It is necessary during this period to give yourself a moderate
load, try not to plunge into the disease, but somehow from it
get distracted, switch attention. It is very useful to do breathing exercises,
there are many variations of it. The simplest thing is to raise your hands ten times in a deep
inhale and lower them with a deep exhalation, while the stomach should participate in
breathing.If you are too lazy to do even such exercises, take the Frolov apparatus –
simple breathing simulator. But all this must be done after an illness, when
no fever or intoxication.

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SARS masks | Articles of the clinic Medservice

Inflammation of the lungs has “learned” to mask. The insidiousness of this disease lies in the fact that recently, very often it proceeds without characteristic symptoms and signs that make it possible to suspect it.Moreover, on popular X-ray or, as they say in everyday life, “X-ray”, pneumonia is not always detected.

Everything went wrong

In the classical course of pneumonia, the characteristic symptoms are high, above 38.5 degrees Celsius, fever, severe cough, often with purulent sputum, severe weakness, shortness of breath. In blood tests, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and an increase in leukocytes are noted.

But this, with the so-called typical course of pneumonia.In my practice, more and more often there are patients who are diagnosed with pneumonia in the absence of the above symptoms.

A typical example – I was approached by a young man who complained of a dry cough, weakness, which he attributed to ARVI. The temperature did not rise above 37.2. He suffered from these symptoms for 10 days. He had previously undergone a chest x-ray and was diagnosed with bronchitis. But, the therapy prescribed at the same time did not help.This made him turn to me. After the examination, I suspected pneumonia and referred the patient for a computed tomography, during which the lung lesions characteristic of this disease were visualized.

And this is far from the only case. A trend has been established when pneumonia proceeds without an increase in temperature, with a dry cough, and good blood tests. Sometimes with a high fever, but no coughing. Weakness, while, as a rule, is attributed to fatigue, fatigue.

Risk level

The main causative agents of pneumonia, a disease described by Hippocrates, are streptococcus (pneumococcus), as well as mycoplasma and chlamydia. At the same time, an alarming trend is an increase in the number of cases when pneumonia is a complication after the transferred viral infections, which we used to call ARVI, ARI, influenza.

Sometimes pneumonia is fatal. In Russia last year alone, she claimed more than 18 thousand lives, and was diagnosed in almost one million people.At the same time, there is a permanent increase in the incidence. At the epicenter of the risk zone are people with weakened immunity, children under five years old and people of the older generation – those who are 65 years old or more. Underdiagnosis and self-medication exacerbate the situation.

Signs of “atypical” pneumonia

It is difficult to give a complete list of symptoms and signs of a patient with pneumonia. And I would not like our recommendations to be regarded as a guide for self-diagnosis.Nevertheless, I would like to draw the attention of our readers to some points.

With a sluggish ARVI, which lasted several days and was accompanied by a weak cough, a slight runny nose, weakness – a sign of pneumonia may even be a single rise in temperature, after seemingly improving health. An increase in coughing is the same signal. In these cases, it is necessary to urgently contact a medical institution for medical help.

If the high temperature lasts only two or three days, and not five or six, as it happened with the classic course of pneumonia, then it is already appropriate to send such a patient to the diagnosis of pneumonia.But the same disease can be hidden. Sometimes it is detected two to three weeks after the onset of the disease, often after the patient is discharged. Temporary relief from therapy appears to be imaginary.

What can give confidence

“My dad was 70 years old. In early March, I fell ill, the therapist prescribed treatment for ARVI. Then he got worse. On March 15, the temperature rose, an ambulance was called, the doctor who arrived examined him well, there was a suspicion of pneumonia. The X-ray did not confirm the diagnosis, and the father was sent home.On March 27, an ambulance was called again, an X-ray was taken again, and again pneumonia was not confirmed. Despite a poor blood count and severe shortness of breath, no reason was found for hospitalization. March 29 – an ambulance was called again, this time an X-ray showed bilateral pneumonia with complete damage to both lungs. They were immediately taken to the intensive care unit, where my father died the next day. Question: could the X-ray fail to see pneumonia? ” – I found this sad case on the Internet. Pay attention to the dates – everything happened within two weeks.

“Could the X-ray fail to see pneumonia?” – this question is answered by the clinical case, which I described above. But once again I will note – “a regular X-ray” may “not see” pneumonia. This study, given the modern features of the course of pneumonia, is completely unreliable. Based on my practice, I can say that only computed tomography (CT) can give an unequivocal answer to the question whether there is pneumonia or not.

CT allows you to simultaneously study in detail all sections and segments of the lung tissue and bronchial “tree”, all structures of the chest: mediastinal organs, blood vessels, lymph nodes.This is not possible with conventional radiography.

Moreover, if a doctor diagnosed pneumonia on the basis of X-ray results, prescribed treatment, and the patient does not get better, then this is another reason to do a computed tomography. At one time, I was approached by an elderly man who was hospitalized with suspected pneumonia. He underwent several X-rays and prescribed four (!) Courses of antibiotics. There was no improvement. I immediately had a question – was there pneumonia? Is it being treated for? The patient was referred for CT.Unfortunately, in this particular case, he was diagnosed with a malignant tumor in the lungs.

If, nevertheless, pneumonia was diagnosed

The duration of the course of antibiotic therapy for pneumonia is at least one and a half to two weeks. It is prescribed individually, taking into account the characteristics of the patient, analyzes, CT scan results, where the localization of the lesions is determined. Depending on the severity of the condition, the doctor determines where the patient will be treated – in a hospital or on an outpatient basis.In parallel with this, symptomatic treatment is carried out under the supervision of a doctor to eliminate cough, weakness. A working patient receives a certificate of incapacity for work.

I draw your attention to the fact that three to four weeks after the start of treatment, it is imperative to do a control study on a computer tomograph.