Ibs and nuts: The request could not be satisfied
IBS Diet — Nuts.com
Nearly 11% of the population suffers from irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS (Canavan et. al., 2014). This condition results in considerable gastrointestinal distress and may cause you to lack the nutrients you need. Dietary factors can trigger IBS symptoms, making it important to identify the foods that contribute to your symptoms versus those that are safe to eat.
What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome?
Irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is considered a chronic functional disorder that affects the gastrointestinal system (Canavan et al., 2014). There are three major forms of IBS: the predominantly diarrhea type (IBS-D), predominantly constipation type (IBS-C), and a mixed type with both diarrhea and constipation (IBS-M). Symptoms of IBS vary from person to person. The most common symptoms include (Mayo Clinic, 2015):
- Abdominal pain
- Abdominal cramps
- Feeling bloated
- Stool that contains mucus
The symptoms of IBS are very uncomfortable. However, it is important to distinguish them from other diseases of the gastrointestinal system, such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. IBS is considered a functional disorder, meaning that it causes a disruption to bowel functions but does not result in the widespread inflammation that is characteristic of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America, 2012). Unlike these other diseases, IBS does not increase your risk for colon cancer (Mayo Clinic, 2015).
Although the precise causes of IBS remain unknown, there appear to be several factors that contribute to symptoms. People with IBS often have alterations to the strength and duration of the rhythmic intestinal contractions that move material through the colon (Mayo Clinic, 2015). Contractions that are stronger or more frequent than usual lead to diarrhea, while weaker or less frequent contractions cause constipation. There is also some evidence that alterations in the signals between the gastrointestinal nervous system and the brain may contribute to IBS symptoms. People with a hypersensitivity to gastrointestinal distress or altered neurotransmitter balance in the intestines may be more likely to develop IBS (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2015).
IBS is a chronic condition, meaning that many people with the syndrome must cope with it for years. Fortunately, it is possible to manage IBS symptoms by identifying and avoiding certain triggers.
Methods of Controlling IBS Symptoms
IBS symptoms may wax and wane depending on your life circumstances. Identifying triggers for IBS can help you manage the condition. Common IBS triggers include (Mayo Clinic, 2015):
- High stress. When people with IBS are under a great deal of stress, their symptoms often worsen. Thus, you may notice that you have more gastrointestinal problems when facing a major deadline at work or when having trouble in your relationship. Learning how to manage stress is a great way to reduce your IBS symptoms.
- Foods. The foods you eat can certainly trigger IBS symptoms. Exact food triggers vary from person to person. It is not yet clear whether food allergies or sensitivities contribute directly to IBS symptoms or whether certain foods trigger symptoms through another physiological process.
- Hormones. Women are 1.5 to 3 times more likely to report IBS symptoms than men (Canavan, 2014). This may be because of hormonal fluctuations in women that trigger a gastrointestinal response. Many women report that their IBS symptoms are worse during their menstrual periods, suggesting that hormonal changes may play a role.
- Illness. Other illnesses, especially those that cause diarrhea or gastrointestinal distress, can also trigger IBS symptoms. Treating the acute illness may cause these symptoms to go away.
How Food Impacts Symptoms of IBS
The foods you eat can have a profound impact on your IBS symptoms. When learning how to manage your symptoms, it can be helpful to keep a food diary listing all of the foods you eat. This can help you link specific foods to an uptick in your IBS symptoms.
Although food triggers vary from person to person, certain foods are more likely to exacerbate IBS symptoms. These include (National Health Service, 2014):
- Carbonated beverages
- Dairy products
- High fat foods
- Caffeinated beverages
- Highly processed foods, such as chips or cookies
Creating a Nutritionally Complete Diet for IBS
One of the major concerns for individuals suffering from IBS is how to maintain a nutritionally complete diet. Part of this depends on the type of IBS you suffer from. People with the diarrhea (IBS-D) or mixed (IBS-M) types are more likely to become nutritionally deficient than those with the predominantly constipation (IBS-C) type. This is because individuals with chronic diarrhea may have difficulty retaining fluid, absorbing nutrients, and getting the energy their bodies need (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2015). In these cases, a meal replacement shake is a good way to restore lost calories. Additional supplements may be necessary to ensure proper balance of vitamins and minerals. However, the best solution is to manage IBS symptoms by eliminating dietary and lifestyle triggers.
When planning an IBS diet, consider the following recommendations (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2015; Mayo Clinic, 2015):
- Increase fiber intake. People with the constipation (IBS-C) and diarrhea (IBS-D) forms of irritable bowel syndrome benefit from getting enough fiber. Fiber adds bulk to the stool, gently increasing tension on intestinal walls in a way that can help to alleviate IBS symptoms. Eating wheat bran, whole grain foods, and plenty of fresh vegetables will help you get enough; however, some may find cereal grains a problematic source of fiber and should seek to get their fiber from other sources. In fact, Whorell (2009) suggests avoiding all bran fiber as part of an elimination diet for IBS patients. The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (2015) recommends using fiber supplements such as psyllium husk to relieve constipation associated with IBS.
- Avoid FODMAPs. Certain types of carbohydrates, known as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols), may exacerbate IBS symptoms in some people. Avoid dairy products, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, sorbitol, xylitol, stone fruits, garlic, onion, lentils, and beans to lower your FODMAPs intake. After eliminating these foods, you can gradually reintroduce them one at a time to identify your triggers.
- Avoid gas-causing foods. Carbonated beverages, raw fruits, cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli often cause gas. Cut these foods out of your diet to reduce IBS symptoms.
- Avoid foods that contain gluten. Evidence linking the consumption of gluten to IBS symptoms is currently limited. However, some patients report that following a gluten-free diet helps them manage their IBS symptoms. Gluten is a protein that is found in wheat, rye, and triticale. Thus, bread, pasta, and other wheat-containing foods should be eliminated on a gluten-free diet.
Medications and Supplements that Can Help People with IBS
There is no cure for IBS, but certain products can help with symptom management. Your doctor may recommend taking over-the-counter anti-diarrheal medications (e.g., Imodium), anticholinergic medications to relieve bowel spasms, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to inhibit the activity of gastrointestinal neurons, or antibiotics. It may take some trial and error to find the medications that help you most.
It is also important to get prebiotics and probiotics to ensure you have a healthy gut flora. Your gut is populated by billions of microbes, many of which help you properly digest your food. People with IBS may have an alteration in the prevalence and type of these beneficial gut bacteria. Several scientific studies suggest that probiotic treatment, which aims to balance the levels of healthy gut bacteria, may be effective in alleviating IBS symptoms (Aragon et al. , 2010).
Probiotics, or “good” bacteria, can recolonize the gut in a person with IBS, helping to improve gastrointestinal regularity. Prebiotics are nondigestible carbohydrates that pass into the intestines, providing food for probiotic bacteria (Zeratsky, 2014). Yogurt and kefir, a fermented dairy product, contain both prebiotics and probiotics. Probiotics are also found in supplement form, which can be helpful for IBS sufferers who cannot eat dairy products. Meanwhile, whole grains, onions, bananas, garlic, honey, and artichokes are excellent sources of prebiotics (Zeratsky, 2014). Eating a diet that is rich in these foods — while avoiding any IBS trigger foods — can help you to manage your symptoms.
IBS Snack Suggestions
While diet is not a cause of IBS and eating these foods may not alleviate symptoms, these snacks and foods were selected with the hope of providing sustenance that is- to some degree- less irritating to the GI tract of one afflicted by the condition.
Though these pretzels are not gluten-free, they do offer a plain snack with a hearty crunch that can be enjoyed without rocking the boat in most cases. Try carrying a bag of these bites around for when you need a quick bite.
Freeze-dried bananas can add nutrients to your diet without the ill effects that other fruits may cause. Our bananas are made without any additives or artificial preservatives, so you can be sure you’re getting 100% banana.
Organic Long Grain White Rice
Plain white rice is an excellent option for anyone with an upset stomach. Enjoying a bowl of rice with plain chicken or vegetable broth is also a great way to add flavor, vitamins, and minerals to the dish.
The National Institutes of Health (2012) suggests that chamomile may be of some benefit for upset stomach and diarrhea in children. Try an iced chamomile tea to settle stomach upset.
For those with IBS, special diet can make a big difference
I’m sure you’ve heard friends or family complain about “tummy troubles” at some point in your life.
Whether it’s bloating, abdominal pain or something more scandalous like diarrhea/constipation, someone you know has been there (maybe even you!). Unfortunately for a lot of people, these “tummy troubles” happen daily and can be diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS.
IBS affects anywhere from 7 percent to 15 percent of the population worldwide. It’s more prevalent in women than men, and is typically diagnosed before 50 years of age. The exact cause is unknown but many researchers believe it could be related to gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, inflammation and/or alterations in the gut microbiome. The main symptoms are bloating, abdominal distention, altered bowel habits (i.e. diarrhea, constipation or a mix of both), excessive gas and/or abdominal pain. IBS is always diagnosed by a gastroenterologist, as more serious conditions – celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, endometriosis, for example – have to be ruled out first.
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A few questions that typically come up when someone is first diagnosed with IBS is 1) can it be “cured” and 2) what medication can I take to manage it. Unfortunately, it cannot be cured and medications aren’t always great at managing it.
But diet can help when symptoms and greatly improve quality of life for those suffering from IBS. The diet proven to manage symptoms – as well as being the most well researched – is the Low FODMAP diet. Created at Monash University in Australia, it has truly been life-changing for IBS patients.
So what exactly is the Low FODMAP diet? First off, it stands for Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols. These are then broken down even further into fructans, galactoligosaccharides, lactose, fructose, sorbitol and mannitol.
In lay terms, FODMAPS are short-chain carbohydrates that basically wreak havoc in the small intestine of those who have IBS. These small carbohydrates are poorly absorbed (or not absorbed at all) and pull water into the small intestine and are then fermented by bacteria in the colon. This stretches the intestine and stimulates the nerves in the gut, causing all those horrible symptoms mentioned above.
FODMAPS can be found in foods like wheat, garlic/onion, cashews, beans/legumes, asparagus, dairy, plums/peaches and sugar alcohols. I know this seems like A LOT and it is! Luckily the amazing researchers at Monash have tested hundreds of carbohydrates to figure out which foods are high and low in FODMAPs and in which amounts. Because that’s the other big thing with FODMAPs – you might be able to handle small amounts of say garlic, but if you eat it in large amounts then that’s when your symptoms will occur.
Marco Verch Professional Photographer and Speaker/via Flickr Creative Commons, CC by 2.0
Dark chocolate is low in FODMAPS.
The Low FODMAP diet is done in three phases: the elimination phase, the reintroduction phase and finally the personalization phase.
The elimination diet can last anywhere from 2-6 weeks, although some people have found relief from their symptoms after only a few days! The reintroduction phase takes quite a bit longer as you re-challenge foods from each of the FODMAP groups and monitor for tolerance. The personalization phase is basically finding a balance between the FODMAPs that have been reintroduced into your diet and avoiding/limiting the high FODMAP foods that are not well-tolerated.
Studies have shown that patients doing a low FODMAP diet are more successful with the diet when working with a registered dietitian. Monash University also has an app (Monash University FODMAP Diet app) that is extremely helpful to anyone that needs to do the low FODMAP diet.
Liz McMahon, a Philadelphia-based registered dietitian nutritionist who works for a city hospital, writes a monthly column for PhillyVoice with a focus on gut health. She offers virtual nutrition counseling at her website, www.lizmcmahonnutrition.com.
She has completed and passed the Monash University Online FODMAP Course.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Diet: What Not To Eat When You Have IBS
As anyone with irritable bowel syndrome knows, life seriously sucks when you’re constantly worrying where the nearest bathroom is. “Irritable bowel syndrome is a collection of symptoms that can be related to constipation or diarrhea, or they can alternate between constipation and diarrhea,” Nitin Kumar, M.D., a weight-management physician and gastroenterologist, tells SELF. If you have IBS, you might also experience abdominal pain and bloating (especially around your stomach area), he explains. The symptoms of IBS are chronic, but luckily even if you have it, you won’t necessarily experience symptoms all the time or every single day.
Although doctors aren’t sure what causes IBS, they do know what may help. “The best thing is to manage your diet to prevent symptoms from developing,” says Kumar. But IBS is so individual; it’s really about experimenting to see what works best for you. “Everyone’s digestive tract is different. When it comes to IBS, there are some general guidelines, but everyone has different tolerances for different foods,” Lauren Harris-Pincus, M.S., R.D.N., owner of Nutrition Starring You, tells SELF. But, both experts say, people with IBS may find success when following a low-FODMAP diet.
FODMAP stands for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols. In normal-speak, those are foods that many people’s bodies can have a tough time digesting. “We have a wide variety of healthy bacteria that help with digestion, vitamin metabolism, and immune functions, and they get energy from fermenting FODMAPs,” FODMAP expert Laura Manning, R.D., clinical nutrition coordinator in the department of gastroenterology at The Mount Sinai Hospital, told SELF in a previous article. That’s a good thing, right? Not always. “In some people, the fermentation process can just create a large amount of gas, which stretches the intestines causing bloating and pain; a water shift into the intestines, creating unpleasant diarrhea; and when water and gas both occur, it alters gut motility and you end up with constipation,” said Manning. Since those are some hallmark symptoms of IBS, avoiding the following high-FODMAP foods may help tame your digestive system:
1. Kale and other cruciferous vegetables
These contain an indigestible sugar called raffinose. Your body can’t process indigestible sugars, which can lead to discomfort for anyone who eats them, especially raw. But in people with IBS, those symptoms can be exaggerated, causing embarrassing constipation- or diarrhea-based episodes, Kumar explains. And it’s exactly those kinds of episodes that can make IBS feel so hard to talk about.
2. Sugar-free sweeteners
If you’re living with IBS, know that basically any sweetener ending in -ol is a polyol, meaning it deserves your skepticism. That includes sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol, and more. “These are sugar alcohols that can cause IBS symptoms because your body may not digest them well,” says Kumar. Check out ingredient lists on the foods you eat so you can better avoid these, or just look out for labels like “sugar-free.”
3. Beans and lentils
Although these legumes are delicious, they contain oligosaccharides, which are indigestible sugars that can trigger IBS symptoms. When your body encounters these and tries to break them down, the process can make even people without IBS gassy and bloated, says Harris-Pincus. For those with IBS, they can spark episodes that make you feel like you’re handcuffed to a toilet.
“The lactose in dairy is a disaccharide, which means it can be hard to absorb,” says Kumar. Hello, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation, not so nice to see you. But your doctor or registered dietitian can suggest plenty of dairy-free alternatives that can take up some room in your diet. There are also certain types of dairy, like cheddar cheese, that are lower in lactose than other kinds, says Harris-Pincus.
5. Fruits with pits
Unfortunately, treats like apples, mangoes, cherries, plums, and peaches are often high in fructose, which is a monosaccharide, says Harris-Pincus. In addition, you may also want to avoid things like high-fructose corn syrup, honey, and agave, since they also contain fructose and can cause IBS to rear its ugly head.
6. Wheat, rye, onions, asparagus, and garlic
“These can be really big offenders [for people with IBS],” says Harris-Pincus. Even though they don’t exactly taste sweet, they contain fructans, which are related to fructose.
Don’t despair! Not everyone with IBS is equally sensitive to all FODMAP foods. And even if you have trouble with all of them there are plenty of irritable bowel-friendly alternatives.
We know that’s a seemingly exhaustive list, but you won’t necessarily have to avoid everything on it. When tackling IBS with your doctor or registered dietitian, they’ll likely have you go on an elimination diet, then introduce different foods back into your life to see how you handle them. But in general, low-FODMAP foods can be great for people with IBS (although people whose IBS mainly manifests as constipation may actually have success with high-FODMAP foods if they can handle the bloating, says Kumar).
There are lots of helpful resources for figuring out what low-FODMAP foods are, from Monash University, a leading researcher in FODMAPs, to Kumar’s own site. Once you poke around, you’ll see that people with IBS may be able to chow down on oats, quinoa, gluten-free bread and pasta, bananas, grapes, eggplant, potatoes, bell peppers, cottage cheese, tons of lean meat, nuts like almonds or peanuts, and more. The point is that even if you have IBS, you can still have a varied, nutrient-packed diet that hopefully avoids wreaking havoc on your digestive system.
Also, chat with a trusted medical expert about incorporating probiotic supplements into your diet. Probiotics are “good” bacteria that can boost gut health, says Harris-Pincus. “There are different strains of probiotics and the research is very young, but if you have IBS, you may want to consider them,” she explains.
Photo Credit: Karin Lau / Getty Images
Everyday Tips for Living With IBS
There are a number of different gastrointestinal disorders that can cause bowel dysfunction. The most common: irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, affects as many as 10 to 15 percent of people in the United States, according to the International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (IFFGD).
IBS is a condition that affects mainly the bowel, the part of the digestive system that makes and stores stool. It can cause a range of symptoms, from cramping and bloating to gas, diarrhea, and constipation, and it can be very painful.
And because IBS varies from person to person, so does therapy.
“It’s treated in many different ways,” says Brigid Boland, MD, assistant professor of medicine in the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center at the University of California in San Diego. “For people who have constipation, there are medications for that. For people who alternate between constipation and diarrhea, they may try something different. There’s not one medication that works for everyone.”
In fact, Dr. Boland says that people with mild to moderate IBS tend to find the most success by changing the way they eat. “Dietary modifications end up being the mainstay for a lot of people with IBS,” she explains.
Some people find success controlling IBS with an elimination diet or by following a specific dietary regimen. Other lifestyle measures can help treat the condition, including stress reduction techniques and ensuring that you get adequate exercise.
Find out more about how diet and other lifestyle factors can play a role in IBS management.
RELATED: Can Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Help Relieve IBS Symptoms?
Fiber Packs a Punch Against Constipation and Diarrhea
One way to potentially lessen the symptoms of IBS is by introducing fiber into your diet. For some people, fiber reduces IBS symptoms — such as constipation and diarrhea — because it can make stool softer and easier to pass (good for constipation) or bulkier and more regular (good for diarrhea).
Fiber isn’t the answer for everyone with IBS, however. “A lot of people don’t respond to it, and it can cause bloating for others,” Boland says. If you want to try adding foods with fiber to your diet, start slowly. Adding a little at a time allows your body to get used to high-fiber foods. Too much fiber all at once might cause gas.
Here are some examples of fiber-rich foods:
- Fruits Apples, peaches, pears, bananas, and berries
- Vegetables Broccoli (raw), cabbage, carrots (raw), peas, and spinach
- Grains Whole-grain breads, whole-grain cereals, oatmeal, and bran
- Beans Kidney beans, lima beans, black beans, and lentils
You may want to consult a dietitian about adding fiber to your diet, and your doctor may also recommend taking an over-the-counter supplement to get more fiber.
If you continue to have problems with IBS, consult your physician about other dietary modifications you can make.
Dietary Changes Might Be Just What the Doctor Ordered
In recent years, one dietary approach designed by Australian researchers has become more widely accepted as beneficial for people with IBS — the Low FODMAP diet.
A review published in January 2017 in Gastroenterology and Hepatology found that 50 to 86 percent of people with IBS showed improvement in their symptoms on a low-FODMAP diet.
According to the IFFGD, FODMAPs (or “fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols”) are carbohydrates that tend to cause problems for people with IBS. Restricting them — not cutting them out completely — has been shown to improve IBS symptoms.
Foods that are considered high FODMAP include soft cheeses, cow’s milk, yogurt, vegetables such as asparagus and artichokes, fruits such as plums and apples, cashews and pistachios, and rye and wheat breads.
“The Low FODMAP diet has seen a fair amount of success,” Boland says. “But it can be challenging to follow completely. I tell my patients that they don’t need to follow it to a tee, but it can help them identify trigger foods that they didn’t expect.”
RELATED: The Business of a Diet
Look for Ways to Manage Stress
Food isn’t the only factor impacting your IBS symptoms. Stress may also play a role.
“I hear so many of my patients saying ‘I’m stressed out right now, so my symptoms are worse,’” Boland says.
Feeling mentally or emotionally tense, troubled, angry, or overwhelmed can stimulate colon spasms in people with IBS. The colon has a vast supply of nerves that connect it to the brain. These nerves control the normal rhythmic contractions of the colon and can cause abdominal discomfort at stressful times. People often experience cramps or “butterflies” when they are nervous or upset. But with IBS, the colon can be overly responsive to even slight conflict or stress.
“Trying to have some sort of game plan to help yourself through the stressful time can be beneficial,” Boland says. If stress plays a major role in your life, try these tips to find relief:
- Practice relaxation. Do relaxation training, such as meditation or yoga, at least once a day.
- Dial back. “If things are escalating, try to simplify them,” Boland suggests. “For example, go back to a very simple, bland diet that you know is going to be okay.”
- Take a time-out. Time-outs aren’t just for athletes or unruly children. In fact, all of us occasionally need time on the sidelines to clear our heads and gain new perspectives. Call it a time-out, call it meditating, call it whatever you want — just take some “me time” and give yourself a break every once in a while.
- Pamper yourself. What do you get when you combine candlelight, a warm bath, and soothing music? Instant relaxation! Next time stress has you in a stranglehold, loosen up with this tried-and-true home remedy.
- Get a massage. Apart from feeling great, massage is a wonderful way to relieve tension and stress throughout your whole body.
- Walk it off. “Exercise can be a stress reliever and help IBS,” Boland says. For starters, try working a 10-minute walk into your daily routine. Your body and your mind will thank you.
- Have a good laugh. Sounds silly? Well, it is — and that’s the point. Not only is laughter a scientifically proven tension reliever, it’s also free, so use it at will. If your funny bone needs some prodding, rent a comedy or recall amusing stories from the past with a friend.
- Get adequate sleep. “Good sleep plays into general overall health,” Boland says. Most healthy adults should aim for between seven and nine hours of shut-eye per night, according to the National Sleep Foundation.
Try an Alternative Technique, Like Hypnotherapy
One approach that has been shown to help relieve IBS symptoms is hypnotherapy, a type of therapy that promotes relaxation and subconscious change. In fact, a study published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology reported that gut-directed hypnotherapy improved IBS symptoms in participants after three months and for up to a year. A review published in April 2014 in the Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility found that hypnotherapy may be particularly beneficial in alleviating abdominal pain in the short-term and can also help improve overall quality of life for IBS patients.
The practice of hypnosis is not restricted by law in most places in the United States, which means that anybody can become a hypnotherapist without any qualifications or quality assurance. When choosing a hypnotherapist, keep the following in mind:
- A clinical hypnotherapist should have seven to nine years of university coursework plus additional supervised training in internships and residency programs.
- The hypnotherapist should be licensed (not certified) in his field by the state.
- If the person’s degree is in hypnosis or hypnotherapy, rather than a state-recognized healthcare profession, the person is a lay hypnotist and is not qualified to treat your medical problem.
- Hypnotherapists qualified to treat IBS should have membership in the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH) or the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (SCEH). Also check for membership in the American Medical Association, the American Dental Association, the American Psychological Association, and other professional organizations.
Writing Out Symptoms and Tracking Food Can Help Identify Triggers
Some people with IBS find it beneficial to keep a journal to track their symptoms and how they’re feeling. And whenever you feel like you need emotional clarity or a good de-stressor, writing can help. If you’re new to journaling, start by buying a notebook. Then start writing for a few minutes every day — don’t worry about spelling, grammar, or punctuation.
Make note of any strong feelings that arise during the day. When pressed for time, try using one adjective that sums up your day and a second to describe how you want tomorrow to be. Don’t give up if you haven’t written for a few days.
Reading previous journal entries may put your current health problems in perspective. For example, you could determine that a week-long bout of diarrhea was just the result of bad dietary choices, not a flare up of your condition.
Try Exercise to Regulate Bowel Function
Adding exercise to your management plan can provide significant IBS relief and improve your general health — plus, when done right, it has few side effects (except maybe a blister or two). On the physical level, exercise regulates bowel functioning. It stimulates the digestive process, triggering peristalsis, which can be particularly helpful if constipation is your main symptom.
In one study in the American Journal of Gastroenterology, researchers reported that study participants who were physically active had noticeably improved GI symptoms compared with the participants who did not exercise. The researchers then followed up with study participants a few years later. The results, published in January 2015 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology, found that those who had continued exercising experienced positive long-term effects on their IBS symptoms.
A 2018 study published in the journal PLoS One yielded similar results. Researchers surveyed more than 4,700 adults on their gastrointestinal disorders, including IBS, and physical activity levels. The study concluded that less active people were more likely to have IBS than those who exercised.
In addition, exercise can reduce stress and generate a sense of well-being. Yoga in particular may be helpful with this. A study published in December 2015 in the European Journal of Integrative Medicine found that doing yoga for one hour three times a week for 12 weeks improved symptoms and overall quality of life for IBS patients.
Adding physical activity into your day doesn’t mean you have to go to extremes with exhaustive workouts, five times a week. It’s actually important to gradually increase exercise, making it part of your daily routine. Begin with low-impact physical activity, such as a 20-minute walk three days a week. Some higher impact activities, such as running, can lead to diarrhea — so the gradual approach is particularly important for individuals with diarrhea-predominant symptoms.
Whatever you choose to do, always remember to consult your physician for advice about what is safe and effective for you.
Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in outpatients with inflammatory bowel disease using a food and beverage intolerance, food and beverage avoidance diet
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the outpatient with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a difficult but important challenge to recognize and treat. It is very helpful to have effective treatment approaches for IBS that are practical and use minimal medications. Because of the underlying chronic inflammation in IBD, IBS symptoms occur with increased frequency and severity, secondary to increased hypersensitivity to foods and beverages that stimulate the gastrointestinal tract. This paper discusses how to treat IBS in the IBD outpatient, with emphasis on using a food and beverage intolerance, avoidance diet. The adverse effects of many foods and beverages are amount dependent and can be delayed, additive, and cumulative. The specific types of foods and beverages that can induce IBS symptoms include milk and milk containing products; caffeine containing products; alcoholic beverages; fruits; fruit juices; spices; seasonings; diet beverages; diet foods; diet candies; diet gum; fast foods; condiments; fried foods; fatty foods; multigrain breads; sourdough breads; bagels; salads; salad dressings; vegetables; beans; red meats; gravies; spaghetti sauce; stews; nuts; popcorn; high fiber; and cookies, crackers, pretzels, cakes, and pies. The types of foods and beverages that are better tolerated include water; rice; plain pasta or noodles; baked or broiled potatoes; white breads; plain fish, chicken, turkey, or ham; eggs; dry cereals; soy or rice based products; peas; applesauce; cantaloupe; watermelon; fruit cocktail; margarine; jams; jellies; and peanut butter. Handouts that were developed based upon what worsens or helps IBS symptoms in patients are included to help patients learn which foods and beverages to avoid and which are better tolerated.
FODMAP food list | Monash FODMAP
Where FODMAPs are found in foods
FODMAPs are found in a wide variety of foods, including fruit and vegetables, grains and cereals, nuts, legumes, lentils, dairy foods and manufactured foods. This makes following the FODMAP diet a little tricky, as you cannot simply guess which foods will be high or low in FODMAPs.
Having a basic understanding about which foods contain FODMAPs makes following the 3 step FODMAP diet for your IBS treatment a little easier long term and helps you to avoid unwanted symptoms of IBS.
While many people rely on FODMAP food lists they find on the internet for treating IBS, we know that these are often inaccurate. That’s why the Monash FODMAP team has laboratory tested the FODMAP content of hundreds of local and international foods. Some of this information is published in the scientific literature, and all of the information is publicly available via the Monash University FODMAP Diet App.
Our app uses a simple traffic light system to rate foods as low, moderate or high in FODMAPs.
When you click into each food you will also see which FODMAPs are present. For example, the main FODMAPs present in pears are fructose and sorbitol, whereas the main FODMAPs present in cashew nuts are fructans and GOS and in cow’s milk, the main FODMAP found is lactose.
The information below will help you to understand which food groups typically contain which FODMAPs. However, for the most comprehensive information about the FODMAP content of food, see the Monash FODMAP App.
The main FODMAPs present in fruit are sorbitol and excess fructose. Fruits particularly high in excess fructose include apples, pears, mangoes, cherries, figs, nashi pears, pears, watermelon and dried fruit.
Fruits particularly rich in sorbitol include apples, blackberries, nashi pears, peaches and plums. Many fruits contain both fructose and sorbitol, for example, apples, pears and cherries.
The main FODMAPs present in vegetables are fructans and mannitol. Vegetables particularly rich in fructans include artichoke, garlic, leek, onion and spring onion. Vegetables particularly rich in mannitol include mushrooms, cauliflower and snow peas.
Grains and cereals
The main FODMAPs present in grain and cereal foods are fructans and to a lesser extent, GOS.
Grain and cereal foods particularly rich in fructans include wholemeal bread, rye bread, muesli containing wheat, wheat pasta and rye crispbread.
Legumes and pulses
The main FODMAP present in legumes and pulses is GOS. Legumes and pulses particularly high in GOS include red kidney beans, split peas, falafels and baked beans.
Dairy foods and alternatives
The main FODMAP present in dairy foods is lactose. Dairy foods that are high in lactose include soft cheeses, milk and yoghurt. There are also many dairy foods that are naturally low in lactose, for example butter and cheese. For this reason, dairy foods are definitely not excluded from a low FODMAP diet.
Many plant-based milk alternatives are also low in FODMAPs, e.g. soy milk (made from soy protein), almond milk and rice milk. However, milk alternatives do not naturally contain calcium, so remind patients to choose calcium fortified varieties (containing >120mg calcium per 100ml).
Meat, poultry and fish
Protein foods such as meats, poultry and fish are naturally free of FODMAPs. However, processed and marinated meats may contain FODMAPs due to the addition of high FODMAP ingredients such as garlic and onion.
Low FODMAP choices include plain cooked meats, poultry, seafood, eggs, while high FODMAP options include marinated meats, processed meats (e.g. sausage / salami) and meats served with gravy/sauces that may include high FODMAP ingredients.
Nuts and seeds
Most seeds are low FODMAP. The main FODMAPs present in nuts are GOS and fructans. High FODMAP nuts include cashews and pistachios, while low FODMAP nuts include macadamias, peanuts and pine nuts.
Sugars and sweeteners
The main FODMAPs present in sugar sweetened foods and beverages are fructose and sugar polyols (e.g. sorbitol, xylitol, erythrytol). It is a good idea to read the food labels to identify high FODMAP sugars, especially on artificially sweetened drinks and confectionery.
High FODMAP sugars include honey, high fructose corn syrup and sugar-free confectionery. Low FODMAP options include dark chocolate, table sugar, maple syrup and rice malt syrup.
Condiments and sauces
Some dips, condiments, sauces and marinades contain garlic and onion. Ask for them separately or on the side if you are unsure of their FODMAP content.
High FODMAP options include garlic / onion based marinades and sauces, vegetarian mince. Low FODMAP options include barbeque sauce, mayonnaise, soy sauce, chutney, cranberry juice.
This sample food list highlights some key examples of high and low FODMAP foods. It is essential to consult with a dietitian before commencing a FODMAP diet. For the world’s most comprehensive database of FODMAP food information, please refer to our Monash University FODMAP Diet App
IBS diet sheet | Healthy Eating and the Low FODMAP Diet
Diet and lifestyle changes for treatment of IBS
Before making any dietary changes, keep a food and symptom diary for a week. This can be a helpful way to identify foods that may be triggering a response in your body. Record all food and drink consumed for a week and make a note of any symptoms experienced. Try to record an approximate quantity eaten and the time of day. Symptoms may not always be caused by what you eat so consider other factors that may be involved.
A tasty sweet treat for all to eat! My raw, vegan coconut brownies are perfect for any occasio…
Step one – healthy eating and lifestyle changes
A healthy diet
- Plenty of fruit and vegetables.
- Plenty of starchy carbohydrates. Examples include bread, rice, cereals, pasta, potatoes, chapattis and plantain.
- Some milk and dairy products (2-3 portions per day). If you are lactose intolerant include dairy alternatives such as soya, rice or oat milk and yoghurts that are enriched with calcium.
- Some protein foods: meat, fish, eggs and alternatives such as beans and pulses.
- Limited amounts of foods high in fats and sugars. Limit saturated fat that is found in animal products such as butter, ghee, cheese, meat, cakes, biscuits and pastries. Replace these with unsaturated fats found in vegetable oils such as sunflower, rapeseed and olive oil, avocados, nuts and seeds.
- Drink plenty of fluid – at least two litres daily, such as water or herbal teas.
Lifestyle changes to improve symptoms
- Have a regular meal pattern.
- Take time when eating meals.
- Try not to skip meals.
- Sit down to eat; chew food well.
- Try to avoid eating too late at night.
- Exercise regularly, such as walking, cycling, or swimming. If finding time is difficult, incorporate it into your day. For example, cycle to work, get off a train a stop early and walk, and use steps instead of lifts when possible.
If you have a hectic lifestyle, stress and anxiety may also be causing IBS symptoms. There are many complex connections between the brain and the gut. Psychological factors, the nervous system, and muscle contractions in the gut all interact with each other, causing IBS symptoms. This is known as the brain-gut axis. Therefore, stress management can be effective in easing symptoms.
- Create time for relaxation.
- Make the most out of leisure time.
- Try relaxation therapies such as mindfulness.
- Exercise – try yoga or taking a walk.
- Get enough sleep.
- Seek support or counselling.
Step two – symptom-specific changes to the diet
Sometimes, a healthy balanced diet and lifestyle changes aren’t enough to improve symptoms. It may be that more specific changes to the diet are needed. Many people report that what they eat affects their symptoms. Therefore, modifying what you eat can help to manage symptoms.
Caffeine can stimulate activity in the colon, which may worsen symptoms of pain and diarrhoea. Limit tea and coffee to no more than three cups per day. Filter coffee contains higher amounts of caffeine (140 mg) compared to instant coffee (100 mg) and tea (75 mg). So, if filter coffee is included in your diet, you may want to limit this to two cups per day. There is also caffeine in cola and some other soft drinks, and in chocolate.
Limit alcohol and fizzy drinks
Fizzy drinks and alcohol can worsen symptoms of diarrhoea. Limit your intake of these drinks to improve symptoms. Aim to have at least two alcohol-free days each week and no more than two units each day.
A unit of alcohol is:
- One 25 ml shot of spirits.
- Half a pint of standard-strength lager/beer (3-4% alcohol by volume).
- One small 125 ml glass of wine (11% alcohol by volume).
Reduce intake of resistant starches
These are starches that are resistant to digestion in the gut (small intestine). Therefore, they reach the colon intact and are fermented by the germs (bacteria) in our gut. This produces gases and waste products, leading to symptoms of, bloating, wind and diarrhoea. People who have IBS react to smaller doses of resistant starches than those who don’t have IBS. Reducing resistant starches may also improve symptoms of diarrhoea.
Reduce intake of foods containing resistant starches
- Processed foods such as crisps, oven chips, supermarket pizza, biscuits and cakes, breakfast cereals.
- Foods that have been cooked and left out to cool – for example, cold potato/pasta salads.
- Ready meals.
- Partially baked bread – for example, garlic bread or pizza bases.
- Whole grains, pulses, sweetcorn, green banana and muesli that contains bran.
- Dried pasta (use fresh instead).
- Savoury snacks.
Cook fresh food whenever possible and eat food that you’ve cooked straightaway. This will help to reduce intake of resistant starches.
Modify your fibre intake
Fibre can be a confusing subject for many of those affected by IBS. For some people, reducing high-fibre foods can help to improve symptoms. For others, increasing fibre can help to improve symptoms, so it is very much dependent on the individual. Adjust fibre intake according to personal symptoms. Use a food and symptom diary and monitor any changes.
It may help to clarify what exactly dietary fibre is and how it may affect symptoms. There are two types of fibre which work differently in the body. Generally, reducing insoluble fibre may help with symptoms but if an increase in fibre is necessary, this should be from soluble fibre.
This type of fibre does not dissolve in water and is not readily broken down, so it passes through the digestive system mostly intact. It absorbs water, adds bulk to stools (faeces) and allows waste to be passed through bowels more quickly. Reducing this type of fibre may help to improve symptoms of diarrhoea. Foods to reduce or avoid:
- Skin, pith and pips of fruit and vegetables.
- Wheat and bran.
- Corn (maize).
- Nuts and whole grains.
This type of fibre dissolves in water and is broken down by the natural bacteria in the bowels. It softens stools and makes them larger. Increasing this type of fibre may help to improve symptoms of constipation. Foods to include are:
- Psyllium and ispaghula
- Nuts and seeds
- Fruit and vegetables
- Beans and pulses
Whole grains (for example, wholemeal bread, brown rice and wholewheat pasta) may also help with constipation. Although increasing fibre may help to improve symptoms, it may also generate gas and cause pain and bloating. Monitoring is important to help identify this and to adjust your fibre intake according to your symptoms.
If fibre intake is suddenly increased, this can cause symptoms of wind and bloating. Introduce high-fibre foods gradually to allow the gut to become used to the extra fibre. Introduce one new food over a two- to three-day period and monitor any symptoms. For example, have porridge for breakfast on the first day; then add beans or extra vegetables to a casserole two days later; then maybe have an extra piece of fruit two to three days later.
Fibre needs water, so aim to drink at least 8-10 cups of water daily or other fluids such as herbal teas or sugar-free squash. People with diarrhoea will need to make sure they are replacing these lost fluids. Drinking water will also help to improve constipation.
Include golden linseeds
Including these in the diet may improve symptoms of wind, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea. They are a source of insoluble and soluble fibre. They can be added to casseroles, stews, soups, porridge, cereals, yoghurts and desserts. Include one tablespoon each day.
Reduce fatty foods
Some people find that fatty foods are difficult to digest and can cause symptoms of diarrhoea; therefore, reducing fat in the diet may help:
- Limit cakes, biscuits, chocolates and pastries.
- Cut down on fatty meat products such as sausages, pies and pasties.
- Use lower-fat dairy products – for example, low-fat yoghurt, cottage cheese, semi-skimmed milk.
- Choose tomato-based sauces rather than creamy sauces – although some tomato sauces can be oily so check the label.
- Use small amounts of cheese (a matchbox size is a portion) – stronger-flavoured cheeses may help you to use less.
- Take care when using dressings and sauces such as mayonnaise and salad cream. Use small amounts and try the reduced-fat versions.
- Cut off visible fat from meat and choose leaner cuts of meat.
- Use minimal oil/butter when cooking (use an oil spray, or measure using one teaspoon of oil per person, per meal).
- Try different cooking methods such as steaming, boiling, microwaving, grilling and poaching rather than frying.
Fructose can cause diarrhoea in some people, particularly when eaten in large quantities. Sometimes fructose is not well absorbed; it can draw water from the body into the bowel, causing osmotic diarrhoea. If fructose is not well absorbed, it is fermented in the colon and gases are produced, causing wind and bloating in some people with IBS.
Try limiting fruit intake to no more than three portions each day. Only have one small glass (150 ml) of fruit juice per day. Having more vegetables will help to meet the recommendation of at least five portions of fruit and vegetables each day. A portion is about 80 g, or what might fit in the palm of your hand. A portion of dried fruit is about one tablespoon.
It might be useful to limit honey, which contains fructose. Sometimes ‘high-fructose corn syrup’ or ‘corn syrup solids’ are added to processed foods, so try avoiding or limiting these. Check the labels for these ingredients.
Sorbitol is poorly absorbed and has a laxative effect when it enters the colon, so this can cause symptoms of bloating and diarrhoea. People with IBS may be sensitive to smaller amounts of sorbitol.
Sorbitol is found in artificial sweetener, low-sugar sweets, drinks, mints and gum and often found in diabetic or slimming products. Also check the labels of these products for mannitol and xylitol, which have a similar effect.
Probiotics may be useful in improving symptoms of IBS, although they do not work for everybody. Probiotics can help to balance our gut bacteria. The ‘good’ bacteria in probiotics compete with ‘bad’ bacteria for space in the gut. This means that there are fewer ‘bad’ bacteria, making it a healthier gut environment. This can help with digestion and to improve symptoms of wind, bloating and diarrhoea.
There are a number of probiotic products available, including yoghurts, drinks and supplements such as tablets, capsules or sachets. Some examples are Yakult®, Activia® and Actimel®. Probiotics need to be taken in the recommended dose every day for at least four weeks. Monitoring symptoms can help to identify any benefit. Other brands contain different mixtures of bacteria, so trying a different product may help if there is no success with one particular brand.
Step three – elimination diets
Some people find that even after making these dietary changes, their symptoms are still not improving. Avoidance of single foods or following elimination diets might have some benefit for people with IBS. Such dietary regimes should only be followed with the guidance of a dietician.
Some people with IBS may have a food intolerance. Some food intolerances, such as lactose, can be diagnosed with a hydrogen breath test, which can be arranged by a doctor. Other food intolerances can be identified by following a diet that excludes suspected foods.
If it is thought that particular foods are causing symptoms, a dietician may advise you to exclude these foods for a certain time period. This is to monitor whether symptoms improve when these foods are taken out of the diet. After this time period (usually 2-4 weeks) the foods are gradually re-introduced to see if symptoms come back. Common intolerances include lactose (found in milk and dairy products), wheat (found in bread, cereals and pasta) and caffeine (found in tea, coffee or cola).
The low FODMAP diet
There is a growing body of evidence that the low FODMAP diet is effective in improving symptoms of IBS. FODMAP stands for:
These are a group of short-chain carbohydrates that are not very well absorbed in the gut (small intestine). These carbohydrates are easily fermented and cause more fluid to enter the large bowel, leading to gas, bloating and diarrhoea. Reducing the total amount of these fermentable sugars may improve IBS symptoms. The low FODMAP diet should be tried with the assistance of a dietician.
The five most useful nuts are named
The five most useful nuts are named
The five most useful nuts are named – RIA Novosti Sport, 19.03.2021
Named the five most useful nuts
Nutritionist Olga Dekker told which nuts must be included in the diet. RIA Novosti Sport, 19.03.2021
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MOSCOW, Feb 20 – RIA Novosti. Nutritionist Olga Dekker told which nuts must be included in the diet. First of all, the specialist recommends almonds, which contain a lot of vitamins B and E, as well as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and manganese. “There are many antioxidants in almonds. These substances not only prevent the appearance of cancer, but can also prevent the development of coronary heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease, “- wrote Decker on her Instagram.Low-calorie pistachios are also rich in antioxidants, which, in addition, are rich in omega-3 fatty acids and dietary fiber. Walnut, the expert notes, is the leader in the content of Omega-3 and antioxidants. “These nuts have been used since ancient times for the treatment and prevention of ‘atherosclerotic’ diseases and oncology.” manganese, selenium and zinc.Pecans, which are used by people with heart disease and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, are no less useful.
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food, health, nuts
MOSCOW, Feb 20 – RIA Novosti. Nutritionist Olga Dekker told which nuts must be included in the diet.
First of all, the specialist recommends almonds, which contain many vitamins B and E, as well as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and manganese.
“Almonds are high in antioxidants. These substances not only prevent cancer, but may also prevent coronary heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease,” Decker wrote on her Instagram February 16, 7:10 p.m. What are the healthiest foods to eat in winter and spring? Doctor answers
There are many antioxidants in low-calorie pistachios, which, in addition, are rich in omega-3 fatty acids and dietary fiber.
“They also contain antioxidants that prevent the development of cancer and chronic diseases. Lutein and zeaxanthin play a special role in improving visual acuity,” said the nutritionist.
Walnut, the expert notes, is the leader in the content of Omega-3 and antioxidants. “These nuts have been used since ancient times for the treatment and prevention of” atherosclerotic “diseases and oncology.”
February 10, 6:10 pm Nutritionist named one of the most beneficial berries for diabetics Cashew nuts are effective in lowering blood pressure: primarily due to the content of vitamins B, K and E, as well as phosphorus and iron, magnesium and manganese, selenium and zinc …
Pecans, which are used by people with heart disease and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, are no less useful.
For the heart, blood and mind: what are the healthiest nuts?
Nuts are essential in our daily diet. Moreover, you can choose fruits for every taste from the nut variety.
There are many varieties of hazel. The most famous in our country is common hazel or hazelnuts (hazelnuts). Its fruits are characterized by a high content of fat (60% and more), protein (up to 20%), vitamin E, potassium, iron, cobalt.Hazelnuts are superior in calories to fish and meat. 400 grams of hazelnut kernels satisfy the daily calorie requirement of an adult.
As a dietary food, hazelnuts are used for diseases of the cardiovascular system and anemia, enlargement of the prostate gland, varicose veins, phlebitis, trophic ulcers of the leg and capillary hemorrhages.
Walnut is one of the most beloved and widespread fruit trees in gardens.The walnut is called food for the mind. The kernels of these nuts contain a lot of fat, protein substances, more than 20 free essential amino acids, as well as vitamins B1, B2, C, PP, carotene, essential oil, iron, cobalt, iodine, tannins and a very valuable phytoncidal substance – juglone. The use of walnuts helps to normalize gastric secretion, both decreased and increased. With their help, you can prevent and even cure atherosclerosis. They are able to relieve strong nervous tension, for which it is necessary to eat several kernels a day.Walnuts are good for iron deficiency anemia. They are recommended for diabetes mellitus. In addition, they are rich in various substances that can delay fatty liver.
Almond is the closest relative of plum and peach. What we call almonds are actually the kernel of the fruit stone. The cultivated sweet almond kernels contain up to 40-60% fat and about 30% protein. They are used for anemia, diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma, insomnia, migraine, as an antitussive, for convulsions.
Cashew is the fruit of the tropical anacardium tree. Compared to other nuts, cashews are significantly less likely to cause allergies. Cashew nuts contain up to 70% fat, their energy value is about 600 kcal. They are rich in proteins and carbohydrates, vitamins A, B1, B2 and iron, contain zinc, phosphorus, calcium. These nuts promote the metabolism of proteins and fatty acids in the body, lower blood cholesterol levels, strengthen the immune system, ensure the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system, and have tonic properties.As an aid, they are used for toothache, psoriasis, dystrophy, metabolic disorders, anemia. The substances contained in cashews destroy bacteria that destroy tooth enamel.
Pistachio – a relative of cashews, common in the subtropics and tropics of Asia and Africa, Central America, the Mediterranean.
Pistachios contain 54-60% fat, 18-25% protein, and carbohydrates. They have a tonic effect and are recommended for chronic fatigue.Good for the brain and heart, with increased heart rate and liver disease. They have a stimulating effect and enhance potency.
Peanut is a plant from the legume family, a relative of peas and beans, therefore its seeds are nuts in name only. They contain up to 60% fat and more than 30% protein, and their energy value is almost 600 kcal. Peanuts are very rich in polyphenols – substances that are antioxidants. However, peanuts belong to the legume family because, like most legumes, they are quite difficult to digest.Also, its active consumption can lead to excess weight. In addition, peanut allergies are common.
Pine nuts are the seeds of several types of pine trees. The kernel of a pine nut contains 55-66% fats, 13.5-20% proteins, starch, sugars, vitamins.
Vegetable protein of pine nuts is ideally balanced and close in composition to proteins of human tissue, therefore it is absorbed by the body by 99%. Pine nut contains almost all essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, B, C, D, E, P, as well as potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and other mineral elements.Pine nuts are high in antioxidant substances.
Pine nut has no contraindications to use. It is especially useful for immunodeficiency states, allergic diseases, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including peptic ulcer and cholelithiasis.
State Healthcare Institution “City Polyclinic No. 5 of Grodno”
Mandik Alexey Nikolaevich
5 reasons why it is worth eating nuts
Consumption of nuts is correlated with a lower risk of obesity.
A study in the United States last year on 803 healthy volunteers found a strong link between nut consumption and a reduced risk of obesity. In the study, the weight of a standard pack of nuts sold in a vending machine was assumed for one serving of nuts, that is, 1 ounce is approximately 28 grams. It turned out that consuming 2 servings of nuts per week significantly reduced the risk of obesity and the risk of metabolic syndrome in respondents. Interestingly, peanuts did not have this effect (hazelnuts, walnuts, and almonds worked best).
The above results were obtained using research in a correlation scheme – correlation (this is a statistical measure and only the relationship between variables) never indicates cause and effect (perhaps people who eat nuts are better off or exercise more often, etc.) .). To exclude alternative explanations, the following are also provided by studies obtained through meta-analyzes, experiments or quasi-experiments.
Just One Serving Nuts Improves Blood Results
10 healthy volunteers took part in an experiment that involved eating different amounts of Brazil nuts (from 5 to 50 grams) and then passing a series of tests.The experiment showed that the consumption of Brazil nuts leads to a sharp increase in the level of selenium in the blood. In addition, eating just 20 grams (about 4) of nuts resulted in a decrease in LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and an increase in HDL (“good”) cholesterol. These changes lasted up to 30 days. Although 10 people is an exceptionally small sample, a 2007 Turkish study of nearly 10,000 volunteers confirms the link between nut consumption and lower blood triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels.According to the authors of this study, the optimal amount of nuts for health is 4 servings per week.
Eating nuts is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease
Coronary artery disease (also known as coronary artery disease) is the leading cause of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. Last year, Chinese researchers conducted a meta-analysis of 13 studies around the world looking at this relationship to determine if eating nuts could affect heart health.As a result, data on nearly 350,000 people were analyzed. The results were clear – the risk of coronary heart disease decreased as the amount of nuts in the diet increased.
It inhibits the progression of Alzheimer’s disease
Consumption of nuts is correlated with a lower risk of obesity.
Little is known about the effects of nuts on improving memory and reducing anxiety in Alzheimer’s patients, but the results are very promising. A group of transgenic mice (race Tg2576 genetically “programmed” for Alzheimer’s disease) were fed a diet of 6% walnuts for 10 months.After this time, the affected mice underwent a series of tests measuring their mental performance, memory, spatial orientation, etc. It turned out that the results of Tg2576 mice that received nuts did not differ from the results of healthy mice, but significantly differed from the poor results of their sick relatives, which they did not receive. In addition, peanut-fed Tg2576 mice exhibited less anxiety than sick mice on the nut-free diet.
Nuts can improve fertility
It took just 75 grams of walnuts per day for 3 months to significantly improve sperm quality.The study involved 117 young (<35 years old) healthy volunteers, half of whom ate more nuts without changing their daily diet. The other half had to abstain from nuts. The researchers found that, with the exception of the forced dietary difference, there were no major differences between the groups. After 12 weeks, it was found that the gentlemen's sperm showed greater motility and vitality than the sperm produced by the men in the control group.
literature review and expert opinion
BP – blood pressure
BAS – biologically active substances
Ischemic heart disease
KIAF – “cardiometabolic” risk factors
HDL – high density lipoproteins
LDL – low density lipoproteins
EFA – saturated fatty acids
PUFA – polyunsaturated fatty acids
DM – diabetes mellitus
CVD – cardiovascular diseases
FR – risk factors
CS – cholesterol
Prerequisites for completing the survey
Globally, there are significant differences in dietary habits and the prevalence of chronic diseases.Identification of dietary factors that can most reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity, as well as the impact on such factors, are of great importance for science and public health in general.
Research into the relationship between dietary habits and the risk of developing chronic diseases using scientific methods began about 50 years ago ; recently. Recently, there have been improved approaches to studying the effect of the consumption of certain foods on the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolism – the so-called cardiometabolic risk factors (KMFR).The expert opinion presented largely addresses issues that have been included in several reviews of evidence, as well as in national and international documents reflecting the policy of health authorities.
Several key aspects can be identified that are of greatest interest: 1) highlighting priority food products and, in general, nutritional characteristics, and not just individual food components; 2) the importance of taking into account both qualitative characteristics and the amount of consumed carbohydrates and fats; 3) the effects of sodium intake and the effects of exposure to sodium intake; 4) the importance of energy balance; 5) the role of food additives.In addition, the authors pay attention to effective approaches aimed at changing the behavioral stereotype, both with an individual approach to changing the risk of developing CVD complications, and with the development of tactics for such an impact on the part of health authorities. In general, the main objective of this report was to provide the practitioner and healthcare leaders with up-to-date data on the influence of nutritional factors on the risk of developing complications of CVD.
Material and methods of review
A review of evidence-based evidence on the effects of nutritional factors on MFRM was performed.Most of this information was obtained from recently published reviews performed to develop optimal dietary therapy or perform similar tasks. Including in the preparation of the review, we used data presented in the American Heart Association (AHA) 2020 Impact Goals Committee (DM, LJA) , AHA Nutrition Committee (DM, LJA, LVH) [3, 4], US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (LJA, LVH) , World Health Organization Expert Consultation on Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition (D.M.) , World Health Organization Global Burden of Diseases, Risk Factors, and Injuries Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (D.M.)  and Institute of Medicine Report on Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake (L.J.A.) . However, this communication reflects the views of the authors and does not necessarily correspond to the views or opinions of the experts of the previously mentioned organizations, which they used in preparing the review. The review was not intended to address all possible aspects of nutrition related to CVD.This review has included individual topics in which sufficient evidence and new views on the problem are considered. Recently, new criteria have been adopted to assess the validity of evidence on the effect of dietary habits on the development of chronic disease, including criteria from organizations such as Bradford Hill  and the World Health Organization , as well as similar criteria. The review primarily included data from clinical trials that assessed KIAF or the incidence of adverse clinical outcomes, as well as systematic reviews that quantified the cumulative effect of the interventions based on the analysis of data on participants in several studies.
The results of RCTs, during which KIAF was assessed, as well as data obtained in the course of prospective cohort studies assessing the incidence of adverse clinical outcomes due to complications of CVD, confirm the effect of eating certain foods on the state of the cardiovascular system. In contrast to the results of assessing the effects of the consumption of individual food components, the effect on human health of the consumption of certain foods rather reflects the mutual reinforcement of various effects and the interaction of many factors, including the qualitative characteristics of carbohydrates, the content of dietary fiber, the content of specific fatty acids and proteins, cooking methods, nutritional structure and bioavailability of essential trace elements and biologically active substances (BAS) of plant origin [1, 11, 12].Various types of diet therapy based on the use of certain foods or their components have a positive effect on KIAF and include a high content of dietary fiber, healthy fatty acids, vitamins, antioxidants, potassium, other minerals, plant-based biologically active substances, as well as a low content of refined carbohydrates, sugars , table salt, saturated fatty acids (EFA), dietary cholesterol (CS) and trans fats.
Useful properties of certain types of food
Fruits and vegetables
RCTs showed that adherence to diets that emphasized increased consumption of fruits and vegetables led to significant reductions in the severity of several RFs, including blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, insulin resistance, inflammation biomarkers, endothelial function and body weight [13-19].However, the effects of such diet therapy have not been replicated with the use of equivalent amounts of typical dietary supplements containing minerals and fiber , nor with the use of certain macronutrients (fats, proteins or carbohydrates) .
These results suggest that the revealed advantages of certain types of diet therapy may be due to several factors: 1) a more complex composition of micronutrients, plant-based biologically active substances and dietary fiber contained in fruits and vegetables; 2) possibly higher bioavailability of these nutrients in natural form and / or 3) replacement of the corresponding foods in the diet with less beneficial ones.In the course of long-term observational studies, the consumption of large amounts of both fruits and vegetables was accompanied by a decrease in the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), and the consumption of more fruits – a decrease in the incidence of stroke [21, 22]. The results of physiological RCTs and prospective cohort studies assessing the incidence of certain diseases in general strongly suggested that the consumption of fruits and vegetables leads to a decrease in the risk of developing CVD.Further research is required to establish possible differences between certain types of fruits, vegetables and juices made from them, in terms of their effects on health.
Whole grain products. While there is no universally accepted definition of whole grains, it generally includes bran, germ and endosperm from natural crops. Bran contains soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, B vitamins, minerals, flavonoids and tocopherols.The embryo contains several fatty acids, antioxidants and plant-based biologically active substances. Endosperm mainly becomes a source of starch (carbohydrate polysaccharides) and protein . The type and degree of processing is believed to affect the health benefits of grains and their carbohydrate content. For example, the removal of bran and germ reduces the content of dietary fiber, the presence of which determines the positive effects of cereals, including a decrease in blood pressure and the concentration of cholesterol in the blood [24, 25], increases the bioavailability of the remaining endosperm, as well as its rapid absorption, which increases the glycemic response [26 ]; in addition, minerals, trace elements and other plant-based biologically active substances are removed, which can have an independent additional positive effect on human health .
An RCT has shown that consumption of whole grains improves glucose and insulin homeostasis, as well as endothelial function and, possibly, decreases the severity of inflammation and body weight [27-29]. Consumption of whole grain oats leads to a decrease in the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), which is not accompanied by a decrease in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) or an increase in triglycerides . In accordance with the positive effect on physiological indicators, an increase in the consumption of foods from whole grains is accompanied by a decrease in the incidence of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and, possibly, stroke.These benefits are due in part to the increased fiber content in whole grains. The results of RCTs indicated that increased consumption of dietary fiber leads to a decrease in the concentration of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and glucose in the blood, as well as in blood pressure [24, 25]. There is more and more data confirming that the independent positive effect of whole grain products on human health is due to such characteristics and effects as delayed absorption (causing a decrease in the severity of the glycemic response) and an increased content of minerals, plant-based biologically active substances and fatty acids [11, 12 ].Thus, similar to the effect of fruits and vegetables, the positive effect of whole grain products can be due to the mutually reinforcing effect of components that, most likely, will not be used simultaneously in the case of the isolated addition of fiber, bran or trace elements to food, as well as when replacing certain food components. more highly refined and / or more processed carbohydrates and starches, the use of which in itself can negatively affect KMPR.
To more accurately quantify the components of whole grain products and to determine the contribution of each of them to the health effects of these products, it is necessary to improve methods for assessing food products and create special databases. There is a need for scientific but practical definitions of whole grain products that will reduce public uncertainty about such products, as well as become the basis for informed choice of grain products that have a positive effect on human health.As an example of the movement towards increased consumption of foods that have such an impact, experts from the American Heart Association in the related document “2020 Impact Goals” proposed a practical definition of whole grains based on dietary fiber content, i.e. for every 10 g of carbohydrates, such cereal products should contain 1.1 g of natural dietary fiber (for example, in bread, crackers, etc.) .
Fish and seafood. Fish and other seafood contain a variety of nutrients, including certain proteins, unsaturated fats, vitamin D, selenium, long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20: 5 ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22: 6 ω-3). In humans, EPA and especially DHA are synthesized in small amounts (less than 5%) from their plant precursor α-linolenic acid (18: 3 ω-3) . Thus, the content of EPA and DHA in tissues is highly dependent on their consumption with food.In general, the content of EPA and DHA in different types of seafood can differ by more than 10 times. The highest concentrations of EPA and DHA are found in fish species such as anchovy, farmed herring, wild salmon, sardine, trout and white tuna .
The results of in vitro studies and experiments on animals suggest that the use of fish oil has a direct antiarrhythmic effect , however, in the course of clinical trials performed to assess the direct antiarrhythmic effect in patients with arrhythmias, conflicting data were obtained [34, 35 ].The results of clinical studies have shown that the use of fish oil leads to a decrease in the concentration of triglycerides in the blood , the level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure , as well as heart rate at rest . Evidence from observational studies and RCTs suggests that fish or fish oil consumption may also reduce inflammation, improve endothelial function, normalize heart rate variability, improve myocardial relaxation and performance, and at higher doses. – to a decrease in platelet aggregation .
In accordance with this positive effect on physiological indicators, habitual fish consumption in the general population is accompanied by a lower incidence of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke, especially a lower risk of sudden death from complications of heart disease [32, 40, 41]. Consumption of approximately 250 mg of EPA and DHA per day from fish versus no fish consumption was associated with a 36% reduction in mortality from complications of coronary heart disease . Consumption of fish and fish oil is only a small part of nutritional factors, the effectiveness of which has been studied in the course of long-term observational studies and RCTs assessing the incidence of adverse clinical outcomes due to complications of CVD.Results from 4 of 8 large RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of fish or fish oil consumption, which included both patients with clinical manifestations of heart disease and participants without such manifestations, showed a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of complications of coronary artery disease . Some of these studies have significant drawbacks . According to a meta-analysis of RCTs, fish oil supplementation leads to a statistically significant reduction in mortality from complications of heart disease, including mortality from complications of coronary artery disease and sudden death from complications of heart disease [39, 42, 43].In general, these data agree with the results of long-term observational studies evaluating the effectiveness of habitual fish consumption in general healthy individuals, as well as experimental studies in humans, during which the consumption of fish or fish oil led to a positive effect on physiological indicators. It has not yet been determined whether the beneficial effects of fish consumption will be replicated with supplements containing fish oil.
There was no association between the consumption of fried fish specially prepared for sale or sandwiches with fish and a positive effect on the risk of developing complications of CVD, which may be due to the lower content of EPA and DHA in such products or the addition of additional ingredients to them [32, 44-47].Data on the possible adverse effects of mercury in some fish species are limited and conflicting; even if there is such contamination with mercury, it does not seem to have to offset the overall positive effects of fish consumption [5, 48].
Nuts. Nuts contain a number of biologically active substances, including unsaturated fatty acids, vegetable proteins (for example, the precursor of nitric oxide L-arginine), dietary fiber, folate salts, minerals, antioxidants and plant-based biologically active substances, which can positively affect CMBF [49, 50, 51].In the course of the RCT, the consumption of nuts was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol in the blood, a decrease in the severity of hyperglycemia after eating food with a high carbohydrate content, as well as, to varying degrees, a decrease in the severity of oxidation, inflammation and the concentration of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction [49, 51-53 ]. Observational studies have shown that consumption of nuts is associated with less severe obesity, and in RCTs, the addition of nuts to dietary therapy for weight loss was accompanied by either similar or more pronounced weight loss .Prospective cohort studies have shown that consumption of moderate amounts of nuts is associated with a lower incidence of coronary artery disease [55, 56]. It should be noted that in the course of carrying out epidemiological and clinical studies, the effects of mainly hazel and peanut fruits were evaluated, but further study of the effects of consumption of certain types of nuts is required. In general, the positive effect of eating a moderate amount of nuts on the cardiovascular system was confirmed by data on its effect on the RF of CVD development, which were obtained during the performance of short-term studies, as well as a pronounced and sustained reduction in the risk of CVD, which was noted during the performance of prospective cohort studies. …
Eating legumes (such as peas, beans, lentils and chickpeas) can also have a positive effect on the cardiovascular system. The results of a meta-analysis of RCTs showed that the consumption of foods containing soy led to a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.8 and 4.0 mm Hg. accordingly, the severity of which did not reach the level of statistical significance . It is believed that the isolated use of soy protein or isoflavonoids (phytoestrogens) has a less pronounced effect, causing only a slight decrease in diastolic blood pressure (by 2 mm Hg).Art.) and the concentration of LDL cholesterol (by 3%) [57, 58]. The consumption of legumes provides the body with a whole set of microelements, plant-based biologically active substances and dietary fiber, which are likely to reduce the severity of CMFR. Further study of their effects is needed in well-designed prospective cohort studies and RCTs.
Meat products. Several components of red meat, including EFAs, cholesterol and heme iron, are known to increase CMFR; in addition, processed meat contains a large amount of sodium and other preservatives.Reduced consumption of red meat is generally considered an integral part of diets that are associated with a lower risk of CVD. Results from meta-analyzes of prospective cohort studies indicate an association between total red meat consumption and an increased risk of coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus; however, this relationship did not reach the level of statistical significance [55, 59]. According to a systematic assessment of various types of meat products, only the consumption of processed red meat was accompanied by an increase in the risk of developing coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus .These data suggest that preservatives (such as sodium, nitrite and phosphates) and / or the processing methods used (such as high temperatures / roasting when cooking meat in an industrial setting) may cause negative health effects from eating meat. . In the course of performing one observational study, data were obtained that the consumption of meat, both processed and not subjected to it, is accompanied by a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease compared with replacing meat products with products that have a positive effect on KIAF, in particular, fat-free dairy products, nuts and fish .
Dairy products. Selected short-term RCTs have assessed the potential benefits of dairy for satiety or weight loss, with mixed and uncertain results [61, 62]. Interventions involving different types of dietary therapy, including the consumption of low-fat dairy products, were accompanied by statistically significant reductions in blood pressure, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in endothelial function, which did not depend on changes in body weight [14-16, 20] …In the course of such multicomponent interventions, the specific benefits of consuming certain dairy products cannot be quantified. However, in the course of long-term observational studies, the positive effects of increased consumption of dairy products were accompanied by a lower risk of both stroke and diabetes [63-65].
The active components that determine such a positive effect of the use of dairy products on KIAF have not yet been established.Due to the low energy value, low content of EFA and cholesterol, as well as in the absence of proven benefits of dairy products with a full fat content, most dietary recommendations and recommendations of scientific organizations indicate the justification of the use of dairy products, either low-fat or low-fat . These guidelines treat dairy products as a source of certain nutrients (such as protein, calcium, potassium, magnesium, vitamin D, and other vitamins), although there is evidence that they are effective, rather than as foods that result in decrease in the severity of KIAF.In the course of long-term observational studies, the strength of the association between the consumption of dairy products with a reduced or / or total fat content, on the one hand, and a decrease in the risk of developing diabetes and abnormalities of metabolic parameters, on the other hand, varied significantly [66-71]. It is believed that conjugated linoleic acid and calcium may mediate the beneficial effects of such foods, but RCT results indicate very small benefits and even negative effects of dairy products on CMBR [72–78].Dairy products that include additional ingredients that may play a role in reducing CMBF, including specific fatty acids , proteins and peptides, vitamins, and other nutrients. Additional studies are required to identify possible differences in health effects between certain dairy products (eg, milk, yogurt, cheese, and butter) [79–82].
Sugar-sweetened drinks. Epidemiological comparative and prospective studies have shown a direct association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity in children and adults [82, 83].Between 1965 and 2002, when the number of overweight and obese individuals increased rapidly, the proportion of daily energy received from drinks increased from 11.8% to 21.0%, or about 222 calories per day. per person . Most of this increase (60%) was due to the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages such as soda / cola, sweetened fruit drinks and sports drinks, to a lesser extent – alcohol (31%) and undiluted juices (9%).Drinking other beverages (such as milk) did not increase total calories. The average American teenage boy consumes about 600 grams (300 kcal) of sugar-sweetened beverages; the average American teenage girl consumes about 450 g (200 kcal) of these drinks . The majority of sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed by children at home rather than at school . A limited number of short-term studies suggest that, compared to solid foods, consumption of liquid foods may be associated with less satiety and therefore increase the total number of calories consumed per day [87, 88].In addition, the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may replace the use of healthier beverages such as milk . The results of RCTs, which included both a small (n = 15) and a medium (n = 644) number of patients, indicated that a decrease in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages leads to a decrease in body weight, as well as to a decrease in the severity of an increase in body weight, both in children and adults . In one study evaluating the efficacy of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention, every 355 ml decrease in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with a 0.65 kg decrease in body weight .Results from a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies have shown that consumption of more sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome . One cohort study reported a direct association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and the incidence of coronary artery disease . A combination of several factors, including the intake of excess calories from highly refined carbohydrates in the form of drinks, which minimally affects the feeling of fullness; the absence of other beneficial nutrients and components in their composition; Drinking these beverages in place of other beneficial ones, and consuming large amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages in many subgroups make dietary restriction an important goal of modifying dietary habits that should reduce the severity of KMPD in the population.
Alcohol. There is a link between alcohol consumption, on the one hand, and both an increase and a decrease in the risk of CVD complications, on the other. Regular alcohol abuse is accompanied by toxic effects on the heart, causing in many countries a significant proportion of cases of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy . Evolving left ventricular dysfunction often becomes irreversible, even after stopping alcohol use; the continuation of alcohol consumption in such cases is accompanied by a high mortality rate.Both single consumption of large amounts of alcohol and regular consumption of it are accompanied by an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation .
In contrast, controlled trials have shown that, in the absence of weight gain, moderate alcohol consumption leads to an increase in HDL cholesterol, a decrease in systemic inflammation, and a decrease in insulin resistance [95–97]. These data do not contradict the results of studies, during which it was found that the incidence of ischemic heart disease and diabetes is lower in persons who moderately consume alcohol (no more than 2 alcohol doses per day for men and no more than 1 dose of alcohol for women), compared with individuals who do not drink alcohol [55, 98].It should be noted that in the course of such observational studies, the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption may have been overestimated, since the group of people who do not drink alcohol could include participants who had previously consumed alcohol, as well as people who avoid alcohol because of poor health. . In addition, such long-term studies rarely include individuals who have had the adverse effects of alcohol abuse, as they tend to favor healthier individuals when enrolled.Be that as it may, similar results of observational studies indicating a decrease in the risk of CVD complications with moderate alcohol consumption, as well as data obtained during the implementation of RCTs on the beneficial effect of such alcohol consumption on physiological indicators, allow us to reasonably believe that moderate alcohol consumption has some positive effects on KIAF.
The results of experimental studies suggest that not only alcohol, but also other components of alcoholic beverages, for example, resveratrol contained in wine, may have a positive effect, but the results of RCTs that evaluated RF, and prospective cohort studies assessing the incidence of clinical outcomes to a greater extent indicate the direct positive effect of alcohol itself [95-97, 100].For example, moderate consumption of wine, beer, or spirits is associated with a lower risk of CHD in different populations . The nature of alcohol consumption plays an important role; and the lowest risk of developing CVD complications is observed in people who drink moderate amounts of alcohol several times a week, and not in those who drink alcohol irregularly or in large quantities . Since alcohol consumption is accompanied by an increase in the incidence of accidents, homicides, and suicides, especially among young people, alcohol consumption generally leads to an increase in mortality in the general population .Thus, alcohol consumption is not recommended as a tactic to reduce the risk of CVD in the general population. Alcohol users should be reminded of the advisability of drinking only in moderate doses. It should also be reminded to avoid weight gain as the average alcohol intake is associated with an intake of approximately 120-200 kcal, which, as previously indicated, may be less satiated than solid foods.
There is rather strong and abundant evidence that, in general, diet can improve health and prevent the development of CVD . There are several health benefits of dietary evidence, often from studies that differ in methodological approaches, but share several key characteristics in common, including increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and other foods such as legumes and nuts. and (for many participants) whole grains and fish products with limited or irregular dairy consumption and often with reduced red meat and reduced intake of refined carbohydrates and other processed foods.These types of diets are usually preferred as dietary interventions that have a positive effect on CVD. The results of RCTs indicated that these types of therapy have a significant positive effect on many RFs for the development of CVD.
DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) includes predominantly low-fat fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, as well as whole grains, poultry, fish and nuts, while reducing red meat, sweets and sweetened foods. sugar of drinks [16, 105].The original DASH diet included low total fat (should account for 27% of the food’s daily energy value) and higher carbohydrate intake (should account for 55% of the food’s daily energy value). Changes were made to the optional DASH diet, which included replacing approximately 10% of the daily caloric intake from carbohydrates with monounsaturated fat or protein from vegetables .According to the data of controlled studies evaluating the effectiveness of diet therapy, the use of each of these DASH diets was accompanied by a statistically significant decrease in blood pressure and an improvement in blood lipid composition compared to the standard diet typical for Western countries [16, 106]. This supports the notion that dietary choices are more important than specific macronutrients to maximize CVD prevention. BP reduction was greatest when the DASH diet was combined with a decrease in sodium intake .In the course of performing observational studies, it was found that a higher degree of adherence to the DASH diet was accompanied by a lower risk of developing CVD . Unfortunately, very few adults, even those with high blood pressure, have a diet consistent with the DASH diet .
Mediterranean diet. There is no generally accepted single concept of the “Mediterranean diet”, as well as its specific criteria, since such a term refers to a diet that includes products produced using different agricultural technologies, as well as typical for different cultures and countries that are located around the Mediterranean Sea …In addition, Mediterranean diets change over time: in Crete, an island in the Mediterranean with a historically low incidence of coronary heart disease, the dietary habits of the modern population, compared with previous generations, are characterized by a decrease in the consumption of fruits and olive oil, as well as an increase in meat consumption, which is accompanied by an increase in concentration Cholesterol in the blood and a greater prevalence of obesity . However, many traditional Mediterranean diets share common characteristics, including the predominant consumption of vegetables; fruit; bread / cereal products, usually made from wheat; nuts and olive oil; in some cases, such diets include fish and (in non-Islamic countries) drinking wine with meals, as well as limiting the consumption of saturated fat, cholesterol, and meat [109, 110].Comparative environmental studies and prospective cohort studies generally indicate a negative association between adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet and the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and overall mortality . According to RCT data, against the background of the traditional Mediterranean diet, there is an improvement in several physiological parameters, the increase in which relates to RF.
Vegetarian diet. There are several types of vegetarian diets around the world, including sandy-vegetarian (fish is allowed), lacto-ovo vegetarian (milk and eggs are allowed), strict vegan diet, which completely avoids the use of animal products.The possible differences between these types of vegetarian diets have not been established. Few RCTs have been carried out evaluating the effectiveness of a vegetarian diet. Results from two small studies, which included 58 and 20 patients, respectively, showed a decrease in blood pressure with a vegetarian diet compared with a standard Western diet [112, 113]. There were no statistically significant differences between lacto-vegetarian and vegan diets compared to standard diets in the other three studies.
Healthy food: vegetable oils and nuts
The group of nuts includes hazelnuts, almonds, pistachios, cashews, hazelnuts, pine nuts and walnuts.Often peanuts are also considered nuts, but this is not true, since peanuts are a legume. Nuts have a high nutritional value due to their high fat content (45-60%) and are high-calorie foods (550-650 kcal per 100 g). They contain a high amount of potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, selenium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, cobalt, vitamins B1, B2, PP, E, fatty acids.
Nuts should be eaten 1-2 times a week, in small portions (about 35 g).It is advisable to use nuts together with dairy or sour milk products, meat dishes, milk porridge or desserts. Nuts are recommended to be included in the diet for people suffering from diabetes.
Nuts can be allergenic, microbiological and mold unsafe, accumulate radionuclides and pesticides.
The shelf life of nuts usually does not exceed six months. Nuts should be free from rancid odor or taste, mold or deterioration.The shell should not have any cracks, holes, chips. Peeled nuts should be bulky and crunchy. Store nuts at home in an airtight container in a dry place.
Unrefined oils are healthier than refined oils.
Flaxseed oil has unique healing properties due to the ideal ratio of fatty acids that perfectly replace fish oil. The use of this oil has a beneficial effect on the work of the heart, blood vessels, skin condition, supports the work of the digestive system, removing toxins from the body and helping to lose weight.
When stored improperly in open light or at temperatures above 25 ° C, it will oxidize and develop an unpleasant bitter taste.
Hemp oil contains many active substances and antioxidants, it contains omega-3, vitamin E, trace elements and chlorophyll, which makes hemp oil very useful.
Olive oil has a unique composition: the content of oleic acid in it ranges from 56 to 84%, linoleate can be 3–21% of the total fatty acid content, while the harmful saturated fatty acids palmitate and stearate are present in small quantities.
Regular consumption of nuts has a beneficial effect on the state of the cardiovascular system and reduces the risk of developing coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. The proteins in nuts are rich in arginine, a precursor of nitric oxide, which is a potent endogenous vasodilator that acts like nitroglycerin. Regular consumption of nuts leads to a decrease in total cholesterol levels. The phytosterols in nuts may reduce the risk of certain cancers by stimulating tumor cell death.
Thus, by supplementing your daily menu with vegetable oils and nuts, you can improve your health and improve your quality of life.
For issues related to ensuring the implementation of measures of the federal project “Strengthening Public Health”, to ensure the quality and safety of food products, quality requirements, on the protection of consumer rights, you can contact:
Territorial Department of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing in the Kirov region in the Soviet district, g.Sovetsk, Kirov street, 1, t. (883375) 2-25-01
Branch of the FBUZ “Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Kirov Region” in the Soviet district, Sovetsk st. Kirov, 1, t. (883375) 2-22-02
Based on materials from the site: admsovetsk.ru
According to the information agency “Russian Internet Technologies”
Seven Reasons to Eat Nuts Every Day
Many people know that nuts are good for human health. This product contains a large amount of trace elements, vitamins, proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Scientists from Imperial College London have analyzed all studies on the relationship between nut consumption and human health. They found that if you consume about 20 grams of nuts daily, your risk of coronary heart disease can be reduced by almost 30%, and your chances of earning cancer are reduced by 15%.
A study by St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto found that eating nuts in any form – raw, salted, caramelized, roasted – can help control type II diabetes.
Nuts can help fight obesity. Nuts, due to the fats and carbohydrates they contain, are able to control blood sugar levels. In turn, because of this, the feeling of satiety with food lasts longer, and the craving for sweets decreases several times. Nutritionists advise eating no more than 20-30 grams of nuts during a snack.
In Germany, at the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, nuts were found to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The product is involved in activating the body’s defenses and strengthening the immune system against substances that cause DNA damage, which can be one of the harbingers of cancer, according to scientists.
A number of studies have been carried out in Barcelona trying to establish a connection between the diet of a pregnant woman and the brain of an unborn child. To do this, they observed pregnant women and their children after birth.Children at the age of one and a half, 5 years old and 8 years old were given a series of tests. It was found that those mothers who ate nuts during the first trimester had more developed cognitive functions and better concentration of attention.
Researchers at Yale University of Cancer found that people with stage III colon cancer who consumed nuts had a significantly lower risk of cancer recurrence and death than those who did not.
The University of South Australia has shown that daily consumption of 10 grams of nuts has a positive effect on brain function, including improving memory and cognitive functions.
Of course, do not forget that any product, even the most useful one, must be eaten in limited quantities. Nuts are an allergen for the human body if you consume more than 30 grams per day.
Nuts can be eaten both raw and fried, as an addition to dessert, vegetable or fruit salad, Food Matters reports.
See also: Carcinogens that cause cancer and respiratory diseases have been found in nuts.
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) – symptoms and treatment
Causes and occurrence of IHD
According to the modern classification, IHD includes sudden death, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. But this article will only consider ischemic heart disease in the manifestations of angina pectoris.
Ischemic disease is a group of heart diseases (especially ischemic and coronary insufficiency) that occur as a result of impaired blood flow to the myocardium due to narrowing of the coronary (supplying the heart) vessels (these are 3 large vessels, similar to 3 teeth of the crown, which is why they received the name of the coronary, or coronary).Normally, the surface of these vessels is smooth and blood flow to the heart is not impeded.
The term ischemia comes from a combination of the Greek words isho, which means to hold, to stop, and haima, which means blood. In this condition, in any part of the heart, the blood supply is disrupted, there is a discrepancy between the needs of the heart (myocardium) for oxygen and the level of cardiac blood flow and incoming oxygen.
This condition can be acute and chronic, temporary (reversible) and irreversible.As a result of long-term, irreversible changes in the area of the myocardium, heart cells are damaged and die. IHD is manifested when the narrowing of the coronary vessels reaches 50%. If the narrowing approaches 70-80%, then there are pronounced attacks of angina pectoris. In addition to atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, a number of factors play a role in the occurrence of coronary artery disease – the state of the vessels and the amount of chemicals that are produced by the inner walls of blood vessels.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic condition in which arteries are damaged.It is expressed in the fact that fats and calcium salts are deposited on the inner wall of the vessel, the degeneration of muscle tissue into connective tissue develops. As a result, the vessel wall becomes denser, narrowing of its lumen occurs, and blood flow is disturbed. This causes unfavorable changes in the organs, which leads to various diseases.
Atherosclerosis is one of the most common modern diseases. Its prevalence is high among residents of Europe, North America, and in the countries of the East, Africa, South America, it is much less common.
Men get sick more often than women, and atherosclerosis occurs about 10 years earlier. This difference is due to lifestyle, genetic characteristics, hormonal factors.
Over the past decades, mortality from ischemic heart disease, caused by atherosclerosis, has significantly increased. The onset of atherosclerosis is due to a combination of many factors called risk factors. These include: arterial hypertension, smoking, prolonged emotional stress, peculiarities of metabolism in the body.
The mechanism of atherosclerosis: the inner lining of the vessel is damaged, platelets rush to the site of damage, settle there, become covered with connective tissue, followed by the addition of lipids.
Cholesterol is one of several fat-like compounds found in human blood and tissues. It is produced by liver cells. Cholesterol exists in the body in several forms. One of them is high density compounds. This part is very important, as it protects the body from atherosclerosis, removes cholesterol from the tissues of the body and the walls of the arteries, returns it to the liver for reuse or elimination from the body.The other part of cholesterol is low density compounds. It is she who plays a role in the formation of plaques and the development of atherosclerosis. Gradually, the process progresses, cracks, ulcers form on the plaques, and blood clots form on their surface with the help of platelets. They close the lumen of the artery. Thrombosis occurs. The most formidable complication in this is the separation of a blood clot.
There are more than 30 factors contributing to the onset of ischemic heart disease. The main ones are an increase in blood pressure, an increase in blood cholesterol levels, smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, frequent alcohol consumption, heredity (the presence of diseases of the cardiovascular system in close relatives), belonging to male sex, the objective aging process of the body, overwork, irrational work and rest, irrational nutrition, stressful situations.Stress these days increases the risk of coronary heart disease many times over. Under stressful conditions, the human body produces so-called stress hormones. In the process, a large amount of vitamins and nutrients are expended.
It is also very important to change the composition of the blood – the acceleration of blood clotting, which leads to the adhesion of platelets and, ultimately, to the formation of plaques and blood clots.
Symptoms of coronary heart disease
Angina pectoris is the most important and common manifestation of coronary artery disease.This is a common disease, the main symptom of which is pain behind the sternum of a pressing or compressive nature. The pain spreads, radiates to the left arm, shoulder, scapula, often to the neck and lower jaw. An attack of angina pectoris can manifest itself in the form of chest discomfort – burning, heaviness, distention. A characteristic symptom for angina pectoris is the appearance of pain behind the sternum when the patient leaves a warm room in a cold one. The deterioration is often observed in the autumn-winter period, when the atmospheric pressure changes.The pain occurs during exercise (in the initial stages of the disease – the so-called exertional angina) and stops at rest or after taking nitroglycerin. With excitement, pains appear out of connection with physical stress. Attacks of pain can occur at night, after eating, with bloating and a high position of the diaphragm. The duration of an angina attack is almost always more than 1 minute and less than 15 minutes. Its duration also depends on the patient’s behavior. If you stop exercising and take nitroglycerin, the attack will be shorter and less intense.
One of the signs of angina pectoris is that the pain increases while lying down and decreases when the patient is sitting or standing. This is because in the supine position, the flow of venous blood to the heart and myocardium increases, more oxygen is required. The severity of the attack is different. During this time, the pulse is usually slow, rhythmic, but sometimes it can be accelerated (tachycardia). Blood pressure may also rise. Attacks may be rare (once a week or less), may not recur for several months, or, conversely, become more frequent and prolonged.
Diagnosis of ischemic heart disease
In the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, it is very important to question the patient, find out the causes of the disease, electrocardiographic research, which is carried out repeatedly, samples with dosed physical activity (veloergometry), medicinal tests.
One of the modern methods carried out in cardiological hospitals is an X-ray examination of the vessels of the heart, that is, the introduction of a substance into the blood, thanks to which it is possible to see the heart and large vessels and determine the nature, location of the lesion, and the prevalence of the process.This technique is called coronary angiography.
Folk remedies for the treatment of coronary heart disease
- Fennel. 10 g of fennel fruits are poured with a glass of boiling water, heated in a water bath, cooled, filtered, wrung out and brought to 200 ml. Take 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day for coronary insufficiency.
- Horseradish with honey. In case of ischemic heart disease in the morning, 1 hour before meals, mix 1 teaspoon of grated horseradish with 1 teaspoon of honey, preferably lime.Drink with water only. Mix just before use. Take the mixture for 1-1.5 months, preferably in spring and autumn.
- Egg and sour cream. For good heart function, you should prepare a mixture consisting of 2 egg whites, beaten with 2 teaspoons of sour cream and 1 teaspoon of honey. Eat on an empty stomach.
- Marsh dry land. With angina pectoris, 10 g of marsh grass grass is poured with a glass of boiling water, heated in a water bath for 15 minutes, cooled for 45 minutes, filtered, squeezed and the volume is brought to 200 ml.Drink 1 / 3-1 / 2 glass after meals.
- Elixir for the heart. We offer a recipe for an elixir that helps with heart diseases such as angina pectoris and ischemia, as well as atherosclerosis and hypertension. To obtain the elixir, you need to prepare 2 compositions: natural honey (preferably May) – 500 g, 40% vodka – 500 g; Mix both components, heat over moderate heat (stirring constantly) until a milky film forms on the surface of the mixture, then remove from heat and allow to settle; motherwort, marsh creeper, valerian (crushed root), knotweed, chamomile.Take a pinch of each herb, boil 1 liter of boiling water and let stand for half an hour. Then strain through several layers of cheesecloth. Mix the first composition with the second. After that, put the medicine in a dark place for 3 days. Take the first week for a teaspoon 2 times a day (morning and evening). Starting from the second week, take a tablespoon 2 times a day until everything is used up. After a 7-10 days break, prepare the medicine again and continue treatment, the course of which is 1 year.
- Dill.Chop the dill herb or its seeds, brew 1 tablespoon in 1.5 cups of boiling water, let it brew. Drink the prepared infusion during the day for angina pectoris.
- Hawthorn (infusion). Brew a tablespoon of dried hawthorn fruits with 200 ml of boiling water, leave for 2 hours in a warm place (you can brew in a thermos), drain. Take 1-2 tablespoons 3-4 times daily before meals.
- Hawthorn (tea). Brew hawthorn fruits like tea. The number of fruits does not matter, the color of the infusion should be similar to that of a medium-strength tea.Drink with sugar. Use for heart disease.
- Hawthorn with motherwort. Treatment of angina pectoris with a decoction of hawthorn was considered by Russian healers as the best remedy. Pour 6 tablespoons of hawthorn fruit and 6 tablespoons of motherwort with 7 cups of boiling water. Do not boil. Wrap the pot with hawthorn and motherwort warmly and leave to infuse for a day. Strain and squeeze the swollen berries through cheesecloth. Store the prepared broth in a cool place. Take a glass 3 times a day.Do not sweeten. To improve the taste, it can be mixed with rosehip broth, brewed in the same way.
- Garlic with honey and lemon. For angina pectoris with shortness of breath, it is recommended to take garlic with honey and lemon. Take 1 liter of honey, 10 lemons, 5 heads of garlic. Squeeze the juice from the lemons, peel the garlic, rinse and grate (you can pass it through a meat grinder). Mix everything and leave covered in a cool place for a week. Take 4 teaspoons 1 time per day, and it must be taken slowly, with stops between each spoonful for 1 minute.
- Goose cinquefoil. Pour 2-4 tablespoons of goose cinquefoil herb with a glass of boiling water and insist until cooled. Take 1/3 cup 3 times a day before meals for angina pectoris, migraine.
- Heartwort. Pour 15 g of motherwort herb with a glass of boiling water and insist until cooled. Take a tablespoon 3-4 times a day before meals for angina pectoris, myocarditis, cardioneurosis.
- Medicinal lovage. 40 g of dry crushed roots of lovage medicinal pour 1 liter of water, boil for 7-8 minutes on low heat, insist in a warm place for at least 20 minutes.Take the broth only freshly prepared, in 4 doses per day.
- Bitter wormwood. Pour a coffee spoonful of wormwood herb with a glass of boiling water, leave for 2 hours, drain. Drink 1 coffee cup 2 times a day, morning and evening, before meals for a month. The second and third months they drink 1 coffee cup only in the morning.
- Astragalus fluffy. 1-2 tablespoons of herb Astragalus fluffy pour a glass of boiling water, leave for 1 hour, drain. Drink 1-2 tablespoons 3-5 times a day for chronic cardiovascular insufficiency, accompanied by tachycardia, angina pectoris.
- Rosehip (fruit). 2 tbsp. l. rose hips, 350 ml of vodka. Finely crush the rose hips, pour into a glass bottle with a capacity of 0.5 l, pour over vodka. Insist in a dark place for 2 weeks, shake daily. Take 20 drops on a lump of sugar 3 times a day, with or without food.
- Horseradish. 5 g fresh horseradish roots. Pour the chopped horseradish roots in a thermos with 1 glass of boiling water, leave for 2 hours. Use the infusion for inhalation.
- Nettle (color). 1 tsp nettle flowers. Pour nettle flowers with 1 cup boiling water. Take 0.5 cups 2 times a day: in the morning on an empty stomach and in the evening before bedtime.
- Strawberries (leaf). 20 g of strawberry leaves. Pour raw materials with 1 glass of boiling water, boil for 10 minutes, then leave for 2 hours, strain, squeeze the leaves, bring to the original volume with boiled water. Take 1 tbsp. l. 3-4 times a day, regardless of food intake.
- Garlic. 50 g of garlic, 1 glass of vodka.Chop the garlic, add vodka, leave in a warm place for 3 days. Take 3 times a day, 8-10 drops in 1 tsp. cold boiled water 3 times a day, regardless of food intake.
- Garlic. 350 g of garlic, 200 ml of medical alcohol with a strength of 96%. Finely chop the peeled garlic and grind in a container with a wooden spoon. Take 200 g of this mass from below, together with the resulting juice, place in a glass vessel, pour alcohol, seal tightly. Store the resulting tincture in the refrigerator for no more than 12 days.Take 20 minutes before meals, after mixing with 1/4 glass of cold milk, for 10 days according to the following scheme: on the 1st day 1 drop in the morning, 2 drops at lunchtime, 3 drops before dinner. On the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th day, add 3 drops per dose. From the 6th to the 10th day, subtract 3 drops per appointment.
- 1 h. L. white mistletoe leaves, 2 tbsp. l. buckwheat flowers, 1 cup boiling water. 1 tsp collection, pour boiling water, put in a warm place overnight, strain in the morning.Take 2 tbsp. l. 20 minutes before meals 3 times a day.
- 1 part of the leaves of coltsfoot, 2 parts each of dill, jaundice herb, reed sunflower flowers, 1 liter of boiling water. Mix and grind all components thoroughly. 1 tbsp. l. pour the resulting collection with boiling water, leave for 1 hour. Strain the resulting infusion, squeeze the raw material. Take 1/2 cup 5-6 times a day for a month, regardless of food intake.
- 40 g of herb lovage, chopped corn roots, 1 liter of boiled water.Mix the ingredients, chop. 2 tbsp. l. pour the resulting collection with boiled water, bring to a boil, boil for 7-8 minutes, pour into a thermos and leave for 40 minutes. Strain the resulting broth, squeeze the raw material. Take 1/2 cup 3 times a day 30 minutes after a meal. Conduct 3 courses of 7 days with a five-day interval.
- 1 part of sugary kelp thallus, 2 parts of corn stigmas, horsetail herb, sundew herb, 1 liter of boiling water. Mix the ingredients thoroughly, chop.3 tbsp. l. place the resulting collection in an enamel bowl, pour 1 liter of boiling water. Put in a water bath and bring to a boil. Boil for 1 min. Pour into a thermos, leave for 1 hour. Strain the resulting infusion, squeeze the raw material. Take 1/2 cup 6 times a day, preferably after meals, for 2 weeks.
- 20 g each of blue cornflower flowers, birch buds, chopped rhizome with roots of elecampane high, corn stigmas, bearberry leaves, buckwheat flowers, 1 glass of boiling water.Mix all ingredients thoroughly, grind. 2 tbsp. l. collection to fall asleep in an enamel bowl, pour 1 glass of boiling water, put in a water bath, bring to a boil. Insist until cool. Strain the resulting broth, squeeze the raw material, bring to the original volume with boiled water. Take 1/2 cup 2 times a day 30 minutes before meals. Not recommended for use at night.
- 1 part of the root of a tea penny, linden flowers, raspberries, ground flaxseed, 2 cups of boiling water.Mix all ingredients thoroughly, grind. 4 tbsp. l. place the resulting collection in an enamel bowl, pour boiling water over it, place in a water bath and keep for 30 minutes. Insist until cool. Strain the resulting broth, squeeze the raw materials, bring with boiled water to the original volume. Take 1 glass 2 times a day immediately 5-7 minutes before meals. Apply within a month. If the effectiveness is insufficient, repeat the course after a two-week break.
- 20 g of field horsetail herb, 30 g of grass knotweed (knotweed), 50 g of hawthorn flowers, 1 glass of boiling water.Mix the crushed raw materials. 2 tbsp. l. collection, pour boiling water. Stir, leave to cool. Strain the resulting infusion, squeeze the raw material. Drink during the day.
- 2 st. l. chopped horseradish root, 1 glass of honey, 1 glass of freshly prepared carrot juice, 1 glass of boiled water. Pour horseradish with water and leave for a day. Add honey and carrot juice. Mix. Store in a cool place. Take 1 tbsp. l. on an empty stomach 1 hour before meals or 1.5-2 hours after meals.
- 2 st. l. crushed roots of cyanosis blue. Pour 100 ml of boiling water over the raw materials, keep for 10 minutes on low heat. Insist for 15 minutes, then strain and bring to the original volume with boiled water. Take 1 tbsp. l. 5 times a day after meals. Take the last time at night.
- The following components are selected: dried cress (grass) – 10 g, rose hips (fruits) – 15 g, birch (leaves) – 10 g, mint (leaves) – 10 g, carrots (seeds) – 10 g, Eleutherococcus (root) – 15 g, senna (leaves) – 10 g, kidney tea (herb) – 10 g, large burdock (root) – 10 g.Pour two tablespoons of the mixture with a glass of boiling water, leave in a water bath for 20 minutes, cool, filter, squeeze and bring the volume to 200 ml. Drink 1/3 cup 3 times a day after meals with angina pectoris.
- In case of coronary insufficiency (insufficient blood circulation), take 100 g of motherwort herb, chamomile inflorescences and hawthorn flowers, 50 g each of birch leaves, hernia and heather grass, wheatgrass rhizomes, horse chestnut flowers. Grind the dry mixture and pour 1 teaspoon with 1 cup boiling water.Insist wrapped for 20-30 minutes, then strain. Take the broth warm 1 glass in the morning and evening before bedtime.
- Prepare an infusion of lemon balm (leaves) – 15 g, caraway (fruit) – 10 g, periwinkle (herb) – 10 g, valerian (root) – 15 g, hawthorn (flowers) – 20 g, white mistletoe (leaves) – 30 g. A tablespoon of the mixture is poured with a glass of boiling water and insisted for 2 hours, filtered. Drink 2 glasses a day – in the morning and in the evening with pain in the heart.
- For the prevention of coronary heart disease, you can take a drink made from elecampane root, honey and oats.You will need 70 g of elecampane roots, 30 g of honey, 50 g of oats and 0.5 liters of raw water. Sort out and rinse the oats, cover it with cold water, bring to a boil, remove from heat and leave for 3-4 hours. Pour the chopped roots of elecampane with oat broth, boil and leave for 2 hours. Then strain, add honey. Drink 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day before meals.
Traditional treatments for ischemic heart disease
IHD treatment is a comprehensive program.
It includes the methods of traditional therapy prescribed by therapists and cardiologists, and methods of alternative, traditional medicine.
An essential component of treatment is the fight against risk factors. It is necessary to normalize the patient’s lifestyle, eliminate hypodynamia, exclude bad habits, adhere to a certain diet, try to avoid anxiety and emotional overload.
The list of products required by patients with this disease must necessarily include raisins, honey, nuts of any kind, raw pumpkin, pumpkin seeds, seaweed, cottage cheese, strawberries, peas, soybeans, soybean oil and flour, eggplants, lemons and oranges with zest, rosehip in the form of a drink, gooseberry, cranberry.The ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates should be 1: 1: 4.
If you are overweight, it is important to reduce the calorie content of food. It is necessary to exclude fatty meat (especially lamb and pork), hard margarine, butter from the diet, replacing it with vegetable oil, that is, it is necessary to reduce the content of saturated fatty acids in the foods consumed, which are rich in animal fats that contribute to the formation of cholesterol, and increase the amount of vegetable fats.In addition, you need to provide the body with an increased amount of vitamins and minerals.
Drug therapy includes two main groups of drugs. These are, firstly, nitroglycerin and its derivatives of a longer action (they relieve spasm and dilate the coronary vessels, thereby facilitating the access of blood and oxygen to the heart). Another group is drugs that improve blood composition (in this case, reduce clotting and prevent blood clots).The simplest drug of these is aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), prescribed according to a specific scheme. In addition, in some cases, medications are recommended that reduce the formation of cholesterol in the blood and inhibit its absorption in the intestine. Also, drugs are used that accelerate the metabolism and excretion of lipids from the body.
The appointment of vitamins E and P is very useful. It is more expedient to combine them with ascorbic acid.
It must be remembered that all pharmacological preparations must be prescribed by a doctor.Self-medication with these drugs is unacceptable.
Physical activity, exercise therapy
In addition to the above means, physical training is very important in the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease.
At the initial manifestations of the disease, running, swimming, skiing, cycling are shown, that is, physical activities of a cyclic type.
They should be carried out during periods without exacerbation of the disease. In more severe forms of ischemic heart disease, physical activity is recommended in the form of therapeutic gymnastics complexes.The complex for physiotherapy exercises should be selected by the exercise therapy doctor, taking into account the patient’s condition. Classes are conducted by a physical therapy instructor by a group method in a hospital or clinic under the supervision of a physician. It is necessary to measure the heart rate before, during and after exercise. Usually, these complexes include exercises in the initial standing position, sitting (for patients over 50), walking, exercises for the upper and lower extremities using a gymnastic stick, breathing exercises and stretching.Exercises are performed at a slow pace, smoothly, with a small range of motion. Self-massage of the extremities can be used to “unload” the work of the heart. This is done to facilitate the outflow of blood from the periphery to the center. The simplest massage techniques: stroking, rubbing, kneading.
After a certain course of physiotherapy exercises in a medical facility, the patient can independently perform these exercises at home.
Physiotherapy of ischemic heart disease
When treating patients with ischemic heart disease, one should not forget about the use of physical factors (methods of apparatus physiotherapy).The type of physiotherapy treatment is selected by a physiotherapist.
In the absence of contraindications (such as progressive angina pectoris, persistent pain syndrome, rest angina pectoris, increased blood pressure, the presence of arrhythmias), balneotherapy sessions are used – carbon dioxide, radon, chloride and iodine-bromine therapeutic baths. In patients with more pronounced angina pectoris, these effects are applied sparingly – in the form of four-chamber baths.