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Inflammation of the chest lining: Costochondritis – Symptoms and causes


Chest Wall Infections | Cedars-Sinai

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The chest wall, sometimes called the thoracic wall, protects the heart, liver, lungs and other vital organs. The wall is made up of the ribs, the sternum and cartilage. Together these pieces form a protective cavity within the abdomen.

The chest wall can become infected by bacteria or viruses. In rare cases, fungal infections can also happen. Infections of the chest wall can often lead to inflammation and pain in the affected area.

Types of chest wall infections include:

  • Pleurisy — infection of the thin membranes (pleura) of the chest wall
  • Costochondritis — inflammation of the cartilage that connects the upper ribs to the sternum
  • Empyema — fluid that builds up between the pleura and the inner lining of the chest wall


The most common symptom related to a chest wall infection is chest pain. This is often due to the inflammation caused by the infection and may become more severe with activity. Other common symptoms include:

  • Tenderness
  • Swelling
  • Difficulty taking a deep breath
  • Pain in the shoulders or back
  • Headaches
  • Joint pain
  • Dry cough
  • Fever

Causes and Risk Factors

Chest wall infections can occur in both men and women, and in patients of any age. The condition is caused by a bacteria or virus, and in rare cases, a fungus, that has invaded the affected area.

Patients with a compromised immune system are at an increased risk of developing a chest wall infection. Common conditions that may increase a patient’s risk include:


Diagnosis of a chest wall infection usually starts with a physical exam and a review of the patient’s medical history and symptoms.

Imaging diagnostic tests such as a chest x-rays look at the soft tissue and bones in the body to find out if there is inflammation in the chest wall. These images can also help diagnose other related conditions, such as pneumonia.

Blood tests may be done to find out if a bacterial or viral infection is causing the condition.

Other tests such as a bronchoscopy may be used to look at the tissue within the chest wall or at the airway to study inflammation or other signs of infection.


Treatment for chest wall infections will often focus on fighting the infection that is causing the symptoms. Antibiotic medications to help fight the infection and reduce inflammation often are prescribed.

Many anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen are available over the counter without a prescription and can provide relief for many patients who are experiencing pain due to inflammation.

Prescription painkillers may be provided to help reduce severe pain. Other prescription medications that can help control pain include antidepressants and anti-seizure drugs.

In-office or at home physical therapy exercises also may be prescribed as treatment. Stretching exercises that focus on the chest muscles can help with pain and tightness related to inflammation.

The multidisciplinary team at the Advanced Lung Disease Program can determine the best treatment option for each patient.

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

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Costochondritis — Symptoms, Causes, Tests, and Treatment for Costochondritis — from WebMD

What Is Costochondritis?

Costochondritis is inflammation of the areas where your upper ribs join with the cartilage that holds them to your breastbone. These areas are called costochondral junctions. The condition causes chest pain, but it’s typically harmless and usually goes away without any treatment. But any chest pain in adults should be taken seriously, so you should be examined and tested for heart disease.

A rare condition called Tietze syndrome is often referred to as costochondritis, but the two are distinct conditions. You can tell the difference by the following:

  • Tietze syndrome usually comes on all of a sudden, with chest pain spreading to your arms or shoulder and lasting several weeks.

  • Tietze syndrome causes swelling at the painful area (where your ribs and breastbone meet).​​​​​​​

Costochondritis Causes

Doctors don’t know exactly why costochondritis happens, but they do know that some things can lead to it: 

  • Repeated minor trauma to your chest wall
  • Overuse of your arms
  • Arthritis. Costochondritis can sometimes be a sign of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or other conditions that affect your cartilage.
  • Tumors. These can move from joints and other parts of your body and settle in your chest.
  • Respiratory infections caused by viruses 
  • Bacterial infections, especially in people who use IV drugs or have had surgery near their upper chest 
  • Fungal infections (in rare cases)

Costochondritis Symptoms

Chest pain linked to costochondritis usually comes on after exercise, minor trauma, or an upper respiratory infection.

  • Sharp pain in the front of  your chest, near where your breastbone and ribs meet, typically on the left side. It may spread to your back or belly.
  • Pain when you take a deep breath or cough. It gets better when you stop moving or your breathing is quieter.
  • Tenderness when you press on your rib joints. If you don’t have this tenderness, you probably don’t have costochondritis.
  •  If costochondritis happens because of an infection after surgery, you’ll have redness, swelling, or pus discharge at the site of the surgery.

Call your doctor if you have any of the following:

Go to a hospital’s emergency room if you have a hard time breathing or any of the following. They’re not usually caused by costochondritis:

  • High fever that doesn’t get better with fever reducers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen
  • Signs of infection at the tender spot, such as pus, redness, increased pain, and swelling
  • Persistent chest pain of any type when you also have nausea, sweating, or pain in your left arm. These may be signs of a heart attack. If you’re not sure what’s causing your chest pain, go to the emergency room.

Costochondritis Risk Factors

Costochondritis is a common cause of chest pain in children and adolescents. It accounts for 10% to 30% of all chest pain in children. Annually, doctors see about 650,000 cases of chest pain in people ages 10 to 21. The peak age for the condition is ages 12-14.

Kids who often carry heavy book bags over one shoulder can be more likely to develop costochondritis.

In adults, costochondritis affects women more than men (70% vs. 30%).  

Costochondritis Diagnosis

There is no specific test for diagnosing costochondritis. To rule out a more serious cause of your chest pain related to your heart or lungs, your doctor will probably start with tests like an echocardiogram (ECG), chest X-rays, and blood test for heart damage, among others. 

If those tests come back normal, they’ll likely see if you have tenderness in any of your rib joints, usually over the fourth to sixth ribs.

If you’ve had sternum (breastbone) surgery or are at risk for heart disease, they may recommend getting a test to see if infection is the cause of your chest pain. Doctors will:

  • Look for signs of infection such as redness, swelling, pus, and drainage at the site of surgery
  • Recommend a more sophisticated imaging study of the chest called a gallium scan, which will show an increase in the radioactive material gallium 
  • Check your white blood cell count to see if it is high, a sign of infection
  • Recommend a chest X-ray if pneumonia might be a cause of your chest pain

Costochondritis Treatment and Home Remedies

Home Remedies for Costochondritis

These home remedies may provide relief from costochondritis:

  • Over-the-counter  pain relievers such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen or naproxen as needed
  • Using local heat or ice to relieve pain
  • Avoiding unnecessary exercise or activities that make the symptoms worse; avoiding contact sports until there is improvement in symptoms, and then returning to normal activities only as tolerated
  • Doing stretching exercises

Medications for Costochondritis

Your doctor may suggest the following:

  • Prescription-strength NSAIDs.
  • A local anesthetic and steroid injection in the area that is tender if normal activities become very painful and the pain doesn’t get better with medicine.
  • Narcotics like hydrocodone/acetaminophen (Norco, Vicodin) or oxycodone/acetaminophen (Percocet, Roxicet, Tylox) can help with extreme pain, but, as with any narcotics, there’s danger of becoming addicted to them.
  • Steroids. Your doctor can give you a corticosteroid shot directly into a painful joint, but that’s considered something of a last resort.
  • Tricyclic antidepressants or cyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline can help ease pain, but they also can have side effects, like weight gain and drowsiness. 
  • Antiseizure drugs, usually gabapentin (Neurontin), are typically used to treat epilepsy, but they also may help with costochondritis.
  • Infectious (bacterial or fungal) costochondritis should be treated with IV antibiotics. Afterward, antibiotics by mouth or by IV should be continued for another 2 to 3 weeks. You should see a doctor during recovery, and then once a year. 

Surgery for Costochondritis

You may need surgery to remove the sore cartilage if other treatments don’t help. Your doctor can refer you to a surgeon.

Costochondritis Prevention

Because inflammatory costochondritis has no definite cause, there is no good way to prevent it.

Costochondritis Outlook

Noninfectious costochondritis will go away on its own, with or without anti-inflammatory treatment. Most people will recover fully.

Infectious costochondritis responds well to IV antibiotics and surgery, but recovery may take a long time.

Symptoms, Causes, Tests and Treatment


Normal pleura in lung compared to inflamed pleura in lung (pleurisy)

What is pleurisy?

The pleura is the thin membrane that lines the outside of the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity. Pleurisy is an inflammation (swelling or irritation) of these two layers of tissue.

The pleural space is a thin area between the chest lining and the membrane that lines the lungs. Fluid lubricates the layers of the pleura so they slide smoothly alongside each other when you breathe. When the membranes become inflamed, they rub painfully against each other instead.

Pleurisy can cause sharp or stabbing chest pain and shortness of breath. It is also called pleuritis.

Who is affected by pleurisy?

Pleurisy can affect people with certain underlying medical conditions, such as infections or autoimmune diseases. Pleurisy occurs in people of all ages, but it develops most often in people over age 65. These people are more likely to develop chest infections.

People of Mediterranean descent have a higher risk for pleurisy due to a hereditary condition called familial Mediterranean fever. With familial Mediterranean fever, a genetic mutation (change) causes inflammation in the chest and abdomen.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes pleurisy?

Doctors do not always know what causes pleurisy. Infections usually cause the disorder. These infections can be viral (caused by a virus), such as influenza, or bacterial (caused by bacteria), such as pneumonia. While infections can cause pleurisy, pleurisy itself is not contagious.

Other conditions that can cause pleurisy include:

  • Asbestosis (lung disease caused by the inhalation of asbestos).
  • Autoimmune disorders such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Blood clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism).
  • Chest surgery or trauma.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Reactions to medicines including hydralazine (treats high blood pressure), isoniazid (treats tuberculosis), and procainamide (treats abnormal heart rhythms).
  • Tumors caused by cancers of the respiratory system such as lung cancer.

What are the symptoms of pleurisy?

Most people with pleurisy experience sharp or stabbing chest pain, also known as pleuritic pain. This pain often worsens when you cough or breathe in deeply. Sometimes the pain can spread to the shoulder or back.

Pain similar to pleuritic pain can also be a symptom of emergency medical conditions such as a heart attack or pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lung). If you experience sharp chest pain, it is important to seek immediate medical attention to rule out these life-threatening conditions.

Other signs and symptoms of pleurisy can include:

  • Cough.
  • Fatigue (extreme tiredness).
  • Fever.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Unexplained weight loss.

Can you get pleurisy more than once?

Yes. You do not become immune to pleurisy by having it and recovering. Also, some of the conditions that can cause pleurisy are chronic—you have them for a long time—so you may continue to be susceptible to inflammation of the pleura.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is pleurisy diagnosed?

Doctors use a medical history and several tests to evaluate for pleurisy. These tests include:

  • Biopsy: In some cases, a doctor will take a small sample of lung tissue to determine whether cancer or tuberculosis is present.
  • Blood test: Doctors use blood tests to look for signs of infection or autoimmune disorders such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG): This test uses small electrodes placed on the chest to measure the heart’s electrical activity. It helps doctors rule out problems or defects of the heart.
  • Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans and ultrasounds allow your doctor to see abnormalities in the pleural space, including air, gas or a blood clot.
  • Physical exam: Listening to your lungs with a stethoscope allows your doctor to hear a rubbing sound in your lungs that may be a sign of pleurisy.
  • Fluid extraction (thoracentesis): A doctor inserts a small needle into the pleural space and removes fluid to look for signs of infection or other causes of pleurisy.

Management and Treatment

What are the treatments for pleurisy?

Pleurisy treatment depends on the underlying condition causing it. In some cases, pleurisy goes away on its own without treatment.

Your treatment options might include:

  • Draining the pleural space: Doctors remove air, blood, or fluid from the pleural space. Depending on how much of the substance needs to be drained, doctors use a needle and syringe (thoracentesis) or a chest tube to suction fluid out of the area.
  • Medication: Your doctor might prescribe an antibiotic, an antifungal or an antiparasitic to treat an infection. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen can relieve the pain associated with pleurisy. Corticosteroids can reduce inflammation, but they can produce many side effects. Your doctor may prescribe bronchodilators to make it easier for you to breathe.
  • Radiation treatment or chemotherapy: In some cases, doctors use cancer treatments to shrink tumors that cause pleurisy.

What are the complications associated with pleurisy?

Some people with pleurisy experience complications. They include:

  • Hemothorax: Blood builds up in the pleural space.
  • Pleural effusion: Too much fluid collects in the pleural space. Pleural effusion can cause difficulty in breathing.
  • Severe illness from not treating the infection or condition that caused pleurisy in the first place.


How can you prevent pleurisy?

You can’t prevent pleurisy, but you can reduce your risk by promptly treating conditions that may cause it. You should also quit smoking tobacco, using electronic cigarettes, and smoking marijuana. If you don’t smoke, don’t start.

Who is at risk of developing pleurisy?

People of Mediterranean descent have a higher risk for pleurisy due to a hereditary condition called familial Mediterranean fever. People with other underlying conditions that can lead to pleurisy are also at higher risk for the disorder. These conditions include:

  • Asbestosis (lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos).
  • Autoimmune disorders such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Cancers of the respiratory system such as lung cancer, asthma, and COPD.
  • Chest surgery or trauma.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Taking certain medications, including hydralazine, isoniazid, and procainamide.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with pleurisy?

Doctors successfully treat most cases of pleurisy. Most people who receive prompt diagnosis and treatment for the condition causing pleurisy recover fully. People treated with antibiotics for an infection causing pleurisy usually feel better in about a week. Very rarely, people who are not treated may have life-threatening complications. The outlook also depends on the underlying condition that caused the pleurisy.

Living With

When should I see a healthcare provider about pleurisy?

Contact your healthcare provider if you experience unexplained severe chest pain or other symptoms of pleurisy.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

If you have pleurisy, you may want to ask your doctor:

  • Why did I develop pleurisy?
  • Should I consider genetic testing?
  • If medicine caused pleurisy, should I stop or change my medicine?
  • Am I at higher risk for other lung conditions?
  • What can I do at home to relieve pain?
  • What signs of complications should I look out for?
  • Am I more likely to get pleurisy again after having it once?

Chest Wall Pain, Costochondritis

The chest pain that you have had today is caused by costochondritis. This condition is caused by an inflammation of the cartilage joining your ribs to your breastbone. It’s not caused by heart or lung problems. Your healthcare team has made sure that the chest pain you feel is not from a life threatening cause of chest pain such as heart attack, collapsed lung, blood clot in the lung, tear in the aorta, or esophageal rupture. The inflammation may have been brought on by a blow to the chest, lifting heavy objects, intense exercise, or an illness that made you cough and sneeze a lot. It often occurs during times of emotional stress. It can be painful, but it’s not dangerous. It usually goes away in 1 to 2 weeks. But it may happen again. Rarely, a more serious condition may cause symptoms similar to costochondritis. That’s why it’s important to watch for the warning signs listed below.

Home care

Follow these guidelines when caring for yourself at home:

  • If you feel that emotional stress is a cause of your condition, try to figure out the sources of that stress. It may not be obvious. Learn ways to deal with the stress in your life. This can include regular exercise, muscle relaxation, meditation, or simply taking time out for yourself.

  • You may use acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen to control pain, unless another pain medicine was prescribed. If you have liver or kidney disease or ever had a stomach ulcer, talk with your healthcare provider before using these medicines.

  • You can also help ease pain by using a hot, wet compress or heating pad. Use this with or without a medicated skin cream that helps relieves pain.

  • Do stretching exercise as advised by your provider. Typically rest is beneficial for the first few days. Avoid strenuous activity that worsens the pain.

  • Take any prescribed medicines as directed.

Follow-up care

Follow up with your healthcare provider, or as advised.

When to seek medical advice

Call your healthcare provider right away if any of these occur:

  • A change in the type of pain. Call if it feels different, becomes more serious, lasts longer, or spreads into your shoulder, arm, neck, jaw, or back.

  • Shortness of breath or pain gets worse when you breathe

  • Weakness, dizziness, or fainting

  • Cough with dark-colored sputum (phlegm) or blood

  • Abdominal pain

  • Dark red or black stools

  • Fever of 100.4ºF (38ºC) or higher, or as directed by your healthcare provider

Lung Inflammation: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, More

Lung inflammation can be acute or chronic, and there are many possible causes, including exposures, infections, and diseases like asthma or bronchitis. Because inflammation of the lungs can affect their functioning, it can cause wheezing, difficulty breathing, or chest pain and tightness.

The diagnosis of lung inflammation involves a multifaceted approach, incorporating a physical examination, imaging tests, pulmonary function tests, and more. Depending on the cause, lung inflammation can be treated with medications or procedures to alleviate the symptoms and control the underlying disease. Prevention strategies like avoiding triggers are also important.

Nez Riaz / Verywell

Symptoms of Lung Inflammation

The noticeable effects of lung inflammation can develop rapidly or slowly, depending on the extent of inflammation, the cause, and your overall health. If you have chronic inflammation, you might end up getting used to the situation and ignoring your symptoms, especially if they are mild and fairly steady.

With acute and rapidly worsening inflammation of the lungs, it’s hard to ignore the effects, and you will probably be unable to overlook that something is wrong.

Symptoms of lung inflammation can include:

  • Feeling tired after physical activity
  • A general sense of fatigue
  • Wheezing
  • Dry or productive cough
  • Trouble breathing
  • Chest discomfort, tightness, or pain
  • A sense of lung pain
  • Gasping for air

Issues like fevers, weight loss, or hypertension can also occur. But these effects are related to the underlying medical conditions that give way to lung inflammation, not the inflammation itself.


Lung inflammation isn’t always serious, like when you have a cold or mild case of the flu. But illnesses that cause even moderate levels of lung inflammation can wear you down, such as with pneumonia or chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD). Your body consumes energy to fight infection, and diminished airflow due to lung inflammation can result in low oxygen—and, therefore, low energy.

Sometimes severe lung inflammation can seriously interfere with air and oxygen absorption into your lungs. This can cause effects of hypoxemia (low blood in the lungs) or hypoxia (low blood oxygen in the tissues), resulting in dizziness or loss of consciousness. You will need urgent medical care to manage these consequences.

Airway Remodeling

Chronic inflammation can contribute to airway remodeling, in which the airways become thickened and prone to mucous secretion. The effects of airways remodeling include lung congestion, difficulty clearing secretions, and a tendency to have lung infections.

Ventilation can be affected too, with diminished oxygen absorption and carbon dioxide release. If you become very sick due to an acute infection, the effects of airway remodeling can make you prone to hypercapnia (carbon dioxide retention), necessitating mechanical ventilation.


Your lungs can become inflamed when they are infected, irritated, or damaged. Inflammation is the body’s way of healing, so it’s often a response to something harmful.

Sometimes, though, your lungs could become inflamed due to a hereditary disease like cystic fibrosis or an overreactive immune system, such as with an autoimmune condition like Sjögren’s syndrome.

Inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs), or bronchi (airways) prevents air from easily passing in an out of your lungs and can make breathing a struggle. Inflammation may also increase the risk of lung infections by trapping infectious material in the lungs.

Lung inflammation is a process—it is caused by disease and causes disease—often involving a decline in lung function if it isn’t controlled. Inflammation in the lungs can be diffuse, throughout the lungs, or it can be concentrated in specific regions. Pulmonary sarcoidosis, for instance, may cause lung granulomas, which are large inflammatory nodules.

Though not exhaustive, this list covers the most common causes of lung inflammation.

Irritant Exposure

Inflammation helps repair your lungs. Depending on the severity of the irritation, the inflammation can be short-lived with minimal consequences or lasting and harmful.

When the lungs encounter airborne toxins, such as cigarette smoke, pollutants, chemicals, and environmental fumes, irritation results. Pneumonitis is a type of diffuse lung inflammation that can develop in response to chemical irritants.

Exposure to radiation, as with cancer treatment, can cause lung irritation resulting radiation pneumonitis.


Lung infections like acute bronchitis and pneumonia generally produce substantial inflammation in the lungs. The inflammation can be patchy, affecting spots throughout the lungs, or it can be localized to one area. The pattern of lung inflammation in pulmonary infections differs depending on the infection.

Generally, with a mild self-limited infection, lung inflammation should clear up as the infection resolves.

Severe lung infections may cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a life-threatening condition in which lung function suddenly declines.


Asthma is characterized by episodic inflammation and bronchospasm (sudden narrowing of the bronchi), which makes it hard for air to travel into the airways. The inflammation is often triggered by an infection or exposure to environmental irritants, and it may precede or trigger the bronchospasm.

Asthma attacks can cause severe respiratory symptoms. And there may be few symptoms of asthma in between asthma attacks.


Chronic obstructive lung diseases include emphysema and chronic bronchitis. These conditions often result from issues like smoking and are gradually progressive, involving substantial lung damage, mucus production, and inflammation. All of these issues exacerbate each other over time.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by constant fatigue and difficulty breathing, often with exacerbations, which are episodes of worsening symptoms.

Chest Inflammation

There are different types and causes of chest inflammation. Sometimes inflammation spreads to the lungs from outside them.

Costochondritis—inflammation of the costal cartilage that joins your rib bone to your breastbone, is a common cause of chest inflammation. Costochondritis causes sharp or stinging pain that is reproducible when you or your doctor press on the affected chest wall area.

Chest wall pain (musculoskeletal chest pain) can develop if you have costochondritis or any type of inflammation in your chest wall or ribs.

Systemic Diseases

Inflammatory diseases like fibromyalgia, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis, and sarcoidosis can involve the lungs. These conditions can act-up episodically or sporadically, resulting in inflammation that primarily affects the joints or muscles. Lung inflammation is not uncommon.

It can be difficult to lung distinguish inflammation from a lung infection in these situations, especially because immunosuppressants (which increase the risk of infections) are a common treatment for these inflammatory conditions.

Lung Injury

Any type of trauma in or near the lungs, such as a rib fracture or a pneumothorax, can cause an inflammatory response as the body attempts to heal from the damage.

Sometimes this type of damage suddenly occurs due to trauma from outside the body—a puncture wound for example—or from inside the body—such as a tear in the lung tissue due to advanced lung disease.

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that results in airway obstruction due to excess mucus production in the lungs. While it isn’t primarily an inflammatory disease, it is often complicated by respiratory inflammation and a predisposition to pulmonary infections.

Cystic fibrosis is a chronic lifelong disease, and the symptoms can fluctuate over time, as can the inflammatory process in the lungs.


Pericarditis is an inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart, and it can spread to the lungs. Pericarditis can develop due to an infection or non-infectious inflammation of the heart.

This serious condition typically produces sharp or stabbing chest pain that’s worsened when taking a deep breath or coughing. A distinctive feature of pericarditis is that leaning forward while seated tends to ease the chest pain.

Pulmonary Embolus (PE)

A PE is a blood clot in the lungs. These blood clots can vary in size. A large PE is a potentially life-threatening issue. While inflammation is not the first issue with a PE, your lungs can become secondarily inflamed due to damage from decreased blood flow.

Lung Cancer

Cancer that starts in the lungs or spreads to the lungs from elsewhere can cause inflammation. Having cancer in the lungs causes a number of issues, including bleeding, obstruction of the airways, and pain. All of these complications of lung cancer can lead to inflammation and may also be worsened by inflammation.


The diagnosis of lung inflammation involves a physical examination and a careful evaluation of your symptoms. Because there are so many causes of lung inflammation, the selection of diagnostic tests is based on which are most likely to be helpful in your case.

Associated symptoms such as a fever, chest pain, or aching joints will help direct your medical team to the next steps in your diagnostic evaluation, as they may help narrow down the possible diagnoses worth exploring first.

Ruling Out an Emergency

Most importantly, your doctor will determine whether your condition is an immediate threat to your health or whether it is more of a chronic issue.

Initial diagnostic strategies include a physical examination that assesses your respiratory rate and effort. Your doctor will look for signs like whether you are struggling to breathe and whether you are using accessory muscles to breathe, such as the muscles in your neck. These signs suggest that you could be at risk of a sudden decline and might need respiratory support soon—even before the cause of your lung inflammation is identified.

Additionally, your oxygen level will be checked, either with a pulse oximeter, arterial blood gas test, or both. Low oxygen saturation suggests a need for urgent intervention, such as supplemental oxygen.

Diagnostic Tests

A chest computed tomography (CT) scan, which is an imaging test that visualizes your chest and lungs, is a common approach for evaluating chest injuries, pulmonary inflammatory diseases, and severe pulmonary infections.

A ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scan is the test of choice for evaluating a PE. And pulmonary function tests assess your breathing abilities, which can be impacted by lung inflammation.

If there is a concern that your symptoms are caused by a heart condition, you might need an electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests to measure cardiac enzymes, and/or an echocardiogram.


The treatment of lung inflammation is often complex, involving a combination of several symptom-reducing strategies and disease-modifying approaches. Treatment of lung inflammation can include urgent respiratory support, anti-inflammatory medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids, and/or surgical intervention as needed.

Urgent Management

While inflammation can be treated, a respiratory emergency often requires intervention aimed at quickly delivering oxygen to the lungs because lung dysfunction can be harmful, or even fatal.

Supplemental oxygen can help when you have a low oxygen saturation and can breathe on your own. In more severe situations, you might need respiratory support to help you breathe. This can include airway pressure or intubation.

These measures are generally considered temporary because the goal is for you to breathe on your own rather than relying on mechanical support that keeps you bedbound (and hospital-bound). Some people who have chronic inflammatory lung conditions need to use home oxygen therapy for the long term, however.

Mechanical respiratory support and oxygen supplementation don’t help reduce lung inflammation. Rather, they help prevent low oxygen levels while your inflammation is getting under control.


Inhaled corticosteroids are often used to control inflammation in asthma and COPD. Systemic inflammation is often treated with oral or injected anti-inflammatories. Prescription-strength anti-inflammatories can reduce inflammation and prevent symptoms.

If you have severe pneumonia, you might need treatment with an antibiotic to get rid of the infection—and sometimes anti-inflammatories are used as well. But anti-inflammatories can increase your risk of infection, so they aren’t always the right option, even in situations with extensive lung inflammation.

Tailored Treatments

Tailored treatments that target the causative disease (besides anti-inflammatories) are often necessary. For instance, if your lung inflammation is due to a PE, you will likely need a blood thinner medication or an interventional procedure.

Antibiotics are often needed to treat bacterial pneumonia, and other antimicrobials are used when the cause of inflammation is a fungal infection or a parasite. Chemotherapy might be prescribed for lung cancer.

These treatments don’t directly reduce inflammation, but they do help alleviate the underlying cause of inflammation.

Procedures and Surgery

If you have had damage to your lungs due to trauma, disease, or cancer, you might benefit from an interventional procedure. Procedures can repair some types of lung damage, such as the harm incurred by a deep penetrating injury. A surgical repair can remove harmful materials, like glass or metal, and repair tears in the tissue or blood vessels to stop bleeding and promote optimal healing.

Surgery may also be needed to remove an area of the lung that has been severely affected by a disease, such as cancer or COPD. Generally, lung surgery for treating cancer involves removing cancerous lesions with as little damage to the healthy areas of the lungs as possible. And surgical intervention for COPD entails removing severely damaged areas of the lung that impede airflow in healthy areas of the lung.

A Word From Verywell

Lung inflammation is a major aspect of many lung diseases. Not only does lung inflammation contribute to respiratory symptoms, but it also causes slow and permanent harm to the lungs over time. Even if you feel that you can tolerate some of your symptoms (like a chronic cough), it’s important to get medical attention so you won’t develop further lung damage.

Pleurisy symptoms & treatments – Illnesses & conditions

Pleurisy is inflammation of the sheet-like layers that cover the lungs (the pleura).

The most common symptom of pleurisy is a sharp chest pain when breathing deeply. Sometimes the pain is also felt in the shoulder.

The pain may be worse when you cough, sneeze or move around, and it may be relieved by taking shallow breaths.

Other symptoms can include shortness of breath and a dry cough.

Visit your GP if you experience the above symptoms. Seek immediate medical help if your chest pain is severe, particularly if you also have other symptoms, such as coughing up blood, nausea or sweating.

Seeing your GP

Pleurisy can usually be diagnosed by studying your symptoms. Your GP can listen to your chest to check for the distinctive dry, crunching sound that suggests you may have pleurisy.

Further tests may be needed to identify the underlying cause of your pleurisy and to assess how severe it is. These can include:

What causes pleurisy?

Most cases are the result of a viral infection (such as the flu) or a bacterial infection (such as pneumonia).

In rarer cases, pleurisy can be caused by conditions such as a blood clot blocking the flow of blood into the lungs (pulmonary embolism) or lung cancer.

Pleurisy can affect people of all ages, but people of 65 years and over are most at risk, because they’re more likely to develop a chest infection.

Read more about the causes of pleurisy.

How is pleurisy treated?

Treatment for pleurisy depends on the underlying cause.

For example, pleurisy caused by a viral infection will often resolve itself without treatment. However, pleurisy caused by a bacterial infection is usually treated with antibiotics, and people who are frail or already in poor health may be admitted to hospital.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, are often used to relieve the chest pain associated with pleurisy.

If excess fluid builds up between the pleural layers, it may be necessary to drain the fluid to prevent breathing difficulties.

Read more about treating pleurisy.

Pleurisy | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is pleurisy?

Pleurisy is an inflammation of the pleura, a large, thin sheet of tissue that wraps around the outside of your lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity. Between the layer of the pleura that wraps around your lungs and the layer that lines your chest cavity is a very thin space called the pleural space. Normally this space is filled with a small amount of fluid that helps the two layers of the pleura glide smoothly past each other as your lungs breathe air in and out. Pleurisy occurs when the two layers of the pleura become red and inflamed, rubbing against each other every time your lungs expand to breathe in air. Infections like pneumonia are the most common cause of pleurisy.


The main symptom of pleurisy is a sharp or stabbing pain in your chest that gets worse when you breathe in deeply or cough or sneeze. The pain may stay in one place or it may spread to your shoulder or back. Sometimes it becomes a fairly constant dull ache. Depending on what’s causing the pleurisy, you may have other symptoms, such as:


Your doctor will find out if you have pleurisy or another pleural disorder by taking a detailed medical history and doing a physical exam and several diagnostic tests, including:

  • Chest X-ray to show air or fluid in the pleural space, and what’s causing the condition (for example, pneumonia, a fractured rib, or a lung tumor)

  • CT scan that can show pockets of fluid, signs of pneumonia, a lung abscess or a tumor

  • Ultrasound, which can show where fluid is located in your chest

  • Magnetic resonance (MR) scan, which can show pleural effusions and tumors

  • Blood tests, which can show whether you have a bacterial or viral infection, pneumonia, rheumatic fever, a pulmonary embolism or lupus

  • Arterial blood gas tests, which show how well your lungs are taking in oxygen


A procedure called thoracentesis is used to remove fluid from the pleural space. The doctor inserts a needle or a thin, hollow, plastic tube through the ribs in the back of your chest into your chest wall. A syringe is attached to draw fluid out of your chest.

To relieve symptoms, your doctor may recommend:

  • Acetaminophen or anti-inflammatory agents, such as ibuprofen, to control pain

  • Codeine-based cough syrups to control a cough

  • Lying on the painful side to make you more comfortable

  • Breathing deeply and coughing to clear mucus as the pain eases

Your doctor will look at the fluid under a microscope to determine what’s causing the fluid buildup. If the fluid is infected, treatment involves antibiotics and draining the fluid. If the infection is tuberculosis or from a fungus, treatment involves long-term use of antibiotics or antifungal medicines. If the fluid is caused by tumors of the pleura, it may build up again quickly after it’s drained. Sometimes antitumor medicines will prevent further fluid buildup. If they don’t, the doctor may seal the pleural space.


Chicco antibacterial disposable breast pads provide reliable protection against leaks, remain invisible under clothes and help you maintain personal hygiene. Invisible during use, securely attached inside the linen with a special adhesive strip.

Made from treated cellulose, with a nonwoven outer filter and polyester free, the skin underneath continues to breathe and the risk of irritation and inflammation is reduced.Microbeads trap liquid and prevent it from reaching the surface, keeping the skin dry. The special antibacterial treatment prevents the growth of bacteria during use. They are highly absorbent.

High quality and soft fabric ensures gentle skin contact. Its antibacterial properties prevent bacteria from growing inside the pad and on the breast skin, which prevents irritation and cracking. The antibacterial impregnation agent does not transfer to the breast skin and does not enter the baby’s mouth.At the same time, panty liners are a reliable mechanical barrier that guarantees adequate breast protection against painful contact with the underwear.

The pads keep your breasts in perfect hygiene to avoid irritation and speed up healing. They perfectly absorb milk due to the double absorbent layer and prevent leakage. Superabsorbent microgranules, absorbing milk, do not allow it to return to the surface, which leaves the breast skin always dry.The double outer layer of breathable non-woven fabric ensures constant air circulation and guarantees ventilation of the skin and nipple. It favorably affects the skin of the breasts and nipples, allows them to breathe, preventing irritation


– Does not contain polyester;

– Keeps the breast clean by absorbing excess milk;

– Prevents the growth of bacterial flora;

– Fixing adhesive strips for secure attachment to the bra;

– Thin and invisible under clothing;

– Each pad in an individual hygienic package;

CHICCO Antibacterial breast pads

Everything you need to know about stretch marks and how to get rid of them

Before the start
beach season, we all want to look perfect and therefore begin to evaluate
your body from head to toe.Often the gaze stops at the stretch marks (they also
called striae), after the detection of which girls usually rush in search
ways to get rid of them. Let’s start with the fact that stretch marks do not apply any
harm to the body. In addition, many people of any gender have them: this is common
a phenomenon that you should not be ashamed of. On store shelves you can see
various remedies for stretch marks that create a negative around them
image. However, stretch marks are not bad or unhealthy.We understand
how stretch marks appear and what to do if you find them.

are stretch marks?

Stretch marks are
linear scars that occur when the skin is severely stretched. Most often stretch marks
appear in the abdomen, thighs, chest and buttocks. It all starts with the fact that
in the deep layers of the skin, there is a rupture of fibers consisting of collagen and
elastin. Then the injured tissue begins to heal, and as a result, on this
the place is formed by scar tissue.In principle, stretch marks can be called scars: here
hair does not grow and there are no sebaceous and sweat glands. Moreover, these scars
atrophic, that is, located at the same level with the skin, and the tissue under them
atrophied. Stretch marks are red or bluish at first, but over time
they turn pale. Usually
stretch marks appear during a change in hormonal levels – in case of problems,
hormone-related in pregnant women and adolescents. In addition, stretch marks are often
obese people have, especially if the weight was gained or lost too quickly.

prevent stretch marks?

First of all
it is necessary to maintain the elasticity of the skin with constant hydration .
Moreover, you can use any cream, not necessarily marked “from stretch marks”.
The main thing is that the composition contains good moisturizers, for example, hyaluronic
acid. Until now, there is no consensus, confirmed by research, that
which remedy works best, and the data on the effectiveness of different
there are few ingredients in the fight against stretch marks.

To get rid of
from stretch marks, the product should stimulate collagen production, strengthen
blood flow and give the skin elasticity. For example, according to some data, the effect
will help to reach centella asiatica, almond oil and hyaluronic acid. BUT
here is evidence that cocoa butter and olive oil have stretch marks
positive effect, not yet.

In cosmetics for
For prevention of stretch marks, tretinoin, a form of vitamin A, is also commonly used.He is believed to have great potential in this matter, but he
contraindicated in pregnant women.

In addition to caring for
yourself, one of the most obvious tips is to control your weight. But teenagers
don’t stick to a strict diet to keep their skin smooth. In that
age needs proper nutrition to ensure healthy growth. By the way,
some people are genetically predisposed to stretch marks, and such people
it is almost impossible to avoid their appearance.

get rid of existing stretch marks?

Let’s start with the fact that
you can get rid of stretch marks and not get rid of them, since they do not in any way affect
health. This is only necessary if they affect your self-confidence.
If you still want to take action, the sooner contact
to the cosmetologist, the more effective the results of the procedures will be. The easiest
get rid of stretch marks when they are still red or bluish. In addition to
therefore, the smaller the size of the stretch, the easier it is to deal with it.In spite of this,
procedures can bring improvement at any stage, even if you already have striae
for a long time.

just to smooth out the relief, you can resort to improvised means, such as
scrubs and peels. The cosmetologist can offer you different treatments.
For example, mesotherapy is often used. By intradermal injection
collagen synthesis stimulants and substances that moisturize the skin are introduced.

But the most
effective in the fight against stretch marks are currently considered laser
procedures.Previously, laser resurfacing was popular, but now it is being replaced
comes laser nanoperforation. The essence of the technique is that the reaction is triggered
collagen synthesis and the growth of new tissue, and blood flow is restored. IN
as a result, stretch marks are significantly reduced in size.

whether to get rid of them?

For example, body positivity supporters believe that you need to love your stretch marks,
as most people have them (almost 90%).Also some
online stores no longer retouch stretch marks on models. Among other things,
it is quite expensive to resort to cosmetic procedures. Usually it is necessary
several sessions.

It turns out that
stretch marks cannot be called a problem: they are a cosmetic defect, not
affecting your health. You can try to reduce them using laser
procedures, since most cosmetics are practically powerless in
this issue. It will be much more effective to prevent the appearance of stretch marks, to which
include weight control and constant skin hydration.

90,000 We sew breast pads from scrap materials. Master Class.

By Daria Kartohina Read 5 min Updated

If you are planning to breastfeed your newborn baby, you probably understand how necessary are absorbent nursing pads. Leaks are inevitable, especially in the first months, when the volumes of milk produced are at their maximum, and in some women, colostrum begins to be released even before the baby is born.

Fun fact: Your breast milk may start to flow as soon as you hear your baby cry.

In general, feeding pads are essential not only to protect clothing from colostrum stains, but also to maintain your dignity.

Store-bought pads do a great job, but as with any single-use product, it is expensive and not good for the environment. It is much cheaper and more environmentally friendly to sew the earbuds yourself, moreover, in this case, you can choose the most comfortable materials for yourself.

The manufacturing process is as simple as possible, and even a novice needlewoman can cope with the creation of such discs.

Tools and materials

  • For the outer layer , we need any waterproof or water repellent fabric, but always breathable. Ordinary water-repellent fabric can cause blockages in the milk ducts and mastitis (inflammation of the breast). We don’t need such an effect, so we definitely choose breathable materials! For example, you can use fleece or wool.This part of the pad will not touch the breast skin, so it’s okay if the fabric is not soft for it. You can also use thick cotton fabric with some fun print.
  • Absorbent layer: you can use towels for it, old flannel shirts, in general, anything that absorbs moisture well. Try to choose natural fabrics like cotton or bamboo.

An important point – these fabrics do not stretch, which greatly complicates sewing.

  • Sewing machine or overlocker.
  • Manual sewing machine (optional).
  • Scissors or cutting knife, cutting mat.
  • Printed diagram of our insert.
  • Sewing pins.


  • Print your template. Check if it is the right size for you, then cut it out. If you plan on stitching more than one pair of absorbent liners, then stick the template onto a piece of cardboard so it will last longer.
  • For one pair of liners, you need to cut two outer layers, and 2-4 absorbent layers, depending on your fabric. For a layer of towels, two layers will suffice, but for thinner fabrics such as flannel, 3-4 layers may be needed.
  • You may have noticed that there is a dart on the template. With its help, you can give a conical shape to the liner. The tapered shape will make the lining more compact and better fit your chest. To make a dart or not depends on the personal preference of the material used.If you use natural fabrics for the outer layer, such as wool, they will keep their shape better. Also keep in mind that when you sew the dart, the synthetic fabric of the outer layer will have punctures from the sewing machine needle through which colostrum can flow. So before use, such inserts will need to be washed so that the fabric shrinks a little and the holes decrease, but the risk still remains.
  • If you nevertheless decide to sew tapered pads, the darts will need to be done on the absorbent layers too.You can sew them with your sewing machine or overlock. We recommend that you use a regular sewing machine, as the seams from it will be smaller and more accurate.
  • When all the layers of the liners are ready, they must be stacked as shown in the photo. If you have chosen a conical shape, then you need to arrange the layers so that all the darts are not located on the same side. Start with the bottom absorbent layer and place it face down, the rest of the layers face up.
  • Since you will be sewing several layers at once, they will be misaligned during sewing. To prevent this from happening, you need to carefully fasten all layers of the liners along the edge with sewing pins, we need 3 pieces. The pins must be placed on three sides and leave a free space – from where you will start sewing.
  • On the sewing machine, use a wide zigzag with a short stitch length. Use a 60/8 or 70/9 universal needle.The stitches should be close to the edge so that the edge of the zigzag stitch is as far from the center of the garment as possible. To prevent the layers from shifting, the pressure of the presser foot must be reduced. Continue sewing around the edge until you finish the circle, then back in at the end. Ready! Your first insert is ready! Don’t worry if it turns out to be a little clumsy, because sewing a circle is not so easy, practice and the following inserts will turn out much better. You will need several kits anyway, so practice should be enough.
  • On the overlock, use a four-thread stitch to secure the edges. Decrease the pressure of the presser foot, if available on the overlock. Select differential feed; if in the normal state it is equal to 1.0 – increase it by 1-2 steps. This will help prevent the presser foot from pushing out the top layer of fabric. The liner template does not have a seam allowance, so you must use the overlock knife as a fabric guide.As you sew in a circle, the fabric will stay clear of the knife. When you are finished sewing the layers, use a blunt tapestry needle to secure the thread in the loops. The insert is ready!

Inlay layout

Link to PDF

Share in the comments, did you manage to sew the breast inserts according to our instructions? What fabrics did you use? How accurate / or vice versa inaccurate the instruction turned out to be. We are working on the quality of our articles, so it is very important for us to know the opinion of our readers.

The text was translated and adapted from English by the chief editor of the “Rukodelnik.Su” website – Daria Kartokhina.

The original master class with illustrations is available at the link – http://www.maternitysewing.com

Thrush on the breast

Breastfeeding is a very important and sometimes difficult process. One of the possible problems is nipple candidiasis, which can cause discomfort to mom and baby.

Cause of candidiasis

The causative agent of thrush is the fungus Candida albicans.After it penetrates the damaged skin of the nipples, inflammation begins. One of the most common reasons for the development of candidiasis is the reaction of a female or child’s body to antibiotics. Such drugs, in addition to pathogenic microflora, destroy beneficial bacteria, as a result of which favorable conditions are created for the active reproduction of fungi. Often, nipple thrush occurs in parallel with oral candidiasis in infants.

How to heal

Before prescribing medication for a nursing mother, the doctor may take a swab to confirm the infection.If the diagnosis of candidiasis is confirmed, then the woman will be prescribed antifungal treatment. At the same time, the child will have to be given medications, since pathogenic microorganisms multiply rapidly, and thrush easily spreads when touched.

Despite the fact that a woman needs to use drugs, breastfeeding can and should be continued. This is due to the fact that in mild cases, it is sufficient to use external drugs for lesions, which is carried out after feeding.With an advanced form of candidiasis, mothers can prescribe medications for systemic administration (tablets). In this case, the issue of breastfeeding should be discussed with the doctor.

In order to prevent the spread of fungal infection during treatment, you must adhere to the following rules:

1. Mom should wash her hands thoroughly after any contact with the mammary glands, changing diapers, applying medication to her breasts.

2.All family members must use personal towels.

3. Breast pads should be changed as often as possible.

4. All toys, pacifiers, pacifiers, items that the baby can take in the mouth must be sterilized or rinsed thoroughly.

5. Bed linen should be washed at the highest possible temperature and ironed after drying.

6. If a mother with nipple thrush expresses milk, then it should not be given to the baby until the course of therapy is complete, since there is a risk of re-infection.Low temperatures are not able to kill the fungus, so the milk should not be frozen.

The main symptoms of candidiasis

The development of thrush can be suspected by the characteristic symptoms. Feeling pain in the nipples or breasts that does not go away for a long time after feeding. Visually revealed redness of the skin in the nipple area, rash and peeling, itching worries.

In children, candidiasis manifests itself in the form of a whitish cheesy plaque on the oral mucosa, which cannot be removed with a napkin.A white film may appear on the lips, anxiety increases during breastfeeding. In some cases, diaper dermatitis is associated with thrush.

If a woman has pain in one breast or nipple, the body temperature rises, a red spot appears on one of the mammary glands, you should immediately go to the hospital for examination, since this symptomatology is not typical for candidiasis.

90,000 The 11 best breast pads in 2021

When breastfeeding a baby, a new mother needs to be more careful about hygiene and buy new accessories: special bras, a breast pump and, of course, lactation pads.They are used between breastfeeding to absorb milk droplets that spontaneously escape and stain your laundry. Today we’ll talk about the best options for such earbuds and the important nuances when choosing them.

What to look for when buying breast pads


There are 2 types of products on sale:

  1. Disposable. Thin earbuds are designed to last for several hours, after which they are discarded and replaced with new ones.They are invisible under linen and clothes, are pleasant to the body, have an anatomical shape. Despite the small thickness, disposable pads do their job well.
  2. Reusable. Such options are made of cotton or wool, they are denser, but in the cold season they have the advantage of providing additional warmth. Reusable appliances are washed, dried and reused after getting wet until the fabric is worn out.

Disposable earbuds are more popular with nursing mothers due to their ease of use, but they are more expensive to use than reusable ones.

Design features

High-quality and comfortable inserts have the following accessories:

  • external Velcro for secure fixation to the bra;
  • fine edges to prevent chafing and irritation;
  • volumetric 3D-shape for a snug fit to the outline of the chest;
  • inner soft layer that is hardly felt;
  • an absorbent pad (or gel filler) to quickly absorb milk and keep it securely inside;
  • Outer layer made of waterproof materials to prevent staining of linen and clothes.

It is worth noting that every woman may have individual needs and ideas about how breast pads should look and feel, so it’s best to try different disposable options first. After a few days of use, the nursing mother will understand which pads are best for her, and in the future she will not have any problems with the choice.

Breast pads rating 2021

1. Best of all: LOVULAR Hot Wind Breast Liners

Compare prices Why we liked it: inserts # 1 for thousands of nursing mothers.

Editor’s rating:

The first place in our rating is occupied by ultra-soft disposable liners from LOVULAR, which are made using a new technology with hot steam treatment. This makes the inner covering soft and imperceptible on the chest, providing the woman with maximum comfort. The products have reliable Velcro and anatomical shape, so they are firmly fixed on the linen, do not crumple or slide out.

LOVULAR have good moisture absorption, you need 1-2 pairs per day, even with intensive lactation.At the same time, they are breathable, do not cause mating of the nipple skin. Please note: Despite the anatomical shape, LOVULAR pads can be visible under delicate garments.

  • the softest and most delicate;
  • absorb a lot of milk;
  • securely fixed;
  • new manufacturing technology.
  • are visible under the linen.

2. BabyLine Breastfeeding Gel Pad

Compare Prices Why We Like It: The best gel pads, one pair of which keeps you dry and comfortable all day.

Editor’s rating:

Option with gel filling that absorbs large volumes of milk. While absorbing liquids, the BabyLine remains soft and does not feel like a foreign body in the bra. The inner layer of the product is made of delicate material, so the woman does not feel the liner at all. Breastfeeding mothers love that they can use the product for a long time without bumping into their nipples and irritating them.

Please note that these gaskets are thicker than the other options in our rating, but the size is justified by their excellent absorption capacity.With one pair of BabyLine, a woman can walk all day without the fear of getting her underwear dirty.

  • enough for the whole day;
  • as soft as possible;
  • do not rub the nipples;
  • quality materials.
  • thicker than other options.

3. The best premium breast pads: Johnson’s Baby

Compare prices Why we liked it: Super soft and thin pads with high moisture absorption that provide reliable protection against leaks and can be easily disguised under linen.

Editor’s rating:

The product from the most famous American company has an anatomical shape and is made of super soft materials. Johnson’s Baby is small and thick, so they will be invisible under any kind of clothing. Women love the neat edges of discs that won’t scratch or irritate the skin. The pads have a good ability to absorb milk, you need 1-2 pairs of products per day.

Of the shortcomings, nursing mothers call the lack of individual packaging.If you need to take spare earbuds with you, you have to look for a separate bag, although other manufacturers put each disc in its own box.

  • very thin;
  • delicate materials;
  • do not scratch the chest;
  • Highly absorbent.
  • Poor packaging.

4. Sun & Moon Breast Pads

Compare Prices Why We Like It: Thin, affordable lactation pads that handle any volume of nipple discharge.

Editor’s rating:

Budget gel liners with a high moisture absorption capacity. They reliably hold milk even during active lactation, leave bra and clothes clean. Due to its compactness and low thickness (similar to Johnson’s Baby), “Sun and Moon” are almost invisible in the sock, and breathable materials prevent mating and irritation of the skin on the nipples.

There are 2 strips on the pads for fixing, but they are not adhesive enough, therefore, when saturated with moisture, the product may come off and crumple.

  • compact and slim;
  • absorb well;
  • invisible under clothing;
  • are pleasant to the body.
  • can accidentally come off.

5. Mepsi Breast pads

Compare prices Why we liked it: Gel-based products that absorb milk well and securely hold milk are comfortable for everyday use.

Editor’s rating:

Another gel liner that is larger than Sun and Moon but has the same absorbency. One pair of pads is enough for 4-5 hours. They have a pleasant inner surface, do not chafe the nipples and are not felt on the skin. Products do not leak, they cope even with intensive milk production.

Mepsi have the same disadvantage as the gel “Sun and Moon” – they do not adhere well to the laundry, over time they begin to crumple and slide out, which is why milk gets on the clothes.

  • good moisture absorption;
  • nice stuff;
  • do not rub;
  • are suitable for intensive lactation.
  • Sometimes there are leaks.

6. Chicco Ultra Natural Feeling Antibacterial Breast Pads

Compare Prices Why We Like: The best option for lactation pads for women with irritated or inflamed nipple skin.

Editor’s rating:

The design of Chicco is reminiscent of other quality products (for example, “Sun and Moon”, Johnson’s Baby), and their feature is a special antibacterial coating on the inner layer. The pads absorb bacteria from the skin surface, prevent inflammation and suppuration of small wounds on the nipples, and promote healing of injuries.

Products are made of high quality breathable materials that support air exchange. They have good absorbency, do not leak and do not stain laundry.The only caveat: they are thick, so they can stand out under clothes.

  • absorb well;
  • prevent nipple inflammation;
  • accelerate the healing of chest wounds;
  • are highly breathable.
  • are visible under clothes.

7. GlorYes! Reusable breast pads

Compare prices Why we like it: The only reusable options in the rating, which are made of soft materials, are suitable for long-term wear.

Editor rating:

Bundled by GlorYes! 2 pairs of earbuds are presented. They are made of delicate natural fabric, which feels comfortable in a bra and does not chafe. There is no special filler inside, but the products do their job well and do not leak. The delicate materials do not cause discomfort even with constant wear. They cost several times more than the packaging of disposable inserts, but the price pays off in months of use.

The only thing that gives a woman inconvenience is the need for constant washing and drying of clothes.For intensive lactation during the day, both pairs of GlorYes! Are used, so be sure to wash and dry them overnight so that you do not have to buy another pack.

  • natural materials;
  • are comfortable to the body;
  • absorb well;
  • packaging is enough for several months.
  • needs to be washed frequently.

8. Best Budget Breast Pads: Helen Harper Bra Pads

Compare Prices Why We Like It: Inexpensive lactation pads that do well with moderate milk production.

Editor’s rating:

Inexpensive products for nursing mothers are made of fine cotton and have an anatomical shape. The main advantage is the low price. Helen Harper is almost 60% cheaper than our leader LOVULAR. They are suitable for women with moderately active lactation, when individual drops of milk are released. In such a situation, the absorbency of the product will be sufficient.

For women with intensive milk production, Helen Harper will be useless, as they can leak in 2-3 hours.Another drawback of the product is a poor adhesive layer, so when wet, the liners begin to slide off.

  • the most affordable;
  • thin and soft;
  • Anatomical shape.
  • does not absorb well;
  • are moving out.

9. Canpol Babies Disposable Breast Pads

Compare prices Why we liked it: A good option for lactation pads made from natural raw materials, suitable even for sensitive skin.

Editor’s rating:

Soft and comfortable pads made from natural materials. They have an anatomical shape, are pleasant to the body, do not rub or scratch the skin. The products have good Velcro, so they are firmly fixed to the bra. Each pad is individually wrapped.

The items are thick (about the size of a BabyLine), but their absorbency is average. After getting wet, the liner becomes visible under the linen. Please note that the packaging of Canpol Babies is 40 pcs.for the price it comes out almost like a pack of 60 inserts from the leader of the LOVULAR rating.

  • natural materials;
  • good packaging;
  • pleasant to the body;
  • secure hold.
  • too thick.

10. Medela Disposable Nursing Pads

Compare prices Why we liked it: Reliable lactation pads that absorb a lot of milk and adhere firmly to the bra, eliminating the risk of leaks.

Editor’s rating:

Highly absorbent dense panty liners that will handle the task even for women with high milk production. Products have 2 reliable Velcro, which are firmly glued to the surface of the linen and do not move out anywhere after getting wet. Each disc is packed in a separate plastic bag to make it easy to take with you.

Lactation pads are not cheap even in an economy pack of 60, besides, many women complain about a too coarse inner layer that rubs the nipples.Therefore, the product is suitable only in the absence of cracks and microdamages on the chest, as well as for users who do not suffer from increased skin sensitivity.

  • excellent hold;
  • high moisture absorption;
  • high-quality packaging;
  • are suitable for intensive lactation.
  • Coarse material.

11. FRAU Comfort Disposable pads for nursing mothers

Compare prices Why we liked it: Soft and comfortable liners in individual packaging, suitable for nursing mothers with low lactation intensity.

Editor’s rating:

Classic thin and soft disposable pads that are packed in separate bags and are convenient to take with you to work or on the road. The inner layer is made of breathable materials, so after using the product there is no irritation or inflammation of the nipples.

The manufacturer claims that the pads have increased absorbency, but in practice this is not the case. Women who produce a lot of milk complain that the discs get wet after 1-2 hours and begin to stain their bra.Therefore, FRAU Comfort is suitable for nursing mothers who have already established lactation and only a few drops of milk are released from the nipples per day.

  • nice materials;
  • individual packing;
  • Suitable for sensitive nipples.
  • often leak.

Still have questions? We answer!

Why does a breastfeeding mother have milk leaks?

The main reasons for excessive milk production and its spontaneous excretion outside feeding:

  • increased lactation activity as a physiological feature of the body;
  • Frequent and prolonged latching of the baby to the breast, which stimulates the mammary glands;
  • reflex stimulation of milk secretion during communication and emotional contact between mother and baby;
  • Breast overflow due to infrequent feeding or skipping pumping;
  • taking a hot shower or bath, as heat increases milk production;
  • intimacy, which is accompanied by a hormonal surge;
  • A high-calorie diet high in protein and carbohydrates that enhances lactation.

The listed reasons are not considered pathological, therefore, periodic milk leakage is normal in lactating women, especially in the first months when lactation is most active.

How to care for reusable earmolds?

After getting dirty, they must be washed by hand or in a washing machine on a delicate (hand) cycle. It is better to use baby washing powders and gels that will definitely not irritate the skin of the breast, do not have a pungent odor, and are safe from the point of view of possible allergies in the mother or baby.

If you wash the pads in a machine, it is better to put them in a special bag so that the fabric does not deform or fray, and the product will last longer. Manufacturers often provide a pouch complete with lactation inserts.

How to replace nursing pads?

Reusable fabric liners can be made at home from natural cotton and a denser outer material (fleece, flannel). For sewing, two circles are cut, and the outer one should be 1-1.5 cm larger in diameter than the inner one.The work is simple: first, two circles are sewn in place, after which an incision is made towards the center and overlapped to form a rounded shape for the shape of the breast. An example of a homemade lactation pad is shown in the photo.

Some mothers advise using panty liners instead of disposable liners, which are cut in half and placed in the bra with the cut up. This is a good emergency solution if you suddenly run out of special products for nursing, but this option is inconvenient for constant use – milk often leaks.

Silicone milk skins or lactation inserts – which one to choose?

In addition to fabric pads for women, special pads-collectors made of medical silicone are provided. They allow you to collect leaking milk, and then use it to feed your baby. Such products are recommended for mothers who produce a large amount of milk, and the child does not have time to eat it. Silicone milk collectors are a great solution if a woman uses a breast pump and the stimulation causes milk to flow from the other breast.

Thick silicone pads are suitable for everyday wear if the woman is constantly flowing milk due to overactive lactation. They also help heal cracked nipples by preventing the skin from rubbing against the bra.

If you have a little milk and it leaks in a few drops, there are no problems with injury or cracking of the nipples – it is worth taking the liners. They are very thin and comfortable, invisible even under thin linen.

How to deal with milk leakage without special devices?

It is unlikely that you will be able to do without liners at all, because otherwise the woman will encounter stains on the bra.However, there are ways to reduce spontaneous nipple discharge and reduce the need for breast pads. To do this, it is necessary: ​​

  • with active lactation to express excess milk that the baby does not eat;
  • feed the baby alternately from each breast to empty them evenly;
  • Wear a comfortable nursing bra that does not compress the breasts.

If a yellowish or greenish liquid with an unpleasant odor begins to stand out from the nipple, see a doctor immediately.This could be a sign of mastitis!

Summing up

Lactation inserts are indispensable helpers for nursing mothers, which help maintain breast hygiene and prevent damage to clothes. The best of all are disposable thin options: they are comfortable to wear, invisible under the linen, but at the same time have good absorbent properties. When using such pads, do not forget about regular breast hygiene to prevent skin irritation and cracked nipples.

Do not forget to watch a helpful video about modern devices for nursing mothers. There you will find answers to which devices will really come in handy and which ones are not worth spending money on.

Inflammation and injuries of the nipples. Child from conception to one year

Inflammation of the nipples, as a rule, is the result of an incorrect position of the child at the breast. With inflammation of the nipples, the woman continues to feel pain after the baby has begun to suckle, and the soreness increases during feeding.If applied improperly, the baby sucks only the nipple, injuring the delicate skin at the base of the nipple. Feeding in the correct position helps not only to avoid this problem, but also to correct the situation if the inflammation has begun.

Inflammation of the nipples can also occur with the correct position of the baby at the breast, if the nursing mother washes the nipples too often with soap and uses waterproof pads for the breast. To avoid trouble, it is important to follow the rules of breast care:

• wash your breasts no more than 1 time a day;

• after finishing feeding, leave the breast open to air dry;

• do not use waterproof pads, so as not to create a “compress”.

If these simple recommendations are followed, nipple inflammation disappears within 1-3 days.

Water bladder and abrasion

Sometimes, at the very beginning of the inflammation, a water bladder or abrasion forms on the nipple. If the area of ​​the inflamed skin of the nipple changes its color to white, then a water bladder has appeared, and if it is dark red, it means an abrasion. Both water bladder and abrasion are different forms of nipple inflammation. Regardless of the form of inflammation, breast care and treatment are the same.In case of nipple inflammation, it is recommended to use lotions with vegetable oil and treat the injured nipple with Purelan, Bepanten or Solcoseryl ointments. During treatment, the frequency and duration of breastfeeding is not limited as long as the baby is breastfeeding in the correct position. If, during the treatment, nipple inflammation does not go away within 7 days or reappears, you can suspect a fungal infection, thrush, etc. Recommendations for the treatment of thrush should be prescribed by a doctor. In this case, both the nipple and the baby’s mouth are treated with the prescribed medication.

Cracked nipple

Nipple crack occurs in the following cases:

• the baby is breastfeeding in the wrong position;

• the mother washes her breasts with soap before and after each feeding;

• if adequate measures have not been taken to treat nipple inflammation.

Cracked nipple causes severe pain during feeding. An ichor can flow out of the crack, and blood during the feeding process.This trauma to the chest can serve as a gateway for infection, which can lead to mastitis. Therefore, if a nipple crack occurs, immediate treatment is required.

For the treatment of a cracked nipple, the same recommendations apply as for inflammation of the nipples. Any ointment for wound healing that does not have a strong odor is suitable for accelerating the healing of the crack. The ointment is applied for a long time, allowing you to get a quick effect. During the treatment of the crack, you should stop feeding from the diseased breast for 12 hours.All this time, the child is fed with a healthy breast, and the diseased breast is expressed at least 3 times a day. Expressed milk is used to supplement the baby if he lacks nutrition from a healthy breast. After treatment, it is necessary to monitor the correct attachment of the child to the breast.