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Shaky high blood pressure: High Blood Pressure, Loss Of Coordination, Shaking And Shaking Hands Or Tremor


High and Low Blood Pressure Symptoms

Blood pressure control is important whether you have diabetes or not.

However, having high blood pressure is a key risk factor in developing heart disease, stroke and other complications of diabetes.

Diabetes and high blood pressure are often associated, and many people with diabetes take medication to lower their blood pressure.

What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure means the pressure of blood in your arteries as it is being pumped by the heart.

Targets for people with type 1 diabetes

The targets for people with type 1 diabetes is to have a resting blood pressure level below 135/85 mmHg

If you have signs of kidney disease or metabolic syndrome your blood pressure level should be below 130/80 mmHg

Targets for people with type 2 diabetes

The target blood pressure targets for type 2 diabetes:

  • Below 140/80 mmHg
  • Or below 130/80 mmHg if you have kidney disease, retinopathy or have cerebrovascular disease (including stroke)

What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?

Most diabetics with high blood pressure have no symptoms.

However, very high blood pressure or rapidly rising blood pressure can cause:

  • Headaches
  • Vision problems
  • Nose bleeds
  • Trouble breathing
  • Fits
  • Black-outs

What are the symptoms of low blood pressure?

Similar to high blood pressure, the symptoms of low pressure may not always be apparent. If you do get symptoms, they may be identified as any of the following:

  • Feeling dizzy, light headed or fainting
  • Blurred vision
  • A rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Feeling nauseous
  • Confusion

What do blood pressure numbers mean?

Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury, as two figures, for example 124/80 mmHg.

  • The first number (124 in this case) is known as systolic pressure – pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts.
  • The second number (80 here) is diastolic pressure – the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests.


Blood pressure is important to track because high blood pressure is associated with a greater risk of organ damage, such as kidney damage and retinal damage, in people with diabetes.

High blood pressure tends to be quite closely associated with people with type 2 diabetes, but keeping blood pressure levels healthy applies to all people with diabetes and we should have our blood pressure measured at least once each year.

Because of the extra threat of organ damage, people with diabetes are actually given more strict targets for blood pressure than other patients.

Non-diabetic people have a target of keeping below 140 over 80 millimetres of mercury.

For people with diabetes, the target is below 130 over 80.

You might ask what these numbers mean. The first number is the pressure in the blood vessels at the point in which the heart pumps. The second number is the measurement of the pressure when the heart is resting between each beats.

The thing about conventional blood pressure checks is that they give a reading only relevant to the time you’re having the check.

If you’re not completely relaxed at the time of the check, you could get a reading that’s higher than it should be.

There’s been news lately about the so-called ‘white coat syndrome’ where the fact that you know a test is being done, leads to stress and higher blood pressure whilst the test is being done which can give a falsely high reading.

Doctors are recognising this and often, if you score a high reading, you may be asked to have another test to make sure it wasn’t falsely high.

How can you lower your blood pressure:

  • Quit smoking
  • Cut down on alcohol
  • Get some physical activity, it’s recommended we should aim to get 2 ½ hours of activity into each week – or 1 hr 15 of intensive activity
  • Eat a healthy, balanced diet

One thing that all nutritionists seem to agree on is that cutting down on white bread, white pasta, white rice and pastries is a good thing.

If you still want bread, rice, etc; pick smaller portions of these and go for the whole grain versions with much more fibre in them. Definitely try to eat more non-starchy veg if you can.

Download a FREE symptoms chart for your phone, desktop or as a printout.

At what point does high blood pressure cause a problem for people with diabetes?

If your resting blood pressure level is above the targets, this puts you at an increased risk of heart and vascular problems as well as other diabetes complications, such as kidney disease and sight damage ( retinopathy ).

High blood pressure is also associated with poor circulation which increases the risk of foot ulcers and can lead to foot amputation if regular foot care is not taken.

How is high blood pressure diagnosed?

Anxiety, stress or strenuous exercise can all cause temporary high blood pressure levels in both diabetics and non-diabetics. However, high blood pressure is diagnosed when you have several high readings.

Some people will find their heart beat rises, and therefore their blood pressure goes up, as a direct result of being tested. If you know this is happening, speak to the doctor or nurse as this should be taken into account.

It is possible to have blood pressure readings taken at home if this is known to be happening.

How is high blood pressure caused?

Too high blood pressure tends to result from a build up of cholesterol within the walls of blood vessels. This causes narrowing of the blood vessels, restricting blood flow and raising blood pressure.

Narrowed arteries raises the risk of heart problems and stroke if too little blood gets to these vital organs or if a blood clot blocks the blood flow to them.

Sometimes, other conditions can cause high blood pressure such as diabetic nephropathy, kidney or hormone problems.

How common is high blood pressure amongst diabetics?

Approximately 3 in 10 people with type 1 diabetes and around 8 in 10 people with type 2 diabetes develop high blood pressure at some stage of their life.

The level of high blood pressure risk goes up for people of African-Caribbean or Indian origin.

Furthermore, risk increases for those who are overweight, eat low fruit and vegetable levels, don’t take much exercise or drink regularly.

What tests are used to diagnose high blood pressure?

Urine tests can check for protein or blood in urine, blood tests can check kidney function or cholesterol, and an ECG can trace heartbeat.

I am diabetic, why should high blood pressure worry me?

High blood pressure increases risks of developing cardiovascular disease and kidney damage. High blood pressure may damage arteries and strain the heart over the years.

Other diabetes complications may be more common if you have high blood pressure, including diabetic retinopathy.

How can I lower blood pressure whilst managing my diabetes?

There are various ways to lower blood pressure, including modifying lifestyle and medication. Losing weight makes a big difference to blood pressure.

Taking regular physical exercise also makes a big difference to blood pressure. Lowering salt intake also makes a major difference to blood pressure, as does eating a more healthy diet in general.

Furthermore, cutting down alcohol and stopping smoking can also lower blood pressure amongst diabetics. Drug treatment is used in some instances, with several different drugs used to lower blood pressure.

What Is Hypoglycemia? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Prevention

Hypoglycemia is largely controlled by preventive measures, such as diet and exercise. If your blood sugar still drops, you can help bring it back up with fast-acting carbohydrates. Depending on the underlying causes of hypoglycemia, you may also need medications, too.

Medication Options

If you’re managing type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you have oral and injectable medications at your disposal. For diabetes, however, many of these medications are designed for the treatment of high blood sugar.

Mild symptoms of low blood sugar may be remedied by fast-acting carbohydrates.

For severe symptoms, such as loss of consciousness, on the other hand, a loved one or medical professional will need to administer a glucagon injection. (2) Another option is Baqsimi (glucagon), an inhalable nasal powder, which the Food and Drug Administration approved in July 2019 to treat severe hypoglycemia in people ages 4 and older. (11)

Diet Options

If your blood sugar dips too low, you can reach for certain foods to get it back within a safe range.

You need to eat or drink 15 grams (g) worth of carbohydrates once your levels drop to 70 mg/dL or lower. (2) This may involve eating 1 tablespoon (tbsp) of honey, 2 tbsp of raisins, or ½ cup of soda or fruit juice — just be sure these are the versions with real sugar, not artificial sweeteners, so your blood sugar responds accordingly. While you want to reduce sugary drinks in your diet overall, diet and sugar-free drinks will do little to bring your blood glucose up in the event of hypoglycemia.

You can check your blood sugar again after 15 minutes of eating. If it’s still low, the American Diabetes Association recommends repeating the process. (12) If you take glucose tablets, make sure you get 16 g total (usually 4 g each in four total tablets).

To keep your blood sugar levels steady over the long haul, Dodell recommends eating balanced meals of carbs, lean proteins, and healthy fats at short, regular intervals. Contrary to what some influencers and popular diet marketers say, there’s no such thing as a true hypoglycemia diet.

Exercise and Hypoglycemia

Exercise is key for regulating insulin and blood sugar.

If you have high blood sugar, working out can lower it. That’s because your body can naturally take up glucose from insulin more effectively during and after physical activity. (12)

The trick is exercising the right amount — and at the right intensity. Exercising at a harder level than you’re used to can make your blood sugar levels drop quickly. Such effects can last for 24 hours. (2)

Still, you shouldn’t let the fear of hypoglycemia hold you back from exercising. It’s important to focus on more moderate activities, such as walking, bike riding, and swimming. As you get used to working out, gradually increase the time and intensity of your sweat sessions. For someone new to exercise, this could mean increasing your walks every week at a time by a few minutes each day.

To be on the safe side, check your glucose levels beforehand. You may also want to have a meter on hand during and after your workout.

How Social Anxiety Disorder Can Cause Shaking

Shaking or trembling of the hands or other parts of the body are common physical symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Feeling a lack of control over your body can not only increase the intensity of your shaking, but may also worsen other anxiety-related symptoms. This uncomfortable symptom may also be present in other anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, specific phobias, and agoraphobia.

If you are experiencing shaking or trembling because of social anxiety disorder and/or another anxiety disorder, know that many treatment options are available.


Experiencing anxiety can trigger your body to go into fight-or-flight mode—an evolutionary response meant to keep you safe in times of perceived danger. This physiological response to threats in the environment increases your alertness and prepares your body to take immediate action.

Stress hormones like epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine flood your body, which can increase your heart rate, blood pressure, and the blood flow to your muscles. Muscles may also tense up as they prepare to take quick action, which can lead to shaking or trembling.

Research indicates a high correlation between tremor-related medical conditions and social anxiety. Experiencing shakiness and tremors may be due to or exacerbated by medical conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and essential tremor.

A visit to a doctor can help determine whether your shaking is due to an anxiety disorder, a medical condition, or both.


Anxiety-related shaking can be triggered by various circumstances. You may notice tremors or shakiness when you are:

  • Anticipating an upcoming social interaction
  • Attending parties or other social gatherings
  • Eating or drinking in public
  • Going on a date
  • Joining a group conversation already in progress
  • Making phone calls
  • Meeting new people
  • Performing on stage
  • Speaking up in a meeting

In addition to shaking and trembling, facing a triggering situation can lead to sweating, an increased heart rate, feeling scared, nausea, and shortness of breath.


Social anxiety disorder-related shaking and tremors may be intensified by high levels of stress and exhaustion. Feeling fearful or thinking about being embarrassed about shaking in public can also lead to even more shaking, either in the moment or in anticipation of it. This may result in the avoidance of social situations, which may worsen and prolong the symptoms of social anxiety disorder.


Anxiety-induced shaking or tremors, otherwise known as psychogenic tremors, are generally treated with psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both. Which treatment option you choose is completely up to you and what you feel comfortable with.

Speaking with your doctor, psychiatrist, and/or therapist can help you make an informed decision about your treatment.


Talk therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) may be effective treatment options for some who are experiencing shaking, tremors, and other symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder.

For those who are less comfortable with talk therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) are other treatment methods to explore.


Some medications may be helpful in reducing or alleviating shaking and tremors, as well as other symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. Keep in mind that medications may not work for everyone, and it’s best to speak with your doctor about the most appropriate course of action for your unique needs.

  • Antidepressants: These medications are typically the first-line of treatment. Paxil (paroxetine), Zoloft (sertraline), Luvox (fluvoxamine), and Effexor XR (venlafaxine extended release) are FDA-approved for treating SAD.
  • Benzodiazepines: Medications like Klonopin (clonazepam), Valium (diazepam), and Xanax (alprazolam) can begin working right away to reduce symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder, including shaking. However, the risk of dependence increases the longer you stay on these medications.
  • Beta-blockers: By blocking the effect of adrenaline, beta-blockers such as Inderal (propranolol) can be used to cope with infrequent anxiety-provoking situations, such as speeches or performances. They are also able to help some individuals reduce tremors.


There are many coping methods you can try that may reduce the symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder, especially shaking and tremors. These techniques may be used in addition to psychotherapy and/or medication.

  • Exercise regularly: Physical activity is a natural anxiety reliever. Exercise releases endorphins and decreases cortisol, resulting in stress hormone reduction and an increase in natural mood boosters.
  • Avoid certain substances: An overabundance of substances like alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine may intensify social anxiety-related symptoms, including shaking.
  • Practice relaxation techniques: When practiced regularly, relaxation techniques such as mindfulness meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, and deep breathing may help you feel more grounded and may reduce anxiety-related symptoms such as shaking.
  • Practice yoga: Research indicates that yoga, especially Hatha yoga, is effective in reducing anxiety-related symptoms in a variety of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder.

A Word From Verywell

Having your hands or legs tremble or shake during social situations or when you think about an upcoming social interaction may feel frustrating and embarrassing. Anticipating or worrying about shaking can lead to even more trembling, which can leave you feeling out of control and uncomfortable.

Keep in mind that, in general, most people out and about are likely not noticing your shaking or trembling, and are definitely less focused on it than you are. If social anxiety-induced shaking is negatively impacting your quality of life, reach out to your doctor or therapist for available treatment options.

Seizures | PeaceHealth

Topic Overview

The brain controls how the body moves by sending out small electrical signals through the nerves to the muscles. Seizures, or convulsions, occur when abnormal signals from the brain change the way the body functions.

Seizures are different from person to person. Some people have only slight shaking of a hand and do not lose consciousness. Other people may become unconscious and have violent shaking of the entire body.

Shaking of the body, either mild or violent, does not always occur with seizures. Some people who have seizures have symptoms before the seizure (auras) or briefly lose touch with their surroundings and appear to stare into space. Although the person is awake, he or she does not respond normally. Afterwards, the person does not remember the episode.

Not all body shaking is caused by seizures. Many medical conditions can cause a type of body shaking that usually affects the hands and head (tremors).

A small number of people will have only one seizure during their lifetime. A single seizure usually lasts less than 3 minutes and is not followed by a second seizure. Any normally healthy person can have a single seizure under certain conditions. For instance, a sharp blow to the head may cause a seizure. Having one seizure does not always mean that a serious health problem exists. But if you have a first-time seizure, you should be checked by your doctor. It is important to rule out a serious illness that may have caused the seizure. Fever seizures (febrile convulsions) are the most common cause of a single seizure, especially in children. For more information, see the topic Fever Seizures.

Causes of seizures

Epilepsy is a nervous system problem that causes seizures. It can develop at any age. For more information, see the topic Epilepsy.

A seizure can be a symptom of another health problem, such as:

Eclampsia is pregnancy-related seizure activity that is related to high blood pressure. It is a life-threatening condition for both a mother and her baby (fetus) because during a seizure, the fetus’s oxygen supply is drastically reduced. Eclampsia is more likely to occur after the 20th week of pregnancy. For more information, see the topic Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy.

Nonepileptic seizure (NES) is a condition that can cause seizure-like activity without having a central nervous system problem. NES can be related to a mental health problem. The physical symptoms may be caused by emotional conflicts or stress. The symptoms usually appear suddenly and at times of extreme emotional stress.

Protect a person during a seizure

No matter what caused the seizure, you can help the person having a seizure.

A person who has had a seizure should not drive, swim, climb ladders, or operate machinery until he or she has seen a doctor about the seizure.


Treatment of a seizure depends on what has caused the seizure.

Check Your Symptoms

Do you think that you have had a seizure?

How old are you?

6 years or younger

6 years or younger

7 to 11 years

7 to 11 years

12 to 55 years

12 to 55 years

56 years or older

56 years or older

Are you male or female?

Why do we ask this question?

  • If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as “male” and once as “female”). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.

Did your child have a seizure while he or she had a fever?


Fever at time of seizure


Fever at time of seizure

Do you have a severe headache that started suddenly and is the worst headache of your life?

This probably would not be like any headache you have had before.


Sudden, severe headache


Sudden, severe headache

Did the seizure occur after you swallowed something poisonous, drank a lot of alcohol, or used illegal drugs?


Possible poisoning or overdose


Possible poisoning or overdose

Are you pregnant?

Yes, you know that you’re pregnant.


No, you’re not pregnant, or you’re not sure if you’re pregnant.


Are you more than 20 weeks pregnant?


More than 20 weeks pregnant


More than 20 weeks pregnant

Do you think the seizure might have been caused by a problem with your blood sugar?

Seizures can sometimes occur if blood sugar gets too high or too low.


Diabetes may be causing seizure


Diabetes may be causing seizure

Do you have epilepsy or a history of seizures?


Epilepsy or history of seizures


Epilepsy or history of seizures

Was this a typical seizure for you?

Do you feel like you are returning to normal the way you usually do after a seizure?

You probably know what is typical for you right after a seizure ends. Think about whether this time seems different.


Typical return to normal after seizure


Typical return to normal after seizure

Have you been having seizures more often than usual or having different seizures than what you are used to?


Increase in number or change in type of seizures


Increase in number or change in type of seizures

Have you returned to normal, other than maybe feeling tired or a little sore?


Returned to normal after seizure


Returned to normal after seizure

Did the seizure occur within the past 2 hours?


Seizure occurred within past 2 hours


Seizure occurred more than 2 hours ago

Have you returned to normal, other than maybe feeling tired or a little sore?


Returned to normal after seizure


Returned to normal after seizure

Did the seizure occur less than 24 hours ago?


Seizure occurred less than 24 hours ago


Seizure occurred less than 24 hours ago

Did the seizure occur after a head injury?


Seizure occurred after head injury


Seizure occurred after head injury

Are you having any strange symptoms that you think could be a seizure?

These could include things like jerking, twitching, or repeated movements that you can’t explain, or short periods (2 to 30 seconds) when you are not aware and cannot respond or when you feel less alert or awake for no reason.


Possible seizure symptoms


Possible seizure symptoms

Did these symptoms occur less than 24 hours ago?


Possible seizure symptoms less than 24 hours ago


Possible seizure symptoms less than 24 hours ago

Do you have any other concerns about seizures?


Other seizure concerns

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

Neurological symptoms—which may be signs of a problem with the nervous system—can affect many body functions. Symptoms may include:

  • Numbness, weakness, or lack of movement in your face, arm, or leg, especially on only one side of your body.
  • Trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
  • Trouble speaking.
  • Confusion or trouble understanding simple statements.
  • Problems with balance or coordination (for example, falling down or dropping things).
  • Seizures.

Symptoms of serious illness may include:

  • A severe headache.
  • A stiff neck.
  • Mental changes, such as feeling confused or much less alert.
  • Extreme fatigue (to the point where it’s hard for you to function).
  • Shaking chills.

Symptoms of serious illness in a baby may include the following:

  • The baby is limp and floppy like a rag doll.
  • The baby doesn’t respond at all to being held, touched, or talked to.
  • The baby is hard to wake up.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Fever Seizures

Home Treatment

If you witness a seizure, your account of the seizure will help a doctor diagnose and treat the person. Try to stay calm. Pay close attention to what happens during and after the seizure.

  • During a seizure:

    • Protect the person from injury.
      • Keep him or her from falling if you can, or try to guide the person gently to the floor.
      • Try to move furniture or other objects that might injure the person during the seizure.
      • If the person is having a seizure and is on the ground when you arrive, try to position the person on his or her side so that fluid can leak out of the mouth. But be careful not to apply too much pressure to the body.
    • Do not force anything, including your fingers, into the person’s mouth. Putting something in the person’s mouth may cause injuries to him or her, such as chipped teeth or a fractured jaw. You could also get bitten.
    • Do not try to hold down or move the person. This can cause injury, such as a dislocated shoulder.
    • Pay close attention to what the person is doing so that you can describe the seizure to rescue personnel or doctors.
      • How the person’s body moved
      • How long the seizure lasted
      • How the person acted before the seizure
      • How the person acted immediately after the seizure
      • Whether the person suffered any injuries from the seizure
  • After a seizure:

    • Check the person for injuries.
    • If you could not turn the person onto his or her side during the seizure, do so when the seizure ends and the person is more relaxed.
    • If the person is having trouble breathing, use your finger to gently clear his or her mouth of any vomit or saliva.
    • Loosen tight clothing around the person’s neck and waist.
    • Provide a safe area where the person can rest.
    • Do not give anything to eat or drink until the person is fully awake and alert.
    • Stay with the person until he or she is awake and familiar with the surroundings. Most people will be sleepy or confused after a seizure.

A person who has had a seizure should not drive, swim, climb ladders, or operate machinery until he or she has seen a doctor about the seizure and the doctor has said that the person is allowed to drive or operate machinery.

Symptoms to watch for during home treatment

Call your doctor if any of the following occur during home treatment:

  • The pattern of your seizures changes and you have a history of epilepsy.
  • Symptoms become more severe or frequent.


Note: If you think you may have a seizure disorder or are being evaluated for one, do not drive, operate heavy machinery, swim, climb ladders, or participate in other potentially dangerous activities until you have been specifically cleared to do these things by your doctor.

Many causes of seizures, such as some forms of epilepsy, cannot be prevented. But head injury is a common cause of seizures and epilepsy that you may be able to prevent. To prevent a head injury:

  • Wear your seat belt when you are in a motor vehicle. Use child car seats.
  • Do not use alcohol or other drugs before or during sports (such as soccer, football, horseback riding, or bicycling) or when operating an automobile or other equipment.
  • Wear a helmet and other protective clothing whenever you are bicycling, motorcycling, skating, kayaking, horseback riding, skiing, snowboarding, or rock climbing.
  • Wear a hard hat if you work in an industrial or construction area.
  • Do not dive into shallow or unfamiliar water.
  • Prevent falls at home by removing hazards that might cause a fall.

If you are being treated for a seizure disorder:

  • Be sure to follow your treatment plan. Taking too little or too much of your medicine, abruptly stopping your medicine, or changing your medicine schedule can cause seizures.
  • Do not drive, operate heavy machinery, swim, climb ladders, or participate in other potentially dangerous activities until you have been specifically cleared to do these things by your doctor.
  • Avoid activities that might trigger a seizure, such as playing video games that have flashing or flickering lights. In rare cases, the flashing lights and geometric patterns of video games can trigger seizures in children.

Preparing For Your Appointment

To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.

You can help your doctor diagnose and treat your condition by being prepared to answer the following questions:

  • How was your health and behavior before the seizure?
  • Did you have any unusual symptoms before the seizure (aura)?
  • What happened during the seizure? Ask the person who witnessed your seizure to either record this information for you or come to your doctor’s appointment with you.
    • What kind of body movement occurred?
    • How long did the seizure last?
    • How did you act immediately after the seizure?
    • Are there any injuries from the seizure?
  • Have you ever had a seizure before? If so, what was the diagnosis and how were the seizures treated?
  • If you have epilepsy:
    • What seizure medicines have been prescribed?
    • Has the dosage of your seizure medicine changed recently?
    • Have you taken your seizure medicine exactly as prescribed?
    • Have you taken other prescription or nonprescription medicines or consumed alcohol recently?
    • Have you used any alternative medicine products recently?
    • When was your last seizure?
    • On the average, how often do you have a seizure?
  • Have you had other health problems in the past 3 months?
  • Have you ever had a concussion (traumatic brain injury) in the past?
    • How long ago?
    • How severe was it?
    • Did you lose consciousness?
    • What tests were used to evaluate your head injury?
  • Have you had problems with headaches?
  • Have you recently taken, stopped taking, or changed the dose of any medicines, including nonprescription medicines or illegal drugs?
  • Have you suddenly reduced or stopped drinking alcohol?
  • Have you recently traveled to a rural area or an undeveloped country?
  • Do you have any health risks that may increase the seriousness of your symptoms?

If possible, ask the person who witnessed your seizure to come to your doctor’s appointment with you. Be sure to ask your doctor what you can do to prevent another seizure and what to do if you have another seizure.


Current as of:
October 19, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine

Current as of: October 19, 2020

Healthwise Staff

Medical Review:William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine

High Blood Pressure Symptoms – MedicoRx®

High Blood Pressure Symptoms

By: teamtcs | Tags: Blood Pressure, Caffeine Side Effects, Long Term Care in Los Angeles, San Fernando Valley Home Nurse | Comments:
0 | March 19th, 2015

High blood pressure can present in a variety of manners, depending upon a person’s individual physiology. In many cases, high blood pressure does not actually show any visible symptoms, but can still be diagnosed through testing.

Blood pressure that is between 130-139/85-89 mm Hg is considered to already be in the high range. Extreme hypertension is any measurement that is above these numbers, and can lead to severe health concerns. However, since symptoms can be non-presenting, it is always best for people who have a familial history of the illness to get regular physicals in order to monitor blood pressure ranges.

The truest symptom of high blood pressure is a diagnostic reading of the systolic and diastolic levels, but since even people who appear to be in otherwise good health can suffer from high blood pressure, it is also important to be aware of possible manifestations that could indicate hypertension.

Tangible Signs of High Blood Pressure

Individuals who have high blood pressure can also experience very similar symptoms, depending upon the cause of the condition. Often, people who have a vascular constriction will present differently than those who have a heart condition that contributes to the high blood pressure. For this reason, becoming familiar with possible signals can aid in receiving appropriate medical attention.

Some of the symptoms that may or may not be indicative of high blood pressure include:

  • Sweating
  • Facial flushing
  • Nervousness
  • Chronic headaches
  • Nosebleeds

Although these symptoms are present for patients with high blood pressure, they can also be related to other conditions that are completely separate. This makes them less accurate indicators of the disease, however, if they are present with other possible symptoms for hypertension, then it is recommended that the person contacts their physician.

Further Symptoms Correlated to Hypertensive State

When the above symptoms are present with any of the following, then it is more likely that a hypertensive state is present.
Further symptoms that are more directly related to high blood pressure include:

  • Fatigue that is physical and/or mental, as well as confusion and cognitive fog
  • Vision problems, ranging from blurriness or tunnel vision to ocular migraines
  • Chest pains, especially when trying to straighten the spine and lift the chest
  • Difficulty breathing that is made worse by focusing on breathing
  • Irregular heartbeat, especially one that can be felt in the temples or jaw
  • Blood in the urine, due to stress induced high blood pressure that can result in kidney damage
  • Pounding in the chest, neck, and ears, that may be accompanied by chills and flushing

These effects can present in mild and severe cases of high blood pressure, and can also be indicative of a crisis situation. Blood in the urine, chest pains, and trouble breathing should be addressed immediately with emergency care, while other symptoms should lead to scheduling a physical so that they can be evaluated.

Complications in High Blood Pressure

It is extremely important to address high blood pressure as soon as possible. Ignoring this condition can result in severe complications including:

  • Stroke
  • Blood vessel rupture
  • Cardiac event
  • Kidney failure

Although the condition can be managed, some prior damage from prolonged high blood pressure cannot be rectified. Lack of management of high blood pressure also increases the likelihood of a heart attack or other vascular event.

Hypertensive Crisis

A hypertensive crisis occurs when blood pressure is so elevated that the circulatory system cannot keep up with the flow. The result can include a lack of response from the blood vessels or the heart, and this can result in rupture. The location of the rupture can highly affect patient prognosis, as bleeding in the brain generates a different damage than bleeding in the lung or in the leg.

Hypertensive crisis is often accompanied by all of the above symptoms, but can also include:

  • Burst vessels in the eye
  • Extreme anxiety
  • Sudden confusion or loss of verbal capacity
  • Seizures
  • Sudden swelling and edema

If these symptoms present, then it is vital that the patient seek medical attention immediately.

Types of High Blood Pressure

Just as the symptoms of high blood pressure can cover a range of expressions dependent upon individual physiology, hypertension can itself present as several conditions. This includes:

  • Malignant high blood pressure – this includes when the blood pressure is in the extremely high range and tends to rise and fall rapidly. This can lead to extreme organ damage and an increased risk of stroke, and may also be accompanied by fainting spells, light headedness, and extreme nervousness.
  • Secondary high blood pressure – although this condition may mimic some of the behaviors of malignant hypertension, it tends to be indicated by a steady rise in blood pressure. It is frequently the result of outside factors, including necessary medications, diseases of the thyroid, kidneys, or adrenal glands, or weight related influencers. This type of high blood pressure is less likely to present symptoms until there is a crisis, although shortness of breath and fatigue are common.
  • Renal high blood pressure – this condition is the direct result of blood pressure changes that are predicates by a kidney disease. Flushing, vision trouble, and blood in the urine are more common symptoms with this form of the illness, although management is often related to correcting the kidney failure.

Considering Physical and Mental Indications of High Blood Pressure

Since stress plays such a large part in the expression of high blood pressure, it is also true that high blood pressure can contribute to emotional responses. Since the illness can impact cognitive function and can also cause hormonal imbalances through poor circulation, psychological symptoms can also be indicators of high blood pressure. Some which are frequently reported include:

  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Restlessness
  • Lack of focus
  • Memory lapses
  • Blackouts
  • Sudden outbursts of anger

These are even more prominent when they appear and subside suddenly and without seeming provocation. Although it is less reliable to diagnose high blood pressure through these emotional responses, the combination of physical and psychological factors can all indicate that attention to blood pressure regulation is necessary.

Essential Tremor – NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

ET is a highly variable disorder. Age of onset, progression, tremor distribution, and severity can vary greatly from one individual to another. The characteristic symptom of ET is tremor, which most often occurs as involuntary shaking or trembling of the hands and/or arms. In some cases, tremor of the hands or arms occurs as an isolated finding. Usually, both of the hands or arms are affected, although one side of the body is generally affected more than the other. Tremor can also affect the head (i.e., neck), voice, jaw, or tongue.

In many cases, tremor affecting the hands or arms can slowly progress to affect other areas, most often the head. Although generally progressive, the rate of progression is slow on average. Recent studies have demonstrated that the average rate of progression of arm tremor severity is approximately 1.5 to 5% per year.

A tremor can be fast or slow and its breadth of range or degree (amplitude) can be dramatic and easily noticeable or so mild as to be nearly imperceptible. Tremor in individuals with ET usually begins gradually, slowly worsening as an affected individual ages. Tremor often worsens with movement. It can also be aggravated by stress, fever, fatigue, a heightened emotional state, low blood sugar, and caffeine.

Different tremor types can be associated with ET. In most cases, tremor occurs when individuals attempt to make voluntary movements (kinetic tremor). Such movements can include simple tasks such as pouring a drink, drinking from a cup, using utensils, tying shoelaces, drawing, or writing.

Postural tremor is also common in individuals with ET. Postural tremor refers to a tremor that occurs while an individual attempts to maintain a fixed position against gravity, such as when holding ones arms outstretched in front of the body as when holding a newspaper.

Some individuals with ET have an “internal tremor,” which is described as a general feeling of shakiness in the body. These tremors cannot be seen by observers.

In advanced cases, a rest tremor may occur. Rest tremors occur when the body is relaxed and at rest against gravity as when resting one’s arm on a chair.

Some affected individuals also have an impaired ability to coordinate voluntary movements (ataxia) affecting the muscles of the legs. This can cause an uncoordinated or clumsy manner of walking (abnormal gait).

In recent years, researchers have determined that non-motor symptoms develop in individuals with ET more commonly than in individuals within the general population. Such symptoms include cognitive deficits, personality changes, and depression. Hearing impairment and an altered sense of smell (mild olfactory dysfunction) have also been reported in some studies. Cognitive dysfunction appears to be more likely to occur in individuals with an older age of onset of the disorder.

ET is often associated with a variety of social and psychological consequences. The disorder can cause difficulty with normal daily activities and can potentially dramatically impact an individual’s quality of life. Affected individuals may avoid social or stressful situations due to anxiousness and frustration.

Recent epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with ET are at slightly increased risk of developing dementia (particularly Alzheimer’s disease) compared to their age-matched counterparts without ET. Similar studies also show that persons with ET have a more than four-times increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. The mechanisms for these associations are currently under study.

Low blood pressure: what to know

The risks of high blood pressure are well known. But low blood pressure can be problematic, too.

We all know having high blood pressure puts you at risk of a heart attack and stroke, but what if your blood pressure is too low? A growing number of people are seeking treatment for hypotension (low blood pressure), says cardiologist Dr Gautam Vaddadi from the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Research Institute in Melbourne.

“People assume low blood pressure is good because they won’t have a heart attack,” he says. “But if your blood pressure is too low you can be prone to recurrent fainting, which is disabling.”

Low blood pressure doesn’t always cause problems, but symptoms can include:

  • Dizziness
  • Blurred vision
  • Feeling shaky
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Fainting
Why it happens

Some people have a natural tendency to low blood pressure, but even if you know you have it, symptoms such as dizziness or fainting should be investigated.

It can also be a sign of something more serious. “Call an ambulance if someone passes out and it’s the first time it’s happened,” Dr Vaddadi says.

Some people look as though they are having a seizure and can lose control of their bladder or bowels when they faint. There could be underlying factors including heart disease, brain disease (stroke, epilepsy) or other metabolic or blood disorders.

Some drugs, particularly those for high blood pressure, can cause blood pressure to become too low. Diuretics, which increase the amount of urine your kidneys excrete, can cause blood pressure to drop, as can some antibiotics.

A Canadian study found people on blood-pressure medication and certain antibiotics were up to six times more likely to be hospitalised for low blood pressure.

Diet’s role

If you drink a lot of caffeine and not enough water, you risk dehydration, which can cause your blood pressure to drop. And if you drink a lot of alcohol and don’t eat enough, your blood pressure can drop so low you pass out, Dr Vaddadi says.

“It’s not what you expect to hear from a cardiologist, but sometimes a bit of salt can make dizzy spells go away,” he says.

Smaller meals can also help. “When you eat a big meal, blood is diverted to the gut to help digestion, so some people with low blood pressure can pass out.”

How to avoid fainting

“When someone faints, people often feel they should prop them up or support them,” Dr Vaddadi says. “However, lying down gets blood to the brain more quickly. Sometimes you can prevent a fainting spell by crossing your legs in a standing position and clenching your buttocks and thighs for 10 to 15 seconds.”

This squeezes the blood vessels in the legs and allows more blood to reach the brain.

“I was worried I’d faint at the altar”

Laura Greaves, 30, has had low blood pressure for most of her life.

“The first time I fainted I was about 12, but it didn’t occur to me it might be blood pressure-related. For about 10 years, from the age of 15 or so, I’d faint a handful of times a year. I passed out in some pretty strange places! I was eventually diagnosed with low blood pressure.

“I rarely feel the actual fall and I don’t seem to lose consciousness – as soon as I’m on the ground I come good.

“The fainting always starts the same way: the edges of my vision go dark and everything goes black pretty quickly. If I’m talking to someone, their voice will recede into the distance.

“I’ve fainted in several queues. Standing still for an extended period is a trigger, especially if it’s hot or stuffy.

“I was so worried I’d faint at the altar during my wedding that my now-husband and I worked out a signalling system in case I suddenly felt I was going to pass out. Luckily, the ceremony was uneventful.

“I avoid long queues or other circumstances where I have to stand up for a long time. I don’t skip meals and I try to stay hydrated. Earlier this year I nearly fainted while driving, which was a bit scary, but I managed to pull over and it quickly passed.”

Read our fact sheet on low blood pressure.

90,000 High blood pressure | Accu-Chek

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is caused by a significant disturbance in the condition of the vascular wall, when not only the diameter of the blood vessels changes significantly, but also the passage of the blood flow becomes difficult. Then the heart needs to contract harder than usual in order to move the blood along the vascular bed, and this can lead to serious diseases.

People with diabetes and high blood pressure are twice as likely to have heart disease as those who are hypertensive but do not have diabetes.Research also shows that hypertension increases the risk of kidney disease, diabetic eye disease and stroke 1 .

Causes of high blood pressure

According to statistics from the American Diabetes Association, approximately 73% of adults with diabetes have high blood pressure or are using prescription drugs to lower blood pressure. 2 . The causes of high blood pressure have not yet been established, but there are several factors that trigger hypertension:

  • Heredity
  • Racial
  • Age
  • Passive
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Hypersensitivity to salt
  • Excess weight
  • Stress.

Determination of high blood pressure

High blood pressure is usually not recognized by external signs or symptoms. The only thing you can do is take your blood pressure every time you visit the doctor. This is a quick and easy procedure, and you have probably gone through it many times.

If you have high blood pressure, your doctor may advise you to take more frequent measurements.

Prevention and treatment of high blood pressure

High blood pressure cannot be cured, but it is usually well controlled.You can reduce the likelihood of high pressure as follows 3 :

  • Maintaining normal weight
  • Exercise
  • Eating right, that is, including fruits, vegetables and wholemeal products in your diet every day
  • Focusing on foods that are low in salt and fat and lean meats
  • No alcohol abuse
  • Stopping smoking.

Your healthcare professional may additionally prescribe medication for you to maintain normal blood pressure.The choice and dosage of drugs depend on your individual characteristics.


Basic Facts

  • Hypertension – high blood pressure – is a serious medical condition that significantly increases the risk of developing diseases of the cardiovascular system, brain, kidneys and other diseases.
  • An estimated 1.13 billion people worldwide have hypertension, with the majority (two thirds) of whom live in low- and middle-income countries.
  • In 2015, every fourth man and every fifth woman suffered from hypertension.
  • Less than one fifth of hypertensive patients receive hypertension management care.
  • Hypertension is one of the leading causes of death worldwide.
  • Reducing the prevalence of hypertension by 25% between 2010 and 2025 is among the global targets for the fight against noncommunicable diseases.

What is hypertension?

Blood pressure is the force with which circulating blood acts on the arteries – the most important blood vessels in the body.Hypertension is characterized by an excessive rise in blood pressure.

Blood pressure is described
two indicators. The first indicator (systolic pressure) is the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart muscle contracts, or contracts. The second indicator (diastolic pressure) is the pressure in the vessels in
the moment when the heart is at rest between two contractions.

The diagnosis of “hypertension” is made when, according to blood pressure measurements taken on two different days, the value of systolic pressure
both on that and on the other day is equal to or exceeds 140 mm Hg.Art. and / or the diastolic pressure on both days is equal to or greater than 90 mm Hg. Art.

What are the risk factors for hypertension?

Controllable risk factors include unhealthy diets (excessive salt intake, high levels of saturated fat and wastes in the diet, inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables), insufficient physical activity, eating
tobacco and alcohol; and overweight and obesity.
Uncontrollable risk factors include the presence of hypertension in immediate family members, age over 65, and comorbid conditions such as diabetes or medical conditions.

What are the typical symptoms of hypertension?

Hypertension is called the “silent killer”. Most patients with hypertension are not even aware of the problem, since hypertension often does not give alarming signals and is asymptomatic. This is why it is so important to regularly measure your blood pressure.

When symptoms occur, they may include early morning headaches, nosebleeds, irregular heart rhythms, blurred vision and ringing in the ears. Severe hypertension can cause weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion,
internal tension, chest pain and muscle tremors.

The only way to detect hypertension is to have your blood pressure measured by a healthcare professional. Blood pressure measurement is quick and painless.Although you can measure blood pressure yourself using automatic
devices, to assess risk and related disorders, examination should be carried out by a medical professional.

What are the complications of uncontrolled hypertension?

Among other complications, hypertension can seriously damage the heart. Excessive pressure can cause the walls of the arteries to lose their elasticity and reduce the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart muscle.Such increased pressure and decrease
blood flow can cause:

  • chest pain, also called angina pectoris;
  • heart attack, which occurs when the blood supply to the heart is blocked, as a result of which the cells of the heart muscle die from oxygen starvation; the longer blood flow is blocked, the more serious the damage to the heart;
  • heart failure, in which the pumping function of the heart muscle cannot fully provide other essential organs with blood and oxygen;
  • cardiac arrhythmias that can lead to sudden death.

Hypertension can also cause stroke, ruptured or blocked arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the brain.

In addition, hypertension can cause renal failure caused by kidney damage.

Why is hypertension a problem in low- and middle-income countries?

The prevalence of hypertension varies across regions and countries in different income categories. Hypertension is most prevalent in the WHO African Region (27%) and least in the Region of the Americas (18%).

The number of adults with hypertension increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1.13 billion in 2015, mainly driven by low- and middle-income countries. This risk is mainly due to increased
risk factors for hypertension among these populations.

How can the burden of hypertension be reduced?

Reducing high blood pressure prevents heart attacks, strokes and kidney damage and other health problems.


  • Reducing salt intake (to less than 5 g per day)
  • Increasing the proportion of fruits and vegetables in the diet
  • Regular physical activity
  • Quitting tobacco consumption
  • Reducing alcohol consumption
  • Restricting consumption Foods high in saturated fat
  • Eliminate or reduce trans fats from food

Control of hypertension

  • Reduce and control stress conditions
  • Regular blood pressure checks
  • Treatment of high blood pressure
  • Treatment other diseases

How is WHO responding to the problem of hypertension?

The World Health Organization (WHO) is supporting countries to reduce the prevalence of hypertension as a public health problem.

In September 2016, to support governments in strengthening prevention and control of cardiovascular disease, WHO and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC) launched
the Global Hearts initiative, which produced the HEARTS toolkit. Six modules of the HEARTS technical package (health counseling, evidence-based treatment protocols,
access to essential medicines and technologies, risk-based case management, team delivery and monitoring systems) provide a strategic approach to promoting cardiovascular health at the most
different countries of the world.

In September 2017, WHO partnered with Vital Strategies’ Resolve to Save Lives to support national governments in implementing the Global Hearts initiative.
Other partners involved in the Global Hearts initiative include: CDCH Foundation, Global Health Advocacy Incubator, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Pan American
Public Health Organization (PAHO) and US CDC. Since the program was launched in 2017, 3 million people in 18 low- and middle-income countries have been receiving hypertension treatment with appropriate protocols in a patient-centered model of care. These programs are clear evidence of the feasibility and effectiveness of standardized hypertension control programs.

Feline hypertension – high blood pressure in cats

Feline hypertension is a pathological increase in blood pressure.Previously, this disease was not diagnosed and was not considered a serious problem for the health of cats, but with the development of methods for measuring blood pressure in animals and with an increase in the average life of cats, this disease began to take a leading role in the history of diseases of middle-aged and elderly cats. At the same time, no sexual or breed predisposition to hypertension in cats has been identified.

Causes of hypertension in cats

The reasons for the development of hypertension in cats are different, here are the main ones:

  • CRF (chronic renal failure). To compensate for the function of damaged kidney nephrons, blood pressure is increased to increase the volume of blood for filtration.
  • Hyperthyroidism is a functional disorder of the thyroid gland, in which the synthesis of hormones increases. This leads to a faster metabolism. As a result, the heartbeat increases and increases, and as a result, the heart grows in size, which leads to an increase in blood pressure.
  • Heart failure
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Other reasons

Symptoms of hypertension in cats

The organs that are at risk in the event of hypertension in cats are:

Eyes .With an increase in blood pressure, hemorrhages in the vitreous body and in the anterior chamber of the eye are possible. Often one eye is more affected than the other. In addition, small hemorrhages, edema and detachment are noted in the retina. Degenerative lesions are common. Vision is impaired, up to the development of blindness, often irreversible.

Nervous system and brain . Hypertension in cats causes disturbances in the vestibular apparatus, this is manifested by the strange behavior of the animal, a change in gait (wobbly and sluggish), convulsions, paresis, paralysis.Since the nervous system is saturated with small blood vessels, in cats with hypertension, this system often suffers, including the brain.

Cardiovascular system . Cats with hypertension have murmurs and increased heart rates. Less commonly, there may be manifestations of arrhythmias and shortness of breath. This is all exacerbated by cardiovascular disease, as hypertension is unlikely to be the underlying cause of heart failure. On x-ray examination, hypertension in cats may present with an enlarged heart, particularly the left ventricle.

Kidney . Hypertension in cats causes kidney damage.

The general clinical picture of with hypertension in cats is very blurred, at the initial stage it is impossible to observe specific signs of this disease. Then there comes a moment when hemorrhages appear in the eyes, reaching the point of retinal detachment, and the agitated owners turn to the veterinarian about the blindness of their pet.

Accordingly, it is necessary to observe more closely the behavior of your pets.When the above primary signs appear, it is important to remember about possible hypertension in cats. In addition, cat owners should be alerted to their depressed, lethargic and withdrawn behavior.

Diagnosis of hypertension in cats

Diagnosis of hypertension in cats, like other diseases, is carried out in a comprehensive manner. Regular blood pressure measurement is important. For this, equipment is used that is very similar to that used for people. The cuff is worn on the paw or tail of the cat.The fact that hypertension affects the eyes of cats is also taken into account in the diagnosis. The veterinarian pays attention to the blood vessels of the fundus and retina, and even in the initial stages of this disease, the specialist can detect pathological changes in them. In advanced and severe cases of hypertension in cats, retinal detachment and hemorrhages in the eye can often be found. Rarely, pathology is noted in one eye, more often two eyes are affected at once.

The city veterinary oncological center “Pride” has a highly qualified specialist – an ophthalmologist.His professionalism is confirmed by many certificates, certificates and cured patients. And high-precision and modern equipment for examining the eyes allows you to quickly and correctly make the correct diagnosis and immediately begin treatment.

When measuring blood pressure, it is important to take into account the fact that cats can become nervous and intimidated by the manipulation. Accordingly, the blood pressure readings will be incorrect. In this regard, the diagnosis will be erroneous, and subsequent treatment may also not give the desired result.Therefore, it is helpful to give the cat time to adapt to the environment where the blood pressure is being measured.

Treatment of hypertension in cats

Treatment, like diagnostics, is comprehensive. Due to the fact that hypertension is only a consequence of the underlying disease, then after the primary treatment aimed at lowering pressure with the help of modern drugs, it is necessary to proceed to the second direction. Veterinarians of the city veterinary oncological center “Pride”, attending international veterinary conferences and congresses, monitor the latest trends in the treatment of diseases and the emergence of new drugs.

The second direction of treatment is the elimination of the underlying disease. In some cases, when it is removed, the pressure is normalized, and the problem of hypertension in cats disappears. It is necessary to carefully monitor those organs that were affected by the increase in pressure.

Prognosis for hypertension in cats

As the common truth says, prevention is the best treatment. If you follow this rule, then you need to regularly visit your pet veterinarian. It is best to do this in those clinics that have modern equipment that meets the latest world trends and, of course, professional veterinarians.All this is in the city veterinary oncological center “Pride”.

It is recommended for cats over 7 years old to carry out periodic blood pressure measurements. This will allow you to notice the onset of the disease in time and will give a chance to stop the pathological process due to the timely started treatment. During this manipulation, cats do not experience any unpleasant sensations and calmly tolerate this procedure.

The prognosis for hypertension directly depends on the responsibility of the owner to his pet, who can notice the initial stage of the disease in time, or conduct regular preventive visits to the veterinarian.Thanks to this, you can avoid the occurrence of the disease, or you can count on a positive prognosis when hypertension occurs in cats.

The author of the article:
veterinary general practitioner
Avdasheva Elena Sergeevna

90,000 If you have high blood pressure . .. A few simple tips on how to lower your blood pressure and be healthy



Tatiana Alekseevna Petrichko,

head.Department of OVP and Preventive Medicine


Arterial hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases of our time. Currently in Russia about 40% of the population suffer from arterial hypertension. In many patients, arterial hypertension can be asymptomatic for a long time without affecting overall well-being. With the long-term course of this disease, the body gradually adapts to high pressure, and a person’s well-being can remain relatively good.At the same time, high blood pressure has an adverse effect on the blood vessels and internal organs: the brain, heart, kidneys. This often leads to serious complications such as stroke, coronary heart disease (angina pectoris), myocardial infarction, heart and kidney failure.

Remember ! Arterial hypertension is a chronic disease that constantly and steadily progresses if left untreated. However, this disease can be controlled! To effectively lower blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular complications, it is important to take regular medications and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

What should be done if high blood pressure is detected?

If an increase in blood pressure is detected, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor to identify the cause of the disease and determine the tactics of treatment.

Remember! In no case should you self-medicate. You cannot listen to the advice of friends and relatives suffering from arterial hypertension and use the same medications for treatment that they are taking.Since the cause and course of the disease in each person is different, then treatment for some can be beneficial, and for others useless or even harmful. Only a doctor can determine the necessary treatment tactics for each patient.

How to start treatment of high blood pressure?

In order to prevent the onset or progression of already existing arterial hypertension, it is necessary to reduce body weight, give up some bad habits, such as smoking, alcohol abuse, excessive salt intake.

Proper nutrition and exercise is the basis of treatment, but nevertheless, in some patients, the pressure decreases, but remains above safe limits, what should be done in this case?

Take antihypertensive drugs – drugs that lower blood pressure.

When should I start taking pills regularly?

If arterial hypertension is stable (that is, does not decrease on its own) for 2-3 weeks, despite the restriction of salt, proper nutrition, exercise, weight loss, blood pressure remains above the safe level of 140/90 mm Hg.it is necessary to start a constant intake of antihypertensive drugs selected by the doctor.

At what pressure do you need to take pills all the time?

If your blood pressure is mainly above 140/90, even if it is 150/95, and especially if there are periodic crises, the pills must already be taken. The principle of treating arterial hypertension is that while taking medications, the level of blood pressure does not go beyond normal values, it creates conditions for the normal functioning of all vital organs and systems of the body.

What is the purpose of the constant intake of antihypertensive drugs?

Always have safe pressure levels and no crises. The constant intake of antihypertensives is the only effective prevention of crises.

Remember! Arterial hypertension is a chronic disease and, like all chronic diseases, requires constant and continuous treatment. Discontinuation of medication will inevitably lead to a relapse of high blood pressure and the development of complications.

Remember! You need to be treated not just to be treated, but in order to have pressure at a safe level – 140/90.

What drug is needed?

This question should only be answered with a doctor. Currently, for the treatment of hypertension, there is a large arsenal of drugs, lunch in 5 groups of drugs. Each of these groups has its own contraindications, prescription features depending on concomitant diseases, age, etc.d

Groups of antihypertensive drugs

I group – Beta-blockers

atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, betaxolol

II group – Calcium antagonists

Nifedipine, amlodipine, lercanidipine, fellodipine, nitrondipine

III group – ACE inhibitors

Captopril, enalopril, perendopril, lisinopril, foztopril

IV group AT receptor blockers

Losartan, Valsortan, Eprosartan, Telmisartan, Olmesartan, Azilsartan

V group – Diuretics

Hypothiazide, indapamide

Remember! Only a doctor can prescribe medications and determine their dosages.

What do these drugs work for?

On the factors on which the level of blood pressure depends, the main ones are already well known to you: spasm (narrowing) of blood vessels, increased work of the heart, fluid retention. Let’s talk about this in a little more detail.

What determines the level of blood pressure?

Conventionally, the cardiovascular system can be represented as a closed system consisting of a tap, a tank and connecting pipes. Imagine that the tap is the heart, the tube is the arteries, and the cistern is the entire body supplied with blood.

What factors stand out and how to influence them?

– if the liquid comes from the tap under pressure, then the pressure in the pipe will increase; beta blockers are needed here.

– if you reduce the lumen of the pipe, then the pressure will also increase; The lumen of the tube is increased by calcium antagonists, ACE inhibitors, AT-receptor blockers.

– if you increase the amount of liquid in the tank, then the pressure in the system will also increase; this factor can be affected by diuretics.

Who decides on the drug group?

The doctor, taking into account the characteristics of your body and other factors, decides with which group of drugs should be started treatment.

How does he solve the dosage question?

Usually, treatment is started with the lowest dose. You take it for 5-7 days and control the blood pressure in your diary BP should be measured at least 2 times a day, preferably at the same hours) .It usually decreases slightly. After 5 days the dose is increased and again within 5 days you continue to control the pressure. It will decrease a little more. If the blood pressure does not become 140/90, then the dose continues to be gradually increased until the blood pressure reaches safe limits.

But what to do if the pressure still does not reach safe limits?

If the dose of the drug is increased to the maximum allowable, and the pressure has not reached 140/90 mm Hg, then the doctor has 2 options.The first is to cancel this drug and prescribe another from the same group or a different group. The second is to reduce the dose of this drug and add a drug from another group.

How long does the selection of the scheme take?

It depends on the reaction of your body to antihypertensives. Sometimes very quickly. Sometimes you have to try different and different options until the main result is achieved – 140/90 mm Hg.

What is required of you when choosing a dose?

Understanding the goals of this joint work with the doctor – to achieve a pressure not higher than 140/90 mm Hg.and a normal life without vascular complications.

Regular measurement of blood pressure and keeping a diary. Without this, the job of selecting a dose turns into self-deception.

Can a doctor choose the right regimen without your participation?

Never. He makes any decision only, focusing on the reaction from the blood pressure. This reaction can only be seen from the diaries. Without knowing your daily blood pressure readings, you cannot make the right decision.

Is it necessary to quickly lower blood pressure?

If we are talking about the systematic selection of treatment, then no.Many patients have lived with elevated blood pressure for years. Its rapid decrease can lead, on the contrary, to a deterioration in well-being.

What to do after you have achieved a safe pressure of 140/90?

Continue the same lifestyle (proper nutrition and exercise) and take the selected antihypertensive regimen.

What happens if you stop taking your pills?

The pressure will start to rise again, sometimes even in the form of a crisis.

What prevents you from taking the pills regularly?

One of the most common reasons is forgetting to take pills. To do this, there is a toothbrush rule – put the tablets next to the toothbrush, brush your teeth and take the tablets.

What side effects do antihypertensive drugs have?

Each of the antihypertensive drugs may have side effects.

The likelihood of the appearance and severity of a side effect depends on the dose: the higher it is, the more likely the risk of developing side effects – that is why the doctor strives to prescribe the optimal doses of drugs.

The incidence of side effects and their severity may differ for different groups of drugs.

Remember! If you experience any new symptoms or discomfort while taking medication, you should consult your doctor.

Can you tell the doctor your wishes about antihypertensive drugs that will be recommended for you?

You can and should.

What are these wishes?

First, the frequency of reception.There are pills that need to be taken 1 or 2 times a day, and there are those that need to be taken 3 or 4.

Secondly, the absence of side effects. If you have already taken any pills and did not tolerate them well, tell your doctor.

Third, the cost. There are effective drugs that are easy to take with minimal side effects. But their cost is higher than that of similar drugs, which are inferior to them on certain points. It makes no sense to start treatment with expensive pills if you cannot use them later.Although you should always remember that there is nothing more valuable than health.

Fourth, the effectiveness of control. You can choose several schemes, calculate the cost of one day of treatment, compare which one is more effective and choose a solution that you prefer.

What is the best way to reduce the cost of treatment?

Proper nutrition and exercise. These factors can reduce blood pressure by 10-20 mm. If you don’t stick to them, then you will have to pay for the extra pills.

Remember that the most precious thing is health. It is better to spend money on blood pressure control now, when you have no complications and have the opportunity to earn them, than a much larger amount later, when they appear and deprive you of the opportunity to work.

Remember! Treatment is a process, its success depends on both the doctor and the patient himself, as well as the characteristics of the drug, its tolerance and side effects. Therefore, knowledge of the essence of the disease, its main causes, factors affecting its development and course, is a necessary component of the treatment complex.This is an important step towards staying healthy.

90,000 Hospital Food Transforming – Diet and Nutrition Center – Healths

When you think of hospital food, what comes to mind – mysterious meat, watery broth, limp peas and carrots, wobbly green jelly? It’s no secret that the meals served to patients are not Gender


When you think of hospital food, what comes to mind – mysterious meat, watery broth, limp peas and carrots, wobbly green jelly? It is no secret that the dishes served to patients have not enjoyed success in terms of taste.There is even a photoblog that invites people to submit pictures of hospital meals from all over the world, and while some of them look pretty appetizing, most are sad, unidentified variations on stereotypical hospital fares.

While you might think that meals for sick people should comply with the latest nutritional guidelines, this is far from the case. When the Physicians Advocacy Group Committee on Responsible Medicine and ADinfinitum Inc.surveyed 40 hospitals or hospital systems in the United States in 2005, they found that less than a third of them ate a salad bar or low-fat vegetarian meal daily, and many more. – the so-called healthy foods were actually very high in fat. Research has also shown that hospital food may have lower levels of nutrients such as vitamin C, possibly because the food is heated to a high temperature in order to keep it warm when delivered to patient rooms over time.

But lately, the image of tasteless, unhealthy food in hospitals has changed. The Culinary Institute of America in Upstate New York offers a first-of-its-kind food preparation elective for hospital patients, with students taking field trips to hospitals to learn firsthand what is needed to improve the taste and quality of institutional food. … At Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, Chef Pnina Peled works with a nutritionist to prepare delicious and healthy meals for children and adults with cancer who often experience decreased appetite from chemotherapy.Sloan-Kettering also took part in the 2011 Big Apple Health Care Culinary Challenge event last month, in which chefs from several New York City hospitals competed against each other to see who could make the most delicious meals.

Healthy Food for America’s Veterans

Even the Department of Veterans Affairs takes note: All 153 VA Medical Centers and 132 Community Housing Centers are making healthier changes to their menus.Based on several different government nutritional guidelines, a new menu plan known as the VHA Healthy Diet was adopted by every VA institution in 2010. The plan includes an average of 2,000 to 2,400 calories per day, with zero or minimum trans fat or hydrogenated fat, whole grains, and local fruits and vegetables. At Bay Pines VA Healthcare System, a VA facility in Florida, chefs have also created healthy variations of their favorite foods to adapt to new recommendations.So how does it taste? Barbara Harrington, M.D., M.D., Head of Food and Nutrition Services at Bay Pines, says the most recent patient satisfaction score was 4.4 on a 5-point scale – “Highest! I am very proud of that. ” However, she admits that some patients “really don’t have enough bacon and sausage for breakfast.”

Food made to order and brought to your bed

Room service is becoming more and more popular in many hospitals.Patti Oliver, M.D., M.D., MBA, Director of Nutrition at UCLA Healthcare and President-elect of The Association for Healthcare Foodservice, has successfully implemented room service at the facilities she oversees (including UCLA Ronald Reagan Medical Center on 525 beds) for several years. ago. “We are very proud that all our meals are made with fresh ingredients,” she says, adding that they offer over 32 healthy dishes from different ethnic backgrounds on all menus.

Related: Foods for Instant Energy

Patients who opt for room service can choose from options such as grilled chicken with lemongrass, salmon in a creamy white wine and artichoke sauce, or stew with tofu and vegetables, which served by staff in a tuxedo uniform. According to Oliver, the average delivery time to a patient’s room is about 29 minutes. “We are very happy – we receive comments like ‘Damn it, I felt like I was in a five-star hotel.’

How healthy is the food in your hospital?

Wondering if your local facility has made such dietary changes? Before you or your loved one check in, it would be a good idea to call ahead and speak with a dietitian or food service director about the menu and what’s on offer.

You can also ask if your hospital has signed the Health Eating Health Commitment sponsored by the Global Health Care Without Harm Coalition.Agencies that commit to, inter alia, increase the availability of fresh local produce, reduce the use of processed foods containing trans fats and sweeteners, and educate patients, healthcare providers and the public about healthy eating and sustainable practices. Of the 5,000 public hospitals in the United States, about 333 have made the commitment to date. To find out if your local hospital is one of them, check the list on the NoHarm website.org.

Find out more in our Diet and Nutrition Center.

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Copaxone for Multiple Sclerosis – Health

Copaxone (Glatiramera Acetate) is an injection disease-modifying therapy (DMT) used for multiple sclerosis (MS), meaning it is used to prevent the condition from getting worse.


Copaxone (Glatiramer Acetate) is an injection disease modifying therapy (DMT) used for multiple sclerosis (MS), meaning it is used to prevent the condition from getting worse.It differs from many other drugs of this type in that it may have fewer certain side effects known to be associated with many DMT.


Copaxone was FDA approved in 1996 for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). It is a disease-modifying therapy, meaning it is used to slow the progression of the disease rather than to eliminate its symptoms.

RRMS is the most common form of multiple sclerosis, accounting for 85 percent of cases. Its symptoms come and go rather than gradually getting worse.

PC types


It is unclear how Copaxone prevents recurrence of multiple sclerosis. One theory is based on the fact that the chemical composition of the drug is similar to the myelin sheath, which usually surrounds nerve cells. Myelin is the target of the immune response in MS, which leads to its destruction.Copaxone appears to block T cells from damaging myelin, but the exact mechanism is unknown.

Copaxone is also thought to reduce the level of B cells, which may play a key role in MS. This is an area of ​​ongoing research.

One of the reasons Copaxone stands out among RRMS drugs is that it is generally well tolerated with relatively fewer side effects compared to other disease-modifying therapies.

An article published in 2019 reviewed the advances in multiple sclerosis and the continued use of Copaxone over a 20-year period. Studying the data obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the researcher found evidence that the drug reduces:

  • Axonal metabolic damage
  • Tissue damage
  • Atrophy
  • Brain volume loss

Other results mentioned Include:

  • Copaxone is considered to be as effective as interferon beta-1a and interferon beta-1b.
  • Results from short-term studies contradict each other as to whether the loss of brain volume was improved to a greater extent with Copaxone or interferon preparations.
  • A long-term study showed that the loss of brain volume was reduced more by Copaxone than by interferons.

The author of the article concluded that despite its age, Copaxone is still widely used as a first-line treatment option, in part due to its effectiveness, extensive data available, safety profile, convenient dosing regimen (versus similar drugs).), and the lack of a necessary monitoring program.

MS treatment options


Copaxone is supplied in pre-filled syringes and is injected using a short, fine needle that is inserted subcutaneously into a 2-inch skin area. The most common sites for injection are the abdomen, dorsum of the hand, dorsum of the thigh, and mid-thigh.

This drug has two strengths: 20 milligram (mg) injections given daily and 40 mg injections given three times a week.

Most people can inject themselves if they do not inject in hard to reach places. The Copaxone shot can sting, but only for a few minutes.

Side Effects

There are many potential side effects that can occur with Copaxone. It is important to contact your doctor right away about any side effects you may experience, especially as the lists below, while extensive, are not exhaustive.


More common side effects from Copaxone include:

  • Anxiety
  • Chest pain
  • Cough
  • Excessive muscle tone
  • Rapid, rapid, or irregular heartbeat
  • Joint pain
  • Low back pain or side pain
  • Neck pain
  • Difficulty or painful urination
  • Redness of the face or upper body
  • Rash
  • Swelling on the face
  • Swollen, painful or tender lymph nodes
  • Difficulty breathing

Injection site reactions

People taking Copaxone for multiple sclerosis often experience injection site reactions resulting in:

  • Redness
  • Swelling
  • Itching
  • Lump at the injection site

A minority of Copaxone users – about 16 percent – experience more a serious side effect of taking Copaxone called immediate reaction after injection.This reaction occurs immediately after injection and can cause two or more of the following symptoms:

  • Redness (warmth and / or redness of the skin)
  • Chest pain
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Anxiety
  • Shortness of breath
  • Throat constriction
  • Rash

Anyone can experience this reaction, which usually occurs several months after starting Copaxone treatment. However, in some people this may happen earlier; this reaction may occur more than once.

Although they can be alarming, these symptoms have no long-term effects and usually go away in about 15 minutes. They also do not require treatment.

However, the manufacturer of Copaxone advises that you call your doctor immediately if you have a reaction after an injection and do not give yourself another injection until your doctor tells you to resume taking this drug.

To avoid an immediate reaction after injection, try the following during injection:

  • Stay relaxed
  • Sit down
  • Keep your head straight
  • Breathe slowly
  • If possible, have someone with you during the injection

Less commonly

Other less common side effects include:

  • Agitation
  • Bloating
  • Chills
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Fever
  • Severe throbbing headache
  • Genital itching

  • Muscle pain
  • Pain during sex
  • Purple spots or small lumps under the skin
  • Rapid weight gain
  • Red streaks on the skin
  • Shaky, swollen or tingling limbs, arms or legs
  • Throat cramps
  • Severe urge to urinate
  • White curdled vaginal discharge (may not smell or have a slight odor)
  • Chest tightness
  • Unusual weight changes

Although rare, the following is possible:

  • Bloody urine
  • Burning or tingling skin
  • Uncontrolled eye movements
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Diarrhea
  • Difficulty moving
  • Ear pain
  • Rapid breathing
  • Thrush (mouth and tongue irritation)
  • Decreased appetite
  • Menstrual pain or changes
  • Painful cold sores or blisters on the lips, nose, eyes or genitals
  • Feeling of movement
  • Speech problems
  • Vision problems

Considerations and Contraindications

Copaxone is safe for most people.The only people who should never take it are people who are sensitive to glatiramer acetate or mannitol (sugar alcohol).

There are no known drug interactions.

If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it is probably safe to take Copaxone. No harm to the developing fetus has been found in animal studies or reviews of data from over 7000 pregnancies.

Of all the MS disease modifying drugs, Copaxone is generally considered the safest to use while breastfeeding.There are no published data, but any Copaxone found in breast milk is thought to be degraded in the infant’s gastrointestinal tract rather than absorbed. One exception may be in newborns.

If you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breastfeeding, be sure to discuss all medications with your doctor.


Branded Copaxone costs between $ 6,000 and $ 7,500 per month or more, but there are generic forms on the market that are generally less expensive.Copaxone and its generics are also covered by most of the health insurance coverage.