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Is a blood infection sepsis: Common Problems Patients Face in the Hospital


Common Problems Patients Face in the Hospital

It’s a fact of life: people checking into the hospital face risks. Expecting to get better, some actually wind up getting worse.

We’ve all heard the horror stories about hospital risks after surgery. There’s the danger of medical complications, like bleeding or infection. Then there are the human errors, like getting the wrong drug or dosage. “Even though you’ve got a lot of well-trained people in a hospital working very hard, they’re still people,” says Fran Griffin, RRT, MPA, a director at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement in Cambridge, Mass. “And people sometimes make mistakes.”

All these hospital risks can seem far beyond your control. It can leave you feeling pretty helpless.

But experts say that’s not the case. “Patients are just too passive when they check into the hospital,” says Peter B. Angood, MD, vice president and chief patient safety officer of the Joint Commission in Oakbridge Terrace, Ill. According to Angood and other experts, taking an active role in your health care can reduce many of these hospital risks. While you might feel out of control when you go into the hospital, you’re really not.

So what can you do to cut your risks? Here’s a list of the six top hospital risks and — more importantly — what you can do to avoid them.

Hospital Risk No. 1: Medication Errors

“Far and away, the most serious hospital risk is a medication error,” says Carolyn Clancy, MD, director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) in Rockville, Md. “All it takes is for someone to miss a decimal point and you could have a life-threatening mistake.”

A 2006 report from the Institute of Medicine estimated that every year, there are 450,000 injuries resulting from medication errors in hospitals, and perhaps many more that are unreported. What’s especially frightening about these hospital risks is they “seem” completely beyond your control. How would you even know what medicines you need, or how much, or how often? How can you stop a doctor’s poor handwriting on a prescription from being misread by a pharmacist or nurse?

But there are things you can do to reduce this hospital risk. Before surgery, you need to make sure that your doctor, your surgeon, and everyone else involved in your care know about every single medicine — whether prescription, over-the-counter, or herbal supplement — that you use. To make it easier, you can just stick all of your medicines in a bag and bring them to the hospital.

Then, after surgery, ask questions. When a nurse comes to give you medicine, ask what it is and why you need it, says Dale Bratzler, DO, MPH, medical director at the Oklahoma Foundation for Medical Quality in Oklahoma City. Make sure the nurse checks your ID bracelet against the name on the prescription.

“If you ever feel like something’s wrong, you have to speak up,” says Griffin. She’s talked to nurses who said that they were about to administer the wrong medication or dose and were only stopped because the patient asked them to double-check.” Just by saying something, they averted what could have been very serious medication errors,” Griffin says.

Hospital Risk No.

2: MRSA and Other Hospital-Acquired Infections

Another top hospital risk is infection with bacteria or a virus. Hospitals are loaded with nasty bugs. According to the CDC, there are 1.7 million health-care-associated infections every year; 22% are infections of surgical wounds. Even more — 32% — are urinary tract infections. The rest are infections of the lungs, blood, and other parts of the body.

One of the most frightening hospital infections you can pick up is MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) — a type of staph infection that’s resistant to many antibiotics. A 2007 study by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC)suggested that almost one out of every 20 hospital patients is either infected with MRSA or carries it.

“The risk of MRSA is growing,” says Clancy. “It’s getting more common and more resistant to antibiotics.”

So what can you do? First, ask whether you’ll be getting antibiotics before and after surgery to lower your risk. Then after surgery, the best protection is simple: don’t let people touch you until you have seen them wash their hands. That goes for everyone — including doctors and nurses.

Now of course, you might feel intimidated by the idea of scolding your doctor for their bad hygiene. But experts say that your doctor or nurse shouldn’t have any problem with it — especially if you ask nicely.

Hospital Risk No. 3: Pneumonia

Although some might think of pneumonia as a minor complication, it can be quite serious. After urinary tract infections and wound infections, it’s the most common hospital acquired infection. According to the CDC, estimates of hospital pneumonia’s mortality rate are as high as 33%. It’s most common in people who are in the intensive care unit or on ventilators.

Pneumonia is a common hospital risk after surgery for several reasons. During recovery, you might naturally take shallow breaths, since you’re on your back and breathing deeply may be painful. After surgery, many people also have a partial collapse of the lung tissue — called alectasis — which further weakens lung function. All of this can make it easier for bugs that cause pneumonia to gain a foothold.

So what are some ways to avoid this hospital risk? Deep breathing is one. “I recommend that people try to take 10 to 15 really big breaths every hour,” says Angood. If you smoke, you should quit or at least stop for a week or two before surgery, says Clancy. Just a short break can make a big difference in the health of your lungs.

Aspiration pneumonia has a more specific cause. It develops when you breathe in fluids, like vomit. This can happen after anesthesia because your normal coughing reflexes may be suppressed. The best way to avoid this type of pneumonia is to follow your doctor’s advice about not eating or drinking after midnight the day before your surgery. If you don’t have anything in your stomach to vomit up, the danger of aspiration pneumonia is quite low.

Hospital Risk No. 4: Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

“DVT, it clearly ranks as one of the more significant risks after surgery,” Clancy tells WebMD.

DVT — or deep vein thrombosis — is the development of a blood clot, typically deep in the veins of the leg. If the clot breaks free and travels through the bloodstream, it can get lodged in the arteries of the lungs, cutting off the blood’s supply of oxygen. This complication, called a pulmonary embolism, can be fatal.

Surgery significantly increases your risks of DVT for several reasons. If you’re immobile in bed, your circulation gets worse. That makes the blood more likely to pool and clot in your legs. Also the blood vessels in your legs can become very “relaxed” during the anesthesia used for surgery and the blood can slow down its movement enough to form a clot, especially if the vessel has had prior damage (for example, by way of a previous history of a broken leg) . The trauma of surgery itself also increases the blood’s clotting tendency.

Without preventative treatment, the odds of getting DVT after a prolonged major surgery are 25%. For some surgeries, like joint replacement, the odds of DVT are more than 50%.

Fortunately, careful use of blood thinners can slash the risk of DVT without increasing your risk of bleeding. But as effective and safe as this preventative treatment is, studies have shown that these precautions are often ignored. So you should always ask about it.

“Never be afraid to ask about the risk of DVT after your specific surgery,” says Angood. “Ask whether you will be getting preventative treatment and for how long.”

Another method of DVT prevention is something you can do on your own. “The sooner you can start moving around, the lower your risk of DVT,” Clancy says. Stretching and — when your doctor gives you the OK, getting up and walking — will get your circulation back to normal.

Hospital Risk No. 5: Bleeding After Surgery

While clotting is a risk for DVT, uncontrolled bleeding after surgery causes problems of its own. However, there’s good news. “Bleeding after surgery is not as much of a problem as it once was,” Griffin says, thanks to improved surgical techniques. Still, you should make an effort to lower the risks further.

That starts with making certain that your doctor knows every medication — vitamins, supplements, or homeopathic medication — that you use. Common medicines — like the painkillers aspirin and ibuprofen — can thin your blood, increasing the risk of bleeding. Your doctor will probably tell you to stop taking any medicine that might have this effect a week or two before surgery, Clancy says.

If you forget and take one of these drugs, say something. “There’s a simple blood test that can be done to check if your blood is too thin for surgery,” says Griffin. “But your doctor might not think to do the test unless you tell him or her.”

Also mention if you’ve ever had excessive bleeding before, even for something minor, like the removal of wisdom teeth. “The biggest predictor of serious bleeding after surgery is having bled after surgery before,” says Clancy. If your surgeon knows, they can take precautions.

Hospital Risk No. 6: Anesthesia Complications

While many patients still worry about anesthesia, experts say that it’s really quite safe these days. “There’s no doubt that the biggest advances in improving surgical safety have been in anesthesiology,” Clancy tells WebMD. “They’ve made enormous strides.”

But while the risk of problems is now low, there are still precautions you should take. First, ask to meet with your anesthesiology team to discuss your options. Some only need a local or regional anesthetic, while others will need full general anesthetic. Go over the benefits and risks of each one.

Although rare, some people have allergies to certain anesthetics. Rare genetic conditions can also trigger anesthesia complications. “It’s always worthwhile to check and see if any other family members have had a bad reaction to anesthesia,” Clancy says. If you suspect you might be at risk, you may have testing done before the surgery.

Speaking Up Lowers Hospital Risks

When you’re in the hospital, it’s very easy to feel intimidated. While you lie in bed, groggy and disheveled in a sweaty johnny-coat, you may feel pretty powerless compared to the brisk, lab-coated doctors who appear at your bedside. What could your puny opinion matter to all these experts? It may be tempting to give up control, to lie back and just hope that your doctors and nurses will remember everything.

But you should never give up responsibility for your own health. The advice from all the experts is to pay attention and ask questions.

“In the old days, good patients were the ones who didn’t make any noise and were grateful,” says Clancy. “It turns out that those patients don’t do so well. The ones who do well are the ones who ask questions.”

So to lower your hospital risks, you have to be an active and involved patient. Not only will it give you a feeling of control over your situation, but it may even improve your care. If you’re too dazed after surgery to pay attention, your family members should be asking questions on your behalf.

“Questioning authority is never easy,” says Nancy Foster, vice president of quality and safety policy at the American Hospital Association in Chicago. “But remember it’s your body, your health, and your life. If you ever have questions or concerns about anything during your hospital stay, you have to speak up.”

What Is Sepsis? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Because there’s no single test to diagnose sepsis, confirming this medical condition is difficult, notes the Sepsis Alliance. (6) But with the help of blood tests and other laboratory tests, doctors can usually diagnose sepsis based on symptoms and test results.

“Doctors look for sepsis in patients who have complaints that may be caused by an infection, such as a cough, a fever, burning during urination, an elevated heart rate, faster than normal breathing, confusion, lethargy, and mottled skin,” says Kimberly Brown, MD, MPH, an ER doctor at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center in Memphis, Tennessee.

To help diagnose sepsis, your doctor will take your temperature to confirm a fever. You’ll also have your blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rate monitored. (4)

Blood testing is also common to look for signs of an infection and to examine your organ function. Laboratory tests conducted in the hospital may include a urine test to check for a urinary tract infection. You may also have a respiratory secretion test to identify the specific germ causing an infection. And if you have an open wound, your doctor may test secretions from the wound to determine the most appropriate antibiotic, according to the Mayo Clinic. (7)

If your doctor believes that an infection originated in your gut, a computerized tomography (CT) scan, ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to take pictures of the inside of your body. These tests can look for abscesses or infections in your stomach, gallbladder, or ovaries.

Sepsis Prognosis

While sepsis is life-threatening, life after sepsis is possible. There are more than 1.4 million sepsis survivors every year in the United States, per the Sepsis Alliance. (8) But some survivors have post-sepsis challenges.

For example, about 60 percent of survivors experience long-term decline in cognitive and physical function. In addition, about one-third of sepsis survivors return to the hospital within three months because of another infection or a repeated case of sepsis. (8)

During the weeks or months following your recovery, you may also experience body aches, weight loss, difficulty sleeping, hair loss, brittle nails, depression, and poor concentration, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (9)

Sepsis (Septicaemia) | Symptoms and Treatment

Sepsis is a medical emergency but early treatment in hospital saves lives. If you suspect sepsis – obtain medical help immediately.

What is sepsis?

Sepsis is a reaction by the body to severe infection. You may also hear severe infection being referred to as septicaemia. Strictly speaking, septicaemia is an infection of the blood, whereas sepsis refers to the whole body. The germs involved in sepsis can be bacteria, viruses or fungi. If bacteria multiply and release poisons (toxins) into the blood, this can cause serious illness.

How common is sepsis?

About 1 in 500 people develop severe sepsis in England every year. The number is much higher in developing countries.

Who is at risk of sepsis?

  • The elderly (>75 years) and the very young (< 1 year).
  • People who have had surgical procedures.
  • People with indwelling lines or catheters.
  • People who drink alcohol excessively.
  • People who inject recreational drugs.
  • People who have diabetes mellitus.
  • People who have had severe burns.
  • People who have problems with their immune system (the bodily system that fights infection).
  • Medications – eg, high doses of steroids, some medicines to treat cancer.
  • Men are more likely than women to develop sepsis, although the death rate in women is higher. The reason for this is not known.
  • Pregnant women.

How do you develop sepsis?

Rarely, a germ overcomes the body’s immune system, resulting in sepsis. No one knows why this happens but there are various theories. It is not clear why a few people are prone to serious illness and many other people are carriers of the same germ but have no ill effect. Usually the germs are bacteria but sometimes they can be viruses or fungi. Studies suggest that the level of steroids in the body, the effects of various other chemicals and hormones and the way the body’s cells handle invading germs may all be involved.

What are the symptoms of sepsis?

The symptoms of sepsis can be very vague. You should always seek urgent medical advice or go straight to hospital, if you think someone may have sepsis. Not everyone will have typical symptoms. The very old or very young and people who have problems with their immune system, can develop unusual features and this can make diagnosis more difficult.

The National Early Warning System (NEWS) was introduced in 2012. This is a scoring system based on simple measurements. The NEWS score is very good at predicting how ill patients will become when they present to A&E with possible sepsis.

Six tests form the basis of the scoring system:

  • Fast respiratory rate: how many breaths are taken in one minute? Up to 20 breaths per minute is normal.
  • High temperature: normal body temperature is 36.8 degrees C.
  • Fast pulse rate: how many heartbeats per minute? A normal rate is up to 90-100 beats per minute.
  • Low level of consciousness: are they becoming drowsy?
  • Low systolic blood pressure: this is the number given first and should be 90 mm Hg or higher.
  • Oxygen saturations: these are usually measured by your GP with a small piece of equipment that goes on the end of your finger. You cannot measure it without that equipment.

Note: women who are pregnant (or have delivered recently) should NOT be assessed with this system. If there is any suspicion of sepsis, they should be seen urgently.

See also the separate leaflet called Adult Sepsis Safety Net.


Young people aged over 12 years tend to react in a similar way to adults – as above.

Children aged 12 or younger may be more difficult to assess than adults. Children with sepsis may:

  • Have a very high temperature.
  • Feel abnormally cold to touch.
  • Have patchy (mottled) skin and bluish colour to the skin, or may have very pale skin.
  • Have a rash that does not fade with pressure.
  • Breathe more quickly than usual.
  • Be very tired and difficult to wake up from sleep.

Young children may not want feeds, may repeatedly be sick (vomit) or may not pass any urine and so not have wet nappies.

See also the separate leaflet called Child Sepsis Safety Net.

What is the treatment for sepsis?

Sepsis is a medical emergency and treatment needs to be started as soon as possible. Always seek urgent medical advice or get straight to hospital if you think you or someone close to you may have sepsis.

  • If you develop sepsis you can become severely ill. You will need to be admitted to hospital and will probably need to be admitted to an intensive care unit.
  • You may require oxygen through a tube in the windpipe.
  • You may need fluids through a drip directly into a vein in your arm.
  • Other medicines can be given through the drip, including antibiotics and insulin.
  • If pus has collected anywhere in the body, a surgical operation may be needed to drain it.

What is the outlook for sepsis?

The outlook for sepsis can be good if it is diagnosed and treated early. However, without early treatment, between 10 and 50 people out of 100 will die, depending on the severity of sepsis. Older people tend to fare less well, especially if they have a long-term illness like diabetes or heart disease.

Complications can include:

  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation – this means the formation of blood clots in the small blood vessels throughout the body.
  • Failure of the adrenal glands (the glands that sit on top of the kidneys that produce adrenaline, steroids and other important body chemicals).
  • Multiorgan failure – this means that several organs of the body stop working properly. These can include the heart, lungs and kidneys.

Post-sepsis syndrome

As with any severe illness which needs intensive treatment in hospital, people recovering from sepsis may experience physical and psychological difficulties and these difficulties may last for several years.

Physical problems may include feeling very tired, muscle weakness, feeling short of breath, chest pains, fluid swelling (oedema), joint pains, poor appetite, disturbed vision, skin numbness or pins and needles, and frequent illness caused by further infections.

Psychological difficulties may include feeling anxious, feeling low or depressed, nightmares, poor sleep, poor concentration and problems with memory.

Can sepsis be prevented?

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle will reduce your chances of developing infections that can lead to sepsis. Both smoking and alcohol increase the risk.

If you have a condition which qualifies you for flu and pneumonia immunisation jabs (for example, if you have diabetes or asthma) make sure you take up these options. Children need to be up to date with their vaccinations, particularly Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), group C meningococcus, pneumococcus and mumps.

Produced in collaboration with Dr Ron Daniels of The UK Sepsis Trust.

What Is Sepsis – Protect Yourself from Blood Poisoning

Since Kerri was in a foreign country over a New Year’s holiday, finding medical treatment was a challenge. She decided to just push through it. “I didn’t want to miss anything or spoil the trip for Rob,” she recently recalled to me.

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By the time Kerri, now 52, made it back to the U.S., though, the pain had gotten so bad that her daughter rushed her to the emergency room. That’s when she found out her UTI had caused a potentially deadly reaction called sepsis. “The doctor who diagnosed me said that if I had waited another 24 hours, there would have been nothing they could have done for me,” she said.

The science (and symptoms) of sepsis

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body’s response to infection causes system-wide inflammation, injuring tissues and organs. It’s sometimes called blood poisoning, and a number of cases occur as a result of seemingly benign incidents — like a scrape on the playground or even a large paper cut.

In other cases, like Kerri’s, sepsis can start out as a garden-variety infection but quickly turn into something more serious. Frighteningly, the number of people hospitalized for sepsis has more than doubled in the past decade, partly due to increasing antibiotic resistance as well as an aging population.

“Every week I have to tell three or four families that their loved ones are dying from something most of them have never heard of,” says intensive care physician Jim O’Brien, M.D., of Riverside Methodist Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. Sepsis strikes seemingly at random, and sometimes is missed even by seasoned physicians. “We don’t have a diagnostic test for sepsis. And doctors have not organized our care around sepsis like we have around heart attack or stroke.”

While the symptoms of sepsis vary depending on where the infection starts, doctors often look for patients who seem confused or disoriented. Other symptoms include fever, chills, low body temperature, low blood pressure, rapid pulse, decreased urination, nausea and vomiting.

Sepsis can be fatal, so nearly all severe cases require antibiotic treatment in an intensive care unit for several days or weeks.

Families warn of sudden, deadly threat of sepsis

Last December, 26-year-old Katie McQuestion of Kenosha, Wisconsin, went to the hospital with a suspected case of the flu. Four days later, she died.

Doctors told her mother, Ann Ceschin, that her daughter, a radiology technician and newlywed of three months, had contracted sepsis and died of it, though they did not know how she became septic.

“Here was a perfectly healthy 26-year-old and it happened so quickly, she turned so quickly,” Ceschin told CBS News.

Sepsis is the body’s overwhelming and life-threatening response to an infection which can lead to tissue damage, organ failure and death. It can happen to anyone with any type of infection. Though most cases occur while patients are in the hospital, people can also acquire it in the community.

Dr. Fredrick Moore, chief of acute care surgery at University of Florida Health and Director of the UF Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center, likens sepsis to the body’s reaction to a very small, but relatable intruder: a splinter.

“If you have a splinter in your hand, you get a local inflammatory response,” he said. “You get inflammation and pus, but you don’t get sick. Now, say you get a big infection, you have that same local response, but then you also have a whole body response.”

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are over 1 million cases of sepsis each year in the United States. Sepsis — also known as septicemia, blood infection or blood poisoning — kills more than 258,000 Americans every year, making it the ninth leading cause of disease-related deaths.

Chris Aiello of Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania, also lost his daughter to sepsis earlier this year. He described Emily as a vibrant 14-year-old, in spite of her cerebral palsy. She developed an infection as the result of spinal fusion surgery in May of 2015. She died of sepsis days later.

Emily Aiello died of sepsis at the age of 14 after contracting an infection as the result of spinal fusion surgery.

Chris Aiello

Symptoms of sepsis include the presence of an infection, as well of as at least two of the following symptoms: an elevated or lowered body temperature, a fast heart rate, a fast breathing rate and low blood pressure.

If caught early, sepsis is treatable with fluids and antibiotics. But it progresses quickly and if not treated, a patient’s condition can deteriorate into severe sepsis, with an abrupt change in mental status, significantly decreased urine output, abdominal pain and difficulty breathing. Septic shock occurs when someone has all of these symptoms plus extremely low blood pressure that doesn’t respond to fluid replacement.

Several barriers may get in the way of septic patients obtaining the care they need, including untrained hospital staff who don’t recognize the symptoms, delayed communication between doctors, and the lack of appropriate antibiotics readily available at hospitals, Moore explained.

Once a patient has been identified as septic, “the gold standard to get the appropriate antibiotics to patients is one hour,” Moore told CBS News. But in most hospitals, “processes of care are just not in place to rapidly give needed treatment. We know that once you become septic, every hour delay that the appropriate antibiotics aren’t given, the risk of mortality increases.

Aiello said his daughter Emily had a 103-degree fever and rapid heart and breathing rates. “These are classic symptoms of sepsis, but they [the doctors] waited over 14 hours to take blood to test if she had an infection. After that, it took another eight hours for the results to come back and another two hours to administer the antibiotics. A few hours later, she had coded. It was the most tragic day of my and my wife’s life.”

Like many Americans, Aiello knew little to nothing about sepsis at the time of his daughter’s death. “I had heard of the word before, but not being a medical professional, I wasn’t educated on the subject,” he said.

According to a 2013 poll by the Sepsis Alliance, fewer than half of adults in the U.S. have heard of sepsis.

Family fights to shed light on sepsis


Aiello, along with Ceschin and other families who have lost loved ones to the condition, are working to change that. They are members of the recently-launched National Family Council on Sepsis, an initiative of the Rory Staunton Foundation, founded by Ciaran and Orlaith Staunton of Queens, New York, in honor of their son Rory who died at age 12 from sepsis in 2012.

The goal of the Council is to function as a support network for those who have lost loved ones and those who have survived the illness, as well as to educate the public about the signs of sepsis.

“We want everyone to know the signs of sepsis. We want them to be as well-known as the signs of heart attack or stroke,” Ceschin said. “Looking back, knowing everything I know now, Katie had every sign of sepsis, but the doctors never thought about it. They never thought that could be it. And because of that, it progressed and she ended up passing from it. I just never want another family to go through this.”

The Council is also working to pass a set of regulations in all 50 states requiring every hospital to adopt aggressive procedures for identifying sepsis in patients. The mandate, known as Rory’s Regulations, was instituted in New York State — the only state to adopt the regulations so far — in 2013.

Setting up protocols to identify and treat sepsis in a timely manner has already proven successful in some hospitals.

Since 2009, North Shore-LIJ Health System in the New York metropolitan area has been working to reduce deaths due to sepsis within each of the approximately 20 hospitals in their network. Overall, the system has reduced its sepsis mortality by 50 percent.

“The initial focus was to assure emergency departments were trained and educated to rapidly identify sepsis,” Dr. Steven Walerstein, Senior Vice President of Medical Affairs and Associate Chief Medical Officer for North Shore-LIJ Health System, told CBS News. “Once sepsis is identified, the next step is to get those patients highlighted and targeted to make sure they don’t get lost in the craziness of the day-to-day of the emergency department and to make sure the appropriate tests are done and the appropriate treatments given as quickly as possible.

The hospitals took performance measurements of the lengths of time it took to test patients and treat them in order to establish and share best practices, Walerstein said. Once improvements were made in the emergency departments, those protocols were instituted in the general hospital populations.

The University of Florida Health has also set up procedures for training hospital staff to recognize signs of sepsis and get patients the needed care as quickly as possible, including a system that allows paramedics to alert the hospital that they may have a septic patient before they even arrive at the ER. As a result of those efforts, the sepsis mortality rate at the hospital has dropped from 30 percent to 10 to 15 percent, Moore said.

Additionally, the UF Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center received a grant from the National Institutes of Health last year and is currently working on ways to prevent surviving patients from having repeat sepsis infections.

“Time, energy and commitment are required,” Walerstein said, “but it’s certainly feasible for any institution to put together a sepsis initiative to improve their management of this patient population.

What are the 3 Stages of Sepsis | Sepsis

What are the stages of sepsis? There are three levels of sepsis, and these include sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. This is a life-threatening condition that occurs when a person’s body goes into overdrive in response to an infection. Nursing home patients may experience any of these stages of sepsis as a result of nursing home abuse and neglect.

Read more about the stages of sepsis in order. Understanding the phases of sepsis and how the timeline of the condition works will help you identify it in your loved one.

Stage One: Sepsis

When people sustain injuries, specific chemicals in a person’s immune system release into the bloodstream in order to fight an infection. During this stage of sepsis, these chemicals can cause severe inflammation if they increase rapidly, leading to an emergency and a life-threatening situation.

Each year, approximately 1.5 million people receive a diagnosis for sepsis, which kills more than 250,000 yearly, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Stage Two: Severe Sepsis

The second stage of the three states of sepsis, severe sepsis, occurs if the original sepsis remains untreated or remains unresponsive to treatments. Severe sepsis will occur when the sepsis is affecting the function of an organ.

One or more of the following symptoms must present itself in order to confirm a severe sepsis diagnosis:

  • Decreased urination
  • Changes in mental ability
  • Patches of discolored skin
  • Low platelet (blood-clotting cells) count
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Abnormal heart functions
  • Chills due to low body temperature
  • Unconsciousness.
  • Extreme weakness.
  • Bluish discoloration of the lips, fingers, or toes.

Without medical attention, severe sepsis could lead to septic shock. Keep reading to learn more about sepsis shock. This is a deadly condition, so being able to recognize it is crucial. If you recognize any of these signs in your loved one, it’s time to call a nursing home injury attorney.

For a free legal consultation, call (800) 842-6336

Stage Three: Septic Shock

What are the final stages of sepsis? You are at the end when you’ve reached stage 3 sepsis. Symptoms of septic shock are similar to those of severe sepsis, but they also include a significant drop in blood pressure. This drop in blood pressure can lead to heart failure, stroke, failure of other organs, respiratory failure, and even death.

In their report from the January 2014 edition of the journal, Virulence, researchers believe that the inflammation resulting from sepsis in the body actually causes tiny blood clots to form, which block oxygen and nutrients from reaching organs, causing decreased function or failure.

Causes of Sepsis and Septic Shock

Any infection in any person can act as the catalyst that begins sepsis. Any bacterial, fungal, or viral infection can cause sepsis, but this condition typically originates from lung infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, abdominal infections, digestive system infections, or reproductive system infections.

This septic stages timeline will give you an idea of how you can expect the condition to affect an infected individual’s body.

What Are the Beginning Stages of Sepsis?

During the beginning stages of sepsis, you will know something is not right. Even if you catch the condition early, the infection is already serious. An individual who has sepsis may be showing signs of weakness or confusion. They may feel faint, and their breathing and heart rate may increase. If these signs are present, it’s time to seek emergency care (Sepsis 101, 2020).

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What Are the 6 Signs of Sepsis?

Oftentimes, sepsis can occur after a medical procedure or any type of infection. Some of the signs you or a loved one may have sepsis include the following:

  • A high fever above 101 degrees or a low temperature below 96.8 degrees
  • A heart rate faster than 90 beats per minute
  • A breathing rate faster than 20 breaths per minute
  • Probable or confirmed infection
  • Patches of discolored skin
  • Low platelet count

When a patient has two or more of these symptoms, a diagnosis of sepsis usually occurs. Sepsis can worsen if not treated immediately.

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How Long Does Sepsis Take to Kill?

According to research from the University of Michigan Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, sepsis can keep killing months later and in some cases even years later (Prescott, 2016).

Patients who have pre-existing conditions are more likely to develop sepsis, and it is not known whether or not this is a contributing factor to the increased risk of death in the 30 days to two years after diagnosis.

Testing for Sepsis

Some diagnostic tests to confirm sepsis include testing for:

  • Bacteria in the blood
  • Excess waste products in the blood
  • Blood clotting issues due to low platelet count
  • Abnormal liver function
  • Abnormal kidney function
  • Decreased amounts of oxygen
  • Electrolyte imbalances

If you believe your elderly loved one needs testing for sepsis to determine if they are in one of the three stages of sepsis, you can advocate for them by speaking to their doctor.

Treatments for Sepsis

Early treatment and discovery of sepsis lead to a greater likelihood of recovery. After a diagnosis of sepsis, the patient usually immediately receives admittance to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a hospital. Some medications used to treat sepsis include intravenous antibiotics, vasopressor medications, insulin, and corticosteroids.

Doctors prescribe plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, hydrate organs, and increase blood pressure. A respirator may assist with breathing challenges. In some severe cases, patients may require surgery to remove any source of infection from a wound.

Risk Factors for Sepsis

Age accounts for one of the greatest risk factors for the three stages of sepsis: sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. With increased age comes a decrease in immune system functions, which can lead to sepsis.

Recovering from sepsis or septic shock also leaves the patient with a higher chance of adverse long-term outcomes, such as developing ongoing cognitive and functional impairments that may lead to death later.

Contacting a Nursing Home Lawyer

According to the World Health Organization, two main ways to prevent sepsis include the prevention and transmission of infections and the prevention of the evolution of infection into sepsis. Nursing homes have a responsibility to take these steps to protect their residents, but sometimes they fail due to poor training, negligent staff, or overworked employees.

Pintas & Mullins advise that infection is a sign of nursing home abuse you should look out for because it means bacteria has entered into your loved one’s IV line, catheter, or an open wound. It is the duty of a nursing home to keep its residents safe from infections like sepsis, and if they fail they may owe the injured patient and their loved ones compensation.


Prescott, H. (2016, May 23). Does Sepsis Keep Killing Months Later?

Sepsis 101: Symptoms, Treatment, and More. (2020, October 06).

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What Are the Stages of Sepsis? | Nursing Home Abuse

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by the body’s response to an infection. What are the 3 stages of sepsis? The three stages of sepsis are: sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock.

When your immune system goes into overdrive in response to an infection, sepsis may develop as a result. In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are more than 1.5 million cases of sepsis every year, and more than a quarter of a million Americans die annually from this type of infection (Sepsis, 2020).

Stage 1 Sepsis

If you believe your loved one is suffering from sepsis, you must act quickly. What are the red flags for sepsis? Here are the symptoms, according to Healthline (2018):

  • A fever above 101 degrees Fahrenheit or a temperature below 96.8 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Rapid breathing (more than 20 breaths per minute)
  • Rapid heart rate (more than 90 beats per minute)
  • Confirmed infection

The patient must have two of these symptoms before a diagnosis of sepsis is made. The earlier they receive treatment, the better the chances for survival.

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Stage 2: Severe Sepsis

Severe sepsis happens when organ failure occurs. The patient must have one or more of these signs to be diagnosed with severe sepsis:

  • Decreased urination
  • Change in mental status
  • Low platelet (blood clotting cells) count
  • Patches of discolored skin
  • Breathing problems
  • Irregular heartbeat or abnormal heart functions
  • Extreme weakness
  • Chills
  • Unconsciousness

Any infection can trigger sepsis. Infections of the kidney, abdominal area, or bloodstream, as well as pneumonia, can put someone at a greater risk of developing this serious condition.

Stage 3: Septic Shock

Symptoms of septic shock are the same as severe sepsis, including a dangerous drop in blood pressure. About half of the patients who develop septic shock will die from it, according to the Mayo Clinic (2021).

There are other complications that can develop from severe sepsis or septic shock. Small blood clots can form throughout the body, blocking blood flow and oxygen to vital organs. This can raise the risk of organ failure and tissue death or gangrene.

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Sepsis and Seniors

Our immune systems become weaker as we age, and that puts seniors at a greater risk for the stages of sepsis. Elderly people are more likely to have chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, liver or kidney disease, or cancer, that can have a damaging effect on their immune response system.

The most common types of infections to cause sepsis in seniors are respiratory, such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection. Other infections are triggered by compromised skin due to pressure sores (bed sores) or skin tearing.

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How Does Sepsis Progress?

Sepsis can be a fast killer that progresses rapidly. In addition to this, it can take the victims who do survive as long as 18 months to recover. This is why it is essential that caregivers to the elderly not miss or ignore the signs of sepsis. When it comes to seniors who may already be suffering from health conditions, every minute counts. You need to get treatment as soon as possible.

How Long Can You Have Sepsis Before It Kills You?

According to researchers at the University of Michigan’s Institute of Healthcare Policy & Innovation (Prescott, 2016), many patients die in the months and years after sepsis, but it is not known if these patients are dying because of the sepsis itself or because of other health conditions they may have. In this study, 40% of patients who survived the first 30 days of a hospitalization died within the next two years.

Nursing Home Residents at Risk

Every year, 25,000 nursing home residents die after being transferred to the hospital suffering from sepsis, a Chicago Tribune/Kaiser Health News investigation revealed as published by the Advisory Board (2018).

The investigation went on to report that the majority of nursing homes in the U. S. fail to prevent bedsores and other infections that lead to sepsis. In fact, 72% of nursing homes across the country have received citations for not actively engaging in an effective infection-control program, according to the Advisory Board’s report.

Is Nursing Home Abuse or Neglect to Blame for Sepsis?

Sadly, there are times when sepsis is a warning sign of nursing home abuse or neglect. Nursing homes have a duty of care to elderly residents to make sure they are clean, well-cared for, and receive medical treatment as needed.

If you witness the following in your loved one’s nursing home, and they develop an infection that leads to sepsis, you may have a valid claim for a lawsuit against the negligent staff member or nursing home company:

  • Poor cleaning and sanitization of restrooms, kitchen, and common areas
  • Dirty bed linens that are not changed regularly
  • Overworked or understaffed employees who do not provide an appropriate level of care to each resident
  • Long wait times or downplaying of medical complaints when emergency care is necessary
  • Failure to bathe residents regularly

If you observe nursing home abuse or neglect, document what you see and report it to your loved one’s case manager, adult protective services, or law enforcement.

How a Nursing Home Abuse Lawyer Can Help Sepsis Victims

If you suspect your family member is suffering from the stages of sepsis due to the negligent actions of a nursing home staff member, you might be able to seek compensation for your loved one’s damages and losses with the help of a nursing home abuse lawyer. They should not have to suffer another day due to a nursing home’s negligence.


O’Connell, K. (2018, August 31). Sepsis: Symptoms, causes, treatment, risks & more.

People don’t go to a nursing home so they can get sepsis and die. (2018, September 07).

Prescott, H. (2016, May 23). Does sepsis keep killing months later?

Sepsis: Clinical information. Centers for Disease Control. (2020, December 07).

Sepsis. Mayo Clinic. (2021, January 19).

Call or text 800-712-9119 or complete a Free Case Evaluation form

Diagnostics and treatment of sepsis in Tyumen, purulent surgery

PRiIT of the Department of Purulent Surgery Sepsis is a serious infectious disease in humans that develops as a systemic inflammatory reaction when infectious agents or their toxins enter the bloodstream. “People” call sepsis blood poisoning.


Sepsis translated from Greek means rotting. This is a serious human infectious disease that develops as a systemic inflammatory reaction when infectious agents (bacteria or unicellular fungi) or their toxins enter the bloodstream.Among non-medical people, sepsis is often called blood poisoning. It is characterized by a severe progressive course and no tendency to spontaneous recovery, the patient cannot recover without medical intervention, often this is general intensive treatment and surgery. Despite the increased possibilities of antibacterial and antifungal therapy, the mortality rate in sepsis remains quite high. Today, there are assumptions about a genetic predisposition to the development of sepsis.The development of sepsis is also most likely in immunocompromised patients with several chronic diseases. In elderly patients, sepsis occurs with fewer symptoms, but with the most severe prognosis.

Sepsis symptoms

The peculiarity of sepsis is that its symptoms are similar regardless of the pathogen, since they are a kind of response of the human body to a super-strong infectious lesion, with which the immune system is unable to cope in the focus of infection.
The clinical picture consists of symptoms of general intoxication and manifestations of the disease caused by infectious foci. Intoxication is manifested by severe weakness, loss of appetite, fever with chills, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), decreased blood pressure, and shortness of breath. Characterized by multiple lesions of organs and systems with the development of cardiac, respiratory, renal, adrenal insufficiency, etc. The examination reveals symptoms of inflammation – high leukocytosis, less often leukopenia, sharply increased ESR, lymphopenia, hypoproteinemia.

Diagnosis of sepsis

Diagnosis of sepsis is based on the clinical picture of the disease, the identification of pathogenic microorganisms in the blood, the detection of septic foci in various organs and tissues. There are also rating scales that predict the development of the process and the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome. Taking into account these scales, intensive therapy becomes proactive, it is aimed at preventing possible complications.

Treatment of sepsis

Treatment of sepsis is complex, includes massive antibacterial or antifungal therapy, detoxification therapy.Should be carried out in an intensive care unit. In some cases, transfusion of blood components, the use of renal replacement therapy, artificial nutrition and artificial respiration may be required.
The prognosis for any form of sepsis is always serious. The earlier treatment is started, the higher the likelihood of complete recovery. Discharging a patient from the hospital does not mean a complete cure. After discharge from the hospital, further observation at the place of residence, a careful attitude to health, and timely access to medical help are required.The complexity of the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis lies in the presence of a large number of erased forms, when the clinical picture is not so vivid.

Prevention of sepsis

Prevention of sepsis is based on the correct and timely treatment of local purulent processes and compliance with aseptic conditions during home medical procedures, including injections.
The competent use of antibacterial agents can also be attributed to the prevention of sepsis. It should be understood that any bacteria and fungi are capable of developing drug resistance.The more powerful antibiotics we use, the stronger and “smarter” our opponents, microbes, become. The use of antibiotics of the latest generations without appropriate indications deprives us of the means to fight in really serious situations, when these drugs could save lives. Any antibiotics should be used strictly as prescribed by your doctor.


The diet for sepsis implies replenishment of increased energy demand: in conditions of inflammation, energy demand increases 2-3 times compared to a healthy person.However, the patient is not allowed to eat or drink anything for several days after the surgery. This is necessary because the gastrointestinal tract with sepsis, as a rule, is not able to assimilate normal food. This does not mean complete hunger. Patients with sepsis in the intensive care unit receive special clinical nutrition – intravenous and / or tube, created specifically for patients in critical conditions, taking into account their condition. After observation by the attending physician for the nature of the course of the disease, the patient can also be prescribed special clinical nutrition through the mouth in small sips or through a tube.
The basis of modern clinical nutrition for sepsis is high-protein and high-energy nutrition enriched with vitamins, trace elements and antioxidants, as well as, if indicated, with dietary fiber. Taking into account the possible insulin resistance or the development of diabetes mellitus, specialized sweets with a low glycemic index may be recommended.

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90,000 Blood contamination – Blood5


A CYTOKINE STORM is a condition in which the amount of cytokines (proteins that regulate the work of our immunity) increases tens, and sometimes hundreds of times.As a result, the immune system simply destroys our own body. Excessive production of cytokines can be a response to bacterial toxins in sepsis, tropical diseases, and unsuccessful organ and tissue transplants. The term was first used in 1993 by a group of scientists from Boston to describe an immune response to a graft, apparently with a hint of Operation Desert Storm.

Blood poisoning is essentially an acute inflammatory response of the whole body.The word “sepsis” to describe this situation was used by the famous physician of antiquity Hippocrates (“sepsis” means “putrefaction”, “decomposition”). In the 11th century, the Arab physician Avicenna called the same disease “rotting blood”, but it was the Greek term that took root in modern medicine.

Any inflammation is a natural reaction of the body to the process of developing an infection in an organ or tissue. It can be a festering wound, a poorly healing scar after surgery, or inflammation of the pancreas or bladder.While the body copes with the infection on its own or with the help of antibiotics, the inflammation remains local, and the process itself can only threaten the infected organ. But in some cases – with extensive burns or frostbite, penetrating wounds of the abdomen, prolonged inflammatory processes in the tissues – the body cannot stop the infection. Inflammatory bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) enter the bloodstream, and the body responds by using all the capabilities of the immune system.

A “perfect storm” begins, when several mechanisms that should normally protect our body, instead destroy it. The immune system releases a huge amount of special proteins – cytokines, which in turn trigger the production of special lymphocytes: they react not only to the pathogen in the blood, but also to the cells of the affected tissues – that is, to the cells of their own body.

Cytokines are of different types: some increase the production of lymphocytes, while others, on the contrary, inhibit this process, working as an “anti-inflammatory agent”.After the burst of the immune response, the phase of immunosuppression begins.

At this time, the transport of oxygen in the blood is disrupted, the toxins that the pathogen or decaying tissues release are no longer excreted from the body, immune cells affect their own organs, the transmission of nerve impulses is disrupted, and the walls of blood vessels begin to collapse from the inside. Ulcers form in the brain, liver, heart and other organs, causing them to malfunction.
The patient’s temperature rises to 38-39 degrees, breathing quickens up to twenty breaths per minute, the pulse approaches a hundred beats, the consciousness becomes confused.

If urgent treatment is not started, the patient may develop the so-called “multiple organ failure” – vital organs begin to fail, which in a short period leads to death. Self-recovery is rare – if in milder forms 10-20% of patients die, then in severe sepsis and septic shock every second person dies, and without treatment, sepsis quickly develops to the most severe forms.

Treat sepsis with antibiotics and broad-spectrum antiseptics, inject saline and protein-carbohydrate cocktail to maintain metabolic processes in the body.If the cause of sepsis is established, then the wound is urgently cleaned or the festering organ or limb is removed. In most cases, sepsis is accompanied by blood hypercoagulability – in these cases, heparin and other anticoagulants are prescribed.

The speed with which sepsis develops makes this disease especially dangerous – a couple of days can pass from a severely festering wound to septic shock. Despite the study of the disease, it can proceed in an erased form, it can be confused with a local infection, and in this case it is easy to miss the time to start therapy.

In 2012, in the United States, a teenager named Rory Staunton injured his elbow while playing basketball at school, after which he felt ill at home. His parents took him to the local pediatrician, who diagnosed him with indigestion and sent the child to the nearest hospital. The hospital doctors did not pay attention to the high white blood cell count and discharged the child. A day later, he again ended up in the same hospital, already with all the signs of severe sepsis. The boy could not be saved, and he died a day later.Since then, the New York City Department of Health has implemented a new standard for screening and diagnosing all incoming patients to rule out such situations. The standard is called the Rory Protocol, after a child who died

Even after proper and successful treatment, it takes up to a year and a half for those who have had sepsis to return to normal and fully recover.

What made George W. Bush sick – Gazeta.Ru

Former US President George W. Bush was urgently hospitalized with blood poisoning.Because of what it develops, how not to miss the onset of the disease and what are the chances of survival, Gazeta.Ru figured out.

Former US President George W. Bush was urgently hospitalized due to blood poisoning. This happened a day after the funeral of his wife Barbara, who died on April 18.

“He is responding to treatment and appears to be recovering. We will provide additional information as appropriate, ”said Jim McGrath, a family spokesperson.

US President Donald Trump wished Bush a speedy recovery.

“We all send our prayers to the Bush family and wish ex-President George W. Bush a speedy recovery,” he said.

Blood infection, or sepsis, appears when pathogens and their waste products enter the patient’s blood and tissues. The reaction to this is an inflammatory response throughout the body. Often sespis is a complication of another disease, inflammation or surgery, as well as childbirth.

Sepsis is very common – there are to to 18 million cases of the disease in the world every year.

Blood poisoning bacteria can even lodge in a hand dryer. Dryers installed in public toilets use air contaminated with intestinal bacteria, directing its flow directly onto the hands, experts explain.

So, leaving the Petri dish with the nutrient medium in the toilet without a dryer, researchers from the United States after 18 hours found only six colonies of pathogens in it.And holding it under the dryer for 30 seconds – 254 colonies. The use of dryers can lead to infection with Clostridia, which causes severe diarrhea and dehydration, and Staphylococcus, which is resistant to antibiotics and can cause pneumonia and sepsis.

Deadly bacteria can also lurk in the kitchen. E. coli and other pathogens can cause food poisoning, infect the urinary tract, skin, heart tissue. Bacteria are especially dangerous for people with weak immunity.

Sepsis can develop in one or two days, or in a week, or even be chronic. The disease is characterized by an increase or decrease in body temperature, increased respiration and heart rate. Psychoses and hallucinations can also occur, and abscesses of various tissues can form.

The main symptom is the presence of pathogens in the patient’s blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid.

Every hour spent without treatment increases the patient’s chance of dying by approximately 8%.Failure to diagnose sepsis in a timely manner often leads to patient death or serious injury. For example, a 31-year-old woman from the UK lost both legs, an arm and all fingers due to the misdiagnosis . Blood infection developed after a miscarriage and subsequent surgery.

Without arms and legs left and a mother with many children from the United States, who developed pneumonia, which grew into blood poisoning. Doctors estimated her chances of survival at only 15%. The disease was provoked by a drug to suppress the immune system, which the woman took as prescribed by the doctor.

British psychiatrist was left without both legs, six fingers and part of his face after being scratched by his beloved dog. Feeling flu-like symptoms a few days later, he was unable to even call work. The man’s life was saved by his colleague, worried about his absence – he visited his house and called doctors. Finding red spots on the patient’s body – a characteristic symptom of sepsis – doctors immediately began to treat him with antibiotics.

Experts confirm that the symptoms of sepsis can indeed be confused with manifestations of a respiratory infection.

Therefore, sepsis is one of the most common causes of infant death.

“A key diagnostic problem is that sepsis often initially looks the same as common respiratory diseases,” notes Dr. Lurain Schlapbach of the University of Queensland in Australia. For this reason, researchers are looking for new diagnostic methods that can detect sepsis at the very beginning of the disease.

For example, specialists from Massachusetts State Hospital have developed a device that can diagnose blood poisoning with an accuracy of 95% by how neutrophils – white blood cells – move.

It has already been established that in sepsis there is a dysfunction of neutrophils – they are unable to destroy foreign cells. In a new study, scientists have found that neutrophil motility may be a marker of sepsis.

“We found that neutrophils in sepsis patients move spontaneously,” explains lead author Felix Eliett. “With the help of the device we developed, we were able to identify movement patterns characteristic of sepsis.”

Another new diagnostic method is the test strips developed by Russian scientists from NUST MISIS, capable of detecting not only sepsis, but also heart attack, viral and bacterial infections in a matter of seconds. The test is based on the principles of immunochromatographic analysis – a method that involves a reaction between antibodies in a biological material and antigens on a test strip or in a test cassette.

“We’ve improved the technology used for rapid testing.Now it is possible not only to identify the presence of certain substances in the body, but also to estimate their amount. To obtain a quantitative result, it is necessary to apply a few drops of biomaterial to the test strip and count the number of lines that have appeared, ”explains the main developer of the method, Alexander Osipov.

In the treatment of sepsis, both antibiotic therapy is used, aimed at destroying the pathogen, and increasing the body’s resistance – blood transfusions, increased nutrition, the introduction of vitamins, anti-inflammatory drugs.Dead tissue is removed.

Septic shock develops if left untreated.

It is characterized by impaired blood circulation, which disrupts the delivery of oxygen and other substances to tissues. This leads to systemic damage to all organs.

Up to 70% of patients with septic shock die. Among patients with severe sepsis, 20-35% die, on average, with timely diagnosis and treatment, the mortality rate for sepsis is 15-40%.

90,000 Panaritium

Panaritium, translated from Latin as “nail-eater”.This is a purulent inflammation of the soft tissues of the fingers and, less often, of the toes, in the area of ​​the base of the nail plate.

Through microtrauma, pathogens, mainly staphylococcus, can penetrate under the skin, the colonies of which are very common in the environment, on the surface of dirty objects and on the skin of the human body, especially if you do not monitor their cleanliness.

The rapid emergence of panaritium is facilitated by the anatomical features of the structure of the human hand.On the palmar surface, under the skin, there is a wide tendon plate – aponeurosis.

When purulent inflammation occurs, this plate does not allow the deep spread of pus, but rather directs it along the ligaments and tendons to the bones and joints. In this case, there is a strong “bursting” pain, since the purulent contents are in a confined space. It also leads to impaired circulation, the development of edema and redness of the affected limb.It becomes impossible to perform any movements. The general condition of the body also suffers, body temperature may rise, chills occur, a sore limb will not let you sleep for a minute.

All home treatments can only make things worse. If you do not go to the surgeon in time, necrosis may develop – tissue necrosis, which entails amputation.

The most serious and dangerous complication of panaritium and later phlegmon of the limb is sepsis – “blood poisoning”, very often leading to death, even with modern methods of resuscitation.

Do not bring to such trouble, even with a small “abscess” on the limbs – immediately contact the surgeon.

Depending on the localization, several forms of panaritium are distinguished – from the seemingly “harmless” periungual – paranochia, to severe purulent inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue of the palm, tendons (tendovaginitis) and even bone tissue – osteomyelitis.

They have one thing in common – everyone is reading from a minor injury, which was not given due attention and did not go to the surgeon.

The sooner you see a specialist, the faster you will be cured without any consequences.

In the early stages, you may be prescribed a complex conservative treatment that is impossible at home.

If the process is delayed, a certain amount of pus has accumulated, then the treatment is only surgical.

The operation is performed under local anesthesia and if the process has not passed to the ligamentous apparatus, it is not technically difficult, taking no more than 10 minutes.

Surgical intervention, for the most part, is carried out on an outpatient basis.

If necessary, drainage is installed in the operating wound, requiring subsequent systematic dressings.

In the active rehabilitation period, antibiotics, physiotherapy, and tissue regeneration stimulants are prescribed.

The surgeons of the Medgard Medical Center are fluent in all modern methods of treating panaritium and its complications.

90,000 antibacterial therapy – Dobrobut clinic

Sepsis – what kind of disease is it: diagnosis, treatment, prognosis

Sepsis – damage to the body by pathogenic microorganisms that have entered the bloodstream. It can be triggered by streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, E. coli and other bacteria, as well as viruses, fungi and protozoa. More often, sepsis is a complication of the inflammatory process (for example, wound).In the development of purulent sepsis, an important role is played by a decrease in immunity due to surgery, large blood loss, and a serious illness.

Any foci of infection in the body can serve as a source of infection. The cause of surgical sepsis is wound suppuration.

For the development of sepsis, a connection of the primary focus with the blood or lymphatic vessels is required. The appearance of secondary septic foci is determined by the type of pathogen and the localization of the primary foci. The main cause of sepsis is systemic inflammatory response syndrome.This is the body’s reaction to the effects of several strong stimuli (trauma, surgery, etc.).

Symptoms of sepsis in adults

Sepsis – what is this disease? Pathology is manifested by a violation of the general condition of the body. Secondary foci of infection may also occur.

Sepsis symptoms in adults:

  • headache;
  • confusion of consciousness;
  • temperature rise to 39-40 degrees;
  • tachycardia;
  • decrease in blood pressure;
  • edema;
  • progressive weight loss;
  • thrombosis.

In severe sepsis and septic shock, there is a violation of the blood supply to certain organs and tissues. Septic shock is more common in children, the elderly, and immunocompromised people. Multiple organ failure in sepsis (it develops with damage to many organs – this is the so-called multiple organ sepsis) in 25–45% of cases is fatal.

The clinical course of the disease is fulminant (1-2 days), acute (up to 1 week), subacute (more than 1 week), chronic.With sepsis, there may be worn or atypical symptoms. With the development of sepsis in newborns, vomiting, diarrhea, rapid weight loss are observed, suppuration in the navel, abscesses and phlegmon of various localization may appear.

Complications of sepsis include: hemodynamic, respiratory, renal, neurological, cardiac disorders. Thrombocytopenia of unknown etiology is observed in 10-30% of patients with sepsis. Read more about the complications of this pathology on our website Dobrobut.com.

Diagnosis of sepsis is based on the analysis of symptoms and laboratory data (isolation of the pathogen and determination of its sensitivity to antibiotics, procalcitonin test, blood and urine tests).

Sepsis: Clinical Guidelines

Sepsis is treated in intensive care units or intensive care units. Rehabilitation of the focus of infection is necessary – for example, opening an abscess, removing pus and dead tissue in the area of ​​inflammation.

Etiotropic therapy is carried out as early as possible.Before identifying the pathogen and determining its sensitivity to antibiotics, antibacterial drugs of a wide spectrum of action are prescribed. If the primary focus of infection is not established, take into account what kind of infection it is – community-acquired or hospital. In case of community-acquired infection, the drugs of choice are cephalosporins of the third and fourth generations, fluoroquinolones. For nosocomial infections, carbapenems are prescribed. Important: the administration of high doses of antibiotics for long courses is required in order to create the necessary concentration of the drug in the blood and in the foci of infection.

For sepsis, clinical guidelines for the treatment of patients with anaerobic infections are the use of metronidazole and lincosamide antibiotics. With staphylococcal sepsis, anti-staphylococcal immunoglobulin is administered. Etiotropic treatment is carried out until the symptoms of infection disappear and a stable positive dynamics of the patient’s condition appears.

Primary measures for sepsis include infusion therapy. It helps to correct tissue perfusion and homeostasis, normalize cell metabolism, and reduce the concentration of toxic metabolites.

In case of emergencies arising from sepsis, additional measures may be required:

  • artificial ventilation;
  • hormone therapy;
  • therapy for acute renal failure;
  • blood glucose control;
  • maintenance of cardiac activity;
  • prevention of deep vein thrombosis.

Neonatal sepsis

In newborns, sepsis develops against the background of intrauterine infection.The entrance gate is usually the umbilical wound. It is possible that the infection can penetrate through the respiratory system, hearing, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Allocate lightning-fast (1-7 days), acute (1-2 months) and protracted (more than two months) sepsis.

Treatment of sepsis in newborns is aimed at suppressing the pathogen, sanitizing purulent foci, increasing the body’s defenses. Antibiotic therapy is carried out taking into account the sensitivity of the pathogen to the antibiotic, the maximum age-related doses are prescribed for 3-4 weeks.If the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics is not determined, therapy is carried out with broad-spectrum antibiotics. To prevent the development of dysbiosis, probiotics are prescribed.

Also carry out:

  • detoxification therapy;
  • immunocorrection;
  • correction of acid-base balance;
  • anti-shock therapy;
  • restoration of water and electrolyte balance.

The prognosis after neonatal sepsis depends on the general condition of the child.The risk of death in premature infants with low birth weight is 2-4 times higher. The overall mortality rate in the early development of sepsis is from 3 to 40%. Mortality from late-onset sepsis depends on the etiology of the infection. 90,028 90,000 Why has the number of deaths due to blood poisoning increased worldwide?

One in five deaths worldwide due to sepsis, also known as blood poisoning, illustrates the most comprehensive analysis of this condition. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 11 million people die from sepsis every year.And this is more than cancer. Recently, researchers at the University of Washington found that these “alarming” numbers are actually double previous estimates. Most blood poisoning cases have been reported in low- and middle-income countries, according to a study published in the Lancet, but today even wealthier countries deal with sepsis on a regular basis.

Sepsis kills millions of people every year

What is sepsis?

We all know perfectly well that if you get hurt – even just a little – you need to urgently treat the wound. Otherwise, an infection can get into it and a minor small cut can lead to blood poisoning and rapid death. But is it really so and what is sepsis?

Sepsis is also known as the “hidden killer” because it is very difficult to detect. The reason lies in the fact that the patient’s immune system is overloaded and instead of fighting the infection, it begins to attack other parts of the body. This behavior ultimately leads to organ failure.And those who survived suffer long-term damage and disability from sepsis. Blood poisoning is mainly caused by bacteria and viruses that cause diarrheal infections or lung disease. Nevertheless, science knows cases where a small cut on a finger led to sepsis and death.

Recently, scientists have succeeded in creating an apparatus capable of supporting the vital functions of the liver for a whole week outside the human body. Read more on our official Telegram channel

Why are so many people dying from sepsis?

90,027 In their work, the researchers report that in 2017, 48. 9 million cases of sepsis were recorded worldwide, of which 11 million deaths were reported, which is 19.7% of all deaths on the planet.Although the age-standardized incidence of sepsis has declined by 37% since 1900, sepsis remains the leading cause of health loss worldwide, and the incidence of blood poisoning and mortality today varies greatly across regions – in sub-Saharan Africa. Oceania, South Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia.

Early detection of blood contamination is very important

According to BBC News, there are 49 million cases of sepsis in the world today.One of the co-authors of the study, Christine Rad, worked in rural Uganda and faced blood poisoning on a daily basis. Moreover, scientists and medical professionals who treat patients daily in low- and middle-income countries have been talking for years that sepsis is a very serious problem.

Who is at risk?

As mentioned above, the vast majority of sepsis cases (85%) occur in low- and middle-income countries. Children under five years of age are most at risk for blood poisoning.Of course, mortality from blood poisoning in poor countries is higher than in Spain, France and Canada, however, the mortality rate is higher than in countries such as Spain, France and Canada. However, even in developed countries such as the UK or Sweden, sepsis is also a problem. So, according to the study, about 48 thousand people die from sepsis in the UK every year.

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One of the most pressing problems that directly affects sepsis is the emergence of superbugs. In cases where antibiotics do not work, mortality from one or another previously easily curable disease will skyrocket. For this reason, among other things, scientists propose to use all efforts to reduce the number of cases of blood poisoning. For many countries, this means significant improvements in sanitation, clean water and access to vaccines. Another challenge is to better identify patients with sepsis.Early detection significantly increases the patient’s chances of recovery. Using antibiotics and antiviral drugs together can make a huge difference.

How to recognize sepsis?

One way or another, none of us is immune from sepsis, so you need to be well aware of the symptoms of this deadly disease.

In adults:

  • slurred speech;
  • Severe tremors or muscle pain;
  • Difficulty urinating;
  • severe shortness of breath;
  • high heart rate;
  • increased or decreased body temperature;
  • Skin discoloration or blemishes.

In children:

  • bluish or pale appearance of the skin (sometimes spots appear)
  • severe weakness and drowsiness
  • body cold to the touch
  • rapid breathing
  • rash that does not disappear when cramps are pressed

Procalcitonin blood test – Elena Malysheva Medical Center

Procalcitonin (PCT) is a marker for systemic inflammation and blood poisoning (sepsis) in the human body, which differs from others in its special sensitivity and specificity.

Based on research, it has been found that in the presence of a bacterial infection, its level in the blood increases. This conclusion was made by French military doctors. Since then, this blood test has helped to more accurately diagnose patients.

Procalcitonin: What Shows?

Using the method of immunochemiluminescence in a blood test, the concentration of procalcitonin in the blood serum is measured. After that, the doctor receives the results that allow him to draw certain conclusions.

In a healthy person, procalcitonin is absent in the blood. Conversely, any increase in its value indicates the presence of pathological inflammatory processes in the patient.

The increase in the indicator is not particularly pronounced in case of non-bacterial tissue damage, which include operations, injuries, burns, and others. And the highest level of procalcitonin in the blood test is observed with severe infections and sepsis (blood poisoning). It is worth paying attention to the fact that in newborn children, an increased value is often noted in the period of the first two to three days.

When a patient is sick with autoimmune diseases, viral infections or has local inflammation in the body, then the value of procalcitonin is not higher than normal.

Procalcitonin: the norm in adults

The norm for the test in adults is 0-0.064 ng / ml. The higher the indicator is from the normal range, the more likely it is that there is bacterial inflammation developing in the human body.

Comparing the indicators of the norm of procalcitonin in men and women, we observe the following picture:

  • Procalcitonin (normal in men) – from 0 to 0.064 ng / ml.
  • Procalcitonin (normal in women) – from 0 to 0.064 ng / ml.

As you can see, the indicators of the norm of representatives of different sexes are the same. We draw your attention to the fact that you should not decode the test results yourself. The doctor, when making a diagnosis, takes into account not only the results of laboratory tests, but also the general clinical picture, the presence of secondary infections, and more.

How to prepare for analysis

The day before the test, it is important to exclude alcohol consumption, smoking, heavy loads, and sports training.In children, it is necessary to take tests in a calm state (it is undesirable to take an analysis in crying children, as this can distort the result).

It is also recommended to drink non-carbonated water in advance for faster venous blood donation, which will speed up the procedure. Adults need to sit in complete rest for 15-20 minutes before donating blood.

It must be remembered that procalcitonin is tested only as directed by a doctor, its price varies depending on various factors.

In case you were given a referral for this laboratory test, you should immediately go through it so that the doctor can correctly diagnose.

Today, a blood test for procalcitonin avoids misdiagnosis by detecting early sepsis or bacterial infections with complications in patients.

Cost of analysis for procalcitonin in Moscow

In the clinic of Elena Malysheva, you can perform an analysis on favorable terms.