Is being emotional a sign of early pregnancy: Signs, Symptoms, and Ectopic Pregnancy
Early signs of pregnancy | Pregnancy Birth and Baby
For women who have a regular monthly menstrual cycle, the earliest and most reliable sign of pregnancy is a missed period.
If your period doesn’t arrive as expected, you may be pregnant, but there can be other reasons for a missed period, such as illness, stress and strenuous activity.
Sometimes women who are pregnant have a very light period, losing only a little blood.
Some of the other early pregnancy signs and symptoms are listed below. Every woman is different and not all women will notice all these symptoms.
Feeling sick and vomiting
You may feel sick and nauseous, and you may vomit. This is commonly known as morning sickness, but it can happen at any time of the day or night. If you’re being sick all the time and can’t keep anything down, contact your doctor.
Feeling very tired
It’s common to feel very tired, or even exhausted, during pregnancy, especially during the first 12 weeks or so. Hormonal changes taking place in your body at this time can make you feel tired, nauseous, emotional and upset.
Changes in your breasts
Your breasts may become larger and feel tender, just as they might do before your period. They may also tingle. The veins may be more visible, and the nipples may darken and stand out.
You may feel the need to pass urine more often than usual, including during the night. This is caused by pregnancy hormones and usually settles after a few months
Other signs of pregnancy that you might notice are:
- an increased vaginal discharge without any soreness or irritation
- a strange taste in your mouth, which many women describe as metallic
- changes in what you want to eat, such as craving new foods and losing interest in certain foods or drinks that you previously enjoyed, such as tea, coffee or fatty food
- losing interest in tobacco if you smoke
- having a more sensitive sense of smell than usual, for example to the smell of food or cooking
Am I pregnant?
As soon as you think you could be pregnant, you should check to find out if you are. There are several ways to find out if you are pregnant.
You can buy home pregnancy urine testing kits from your local pharmacy. The tests check for the pregnancy hormone, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG).
With home pregnancy tests:
- Make sure you follow the instructions on the test very carefully to get the most accurate result.
- Wait until at least a week after your expected period before testing to get the most reliable result.
- If you are taking fertility drugs or you are an older woman, you may get a false result.
- If you use a home pregnancy kit, always see a doctor to confirm the pregnancy.
You can also have a urine test done by your doctor, or at a family planning clinic.
A blood test will give you a reliable result, even at the earliest stage of pregnancy. Your doctor will order the test, which will check for hCG in your blood. You can have this test done as soon as you have missed your period.
Baby due date
Once you know you are pregnant, your doctor or midwife will help you work out when your baby is due (the ‘estimated date of confinement’ or EDC). This is done by adding 40 weeks to the date of the beginning of your last period. You can use our due date calculator to work out when your baby will be due.
Once your pregnancy is confirmed, you should start thinking about the type of care you want throughout your pregnancy and the birth. If you are in the workforce this is also the time to find out about your rights at work and about maternity leave.
10 Early Pregnancy Symptoms – Lifeline Pregnancy Help Clinic
Interesting things happening in your body? Maybe you find yourself exhausted, nauseous, or more emotional than usual. And oh yeah, it’s been awhile since you’ve had a period. These clues start swimming around in your mind and you wonder, are these pregnancy symptoms??
Now let’s be clear: the only way to be certain a woman is pregnant is through a pregnancy test. But if you are pregnant, you may experience a variety of bodily changes, even as early as a week after conception. Every woman is different. Your symptoms could be very different from your best friend’s or your sister’s or even from your own previous pregnancies. Just because you don’t have morning sickness or that famous pregnancy glow, doesn’t mean the possibility of pregnancy is out the window. You may not ever have these pregnancy symptoms, or they could crop up later on.
That being said, there are a variety of changes you are likely to undergo during the early stages of pregnancy.
10 Common Pregnancy Symptoms:
Spotting and cramping
After conception (when the sperm meets the egg), the fertilized egg implants into the wall of the uterus. The uterus is where the baby grows and lives for nine months. When the egg attaches to the uterus, there could be some slight cramping or spotting, known as implantation bleeding. This happens 6-12 days after conception. If bleeding occurs it should be very light and could last a couple days. This bleeding should be lighter and shorter than a normal period.
Once the fertilized egg implants, the body will begin releasing a hormone known HCG. HCG is what urine pregnancy tests are looking for. This hormone tells the ovaries to stop releasing eggs. HCG also tells the body to stop shedding the lining of the uterus (which means no periods). That lining instead turns into a cozy environment for a baby to develop.
Nausea (Morning Sickness)
According to the American Pregnancy Association, 25% of women report nausea as their earliest pregnancy symptom. Though commonly referred to as “morning sickness,” this can happen at any time of the day. Whatever causes this unpleasant symptom hasn’t been found, but it’s likely the body’s reaction to the change in hormones.
Also as a result of rapid hormone changes, the breasts may feel swollen, sore, or tingly a couple weeks after conception. They may even feel fuller, and the area around the nipples (the areola) might darken.
Increased heart rate
The heart begins to pump faster during pregnancy due to the rise in hormones. Palpitations and changes in heart rhythm are common because of this. As always, talk to your doctor about what is normal during pregnancy and report any chest pain or other changes in your heart rate.
Because of the hormonal changes as well as a drop in blood sugar, blood pressure, and increased blood production, the body might feel more exhausted than normal. This can happen even as early as a week after conception.
You may feel more emotional than usual during pregnancy. Those good ol’ hormonal changes could cause feelings of depression, anxiety, irritability, or intense excitement.
The pregnancy glow you hear about is caused by a combination of increased blood volume and higher hormone levels pushing more blood through the vessels. This causes the skin to produce more oil than usual, creating a natural gloss and blush. However, this increase in oil could also lead to more acne than you may typically experience.
Frequent urination and incontinence
During pregnancy, the body boosts the amount of blood it pumps. This leads to the kidneys processing more fluid than usual, which in turn causes a fuller bladder.
Your developing baby needs lots of nutrients, some of which you may not normally eat. Your body will start to crave foods you don’t often find appealing so that you and baby will get all the right nutrients you both need. Some women report a new aversion to certain tastes or smells, which–you guessed it–is due to change in hormones. These aversions should go away around week 13 or 14.
How do I know for sure?
Remember, you could experience all of these pregnancy symptoms or only a couple. Always talk to your doctor about any symptoms that interfere with your everyday life. He or she can help you form a plan to ease these more uncomfortable changes.
Taking a pregnancy test is the first step in confirming a pregnancy. Lifeline Pregnancy Help Clinic offers confidential, no-cost pregnancy tests, as well as a variety of other resources to help you figure out your next steps if the test is positive. Pregnancy brings a lot of changes, physical and otherwise, but you don’t have to walk through it alone. Call Lifeline at 660-665-5688 or click here to request an appointment.
Make an Appointment
American Pregnancy Association http://americanpregnancy.org/getting-pregnant/early-pregnancy-symptoms/
What to Expect http://www.whattoexpect.com/pregnancy/pregnancy-health/early-symptoms-of-pregnancy
15 signs of being pregnant
Not sure if you’re pregnant? We’ve rounded up the most common signs of being pregnant to see if it’s time to pee on that stick.
1. Swollen and tender breasts
Soreness or tingling in breasts is one of the most common signs of being pregnant. Early in pregnancy breasts will fill out and change shape as they prepare to produce milk. Breasts may become very tender and sensitive for a few months as a result. But, Teresa Pitman, doula and lactation expert, notes: “that not all women experience these changes, especially if they have been on birth control pills.”
It is possible to know you’re pregnant in those first few weeks—some women even “know” from the moment of conception. Here are the very earliest signs of being pregnant, that you might not notice.
2. Darkening areolas
For many women, hormones can cause the areolas, the circles around nipples, to widen and darken during pregnancy. This occurs as the body prepares itself for breastfeeding.
About five to 10 days after conception, some women notice light spotting when the embryo implants in the uterus. So if you’ve had a light period this month, you might still be carrying a little bundle of joy—psst, here’s what you need to know about home pregnancy tests, including when it’s best to take one.
4. Urinary frequency or constipation
When you’re pregnant, your uterus presses directly on the bladder leading to more frequent urination. The added pressure and intestinal changes may also cause constipation. Of course, the more a baby grows, the more the uterus presses against the bladder and other organs.
Feeling very tired is one of the first and most common signs of being pregnant (it takes lots of energy to create a baby!). If you are pregnant, chances are you’ll start to feel less tired around week 12, when the placenta is fully formed.
Nausea is one of the most common symptoms of being pregnant. It’s caused by an increase in hormone levels (about 80 percent of women experience “morning sickness” during the first 3 months of pregnancy). For many, morning sickness isn’t confined to the morning—some feel it all day long.
7. Smell Sensitivity
No, the smells on the bus are not in your head: Many women have a heightened sense of smell during pregnancy. This symptom is one of the most common early signs that you could be pregnant. “Some researchers have speculated that it might be to protect women from eating ‘spoiled’ or tainted foods, thus protecting the baby from any harmful toxins,” says Pitman.
8. Elevated basal temperature
If you’ve been tracking your basal temperature, a positive sign of being pregnant is an increase of about one degree that lasts for more than two weeks after the “dip” in temperature that indicates ovulation.
9. Missing period
The most obvious pregnancy sign is a missed period, but a missed period doesn’t always mean a baby is on the way. Stress, diet or an irregular schedule can also be the culprits, so it’s best to get tested before making the big announcement.
10. Unusual hunger or cravings
Pregnant bodies are working hard to grow that baby, and need about 300 extra calories a day. Some women find themselves craving food they would never normally dream of eating, while others simply feel hungry all day long.
The frequency of migraine headaches can increase with pregnancy. Many women who get hormonal migraine headaches find they get more of them during especially early in pregnancy, explains Pitman. However, some people have the opposite experience and actually get a little reprieve from migraines while expecting.
12. Mood swings
Many women experience emotional mood swings throughout pregnancy. It’s natural to go through a variety of emotions as hormones are adjusting and the body is changing.
13. Feeling faint or dizzy
Shifting hormones, combined with the heart beating faster to pump more blood through the body can cause blood pressure to gradually decrease early in pregnancy. As a result many women experience periods of dizziness or feeling lightheaded.
14. Metallic taste in your mouth
Some women complain of an odd “metallic” taste in their mouths during pregnancy. While there is no scientific explanation for this symptom, for some it can last throughout their entire pregnancy.
15. Vivid dreams
Dreams during pregnancy often intensify. So if your dreamin’ has become more dramatic this could be a pregnancy sign. (Thank your surging hormones for this one!)
Please see a medical professional if you believe you are pregnant.
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4 Weeks Pregnant: Symptoms and Baby Development
4 Weeks Pregnant: Your Baby’s Development
Congratulations if you’ve just found out you are pregnant! You may have discovered this after having missed your period. At four weeks pregnant, a home pregnancy test could show a positive result if it detects the pregnancy hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which is present in your urine about 10 days after conception.
Whether you’re completely thrilled about the prospect of becoming a parent, or are still getting used to the idea, now is the time to start planning while treating yourself to some extra-special care. If you’re wondering when to expect your little one, try our Due Date Calculator to find out!
While you’ve been adjusting to being pregnant, the new life inside you has been busy. The fertilized egg is implanting itself into the side of your uterus.
It rapidly divides into layers of cells, some of which become the embryo. The cell layers will start to grow into different parts of your little one’s body, such as the nervous system, skeleton, muscles, organs, and skin.
The placenta, a disk-like organ that connects your body’s systems to that of the baby, begins to form and attaches to the uterine wall where the egg is implanted.
The umbilical cord will eventually come out of one side of the placenta, and the amniotic fluid, which will cushion your baby throughout your pregnancy, is already forming inside a surrounding membrane, or yolk sac.
During the upcoming weeks, your little one will form a neural tube, which is the main building block for the brain and spine.
How Big Is Your Baby at 4 Weeks?
At four weeks pregnant, the newly implanted embryo is very tiny — only about 0.04 inches long, the size of a poppy seed.
For a sneak peek, take a look at this illustration to get a glimpse of what’s happening in your belly:
Mom’s Body at 4 Weeks Pregnant
This week, a few pregnancy symptoms may appear, though some moms-to-be won’t have noticed any signs yet. You might feel some cramping and see a little bit of spotting, both of which can happen as the fertilized egg implants itself in your uterus.
Your body is now starting to make the pregnancy hormone hCG. This hormone tells your ovaries to stop releasing an egg each month, thus stopping your monthly period, and it also increases the production of other hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone. If you’ve taken a home pregnancy test and gotten a positive result, that’s because these tests are designed to detect levels of hCG in your urine.
4 Weeks Pregnant: Your symptoms
Every mom-to-be’s experience of pregnancy is unique. In fact, what you experience during this pregnancy may be different to what you experienced during a previous pregnancy. To help you feel more prepared for whatever may come, take a look at this list of possible symptoms of pregnancy at four weeks:
Bloated stomach. Your body is preparing itself to house a rapidly growing baby for the next several months. Expect a bit of bloating, particularly in your abdomen. Your uterine lining is getting a bit thicker, and the swelling means your womb is taking up more space than usual. Test your knowledge of the early signs of pregnancy in our poll, and read on for more.
Light bleeding or spotting. Some women have some spotting at four weeks pregnant — it’s called implantation bleeding. If you see a lot of blood, if the spotting lasts longer than two days, or you have any concerns, see your doctor right away.
Moodiness. Other symptoms you might notice at four weeks pregnant include mood swings. Triggered by increasing hormone levels, these extreme emotions and wild shifts may be the strongest in the first and the third trimesters. Relaxation exercises, massages, sleep, and following a balanced diet are some of the easiest ways to help yourself feel better.
Breast tenderness. Just like your abdomen, your breasts are starting to prepare for the important job of nourishing a new arrival. The number of milk glands increases, and the fat layer also thickens, causing your breasts to become enlarged.
Morning sickness. You may or may not have morning sickness — a queasiness that may strike at any time of day, not just in the morning — at four weeks pregnant. This condition varies from one woman to the next, with some feeling only mildly nauseated and others vomiting. If it’s affecting you, consider yourself in good company: some level of morning sickness impacts approximately 85 percent of women during their pregnancies. The good news is these unpleasant symptoms often subside during the second trimester.
Light-colored discharge. When you’re four weeks pregnant, increased vaginal discharge is normal. It should be sticky, clear, or white. If you notice a bad odor or have a sore or itchy vaginal area, speak to your healthcare provider.
Fatigue. Don’t be surprised if you feel completely exhausted, and get ready for even more tired days ahead. Your body is working round the clock to support your little one, and your levels of the hormone progesterone are increasing, which can tire you out. Fatigue is a normal part of pregnancy, but can also be a sign of an iron deficiency, so you may want to talk to your healthcare provider about your iron intake. Getting enough can help prevent anemia, which can lead to feelings of lethargy.
4 Weeks Pregnant: Things to Consider
Now is a good time to start a healthy eating plan, if you haven’t already. Make sure you’re including iron-rich foods like spinach and cereals to prevent anemia, as well as calcium from milk, cheese, and yogurt to help your growing baby build strong bones.
Stop unhealthy habits right away. Quit smoking and replace alcohol with water and other healthy beverages to help prevent preterm birth and other birth defects.
Avoid secondhand smoke. Recent research shows exposure can increase the risk of complications such as low birth weight, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy.
Try to relax and keep your stress level low.
Keep on exercising if your doctor approves. Most women can continue exercising throughout pregnancy, as long as there are no complications. If you haven’t been exercising before, consider asking your doctor whether you can start a simple routine that includes gentle activities like swimming, walking, and stretching. Labor and delivery are hard work, and the fitter you are, the better off you’ll be.
Start taking prenatal vitamins every day to support your health and help the new life inside you grow! Look for a vitamin that contains at least 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid, an important nutrient that’s proven to reduce the likelihood of birth defects.
Download our Pregnancy Guide for even more information to help get you through the coming months, including info on nutrition, prenatal visits, and more.
Research the kind of healthcare provider you’d like to work with during your pregnancy, if you don’t already have one in mind.
Start a memory book. If you’d like to document your pregnancy as a keepsake for your child, you might like to buy one now. You can order one online, buy one at your local big box store, or create your own using a hard-cover notebook. Add pictures of your bump week to week to see the progress that will eventually be happening. Note down special dates like the date you found out you were pregnant and the date you first feel a flutter of movement. You might even like to write a letter to your child that he can read in the years to come. It could also be fun to write down your predictions about eye color and hair color and see if you got it right in a few years’ time.
4 Weeks Pregnant: Ask Your Doctor
Are there any specific tests you may need based on your ethnicity or medical history?
How can you safely continue (or discontinue) using certain medications you may already be taking once you find out you’re pregnant?
When will the routine pregnancy checkups and tests be, and how do you go about scheduling them?
4 Weeks Pregnant: Your Checklist
Schedule a pregnancy confirmation appointment, if needed.
Share the good news with your partner, and maybe a few close family members and friends.
Think about what lifestyle changes you may need to make (like adjusting your diet, for example), and plan how you will implement them.
Sign up for even more weekly pregnancy tips:
1 Month Pregnant: Symptoms and Fetal Development
You might have noticed some changes in your body and started to wonder, “Could I be … pregnant!?” Or, you might not have observed any signs of pregnancy other than your period being late. If you have your suspicions, you’ll probably want to take a home pregnancy test. If the result is positive, congratulations! Read on to find out more about early pregnancy symptoms, how your baby is developing when you’re one month pregnant, and what else is in store for you this month.
Common Pregnancy Symptoms at 1 Month Pregnant
At one month pregnant, you may not experience many — or any — symptoms. However, some of the early signs of pregnancy at one month pregnant can include:
A missed period. If you have a regular menstrual cycle, this is perhaps the most telling sign of pregnancy. You might first suspect you could be pregnant when your period is late, and then when it never arrives at all.
Mood changes. When you become pregnant, your hormone levels start to rise dramatically, and this can sometimes leave you feeling more emotional than usual. It’s also common to experience a range of moods — anything from being anxious and overwhelmed to feeling excited and ecstatic — when you find out you are pregnant. Talk to your loved ones about your feelings, and talk to your healthcare provider if you have any concerns.
Bloating. The surge of pregnancy hormones can lead to bloating, which you might even mistake for a normal symptom of PMS. Eating more fiber and getting regular exercise can help relieve bloating.
Cramps. Some moms-to-be get light uterine cramping in the early days and weeks of pregnancy. These sensations can sometimes feel like menstrual cramps, so you might think you’re about to get your period. If cramps are painful or are bothering you, ask your healthcare provider to recommend suitable pain relief options.
Spotting. If you notice some spots of blood on your underwear, it could be what’s called implantation bleeding. This light spotting can happen when the fertilized egg implants itself in the uterine lining in early pregnancy. Wearing a panty liner can help prevent any accidental leaks or stains.
Frequent urination. When you become pregnant, the amount of blood in your body starts increasing. This means your kidneys have to work overtime to process the extra fluid, which then ends up in your bladder. Although some early symptoms of pregnancy may ease up over time, this might not be one of them. Don’t cut back on your fluid intake — it’s important to stay hydrated — but think about trying to pee before you leave your home or any time you might be away from a restroom for any length of time, such as before a meeting or a car trip.
Sore or tender breasts. Your breasts may be sensitive or even sore right now, but this symptom may subside in a few weeks as your body gets used to the hormonal changes taking place.
Fatigue. It’s not uncommon to feel a little more tired than usual, and the hormone progesterone may be to blame. Take it easy as much as you can, and know that many moms-to-be experience a burst of energy once they enter the second trimester.
Nausea. The dreaded morning sickness (nausea with or without vomiting) often doesn’t hit until after the first month of pregnancy, but some moms-to-be may get it a bit sooner, and some lucky women may never experience any queasiness associated with early pregnancy at all. Try to stay hydrated, take a multivitamin, and sip ginger ale or ginger tea to help soothe your stomach.
Constipation. If you’re feeling a bit blocked up, chalk it up to those rising levels of hormones, which can slow down your digestive system. Prenatal vitamins, which typically contain iron, may also be a factor. Ask your healthcare provider for advice on how to help get things going again.
Food aversions. When you’re newly pregnant, you might find that certain odors and flavors aren’t quite as appealing as they used to be. Feeling nauseous when you encounter certain foods and smells can sometimes go hand in hand with morning sickness. Use a kitchen fan when cooking, and ask your partner to take out the garbage if certain smells start to bother you.
How Is Your Baby Developing This Month?
After conception, the fertilized egg travels along the fallopian tube to the uterus, where it will implant in the uterine lining.
The egg divides into a bunch of cells, some of which become the embryo and some of which eventually become the placenta, which will provide nourishment for your baby during your pregnancy. The umbilical cord also forms between the embryo and the placenta, delivering nutrients and removing waste.
The upcoming month is a time of rapid growth for your little one, as internal organs, bones, and tiny limbs are beginning to form.
One quick note on the terminology you might see when reading up on baby development: During the first eight weeks, your little one may be referred to as an embryo in medica circles, whereas after this point your baby may be called a fetus until she is born.
How Big Is Your Baby When You’re 1 Month Pregnant?
At this stage your baby is teeny-tiny, but by the start of the second month of pregnancy your little one will be about ¼ of an inch long – or about the size of a pumpkin seed.
What Does an Embryo Look Like at 1 Month?
For a glimpse at how your little one might be looking inside your belly at 4 weeks, take a look at this illustration:
Changes to Your Body at 1 Month Pregnant
You probably won’t be noticing any changes to your body just yet, but that doesn’t mean there isn’t a lot going on under the surface.
At this point, it’s important to prepare your body for pregnancy and childbirth by paying attention to your overall health and nutrition. This often means taking a multivitamin supplement to make sure you have all the nutrients you and your little one will need for the months ahead.
Talk to your healthcare provider at your first prenatal visit to make sure you’re getting the right amounts of the right vitamins.
It can also be helpful to begin or continue an exercise routine this month. Check in with your provider to make sure your favorite activities are safe during pregnancy, but in general, getting regular exercise can help build the strength and endurance you’ll need throughout your pregnancy.
How Far Along Are You at 1 Month Pregnant?
At one month pregnant, you’re at the start of the first trimester. Though there is no standard way of grouping pregnancy weeks into months (as they don’t fit evenly), the first month usually includes week one through week four of pregnancy.
The breakdown of weeks into trimesters also varies; here is a common method we’ll follow:
First trimester: 1 to 13 weeks
Second trimester: 14 to 27 weeks
Third trimester: 28 to 40 weeks (or until you give birth)
How Is Your Due Date Calculated?
At one month pregnant, you’ll be eager to know when your newborn will arrive. Our Due Date Calculator can give you an estimate, but your healthcare provider may be able to give you a more accurate date.
Your due date is calculated as 40 weeks, or 280 days, from the first day of your last menstrual period. Keep in mind that your due date is just an estimate. You may not remember the date of your last period; the length of your menstrual cycle may be shorter or longer than the 28-day average; and it’s very difficult to know exactly when ovulation or fertilization occurred.
Keep in mind, only a small percentage of babies are born exactly on their due date and most babies are born in the two weeks either side of their due date.
Checklist for When You’re 1 Month Pregnant
Research and select a prenatal healthcare provider.
Confirm your pregnancy by taking a home pregnancy test. Read about the pregnancy hormone hCG as it’s what most home pregnancy tests work to detect.
Arrange a doctor’s checkup. Your healthcare provider will confirm your pregnancy and give you guidance on the appointments you’ll need to keep over the coming months.
Speak to your provider about pregnancy nutrition and whether you need to take any prenatal vitamins, such as folic acid.
Download our complete guide to exercising while pregnant, which is brimming with helpful tips, and ask your healthcare provider about what type of exercise is right for your situation. Exercise can help you get a better night’s sleep and can also help with pregnancy body aches and pains.
Quit unhealthy habits like smoking and drinking, and try to reduce stress.
Although rare, it’s a good idea to read up on the signs of an ectopic pregnancy – just in case.
Rest up whenever you can.
If your partner doesn’t know you are pregnant yet, check out our fun ideas for how to announce your pregnancy to your partner.
Speak to your loved ones about how you are feeling. This can be an emotional time, and you might be feeling all kinds of physical symptoms and pregnancy emotions that it may be best to share.
Sign up for even more weekly pregnancy tips here:
Am I Pregnant? Early Signs & Symptoms of Pregnancy
Knowing you are pregnant sooner gives you an early start on a healthier pregnancy for both you and your baby.
Most people know that missing a period may mean that you’re pregnant. But that is not the only early sign of pregnancy. If you’re wondering “Am I Pregnant?”, it’s probably time to take a pregnancy test – especially if you’re experiencing any of the following early pregnancy symptoms.
First Signs and Symptoms of Being Pregnant
Pregnancy Symptoms: Morning Sickness
For many people, feeling nauseous in the morning – or, afternoon or evening – is one of their first signs of pregnancy. Nausea – with or without vomiting – can occur any time of day beginning as soon as three weeks after conception and it’s one of the most common symptoms of early pregnancy. These bouts of queasiness tend to be caused by rapidly rising hormone levels, which cause the stomach to empty more slowly.
Signs of Pregnancy: Frequent Urination
Beginning shortly after conception, many women find themselves taking more trips to the bathroom, especially at night. These frequent trips only add to fatigue (also a symptom of early pregnancy).
Why am I So Tired? Am I Pregnant?
Early in a pregnancy, progesterone levels peak, which can make you feel sleepy. High progesterone — combined with lower blood sugar levels, lower blood pressure and increased blood production — can leave you feeling drained. Many women in their first trimester find that the extreme fatigue is a telltale sign of being pregnant. Take it easy and get sleep while you can.
Tender, Swollen Breasts
One of the first pregnancy signs women may notice is their breasts feeling tingly or sore, beginning as early as two to three weeks after conception. Breasts may also feel fuller or heavier.
Food Cravings or Aversions
If you suddenly want to dip potato chips in mayonnaise or eat a jar of pickles, you may suspect that you are pregnant. On the other hand, your favorite grilled salmon may suddenly make you turn up your nose. Food cravings and aversions are a common symptom of being pregnant. Like most early signs of pregnancy, food preferences are thought to be caused by hormonal changes, especially during the dramatic shifts of the first trimester.
Slight Bleeding or Cramping
Sometimes women notice a small amount of bleeding, known as implantation bleeding, very early on in pregnancy. This happens when the fertilized egg attaches to the lining of the uterus around 10-14 days after conception. Sometimes mistaken for a period, implantation bleeding is usually lighter, spottier and happens earlier than a menstrual period. Some women also experience cramping as the uterus begins to swell and change due to pregnancy.
Mood Swings as a Pregnancy Symptom
Another effect of those raging first-trimester hormones is feeling unusually emotional or weepy. Some women feel increased irritability, or swings from happy to sad that happen quickly.
Dizziness and Pregnancy Brain
Along with fatigue and nausea, many women also feel dizzy or lightheaded during early pregnancy. Symptoms such as low blood pressure, dilating blood vessels, and lower blood sugar create these lightheaded feelings. Go slowly from sitting to standing and keep your blood sugar steady with small, regular snacks.
A Dreaded Pregnancy Symptom: Constipation
Increased production of progesterone means food makes its way through your intestines slower, often leading to constipation. The iron in prenatal vitamins can exacerbate the problem.
First Signs of Pregnancy
All of these early signs are a good guide to help you determine if you are pregnant, but they don’t provide definitive answers. If you are experiencing any of the above symptoms and could be pregnant, taking a pregnancy test will help you know.
The FIRST RESPONSE™ Early Result Pregnancy Test is the only at-home pregnancy test that can detect an early pregnancy as soon as 6 days before your missed period.1 Schedule an appointment with your doctor to confirm the result, and always check with your physician about any issues concerning your health. When it comes to pregnancy, knowing sooner makes a difference.
6 Pregnancy Symptoms – Early Signs of Pregnancy That’ll Surprise You
When you’re trying to conceive, the waiting period between when you ovulate and when your period is due can seem endless. And, while you can take a pregnancy test at some point, there’s a set period of time where it’s just too early to know.
Still, it’s completely understandable that you’d want to know if you’re pregnant ASAP. Luckily, there are a few signs that could clue you in. Every woman is different, making it tough to say for sure what your early pregnancy signs may be, but there are some things that tip you off that you may have a bun in the oven.
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Pregnancy Symptom #1: You’re peeing more than usual
During the first trimester of pregnancy, a woman’s blood volume increases and her kidneys have to make excess fluid that ends up in your bladder, the Mayo Clinic says. As a result, you have to pee more than usual. Increasing levels of the hormone progesterone during this time might also make you feel like you have to go to the bathroom more often, says Jonathan Schaffir, MD, an ob/gyn at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.
Pregnancy Symptom #2: Your breasts are tender
This is also due to progesterone, Dr. Schaffir says. The hormone sparks the growth of mammary glands in the breast. The pain or tenderness you may feel is from those glands swelling up.
Pregnancy Symptom #3: You’re wiped out
Most women feel tired at some point in their pregnancy, but the reason behind it isn’t totally understood. It could be due to the fact that growing a little human is tough on your body, or the increase in blood volume, or the fact that it’s tough to get a good night’s sleep when you wake up during the night to pee, says Christine Greves, MD, an ob/gyn at the Winnie Palmer Hospital for Women and Babies. “Sometimes, an overwhelming feeling of fatigue is one of the earliest signs of pregnancy,” she adds. (If it turns out you’re not expecting, mention extreme fatigue to your doctor—feeling tired all the time is a symptom of other health issues.)
Pregnancy Symptom #4: You’re nauseous
When you’re pregnant, your body produces a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), which continues to rise during the early stages of your pregnancy, Dr. Greves says. This hormone usually makes women feel nauseous—but not for long. “Since the level of this hormone tops out at about eight to 10 weeks of gestation, this is when most women have the worst nausea before it starts to improve,” Dr. Schaffir says
Pregnancy Symptom #5: You’re not pooping as much as usual
The hormone progesterone relaxes smooth muscles in your body, including the ones in your gut that move food along in your intestinal tract, Dr. Schaffir explains. “Since the time it takes for food to get from your mouth to your rectum is increased, more water is absorbed and stool becomes harder to pass,” he says.
Pregnancy Symptom #6: You suddenly have food aversions
Food aversions are a weird side effect of pregnancy that make you nauseous or dislike foods that you’d normally eat otherwise—especially if they’re flavorful. There’s no scientific reason why this happens to a lot of women during pregnancy, but it could be that it helps women avoid foods that could be dangerous for the pregnancy. “Since blander foods are less likely to have chemicals that could affect pregnancy, a sensitivity to strong tastes and odors could prevent exposure to such chemicals,” Dr. Schaffir says. Still, every woman’s aversions are different, so it’s really hard to say what’s behind this.
Don’t get discouraged if you don’t have any of these symptoms—it doesn’t mean you’re not pregnant. “By far the most common first sign is being late for a period,” Dr. Schaffir says. So, try to wait things out and take a test when you miss a period—it’s really the most reliable sign there is.
Korin Miller is a freelance writer who lives by the beach.
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90,000 First signs of pregnancy | Kotex®
While pregnancy tests and ultrasounds are the only ways to accurately determine pregnancy, there are a number of signs and symptoms that are worth looking out for. The early signs of pregnancy include not only missing menstruation, but can also include fatigue, sensitivity to odors, and morning sickness. It is worth remembering that all these are POSSIBLE signs of pregnancy, they can appear in both pregnant and non-pregnant women and are associated with ovulation and menstruation.
When do symptoms appear?
Oddly enough, the first week of pregnancy is determined by the date of the last period.
Your last period is considered the first week of pregnancy, even if you are not actually pregnant yet. The approximate date of delivery is calculated from the moment of the first day of the last period.
Taking a home pregnancy test is the most affordable and easiest way to find out if you are pregnant. Remember that home pregnancy tests measure the level of a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the urine, which is usually lower in urine than in blood.
The test gives the most accurate results starting from the moment of delay in menstruation.
The menstrual cycle is considered delayed if the period does not start within 5 or more days after the day of their expected start.
It is worth remembering, however, that even the day after the expected delay, more than a third of women have these home tests negative, and if you do the test too early, the result may be negative even if you are already pregnant. You can do another test at home after a couple of days to get a more accurate result.
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy
If you are pregnant for the first time, then you may well not notice these first signs of pregnancy or confuse them with symptoms of impending menstruation.
You should not spend long hours looking for answers on forums in anxiety, in any case, your research will not change what has already happened or has not happened, but mood and sleep can seriously spoil.
Minor pains in the lower abdomen and spotting spotting
Absence of menstruation
Vertigo on movement
High blood pressure
Pain and slight bleeding
From 1 to 4 weeks, changes in the woman’s body are still taking place at the cellular level.A fertilized egg creates a group of cells filled with fluid, which is called a blastocyst, which, after pregnancy, will have to turn into organs and body parts of the fetus.
Approximately 10-14 days after conception (4 weeks), the blastocyst attaches to the endometrium that covers the walls of the uterus. This process can cause slight bleeding, which can be confused with light periods.
Here are some signs of such bleeding:
the color can be red, pink or brown
bleeding: usually comparable to normal menstruation, usually lighter
usually lasts about three days
Absence of menstruation
After the blastocyst attaches to the walls of the uterus, the body releases a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin, which tells the body that it is time to stop releasing eggs from the ovaries every month.Most often, after conception, menstruation disappears at 4 weeks of gestation.
If you have a delay, it is worth doing a home pregnancy test, especially if you have an irregular menstrual cycle.
Fatigue can occur at any time during pregnancy. During pregnancy, progesterone levels rise, and this hormone can make you feel sleepy. If you feel tired, make sure you get enough sleep.
Morning sickness and vomiting
Nausea and morning vomiting usually develop at 4-6 weeks of gestation. In fact, such symptoms can occur not only in the morning, but in general at any time of the day. This symptom is typical for the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. If you are often nauseous, make sure you drink enough water to stay hydrated.
Breast swelling and tenderness
Breast changes can begin at 4-6 weeks of gestation.They are also associated with changes in hormone levels. Most often, the breast swells somewhat and becomes more tender than usual. Usually, these symptoms disappear later, when the body gets used to the changed hormonal background.
During pregnancy, blood flow increases and this causes the kidneys to process more fluid than usual, which can cause frequent urination even in the early stages of pregnancy.
Constipation and bloating
This symptom is similar to a typical menstrual symptom and is also caused by hormonal changes that can slow down digestion, causing bloating and constipation.
High blood pressure and dizziness during pregnancy
Most often, in early pregnancy in women, blood pressure drops, which can cause a feeling of dizziness due to dilated cerebral vessels.High blood pressure in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy usually means there are some health problems that are occurring at the same time as pregnancy. This symptom may have been present unnoticed prior to pregnancy, but it could have developed during the process. In such cases, it is especially important to monitor your blood pressure and consult your doctor.
As estrogen and progesterone levels rise during pregnancy, this can cause changes in your emotional background and you may become more sensitive than usual.They can cause strong feelings such as depression, irritability, euphoria, and anxiety.
Increase in basal body temperature
Basal body temperature is the lowest body temperature it reaches during rest or sleep. It is determined by measuring the temperature in the early morning by introducing a thermometer into the rectum. Your normal body temperature can also rise, especially during heat waves or physical activity.It is important to consume enough liquid in such cases. Make sure you are not hot to sleep.
90,000 First month of pregnancy – early signs
So, something changes are happening to you, and you start to think if you are pregnant … Or you did not feel anything special, but you have a delay. In any case, you need to do a pregnancy test and make an appointment with a doctor to carry out all the necessary examinations.
Symptoms typical of the first month of pregnancy
Early pregnancy symptoms in the first month are often not noticeable at all, but nevertheless they are:
Low back pain.
Pain or tenderness in the chest.
Feeling of hunger and aversion to certain foods.
Keep in mind that during your first month of pregnancy, you most likely will not feel any of the above. The main sign that you are pregnant is a delay and subsequent complete cessation of your period.
First month of pregnancy: changes inside and outside
Fetal development. After conception, the fertilized egg moves from the fallopian tubes to the uterus and is fixed in its cavity. The egg cell divides into many cells and becomes an embryo. Around the eighth week, the spine and limbs form in the embryo. The brain, eyes and ears begin to develop.
Changes in the mother’s body. It is impossible to predict how you will receive the news that you are pregnant. The reaction may differ from what you expected, and your feelings will change every minute.These mood swings are in part caused by hormonal surges and are completely normal. Give yourself time to rest and reflect on what happened. Apart from the possible early pregnancy symptoms described above, you may not notice any changes in your well-being.
What do you know about nine months of pregnancy?
Pregnancy lasts nine months, right? It seems to be something like this. It is believed that it is more accurate to say – 40 weeks (almost 10 months) and counting from the first day of your last cycle.Babies are often born a couple of weeks earlier or later than intended. In addition, there are a little more than four weeks in a month. However, it is sometimes difficult to determine a specific date of conception. So, considering all this, nine months is a pretty conditional period.
This is why gestational age is usually measured in weeks rather than months. You will often hear “Week 12” or “Week 32”. Another important category is the so-called trimester.
So how do you know which month of pregnancy you are? There are different counting techniques.As a rule, you will find out that you have been pregnant for a month already, at the fifth or eighth week. These are the weeks since your last cycle. Remember that you may have conceived a few weeks before the first month of pregnancy began.
Date of birth calculator. In the first month of pregnancy, you will definitely want to know when you are due to give birth. With the Pampers due date calculator, it’s easy to find out the estimated due date. If you have an irregular cycle or do not remember the date of your last menstrual period, your healthcare provider may do the necessary tests to find out how long you have been pregnant.
First month of pregnancy: To do list
Find out if you are pregnant. Take a home pregnancy test, for example. Tests are usually more accurate after a seventh day delay.
Make an appointment with your doctor. Have a doctor see you and confirm that you are pregnant. He will take the necessary tests, including measuring the level of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). He will also give you advice on what other tests are to be done in the next nine (or so) months.
Make a special diet. Talk to your healthcare provider about a balanced diet that is right for you. He will tell you which vitamins and nutritional supplements for pregnant women to take.
Think about health. Try to quit bad habits, stop smoking and drinking alcohol. Also, try to be less nervous.
Love yourself. This is a very emotionally intense time – you can experience new physical sensations and emotions.Get some rest and tell your loved ones how you feel.
Subscribe to the pregnancy newsletter.
Pregnancy preservation | ChUZ “KB” Russian Railways-Medicine “them. ON. Semashko “
Preservation of pregnancy is necessary when there is a threat of miscarriage, the appearance of premature birth and other conditions that threaten the life and health of the unborn child. Stress, previous infections, physical trauma, genetic abnormalities can provoke placental abruption or other pathological changes.With timely admission to the hospital, it is possible to preserve the pregnancy and take control of its further development.
Obstetricians-gynecologists with many years of experience work at the private healthcare institution “KB” Russian Railways Medicine “named after N.A. Semashko. A woman can go to preserve her pregnancy, undergo a safe examination and receive all the necessary help from professionals immediately when complaints appear.
Indications for maintaining pregnancy
The earlier the expectant mother turns to specialists, the higher the chance of maintaining the pregnancy.It is recommended to call a medical team as soon as possible at the first sign.
The main signs of a threat of miscarriage:
- spotting from the genital tract;
- pulling pains in the lower abdomen;
- increased tone of the uterus, the appearance of abdominal cramps;
- weakness, loss of consciousness.
The unborn child and woman are also threatened by various conditions that are accompanied by increased blood pressure, disturbances in the work of the cardiovascular system.With late toxicosis, the child may even die before childbirth. Therefore, it is so important to seek immediate medical attention.
In the first trimester, miscarriage is triggered by various factors, including genetic abnormalities of the fetus. Also, an unborn child may die against the background of Rh-conflict, hormonal changes in the female body. The main symptom of an early miscarriage is bleeding. Allocation may be mild at first, but without the help of specialists, they become more abundant.
A woman with bleeding should be hospitalized. Doctors prescribe drugs based on the hormone progesterone. Its amount during miscarriage is sharply reduced. Also, experts use antispasmodics, other means to relax the uterus. Gynecologists recommend maintaining complete physical and emotional rest.
After being discharged from the hospital, certain restrictions will have to be observed for some time. Intimate contacts, baths, saunas are prohibited. The expectant mother should not lift heavy objects, do housework.While the threat of miscarriage persists, restrictions are observed throughout the entire period of gestation.
If there is a threat of premature birth at a later date, treatment is carried out in a hospital or at home, depending on the patient’s condition. Professionals monitor blood pressure, weight, kidney health, assess the presence of internal and external edema. It is important to eat right so that the baby develops actively and has an optimal weight in case of premature birth.
Preparations for preserving pregnancy
A woman during pregnancy takes medications only as directed by a doctor. To eliminate the threat of miscarriage, hormonal agents containing the hormone progesterone are used. To reduce uterine hypertonicity, antispasmodics are prescribed. They also relieve lower abdominal and lower back pain. When bloody discharge appears, specialists prescribe hemostatic drugs.
We prevent premature birth using drug therapy, physical rest.Patients are under the supervision of qualified obstetricians-gynecologists, they undergo all the necessary studies to assess the condition of the unborn child. But sometimes, for medical reasons, it is necessary to carry out urgent childbirth. The clinic is equipped with everything necessary to provide qualified assistance to the newborn and the woman in labor.
Prevention of pregnancy complications
An increase in the tone of the uterus, especially in the early stages, spotting often appears due to the action of stress and violation of the recommendations of the gynecologist.Loads should be moderate. It is recommended that a woman sleep at least 8-9 hours a day. It is also worth taking vitamin complexes and using folic acid in the first months, which prevents the development of a neural tube defect in the unborn child.
Before conception, it is necessary to make sure that there are no infections, hormonal disorders, to pass tests, to bring the weight to the physiological norm. It is also important to maintain psycho-emotional peace, avoid stress and unnecessary worries. If even minor signs of a threatened miscarriage appear, you should seek medical help as soon as possible.
You can make an appointment with a specialist in our clinic around the clock. We admit pregnant women to the hospital, carry out all the necessary measures to preserve the viability of the fetus and prevent complications. We also provide assistance on an outpatient basis. Termination of pregnancy before 27 weeks is a miscarriage, after 28 weeks – premature birth. Obstetricians-gynecologists provide assistance to patients taking into account the gestation period.
You can make an appointment at a convenient time.If there is a threat of miscarriage, doctors must be called immediately. The clinic’s professionals will prescribe studies to assess the condition of the unborn child, the quality of blood flow, the work of the cardiovascular system and other vital indicators.
Pregnancy and insomnia
A pregnant woman needs good rest. Sleep is very beneficial because during sleep the body produces hormones that are responsible for a person’s sexual development and growth. A person replenishes the resources spent during the day, recharges with energy and recovers.But a woman expecting a baby often suffers from insomnia. The reasons for this are different: increased sensitivity, growing belly, back pain, swelling, emotionality.
What can be considered insomnia?
If you cannot sleep, thinking about different situations, going over different events in your head, you can talk about starting insomnia. This is the first type of sleep disturbance.
The second type of insomnia – the inability to maintain a state of sleep – includes constant awakening at night at different intervals.
If you woke up early in the morning and can no longer fall asleep, we are talking about the third type of insomnia – insomnia in the final phase.
Initial insomnia is most often observed during pregnancy. It is difficult for a woman to find a comfortable position during sleep due to the growing abdomen.
Causes of insomnia during pregnancy
Most often, insomnia begins in the first trimester. This is due to hormonal changes, in particular due to an increase in progesterone levels.The body begins to actively prepare for childbirth, and this prevents it from relaxing.
Sleep returns to normal in the second trimester. The expectant mother can have vivid dreams.
In the third trimester, a woman becomes restless, worried about the upcoming birth, and this can cause nightmares and insomnia. It must be remembered that insomnia is not a disease; it will disappear if its causes are eliminated.
Edema. If swelling is the cause of insomnia, consult a doctor.It is possible that the edema appeared due to late toxicosis. For prevention, you can drink tea from a lingonberry leaf for a week, then take a week’s break.
Frequent urge to urinate . Try to drink less fluid before going to bed, just remember that swelling can appear, both with an excess of fluid, and with its lack.
Shortness of breath. The uterus, which increases in size, presses on the diaphragm, causing shortness of breath.It increases in the supine position. Therefore, it is worth going to bed on your side, it is desirable that the upper body remains elevated. To do this, you need to put a high pillow under your head.
Heartburn. Since the uterus also presses on the abdominal organs, the stomach is compressed and it is difficult for it to digest food. Try not to overeat and only eat healthy and light foods.
Baby activity. If the child is overly active at night, try changing positions more often.It is possible that your baby is not getting enough oxygen because of your position on your left side or back. Pat your belly, talk to your baby to calm him down.
Inconvenient position. Finding a comfortable sleeping position, especially in the third trimester, will not be easy. You can stock up on different sized pillows to fit comfortably on the bed. It is advisable to purchase a special pillow for pregnant women, which will relieve tension from the spine.In the future, such a pillow will come in handy when feeding a child.
Leg cramps. To prevent convulsions, it is necessary to take calcium supplements, include cottage cheese, dairy products, and cheeses in the diet. If cramps appear in the calves, you need to pull the big toe towards yourself and make a light massage of the legs.
Pain in the lower back and back. To relieve tension from the back, you need to do special exercises for pregnant women, back massage.
Emotional stress. If the brain is in an agitated state during the day, it cannot relax at night. It is necessary to reduce the intellectual load.
Chronic fatigue. During the day, the expectant mother should not overwork. Do not overexert yourself when doing household chores. Try to engage in yourself, creativity. Walk more, listen to pleasant music.
Stress. Try not to think about the bad, communicate with nature, with your baby.Tell him stories, sing songs.
Nightmares. So that you do not dream, do not attach importance to dreams. Remember that these are just your experiences that the brain processes into nightmarish images.
Methods of dealing with insomnia
- In the evening, do not drink tonic drinks, do not eat heavy foods.
- Take a warm, relaxing shower or bath to relax your body. You can drink a decoction of chamomile or mint. Sleeping pills should not be used, they can harm the child.
- An expectant mother needs a lot of oxygen. The room must be ventilated, and if the weather allows you to sleep better with an open window.
- If sleep does not go, do not worry and do not be upset. It is worth drinking a glass of warm milk with honey, playing calm music, doing something calm and pleasant. It is better if it is a monotonous activity. Don’t try to force yourself to sleep.
- Listen to your body. If you can’t sleep at night, rest during the day.Sleepless nights are guaranteed after your baby is born, so you need to get some rest before giving birth.
Department of Psychiatry and Narcology 1SPbGMU named after I.P. Pavlova
retardation – a congenital or acquired condition in early childhood (up to 3 years)
general underdevelopment of the psyche with a pronounced lack of intellectual
backwardness can be due to various etiological and
pathogenetic factors acting during intrauterine development,
childbirth or in the first years of life.In most cases, mental retardation
is not a painful process, but a pathological condition, the result
once acted harmful, and has no tendency to progression (progression).
the generally accepted term for states of mental retardation was
the term “oligophrenia” (Greek: oligos – small, phren – mind, i.e.
insanity), which was proposed by E. Kraepelin (1915) to differentiate the designated
im congenital dementia from acquired dementia (dementia).
Prevalence of mental retardation
the estimated prevalence of mental retardation ranges from 0.5% to 3%
population, while mild forms of intellectual disability are found
more often heavy. Men suffer from mental retardation more often than women.
Classification of mental retardation
different approaches to the classification of mental retardation states. Most
a common clinical classification is the separation of mental
backwardness in terms of the degree of intellectual defect.Traditionally, there were three
the degree of mental retardation: debility, imbecility and idiocy. V
International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) mental
backwardness is presented in a separate section (F7) and
divided into four degrees of severity: mild (F70), moderate
(F71), severe (F72) and deep
(F73). Other clinical classification
assumes the subdivision of states of mental retardation (regardless of
depth of mental underdevelopment) to sthenic, dysphoric, asthenic
and atonic forms (D.N. Isaev). In addition, there are “nuclear” forms
mental retardation (N.I. Ozeretsky), which are characterized by totality
mental underdevelopment, affecting the entire psyche as a whole, and atypical
forms that are characterized by an uneven structure of a mental defect with signs
partial mental underdevelopment.
the etiopathogenesis of the state of mental retardation is divided into three main groups
Conditions due to hereditary
(gene and chromosomal) diseases .To this group
include: Down syndrome, Klinefelter, Turner, Martin-Bell, true
microcephaly, enzymopathic forms associated with hereditary metabolic
disorders (phenylketonuria, galactosuria, etc.), hereditary neurological
and neuromuscular diseases with mental retardation.
Conditions caused by the action of various
harm during intrauterine development (embryopathy and fetopathy). This includes
conditions caused by intrauterine infections (rubella, influenza viruses,
paratitis, cytomegalovirus, causative agents of syphilis, toxoplasmosis, etc.),
intoxications (for example, alcoholic), hemolytic disease of the fetus, etc.
Conditions caused by the action of various
harm during childbirth or in the first months and years of life. Allocate
mental retardation associated with birth trauma and birth asphyxia, with
craniocerebral trauma and neuroinfections in early childhood.
cases, it is not possible to reliably identify the etiological causes of mental retardation
possible, therefore such states are designated as undifferentiated
forms.In turn, differentiated forms of mental retardation represent
are nosologically independent diseases with an established etiopathogenesis
and a typical clinic. Often, with differentiated forms, mental
retardation is just one of the symptoms in a number of other severe manifestations
Clinical manifestations and dynamics of mental
disorders in mental retardation, as noted above, are polymorphic in
the nature and degree of severity.
The severity of the intellectual
According to the severity of intellectual deficiency
Abilities in ICD-10 stand out:
mental retardation (idiocy) .
When idiocy is significantly limited
cognitive abilities: patients are practically unable to understand the converted
speech to them, do not recognize people caring for them (for example, mother), do not distinguish
edible from inedible (can eat inedible items), do not have
concepts of spatial relationships (for example, about height: can fall from
high altitude), rarely form ideas about hot, spicy, etc.(may
get damaged, burns). Most patients are unable to master even
basic self-service skills (dressing, washing, using canteens
devices, etc.). Speech or not at all formed (such patients publish only inarticulate
sounds) or consists of a few simple words. Significantly underdeveloped motor
the functions of patients, in connection with which many of them cannot stand on their own and
walk, crawl. Behavior in some cases is characterized by lethargy,
lack of mobility, in others – a tendency to monotonous motor
agitation with stereotypical movements (rocking the body, waving the arms,
clapping), and in some patients with periodic manifestations
aggression and auto-aggression (can suddenly hit, bite others, scratch
themselves, stab themselves, etc.NS.). In most cases, gross
neurological disorders and severe somatic abnormalities. The life of such sick
in need of constant care and supervision of others, is determined
satisfaction of the simplest life needs. Mental quotient
development (standardized method of D. Wechsler for measuring intelligence)
persons with profound mental retardation below 20.
mental retardation (severe variants of imbecility)
activity is limited by the ability to form only the simplest
notions, abstract thinking, generalizations are inaccessible to patients.Sick
master only basic self-service skills, their training
impossible. Vocabulary is limited to one to two dozen words, sufficient
to communicate their basic needs, articulation defects are expressed. Often
neurological disorders, gait disturbances are present. The sick need
in constant monitoring and maintenance. IQ of these
patients are in the range of 20-34.
3. Moderate mental
backwardness (variants of mild and moderate imbecility)
are able to form more and more complex representations than patients
severe mental retardation.Patients learn self-care skills,
can be accustomed to the simplest work by training imitative
action. Their vocabulary is richer, they are able to express themselves in simple
phrases, maintain a simple conversation. Relative adaptation of patients with
moderate mental retardation is possible only in conditions familiar to them,
any change in the situation may put them in a difficult position due to
impossibility of transition from concrete, obtained through direct experience,
concepts to generalizations that allow you to transfer existing experience to new
situations.Patients cannot live independently, they need constant
leadership and control. Some of them can do the simplest job in
specially created conditions (for example, in medical and labor workshops).
The IQ of these patients is in the 35-49 range.
the degree of mental retardation (debility).
disorders in these patients consist in the difficulty of the formation of complex
concepts and generalizations, the impossibility or difficulty of abstract thinking.Their thinking is predominantly specific and descriptive, quite developed
everyday speech. Patients with mild mental retardation are capable of
assimilation of special programs based on concrete-visual teaching,
which is carried out at a slower pace, as well as the ability to master
simple labor and professional skills. Thanks to the relatively more
higher than with other degrees of mental retardation, the rate of mental
development in patients with debility in many cases, a satisfactory
adaptation to normal living conditions.Often these patients show good
practical awareness (“their skills are greater than their knowledge” – E. Kraepelin). Many
patients with mild mental retardation graduate from specialized schools and
vocational schools, work productively, have families, independently
farm. Compared to other degrees of mental retardation, personality traits and
the character of patients is distinguished by greater differentiation and individuality.
However, these patients find it difficult to form their own judgments, but easily adopt
other people’s views, sometimes falling under the unhealthy influence of others (for example,
can be involved in delusional experiences of mentally ill people with the formation
induced delusions, or become a weapon in the hands of intruders,
manipulating them for their own benefit).Mental coefficient
the development of these patients is in the range of 50-69.
Intellectual failure is the most striking manifestation
mental retardation, but it is only part of the general mental
underdevelopment of the personality. With oligophrenia, emotional and volitional
processes. D.N. Isaev, according to the characteristics of violations of the emotional-volitional sphere, outside
depending on the severity of mental underdevelopment, allocates
the following forms of mental retardation:
1.Stenicheskaya. Volitional processes in these patients have sufficient
strength and stability. Patients are efficient, active. With mild degrees
intellectual disability, they have a good ability to adapt,
are able to make full use of the acquired skills and knowledge. Some
patients have affective instability, therefore, there are two options
stenic form: balanced and unbalanced.
Dysphoric. Characterized by a constant, angry, melancholy affect,
a tendency to dysphoria, impulsive actions, negativism, conflict, disinhibition
drives.Even with minor intellectual disabilities, such patients
incapable of learning and working. During dysphoria, they often show aggression.
(usually towards loved ones who are caring for them, while aggression
can be very cruel and sophisticated) and auto-aggression (inflict deep
cuts, burning the skin with a cigarette, pulling out hair, etc.).
Asthenic . It is characterized by instability of volitional processes, fast
exhaustion, fatigue, sluggishness, impaired attention,
difficulties in learning and using practical skills.
Characterized by an almost complete lack of mental capacity
stress and purposeful activity. Sick or completely inactive
or are in a state of chaotic motor disinhibition.
In most cases, the state of mental
backwardness is relatively stable (“non-progressive”). However, sometimes, under
the influence of internal and external factors, their positive or negative is noted
dynamics.With the timely and active implementation of treatment and correction and
educational measures, the majority of patients suffering from mild and moderate
mental disability, are able to work. During
age evolution and under the influence of therapeutic measures, there is a reduction in motor
disinhibition, impulsivity, negativism, asthenic states, etc.
Negative dynamics of mental retardation is possible when joining
additional pathogenetic mechanisms of brain damage (for example,
deposition of amyloid in Down’s disease), with the action of additional external
harm (craniocerebral trauma, alcoholism, etc.)), psychogenias,
unfavorable social environment, during periods of age crises, etc. Decompensation
with mental retardation, they can manifest themselves with cerebroasthenic and
psychopathic disorders, psychosis with confusion, hallucinatory delusional,
affective psychoses, etc.
Differentiated forms of mental
caused by hereditary (gene and chromosomal) diseases
trisomy on chromosome 21.It was first described by the English physician J. Down in
1866, but the relationship between chromosome abnormalities and clinical manifestations
the disease was established only in 1959 (J. Lejeune). The frequency of birth of children with
Down syndrome is approximately 1: 700, however, at present, due to
the possibilities of prenatal diagnostics, there is a tendency to decrease it. Most
maternal age is recognized as an important risk factor for this chromosomal aberration
(over 35 years old).
manifestations: Mental retardation with Down syndrome may be
expressed in different ways, more often it is moderate and severe, less often mild.Have
patients, there is a late appearance and pronounced underdevelopment of speech (insufficient
understanding of speech, poor vocabulary, dysarthria). Children with Down’s disease
usually not capable of learning even in a special school program and
need individual training. Emotional
the sphere remains quite intact: for the most part, the patients are affectionate, obedient,
attached to their parents, friendly, good-natured (“sunny children”), although there are
stubborn. Many of them are curious and have a good imitative ability,
which contributes to the development of self-service skills and simple work processes.Rarely are indifferent and angry patients. Typically children with illness
Downs develop better in parental families, feeling the care of loved ones, but even
in this case, they do not achieve a satisfactory level of social adaptation
and need constant care.
age dynamics of Down’s disease is late puberty and early
the appearance of signs of involution (at the age of 30-40). Down syndrome has a high
the frequency of early development (after 35 years) of atrophic changes in the cerebral cortex
brain and amyloid accumulation in the form of senile plaques, i.e.e. morphological
changes similar to Alzheimer’s disease. At the same time, patients quickly lose their everyday
skills, vocabulary, become inactive, indifferent, appear
Down syndrome is characterized by a specific physical phenotype, determined
many stigmas of dysontogenesis, which makes it possible to diagnose this
states already at birth. Children are usually short; at birth often
have a low body weight (up to 2500
G). Reduced head circumference.Face is flat
Mongoloid eye shape (the first name of the syndrome is “Mongolism”), wide
the bridge of the nose, the nose is short, occasionally there is a spotted color of the central
parts of the iris; cataracts are not uncommon. The tongue is large, striated, the mouth is half-open.
The ears are small and close-fitting. The brushes are wide, the fingers are short, on the palmar
the surface of the hand is a transverse groove. Structural pathology is common
cardiovascular system, endocrine disorders (hypofunction of the thyroid
glands, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, gonads), muscle hypotension.Is characteristic
increased susceptibility to infections. Life expectancy of patients
significantly reduced, no more than 10% live more than 40 years.
Turner (Shereshevsky-Turner )
Monosomy of the X chromosome (45, X0). Prevalence
1: 3300 newborns.
manifestations: Mental underdevelopment is found only in part
sick; usually mild. Patients are hardworking and complacent. Many
patients have criticism of their condition and the experience of a defect, it is noted
tendency to neurotic reactions
structural anomalies give patients a peculiar appearance: short stature (as a rule,
does not exceed 150 cm),
disproportionate physique (predominance of the upper body, wide
shoulders, narrow pelvis, shortening of the lower limbs, the constitution is approaching
male).The neck is short with excess skin on the posterolateral surface, which
in many patients it appears as a cervical fold. Revealed signs of sexual
infantilism (the external genital organs are underdeveloped, the mammary glands are not developed,
nipples are retracted, hairiness in the pubis and armpits is absent or scarce). Characteristic
signs are primary amenorrhea, anomalies in the structure of the internal genital
Dysomy on the X chromosome in men (47, XXY).Prevalence
1: 1400 newborns (boys).
manifestations: Mental retardation occurs in about a quarter
patients, mostly mild. There is marked immaturity
emotional and volitional sphere. Many patients often have a consciousness of their
inferiority, which becomes a source of internal conflict, are characteristic
neurotic and pathocharacterological reactions. Cases with depressive,
hypochondriacal, obsessive, schizophrenic disorders
patients: characterized by high growth, asthenic constitution, narrow shoulders,
elongated limbs, poorly developed muscles.Constant signs
Klinefelter’s syndrome are genital underdevelopment and infertility. About
half of the patients have gynecomastia and eunuchoid symptoms. V
neurological status in some cases there is muscle hypotonia and
diencephalic-autonomic disorders of the type of panic attacks.
retardation caused by hereditary metabolic defects
mental retardation (phenylketonuria, PKU, Felling’s disease)
– hereditary metabolic disorder (characterized by
autosomal recessive mode of inheritance), due to a deficiency of one of
enzymes of metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine, which leads to oxidation disorders
phenylalanine to tyrosine, insufficient synthesis of catecholamines (adrenaline and
norepinephrine), thyroid hormones, melanin, serotonin.As a result
there is a gradual accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites in the body,
having a toxic effect on the central nervous system, hormone deficiency is formed and
neurotransmitters with further mental retardation.
Phenylalanine and its metabolites (phenylketone substances) are excreted in the urine. Revealed
significant ethnic differences in the prevalence of phenylketonuria. In Russia
the frequency among newborns is 1: 6-10 thousand
picture: Children with phenylketonuria are born with normal
a formed and functionally complete brain (since
biochemical processes of the fetus are provided by the metabolism of the mother).Biochemical disorders begin to develop immediately after birth. Already at 4-6 months.
there is a lag in psychomotor development, which is progressing noticeably. Deployed
the clinical picture of the disease includes mental retardation, severe or
deep degree, behavioral disorders and catatonic disorders (conditions
psychomotor agitation, impulsive actions, stereotyped movements,
echopraxia, echolalia, substupor states), asthenic states. Often
there is an increase in muscle tone, convulsions (in 30% of patients), hyperkinesis,
tremor of the fingers, ataxia, impaired coordination, enuresis.Characterized by defects
pigmentation (most patients are blond, with a light, devoid of pigment
skin and blue eyes). Urine has a peculiar smell (“the smell of a wolf”,
“Mouse”, “musty”). Biochemical diagnosis of phenylketonuria is based on
positive urine reaction with FeCl3 to phenylpyruvic acid (Felling’s test)
and detecting an increased concentration of phenylalanine in blood plasma.
an example of a hereditary disease with the possibility of a good effect in
timely preventive therapy: to prevent the development of mental
and neurological disorders from the first months of life to 10-12 years
age, diets are used with a sharp restriction of phenylalanine (completely
exclude animal protein, significantly vegetable protein, compensate for protein deficiency
special mixtures of amino acids without phenylalanine).Nervous sensitivity
tissue to the toxic effect of phenylalanine metabolic products, as well as to other
metabolic disorders are highest at an early age (during the period of brain maturation).
After the end of the myelination process, the increase in phenylalanine in the blood is no longer
has a pathogenic effect on the brain.
backwardness caused by the action of hazards during intrauterine development
(embryopathy and fetopathy)
caused by rubella virus (rubeolar embryopathy) . At
the disease of pregnant rubella in the first trimester of pregnancy is formed
embryopathy with gross disorders of the structure of the nervous system (microcephelium,
porencephaly), organs of hearing and vision, congenital malformations of internal organs.
Mental retardation in such patients is usually profound, convulsive
retardation due to hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn . Hemolytic
fetal disease (fetal erythroblastosis) is caused by Rh-conflict between the mother
and a child, which leads to hemolysis of fetal erythrocytes, anemia, high
the level of bilirubin, circulatory disorders, edema, increased intracranial
pressure.One of the consequences of this condition may be the formation
mental retardation, the severity of which is different.
backwardness due to the mother’s alcoholism (alcohol fetopathy). Developing
when mothers drink alcohol during pregnancy. According to a number
authors ranks first among the causes of mild mental retardation. Clinical
the picture consists of mental retardation (mostly mild),
delays in physical development (especially pronounced at birth and in the early years
life), disturbances in the structure of the skull (microcephaly, shortening of the palpebral fissures,
underdevelopment of the bones of the middle part – a convex forehead, a short nose with a wide and
flat nose, hypoplasia of the upper jaw).
caused by the action of hazards during childbirth or in the first months and years of life
backwardness due to birth trauma or asphyxiation in childbirth . Mechanical
damage to the baby’s skull during childbirth can lead to intracranial
hemorrhages or even direct damage to the brain and its membranes.
Oxygen starvation causes metabolic disorders in the nervous tissue. These factors
can lead to the formation of organic pathology of the brain and, in
subsequent, mental retardation (the severity of which may be different).Birth injuries are characterized by focal neurological disorders, convulsive
seizures, sometimes hydrocephalus.
retardation due to neuroinfections in early childhood . After
transferred meningitis and meningoencephalitis, mental
backwardness of varying severity, focal neurological
disorders, seizures, hydrocephalus.
mental retardation is based on the establishment of a mental defect, the central
the place in which is the underdevelopment of intellectual abilities, on
detecting signs of mental retardation in children and
adolescence, as well as the lack of progression, i.e.e. signs
deepening of the mental defect. In order to determine the degree of intellectual
defect use special psychological methods for assessing intelligence (see.
(see chapter 7). To clarify the etiology of some forms of mental retardation
additional laboratory and instrumental studies are required.
It is necessary to differentiate mental retardation with conditions caused by
pedagogical neglect (cases when a healthy child is deprived of conditions for
correct mental development) and progressive mental illness
(primarily with schizophrenia and epilepsy, manifesting in early childhood
Forecast of mental
backwardness depends on the degree of mental underdevelopment, the severity
intellectual defect, characteristics of the emotional-volitional sphere of patients,
etiology. With uncomplicated mental retardation of a mild degree, it is possible
complete social adaptation that eliminates the need for supervision
psychiatrist. At the same time, the social prognosis of deep and severe degrees of mental
backwardness is unfavorable.
90,000 First signs of pregnancy | “MamaBoom”
A delay in menstruation with a regular menstrual cycle is one of the first “bells” that can warn a woman that she may be in an interesting position.A delay in menstruation, being an early sign of pregnancy, implies a gestational age of no more than two weeks. The condition of a healthy woman, as a rule, is not accompanied by any other signs of early pregnancy, except for a delay. Despite this, some women, sometimes groundlessly, associate the occurrence of certain symptoms with the first signs of early pregnancy.
Nevertheless, the body of a certain part of women turns out to be extremely sensitive to the new condition and signals about it with rather unpleasant symptoms already in the first weeks of pregnancy, the signs may be as follows – abdominal discomfort and early toxicosis appear.In most cases, this feeling is associated with signs of a second pregnancy. This is due to the fact that most women who have experienced repeated pregnancy are in fact able to catch the characteristic changes in their body and feel the very first signs of pregnancy after conception. However, the second pregnancy is not characterized by the presence of any specific symptoms. Only after 5-6-7 weeks the first signs of pregnancy make it clear to the woman that she is in the role of a future mother.
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Doubtful signs of pregnancy in the early days are the following:
- change in olfactory sensitivity, as well as the occurrence of a distorted sense of smell;
- a sharp deterioration in the emotional and mental state, accompanied by increased irritability, drowsiness, sudden changes in mood, dizziness;
- the appearance of age spots in the area of the white line of the abdomen and nipples, although mainly pigmentation is accompanied by later stages of pregnancy;
- the need for frequent urination;
- sensation of breast hardening;
- an increase in the size of the abdomen at a short time, which is the result of swelling of the intestinal loops.
Doubtful signs of early pregnancy are not a 100% guarantee that a woman is in a position, since such changes may also testify in favor of other processes occurring in our body. Moreover, both a delay in menstruation and a regular menstrual cycle in this case also do not confirm pregnancy.
- absence of menstruation in a healthy woman with a regular menstrual cycle;
- an increase in the volume of the mammary glands, an increase in their sensitivity and the appearance of colostrum during pressure on them;
- the appearance of a bluish tint in the vaginal mucosa and on the neck of the poppy;
- change in the size, shape and structure of the uterus (during pregnancy over 5-6 weeks).
The probable first signs of pregnancy before the delay are considered more informative and reliable (although they are not unambiguous evidence of pregnancy), nevertheless, they should be identified by a specialist during a comprehensive examination of a woman.
- Pregnancy test – in order to obtain the most reliable indications, this type of diagnosis is recommended to be carried out starting from the first day of the expected delay.
- Determination of the ß-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin – a specific pregnancy hormone ß-hCG, which is detected in the blood 7-9 days after fertilization.In this regard, diagnostics becomes possible already in the first days of the delay.
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs with an intravaginal sensor will help diagnose pregnancy as early as 3-5 weeks from the first day of delay in menstruation.
A little pregnant. Scientists have explained the mysterious behavior of women
A little pregnant. Scientists have explained the mysterious behavior of women
A little pregnant. Scientists have explained the mysterious behavior of women – RIA Novosti, 26.05.2019
A little pregnant. Scientists have explained the mysterious behavior of women
The situation when a woman finds out about her position only at the time of childbirth is not as exceptional as previously thought. Scientists call it hidden pregnancy, and … RIA Novosti, 26.05.2019
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https : // cdnn21.img.ria.ru/images/155485/21/1554852105_0:160:3072:1888_1920x0_80_0_0_791deb5e1acb21a94eb987c2634bfe43.jpg
MOSCOW, May 26 – RIA Novosti, Tatyana Pichugina. The situation when a woman finds out about her position only at the time of childbirth is not as exceptional as previously thought. Scientists call this hidden pregnancy, and it is possible among women from all walks of life. This phenomenon has not only psychophysiological, but also social reasons. Why hide pregnancy nowadays In past times, circumstances, strict social morals sometimes forced an unmarried young woman to carefully hide pregnancy.If she declared that she did not know about her condition, they certainly did not believe her. Since then, the concept of “denied” or “hidden” pregnancy has existed in medicine. A Finnish sociologist describes how in 1861 a 25-year-old maid was tried in the town of Uusikaupunki for murdering a newborn. At the trial, she claimed that she did not know about pregnancy, had not had periods for the last three years, and did not feel movements in the womb. It turned out, however, that a month before giving birth, the defendant had visited the doctor with a complaint of severe abdominal pain.He suspected pregnancy and recommended leaving the job. The maid gave birth to a dead baby somewhere in the swamps in winter and hid the body. The court accused her of lying, sentenced her to 24 lashes and two years in hard labor. The same happens today, and with outwardly prosperous citizens. Physicians, as a rule, suspect such mental disorders. Scientists from Switzerland list the typical signs of patients who deny pregnancy: young age, low intelligence and socioeconomic status, social isolation, sexual illiteracy.An example is given. In Lausanne, an ambulance took a 19-year-old patient to hospital with severe bleeding and seizures. The pregnancy hormone test was positive and it was clear that she had recently given birth. The girl suffered from developmental delay, she was overweight, and a brain tumor was revealed on the MRI scans. Only a day later, she confessed to a traumatic birth right at home. Pregnancy was hidden due to difficult relationships with parents. She did not say who her partner was. When signs are absent Italian scientists from the School of Medicine and Surgery of Milan (Italy) are discussing another incident.In 2015, a 25-year-old married woman was taken to the obstetric department of one of the hospitals who gave birth at home without assistance. Although she already had a child, the patient assured that she did not know about the second pregnancy, did not gain weight and did not notice fetal movements. All this time she took hormonal contraceptives. Her husband did not suspect anything either. The survey did not reveal any mental abnormalities or signs of domestic violence. Fortunately, the baby was born healthy. There are many similar stories in the scientific literature.Scientists admit that a woman may not be aware of pregnancy. And it’s not always about psychology. Sometimes the symptoms are subtle or absent at all. The pregnant woman does not notice that she has recovered, does not feel nausea, she has an irregular cycle, and there are no fetal tremors. Her situation is not recognized by her relatives, her husband and even the attending physician. Doctors from a hospital in Torquay (UK) reported a 23-year-old patient who was brought in by ambulance due to severe back pain. Analysis showed that she was pregnant. She was transferred to the obstetric department, where the next morning the patient gave birth to a healthy boy by caesarean section.The girl assured that she took oral contraceptives, did not miss a pill. She did not notice her belly, because she was overweight anyway. Her boyfriend did not know about pregnancy either. And the therapist, whom she visited the day before, treated her for a genitourinary infection. The body tries to cheat According to many years of research, one in 475 women learns about pregnancy in the last weeks, one in two and a half thousand – only during childbirth. That is, it is not that uncommon. Doctors warn: concealed pregnancy is dangerous for the health of the mother and child.A woman leads a habitual lifestyle, can drink alcohol, smoke, engage in affairs that are not befitting her state. Without proper medical support, childbirth occurs suddenly in the most inappropriate place, often prematurely. The risk of injury or death of the newborn is very high. In 2006, Italian psychologist Marco del Guidici analyzed the statistics of such incidents and suggested rethinking their causes. He found no connection between mental disorders and denial of pregnancy.For example, in Australia, in 27 cases, 48 percent of patients were diagnosed with mental disorders, and in Germany, 62 cases of mentally ill patients – only 13 percent. Guidichi draws attention to the fact that, while denying pregnancy, almost all women refer to the absence of symptoms, in particular nausea. By the way, not all ordinary pregnant women experience it – only 26 percent. Many scientists note that those who hide pregnancy often abandon children, the risk of infant mortality is high.But Guidici has different information. For example, for two years of observation in Australia there was not a single refusal, emotional rejection of the baby, neglect of maternal responsibilities. Women are able to accept the situation, many feel a sense of guilt in front of the child. It is necessary, however, to take into account that not all cases of concealed pregnancy fall into the area of medical attention. Guidichi admits that the absence of pregnancy symptoms is sometimes beneficial to the body – for example, with defects in the fetus or in conditions of severe stress, when the mother needs to conserve resources.This is indicated by the fact that more than 20 percent of those who conceal pregnancy have children with insufficient weight (less than 2.5 kilograms), while the average for the population is seven percent. The scientist suggests a new term – latent pregnancy (cryptic pregnancy), to emphasize the unconscious nature of this phenomenon. American researchers analyze several cases of latent pregnancy at once and name the factors that lead to it: an inaccurate test at home, excess weight, previously diagnosed infertility, an irregular cycle, stress, mental disorders.Doctors recommend that emergency departments check for pregnancy all women of reproductive age who are admitted with abdominal pain or with at least one other suspicious symptom.
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Finland, Australia, pregnancy
MOSCOW, 26 May – RIA Novosti, Tatyana Pichugina. The situation when a woman finds out about her position only at the time of childbirth is not as exceptional as previously thought. Scientists call this hidden pregnancy, and it is possible among women from all walks of life.This phenomenon has not only psychophysiological, but also social reasons.
Why hide pregnancy nowadays
In past times, circumstances, strict social morals sometimes forced an unmarried young woman to carefully hide pregnancy. If she declared that she did not know about her condition, they certainly did not believe her. Since then, the concept of “denied” or “hidden” pregnancy has existed in medicine.
A Finnish sociologist describes how in 1861 a 25-year-old maid was tried in the town of Uusikaupunki for murdering a newborn.At the trial, she claimed that she did not know about pregnancy, had not had periods for the last three years, and did not feel movements in the womb.
It turned out, however, that a month before the birth the defendant had visited the doctor with a complaint of severe abdominal pain. He suspected pregnancy and recommended leaving the job. The maid gave birth to a dead baby somewhere in the swamps in winter and hid the body. The court accused her of lying, sentenced her to 24 lashes and two years in hard labor.
The same happens today, and with outwardly prosperous citizens.Physicians, as a rule, suspect such mental disorders. Scientists from Switzerland list the typical signs of patients who deny pregnancy: young age, low intelligence and socioeconomic status, social isolation, sexual illiteracy.
An example is given. In Lausanne, an ambulance took a 19-year-old patient to hospital with severe bleeding and seizures. The pregnancy hormone test was positive and it was clear that she had recently given birth.
The girl suffered from developmental delay, she was overweight, and a brain tumor was revealed on the MRI scans.Only a day later, she confessed to a traumatic birth right at home. Pregnancy was hidden due to difficult relationships with parents. She did not say who her partner was.
January 5, 2019, 17:35
In the United States, a woman who was in a coma for more than ten years gave birth to a child
When signs are absent
Italian scientists from the School of Medicine and Surgery of Milan (Italy) are discussing another incident.
In 2015, a 25-year-old married woman was admitted to the obstetric department of one of the hospitals who gave birth at home without assistance.Although she already had a child, the patient assured that she did not know about the second pregnancy, did not gain weight and did not notice fetal movements. All this time she took hormonal contraceptives. Her husband did not suspect anything either.
The survey did not reveal any mental abnormalities or signs of domestic violence. Fortunately, the baby was born healthy.
There are many similar stories in the scientific literature. Scientists admit that a woman may not be aware of pregnancy. And it’s not always about psychology.Sometimes the symptoms are subtle or absent at all. The pregnant woman does not notice that she has recovered, does not feel nausea, she has an irregular cycle, and there are no fetal tremors. Her situation is not recognized by her relatives, her husband and even the attending physician.
Doctors from a hospital in Torquay (UK) reported a 23-year-old patient who was brought in by ambulance due to severe back pain. Analysis showed that she was pregnant. She was transferred to the obstetric department, where the next morning the patient gave birth to a healthy boy by caesarean section.
The girl assured that she took oral contraceptives, did not miss a pill. She did not notice her belly, because she was overweight anyway. Her boyfriend did not know about pregnancy either. And the therapist, whom she visited the day before, treated her for a genitourinary infection.
26 February 2019, 08:00 Science They ran on all fours, barked and growled. Is it possible to re-educate Mowgli children
The body is trying to cheat
According to many years of research, one out of 475 women learns about pregnancy in the last weeks, one out of two and a half thousand – only during childbirth.That is, it is not that uncommon.
Doctors warn: concealed pregnancy is dangerous for the health of the mother and child. A woman leads a habitual lifestyle, can drink alcohol, smoke, engage in affairs that are not befitting her state. Without proper medical support, childbirth occurs suddenly in the most inappropriate place, often prematurely. The risk of injury or death of the newborn is very high.
In 2006, the Italian psychologist Marco del Guidici analyzed the statistics of such incidents and suggested rethinking their causes.He found no connection between mental disorders and denial of pregnancy. For example, in Australia, in 27 cases, 48 percent of patients were diagnosed with mental disorders, and in Germany, 62 cases of mentally ill patients – only 13 percent. 30 November 2018, 08:00 Science The first children with altered DNA were born in China. Why no one is happy about this
Guidichi draws attention to the fact that, denying pregnancy, almost all women refer to the absence of symptoms, in particular nausea. By the way, not all ordinary pregnant women experience it – only 26 percent.
Many scientists note that those who hide pregnancy often abandon children, the risk of infant mortality is high. But Guidici has different information. For example, for two years of observation in Australia there was not a single refusal, emotional rejection of the baby, neglect of maternal responsibilities. Women are able to accept the situation, many feel a sense of guilt in front of the child. It is necessary, however, to take into account that not all cases of concealed pregnancy fall into the area of medical attention.
Guidichi admits that the absence of pregnancy symptoms is sometimes beneficial to the body – for example, in case of fetal defects or in conditions of severe stress, when the mother needs to conserve resources.This is indicated by the fact that more than 20 percent of those who conceal pregnancy have children with insufficient weight (less than 2.5 kilograms), while the average for the population is seven percent.