Boric acid reviews: Amazon.com: NutraBlast Boric Acid Vaginal Suppositories – 100% Pure Made in USA
Boric acid vaginal suppositories: a brief review.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 1998; 6(4): 191–194.
Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (373K).
These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
- Shinohara YT, Tasker SA. Successful use of boric acid to control azole-refractory Candida vaginitis in a woman with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997 Nov 1;16(3):219–220. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
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Articles from Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology are provided here courtesy of Hindawi Limited
Boric Acid vaginal suppository
What is this medicine?
BORIC ACID (BOHR ik AS id) helps to promote the proper acid balance in the vagina. It is used to help treat yeast infections of the vagina and relieve symptoms such as itching and burning.
This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.
COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Hylafem
What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?
They need to know if you have any of these conditions:
- frequent infections
- HIV or AIDS
- immune system problems
- an unusual or allergic reaction to boric acid, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
- pregnant or trying to get pregnant
How should I use this medicine?
This medicine is for use in the vagina. Do not take by mouth. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Read package directions carefully before using. Wash hands before and after use. Use this medicine at bedtime, unless otherwise directed by your doctor. Do not use your medicine more often than directed. Do not stop using this medicine except on your doctor’s advice.
Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. This medicine is not approved for use in children.
Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.
NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.
What if I miss a dose?
If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, use only that dose. Do not use double or extra doses.
What may interact with this medicine?
Interactions are not expected. Do not use any other vaginal products without telling your doctor or health care professional.
This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.
What should I watch for while using this medicine?
Tell your doctor or health care professional if your symptoms do not start to get better within a few days.
It is better not to have sex until you have finished your treatment. This medicine may damage condoms or diaphragms and cause them not to work properly. It may also decrease the effect of vaginal spermicides. Do not rely on any of these methods to prevent sexually transmitted diseases or pregnancy while you are using this medicine.
Vaginal medicines usually will come out of the vagina during treatment. To keep the medicine from getting on your clothing, wear a panty liner. The use of tampons is not recommended. To help clear up the infection, wear freshly washed cotton, not synthetic, underwear.
What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine?
Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:
- allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives
- vaginal irritation, redness, or burning
Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):
This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Where should I keep my medicine?
Keep out of the reach of children.
Store in a cool, dry place between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F). Keep away from sunlight. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.
NOTE: This sheet is a summary. It may not cover all possible information. If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider.
The Best Over-the-Counter Yeast Infection Cure is: The Killer
When I first started writing for Man Repeller, I never imagined that I’d be endorsing anything called “The Killer.” I did not know I’d be saying that the “Killer” changed the way I live my life, that it gave me a solution to an exhausting, ongoing dilemma, and that it was pretty.
However, here I am. And when I say “The Killer,” I’m talking about yeast infection suppositories.
For the past eight years of my life I have been prone to yeast infections. What are they, you ask? “A fungal infection that causes irritation, discharge, and intense itchiness of the vagina and vulva,” says Mayo Clinic. Cute! I’m not sure if it’s something about my downstairs pH, my overall body chemistry, or what, but I get them a lot. Like many times a year a lot, depending on the year. New sexual partner? Yeast infection. Took too long to shower after my run? Yeast infection. Sat on a bike for, like, two hours? Yeast infection.
And, if you’re a vagina-posessing individual, you, like me, may have tried Monistat: the classic over-the-counter cream or capsule insertion for banishing das yeast. It has…occasionally…worked for me. (I’m not here to spread horror stories but I tried the Monistat 1-Day in college and my eyes snapped open in the middle of the night, I rushed to the shower in horror, and I clawed at my nether regions for an hour trying to reduce the painful, itchy, horrible feeling of too-potent medicine. Also cute!)
Even my doctor, who will offer me pills to banish the yeast infections whenever I visit with the same old story, has often shrugged her shoulders and said: “You’re just one of those women who is more prone to these.” Okay, DOC.
Enter: Love Wellness’s “The Killer.” The first time I heard about this product was from a woman I was seeing. She had these in her bathroom cabinet and offered me one after I mentioned I was feeling a bit “imbalanced.” I inserted it overnight and the next morning I felt fine. The discomfort was seemingly gone. I rejoiced, and feverishly looked up the product online so I could buy several boxes.
It turned out that “The Killer,” in its très chic little box, is a boric acid suppository, which is a time-old, doctor-approved agent for balancing vaginal yeast and bacteria. These ones are doctor-developed, and have more than 1,748 five-star reviews on their website out of 1,925 reviews. One, that’s a lot of reviews, and two, that’s a lot of positive reviews. I guess this post is essentially my review, too.
I always have three boxes of “The Killer” on deck. Oftentimes, I’ll only need to use it for 3-4 days before I feel like I’m back to normal, but technically you can use the suppositories for up to 12 days. It has consistently brought me back to a feeling of “squeaky clean.”
Even if you’re not the kind of person described above (a.k.a. me) (in which case, lucky you), “The Killer” feels like the kind of thing that is important to have on hand for whenever your vagina feels like the queasy emoji. That being said!!!! If your symptoms don’t seem to indicate a yeast infection, check in with your doctor instead of resorting to these. I don’t want a maelstrom of comments telling me I’m being irresponsible by giving you over-the-counter options for yeast infections, ppl!
Anyway, the long and short of it is: “The Killer” has truly turned my life on its head in the best possible way, showing me a healthy path out of a long, frustrating cycle. ~
Four Reasons NOT to Use Boric Acid for BV
Boric Acid is poison. Keep away from pets and children.
If you or a loved one accidentally ingested Boric Acid, call your local emergency number (911), or the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222).
Boric Acid crystals (H3BO3)
NeuEve cares deeply about the health and wellness of our customers. The ingredients we use reflect our belief in the scientific healing power of wholesome, natural ingredients.
We strongly recommend against using boric acid vaginal suppositories, for these four reasons:
- Boric acid is a pesticide.
- Boric acid is poisonous to humans.
- Boric acid is an environmental pollutant.
- Boric acid is ineffective or marginally effective for treating BV.
What you read next may surprise you:
Boric acid is a pesticide.
Boric acid has the nickname “the gift that keeps on killing.” Cockroaches coming in contact with boric acid get an effect like shards of glass slowly cutting them apart. A tiny bit of boric acid can wipe out an entire whole roach colony, something even atomic bombs can’t do. 
Boric acid is poisonous to humans.
In 1988, in a tragic accident at a festival in Malaysia, 13 children died from food poisoning after they ate a dish containing boric acid. Their symptoms included: vomiting, pyrexia, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, anorexia, giddiness, seizures, and eventual coma. 
Boric acid is an environmental pollutant.
Environmental experts in Australia have concluded that “chronic intoxication with boric acid may give rise to anorexia, loss of strength, confusion and loss of hair. Reproductive effects, such as low sperm count, were seen in men exposed to boron over the long-term.” Yikes! 
Extensive studies in animals and humans showed that boric acid not only
sterilizes the male reproductivity, but it also has a strong estrogen-like effect to promote growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and increase the weight of uterus of ovariectomized rats. 
Boric Acid is ineffective or marginally effective for treating BV.
Boric acid vaginal suppositories kill all bacteria indiscriminately. There are actually a lot of good bacteria called lactobacilli. Lactobacilli are the unsung heroes, they work hard to keep your vagina healthy and smelling fresh. When you have a strong population of lactobacilli, they actually help keep out the odor-causing bacteria. Boric acid destroys your entire vaginal microbial population; it’s extremely disruptive. Shortly after using boric acid, scientific studies show that ~50% of women soon get recurrent BV 
Recurrent BV sometime heals by itself and occurs again. That is why it gets the name “recurrent.” Because these two studies did not have a placebo control group, the low rate of 50% recovery in these studies could be just a placebo effect. This suggests that the boric acid treatment of BV is ineffective or, at most, marginally effective.
NeuEve – the Natural Alternative to Boric Acid Suppositories
It’s for all the reasons stated above that NeuEve contains no boric acid. All of NeuEve’s ingredients are 100% all-natural, food-grade and nontoxic.
If someone ingested a boric acid vaginal suppository, they would have to call Poison Control. If someone ingested a NeuEve vaginal suppository, absolutely nothing would happen.
Tens of thousands of women have safely found permanent relief from BV using NeuEve.
Click here to see a breakdown comparison of Boric Acid vs NeuEve
Boric Acid vs NeuEve BV Clear
|NeuEve BV Clear||Boric Acid |
over 9 nights
|600mg / night
over 7 nights
Because NeuEve BV Clear is the highest priced self-care product on the market for BV care, nearly all of our customers have tried boric acids and other products or even prescription drugs without effect before using BV Clear. Nearly 100% women who used NeuEve have found relief safely, effectively, and rapidly.
Human and rats metabolize boric acid in a similar way.
Murray FJ. A comparative review of the pharmacokinetics of boric acid in rodents and humans. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998; 66(1-3):331-41.
Boric acid is toxic to male reproductivity in rats.
Yoshizaki H, et al. Availability of sperm examination for male reproductive toxicities in rats treated with boric acid. J Toxicol Sci. 1999 Aug;24(3):199-208.
Weir RJ, Fisher RS (1972) Toxicologic studies on borax and boric acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 23:351–364 24.
Kimberley A Treinen Robert E (1991) Development of testicular lesions in F334 rats after treatment with boric acid. Toxicol Appl Pharm 107:325–335 25.
Ku WW, Chapin RE (1994) Mechanism of the testicular toxicity of boric acid in rats: in vivo and in vitro studies. Environ Health Perspec 102(Suppl7):99–105 28.
Kudo S, Tanase H, Yamasaki M, Nakao M, Miyata Y, Tsuru K, Imai S (2000) Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 23). A comparative 2- and 4-week repeated oral dose testicular toxicity study of boric acid in rats. J Toxicol Sci 25:223–232
Boric acid has estrogen-like effects in humans and rats:
Nielsen FH, Mullen LM, Gallagher SK (1990) Effect of boron depletion and repletion on blood indicators of calcium status in humans fed a magnesium-low diet. J Trace Elem Exp Med 3:45–54 26.
Wang Y, Zhao Y, Chen X. Experimental study on the estrogen-like effect of boric Acid. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008;121(2):160-70.
Boric acid is toxic to rabbits:
Price CJ, Marr MC, Myers CB, Seely JC, Heindel JJ, Schwetz BA (1996) The developmental toxicity of boric acid in rabbits. Fundam Appl Toxicol 34:176–187 27.
Clinical studies of boric acid for BV treatment:
Marrazzo JM, et al. Safety and Efficacy of a Novel Vaginal Anti-infective, TOL-463, in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A Randomized, Single-blind, Phase 2, Controlled Trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2019; 68(5):803-809.
Reichman O, et al. Boric acid addition to suppressive antimicrobial therapy for recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Sex Transm Dis. 2009; 36(11):732-4.
Boric Acid Technical Fact Sheet
As of 2011, NPIC stopped creating technical pesticide fact sheets. The old collection of technical fact sheets will remain available in this archive, but they may contain out-of-date material. NPIC no longer has the capacity to consistently update them. To visit our general fact sheets, click here. For up-to-date technical fact sheets, please visit the Environmental Protection Agency’s webpage.
Laboratory Testing: Before pesticides are registered by
the U. S. EPA, they must undergo laboratory testing for
short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) health effects.
Laboratory animals are purposely given high enough doses
to cause toxic effects. These tests help scientists judge how
these chemicals might affect humans, domestic animals,
and wildlife in cases of overexposure.
Molecular Structure –
Chemical Class and Type:
- Boric acid and its sodium borate salts are active ingredients in
pesticide products used as insecticides, acaricides, algaecides,
herbicides, fungicides and as wood preservatives.1
- Boric acid and borate salts exist naturally in rocks, soil, plants and
water as forms of the naturally occurring element boron.2,3
- Boric acid and borate salt pesticides were registered for use in 1948 and were reregistered by the United States Environmental
Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1993.1 See the text box on Laboratory Testing.
- The borate salts include sodium tetraborate, disodium octaborate and sodium
metaborate.1 Both sodium tetraborate and disodium octaborate occur in several
hydration states. Sodium tetraborate decahydrate is also known as borax.1
- Uses for individual boric acid and borate salt products vary widely. Boric acid and
its sodium borate salts are active ingredients in pesticides used against insects,
spiders, mites, algae, molds, fungi, and weeds.1
- Boric acid and borate salt products are used on a variety of sites including sewage
systems, food and non-food crops, outdoor residential areas, and indoor sites such
as homes, hospitals, and commercial buildings.1,2
- Commercial formulations of boric acid and borate salts include liquids (solutions,
emulsifiable concentrates), granules, wettable powders, dusts, pellets, tablets, rods
and baits in concentrations ranging from 1% to nearly 100%. 1
- Signal words for products containing boric acid may range from Caution to Danger.10 The signal word reflects the combined
toxicity of the active ingredient and other ingredients in the product. See the pesticide label on the product and refer to
the NPIC fact sheets on Signal Words and Inert or “Other” Ingredients.
- To find a list of products containing boric acid which are registered in your state, visit the website
http://npic.orst.edu/reg/state_agencies.html select your state then click on the link for “State Products.”
- In addition to pesticidal uses, boric acid and borate salts may be used as soil amendments in boron-deficient soils.6 Boric
acid, anhydrous sodium tetraborate and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) are also used as components of plant
fertilizers, household cleaners, laundry detergents and personal care products.2
- Boron is present in many foods and drinking water supplies. Estimated human consumption of boron in the U.S. diet ranges
from 0.02 mg boron/day to more than 9 mg boron/day with an estimated average intake of 1.17 mg boron/day for men
and 0.96 mg boron/day for women.7 Recent evidence has suggested that boron may be an essential micronutrient.7,8
- Boric acid and borates are released into the environment by human activities including the use of borate salt laundry
products, coal burning, power generation, chemical manufacturing, copper smelters, rockets, mining operations and
industries using boron compounds in the manufacture of glass, fiberglass, porcelain enamel, ceramic glazes, metal alloys
and fire retardants.2,4
Physical / Chemical Properties:
- The water solubility of boric acid and sodium tetraborate (all hydration states) increases at higher water temperatures.4
- Boric acid is a weak acid (pKa = 9.15), existing in aqueous solutions at or below pH 7 as undissociated boric acid. Above pH
10 the metaborate anion dominates the solution.3
- Sodium metaborate is much higher in solubility and alkalinity than the other borates. Sodium metaborate solutions range
in pH from 10.5 to 12, while borax solutions typically have a pH of about 9.24.3
- To convert doses of boron compounds to boron equivalents, multiply the dose by the compound’s boron content in Table
1. For example, multiply the number of mg boric acid by 0.1748 to find the equivalent dose of boron in mg.3
- Table 1. Boric acid and its sodium salts1,2,3,4,5
|Active Ingredient||CASRN||Molecular Formula||% Boron||Physical State||Vapor Pressure (Torr)||Molecular Weight||Solubility in Water (% w/w 20 °C)||Octanol Water Coefficient (Kow)|
|H3BO3||17. 48%||White or colorless solid crystalline powder||<10-4 at 20 °C||61.83||4.72%||0.175|
|Sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax)||1303-96-4
|11.34%||White or colorless crystalline powder||<10-6||381.43||4.71%||0.175|
|Sodium tetraborate pentahydrate||11130-12-04
|14.85%||mild white alkaline salt||<10-6||291.35||3.6%||No data|
|Sodium tetraborate anhydrous||1330-43-4
|Na2B4O7||21. 5%||Solid crystalline or amorphous||<10-6||201.22||24.8%||No data|
|Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate||12008-41-2
|20.96%||Powder||<10-6||412.31||9.5% at 20 °C||No data|
|Disodium octaborate (anhydrous)||12008-41-2
|Na2B8O13||25.83%||Solid rods||<10-6||340.31||No data|
|NaBO2||Solid white pieces or powder||<10-6||65.82||Soluble, no values reported||No data|
Mode of Action:
- Boric acid acts as a stomach poison and may also have some toxic effects on the nervous system of insects. 3,9 In addition
to being stomach poisons, most borate salts are also abrasive to insect exoskeletons.1 The effectiveness of boric acid dusts
against insects is reduced when dust gets wet.10
- Boric acid, sodium tetraborate decahydrate, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate are used to inhibit the growth of fungi
by preventing the production of reproductive spores.5
- Boric acid and sodium tetraborate (all hydration states) can be used as herbicides, causing the desiccation of plants.5
Sodium metaborate works as an herbicide by interrupting the plant’s photosynthetic pathway.5
- The mechanism of toxicity in animals is not known. Limited studies have suggested that oral boron exposure may play
a role in altering gene expression, cell division and/or cell maturation rates.1,2
- The oral toxicity of boric acid and borate salts relates primarily
to the amount of boron ingested as part of the parent
compound.11 Table 1 lists the percent of boron in each
borate compound that is currently registered as a pesticide.
LD50/LC50: A common
measure of acute toxicity is the lethal dose (LD50) or
lethal concentration (LC50) that causes death (resulting
from a single or limited exposure) in 50 percent of the treated
animals. LD50 is generally expressed as the dose in
milligrams (mg) of chemical per kilogram (kg) of body
weight. LC50 is often expressed as mg of chemical per
volume (e.g., liter (L)) of medium (i.e., air or water) the organism
is exposed to. Chemicals are considered highly toxic when the
LD50/LC50 is small and practically non-toxic
when the value is large. However, the LD50/LC50
does not reflect any effects from long-term exposure (i.e., cancer,
birth defects or reproductive toxicity) that may occur at levels below
those that cause death.
- Boric acid and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) are low
in toxicity for acute oral exposures.1 Because the other borate
salts also exist as boric acid at physiological pH, it is assumed
that their acute toxicities are similar.1,11
- The U.S. EPA considers boric acid to be low in acute toxicity based on studies in rats with an oral LD50 of 3450 mg/kg for male
rats and 4080 mg/kg for female rats.1 Sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) is also low in toxicity based on acute oral
toxicity studies in rats with an LD50 of 4550 mg/kg for male rats and 4980 mg/kg for female rats.1 For both compounds the
most sensitive toxicological end points are testicular atrophy in males and developmental toxicity in pregnant females.
Researchers observed skeletal abnormalities and decreased fetal weight in offspring at oral doses that caused no signs of
toxicity to the mother.1 See the text boxes on Toxicity Classification and LD50/LC50.
TOXICITY CLASSIFICATION – BORIC ACID
High Toxicity Moderate Toxicity Low Toxicity Very Low Toxicity
Acute Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg
(≤ 50 mg/kg)
Greater than 50 through 500 mg/kg
Greater than 500 through 5000 mg/kg
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
Inhalation LC50 Up to and including 0.05 mg/L
Greater than 0.05 through 0.5 mg/L
Greater than 0.5 through 2.0 mg/L
Greater than 2.0 mg/L
Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg
Greater than 200 through 2000 mg/kg
Greater than 2000 through 5000 mg/kg
Greater than 5000 mg/kg
Primary Eye Irritation Corrosive (irreversible destruction of ocular tissue) or corneal involvement or
irritation persisting for more than 21 days (Borax)
Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 8 – 21 days Corneal involvement or other eye irritation clearing in 7 days or less (Boric Acid) Minimal effects clearing in less than 24 hours
Primary Skin Irritation Corrosive (tissue destruction into the
dermis and/or scarring)
Severe irritation at 72 hours
(severe erythema or edema)
Moderate irritation at 72
hours (moderate erythema)
Mild or slight irritation at
72 hours (no irritation or
The highlighted boxes reflect the values in the “Acute Toxicity” section of this fact sheet. Modeled after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Label Review Manual, Chapter 7: Precautionary Labeling. https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2018-04/documents/chap-07-mar-2018.pdf
- The reported acute oral LD50 for boric acid in mice is 3450 mg/kg.12 Studies in rats report LD50 values for boric acid ranging
from 2660-5140 mg boric acid/kg body weight depending on the duration of exposure.3,12,13 Acute oral LD50 for sodium
tetraborate decahydrate (borax) in rats ranges from 3493 to 6080 mg borax/kg body weight.2,3
- Oral exposure studies in dogs reported LD50 values greater than 631 mg boric acid/kg body weight and greater than 974
mg borax/kg body weight, indicating that dogs may be more sensitive to these compounds than rats or mice.1
- A review of acute human exposures to boric acid indicated the effects of any particular dose can vary dramatically among
individuals. The average dose for asymptomatic ingestion cases, which accounts for 88% of all ingestions, is around
0.9 grams. However, the range of reported asymptomatic doses is wide, from 0.01 to 88.8 g. The average dose causing
symptoms was 3.2 grams, but it was also highly variable with individual values ranging from 0.1 to 55.5 g.14
- Minimum oral lethal doses of boric acid in humans have been estimated from accidental poisonings to be in the range of
5-20 g for adults, 3-6 g for children and <5 g for infants.1,3
- Boric acid and sodium tetraborate decahydrate are both low in toxicity when applied to undamaged skin based on dermal
LD50 >2000 mg/kg when applied to rabbit skin. The U.S. EPA classifies both active ingredients as low in dermal toxicity and
neither are considered dermal irritants.1
- No information was found regarding the potential for boric acid or any pesticidal borate salts to cause skin sensitization.1
- No information was found on the dermal toxicity of any other borate salts used as pesticides.
- Boric acid is low in ocular toxicity.1 Sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) is corrosive, as such it is highly toxic to the eye.1
- Boric acid and borate salts can be absorbed following inhalation exposure. However, it is unclear how much is absorbed
directly and how much is actually ingested indirectly as a result of mucocillary activity.4
- Studies on the inhalation toxicity of boric acid and borate salts are extremely limited. Only one study was found involving
rats inhaling a single 0.16 mg/L dose of boric acid. The LC50 is thought to be greater than 0.16 mg/L as no deaths were
reported in the study. The U.S. EPA considers boric acid to be moderately toxic via inhalation until further studies are
performed.1 The U.S. EPA has required additional inhalation tests of boric acid to be conducted.1
- No animal studies on the acute inhalation toxicity of tetraborate decahydrate or any other borate pesticides were found.
Signs of Toxicity – Animals
- Ingestion of small amounts of boric acid or borate salts by animals has resulted in clinical signs that include excessive
salivation, thirst, fever, vomiting, retching, depression, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The vomit or stools
of exposed animals may contain blood or have a blue-green color.15,16
- The onset of clinical signs following boric acid or borate salt ingestions is usually within 2 hours.16
- Following ingestion of large amounts of boric acid or borate salts, animals have also shown signs of ataxia, tremors, seizures,
decreased urination, and can develop reddish-violet colored skin. Suppressed growth, reproductive sterility and testicular
degeneration in males have also been observed. Seizures from massive oral ingestions of boric acid can be followed by
depression, metabolic acidosis, coma and death.12,15,16
- Signs reported in animals following the chronic ingestion of boric acid include anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea,
rashes, hair loss, anemia, kidney damage resulting in difficulties urinating and death.15
- Dermal exposure to borax has resulted in redness or inflammation of the skin.16
- Boric acid and disodium octaborate produce mild eye irritation but sodium tetraborate (borax) is highly irritating to the
- Older animals or young animals may be more sensitive to boric acid and borate salts than adult animals.15
Signs of Toxicity – Humans
- Acute ingestion of boric acid or borate salts in humans has rarely led to severe toxicity. Commonly reported symptoms
include nausea, vomiting (often with blue-green coloration), abdominal pain and diarrhea (which may contain blood or
have a blue-green color). Other less commonly reported symptoms include headaches, lethargy, weakness, restlessness,
tremors, unconsciousness, respiratory depression, kidney failure, shock and death.14,17,18
- Large oral exposures have resulted in an intense red skin rash within 24 hours of exposure, followed by skin loss in the
affected area 1-2 days after the skin coloration first appears. These skin rashes typically affect the face, palms, soles, buttocks
- Infants ingesting small amounts of boric acid in acute exposures displayed irritability, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation,
diarrhea and nervous system affects.11,19 Chronic exposure to borax in infants has led to seizures, vomiting and diarrhea.11
- People processing borax at work have reported temporary respiratory
irritation including dry mouth, nose and throat, coughing, sore throat,
shortness of breath and nose bleeds after exposure to airborne particles
of sodium tetraborate decahydrate.2,4 One such study found that a single
20 minute exposure to 10 mg sodium borate decahydrate/m3 (0.7 mg
boron/m3) had no effect on workers, while another study found over a 6
hour shift, the lowest average concentration causing respiratory effects
(LOAEL) was 5.72 mg particulate borax/m3 (0.44 mg boron/m3).2 See the
text box on NOAEL, NOEL, LOAEL, and LOEL.
NOAEL: No Observable Adverse Effect Level
NOEL: No Observed Effect Level
LOAEL: Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level
LOEL: Lowest Observed Effect Level
- Employees working for more than five years around borax or boric acid dust found that exposure to 4.4 mg/m3 of borax
or more caused respiratory and nasal irritation. Other workers exposed to particulate boric acid reported respiratory and
nasal irritation at concentrations less than 10 mg boric acid/m3.20
- Always follow label instructions and take steps to minimize exposure. If any exposure occurs, be sure to follow the First Aid
instructions on the product label carefully. For additional treatment advice, contact the Poison Control Center at 1-800-
222-1222. If you wish to discuss an incident with the National Pesticide Information Center, please call 1-800-858-7378.
- Chronic oral exposure studies with either boric acid or sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) yield similar toxicity values
in studies performed in both dogs and rats. Long-term studies on oral exposure to these compounds in dogs has shown
a NOAEL of 8.8 mg boron/kg-day with testicular atrophy and spermatogenic arrest being seen at the LOAEL of 29.2 mg
boron/kg-day. In similar studies in rats, the NOAEL was found to be 17.5 mg B/kg-day and testicular effects were noted at 17.5
- Mice exposed over their lifetime to 0.95 mg boron/kg-day as sodium metaborate in their drinking water had no changes to
their body weight or life span when compared to control mice receiving deionized water.4
- Humans breathing sodium tetraborate decahydrate while employed at a borax processing plant have reported temporary
respiratory irritation from exposures equal to or above 4.5 mg borax/m3, but no chronic respiratory effects were found.3
- Chronic oral exposure to boric acid has resulted in symptoms that include vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach
pain that are often followed by headache, fever, tremors, twitching, lethargy, and weakness as well as dermal erythema,
desquamation and ulceration. Severe cases of chronic exposure have caused coma, seizures, circulatory collapse, liver and
kidney dysfunction, anemia and death. Seizures and death are more commonly reported in infants chronically exposed to
boric acid than adults.11,21
- No studies were found on the endocrine disruption potential of boric acid, borate salts or boron in humans.
- Boric acid and borates are not currently on the list of compounds being screened by the U.S. EPA as part of the Endocrine
Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP).22
- When mice were fed boric acid at doses of 0, 275, or 549 mg/kg/day (0, 48 or 96 mg/kg/day boron) for 2 years, no evidence
of carcinogenicity was found.1
- Rats fed sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) for 2 years at doses of 0, 65, 154, or 515 mg/kg/day (0, 7.3, 17, or 58 mg
boron/kg/day) showed no increases in tumor incidence at any dose tested.1
- Boric acid and borate salts are classified by the U.S. EPA as “not likely to be carcinogenic to humans” under the 2005
carcinogen assessment guidelines.1
- No data were found from occupational exposures or epidemiological studies indicating the carcinogenicity of boric acid,
borate salts or boron.2,3
- Recent studies have shown that boric acid may have a protective role with regard to both prostate and breast cancer. Boric
acid has been shown to inhibit the growth of human prostate and breast cancer cells, although the mechanism of growth
inhibition is not understood.23,24 See the text box on Cancer.
Cancer: Government agencies in the United States and abroad have developed programs to evaluate the
potential for a chemical to cause cancer. Testing guidelines and classification systems vary. To learn more
about the meaning of various cancer classification descriptors listed in this fact sheet, please visit the
appropriate reference, or call NPIC.
- In a study with pregnant rats exposed to boric acid in their diet, researchers found no maternal toxicity at 78 mg boric acid/
kg-day (13.6 mg boron/kg-day) but offspring had decreased fetal body weights. Higher doses resulted in increased rates of
skeletal malformations in offspring. Maternal animals showed changes in organ weights at 163 mg boric acid/kg-day (28.5
mg boron/kg-day). Follow-up studies in pregnant rats dosed with boric acid reported no effects in offspring at doses ranging
from 55 – 74 mg boric acid/kg-day (9.6 – 12.9 mg boron/kg-day).4,25,26,27
- Mice exposed to boric acid in their diet during pregnancy were less sensitive to developmental toxicity than rats. The
reported NOAEL in mice for both mothers and offspring was 248 mg boric acid/kg-day (43.4 mg boron/kg-day) with decreased
fetal body weights occurring at the LOAEL of 452 mg boric acid/kg-day (79 mg boron/kg-day).4,26
- Developmental studies on pregnant rabbits reported a NOAEL of 125 mg boric acid/kg-day (21.9 mg boron/kg-day) with fetal
malformations being noted after exposure to 250 mg boric acid/kg-day (43.7 mg boron/kg-day).4,26,28
- No data were found on the potential developmental effects of boric acid or borates in humans.
- The reproductive toxicity of boric acid and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) has been studied extensively in
animals including rats, mice, and dogs exposed to these borates in their diet. In both short and long-term reproductive
studies, boric acid and borax have been found to act as reproductive toxins to males and females exposed to sufficient
- Studies in dogs have shown testicular atrophy and spermatogenic arrest at the LOAEL of 29.2 mg boron/kg-day. In similar
studies in rats, testicular effects were noted at 17.5 mg boron/kg-day.3,4,14
- Male mice exposed to boric acid in their diet for 27 weeks showed degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, decreased
sperm production and motility when exposed to doses above 27 mg boron/kg-day. When these animals were then mated with
untreated females, they produced fewer live pups per litter than control mice. In another mouse study, testicular toxicity
similar to that described above was noted in male mice at a dose of 288 mg boron/kg-day in the diet for 13 weeks.2,30
- Data from occupational exposures, accidental poisonings and epidemiological studies have not provided any conclusive
information on the reproductive toxicity of boric acid in humans.2
Fate in the Body:
- Studies in both humans and other animals has shown that the absorption of boric acid is rapid following oral exposure,
with 81-95% of the boric acid absorbed within 24-96 hours of ingestion.2 More than 98% of all forms of boron ingested
(boric acid, sodium tetraborate, or boron in plant and animal tissues) are absorbed as undissociated boric acid.31
- Studies in humans and rabbits have shown that boric acid, borax and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate are poorly
absorbed across intact skin. However, animals and humans with damaged skin, including those with psoriasis, eczema or
urticaria (hives), can absorb significant amounts of boric acid.4
- When 5% boric acid or sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) or 10% disodium octaborate were applied to intact human
skin for 24 hours, adsorption ranged from 0.12 – 9.23% of the applied dose, regardless of the form of boron applied. Using
these figures, the authors estimated a human immersed in saturated boric acid solution for 24 hours would absorb less
boron through their skin than is ingested on a daily basis in food and water.32
- Investigators evaluated infants 1-10 months old who received dermal applications of talcum powder containing 5% boric
acid 7-10 times/day for at least one month for diaper rash. The calculated exposure dose for the infants was 2.33 g boric
acid/day. Only trace amounts of boric acid penetrated the skin.3,33
- Workers inhaling dust from borate salts at concentrations ranging from 3.3 – 18 mg/m3 (sodium tetraborate decahydrate,
sodium tetraborate pentahydrate and anhydrous sodium tetraborate) showed increased urinary boron levels at the end of
their work shift.34 Rats inhaling 77 mg/m3 of boron oxide (not a pesticide ingredient) also showed increased urinary boron
levels suggesting the boric oxide was absorbed by the respiratory system.35 However, in both studies the exposure may
have included ingestion of boron compounds following mucociliary transport from the respiratory system.4
- Boric acid and borate salts exist in the body as undissociated boric acid that is evenly distributed among all tissues except
bone which can accumulate boron.4,36
- Rats fed 9000 ppm boric acid (93-96 mg boron/kg body weight/day) for up to 7 days distributed the boron fairly evenly
between plasma, liver, kidney, muscle, colon, brain, testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate and adrenal glands (12-
30 mg boron/kg tissue). Adipose tissues contained 20% less boron than plasma and other tissues, while 2-3 fold increases
in boron were found in bone. Tissue concentrations peaked within 3-4 days while bone concentrations continued to
increase for the duration of the study.37
- Rats fed boric acid at doses up to 9000 ppm in their diet for 9 weeks all accumulated boron in their bones. Boron levels
in bone reached steady state concentrations four times greater than serum levels within 1-4 weeks, with higher doses
requiring more time to achieve steady state. Bone boron concentrations remained three times higher than control animals
32 weeks after the cessation of treatment.38
- There is no evidence that boric acid is metabolized in plants or animals, perhaps due to the large amount of energy
required to break the bond between the oxygen and elemental boron molecules in biological systems.1,39
- Borate salts convert to boric acid in mucosal tissues prior to absorption because of the pH of the overlying aqueous layer.
In studies of humans and animals, over 90% of the inorganic borates occur as boric acid once absorbed.3
- Boric acid can attach to some biological molecules including hydroxyl, amino and thiol groups in a reversible but
- Boric acid is rapidly excreted, primarily in the urine.1 Approximately 89-98% of boric acid and inorganic borates were
eliminated in the urine as boric acid over a 96-hour period.3
- Studies of excretion in humans ingesting boric acid indicated an average urinary elimination half-life of approximately
21 hours.40 Case reports of accidental or intentional exposure to boric acid in humans have calculated urinary half-lives
ranging from 4 to 28 hours.14,19
- Renal clearance rates for boric acid are approximately 4.9 times higher in rats than the clearance rates measured in humans.
The renal clearance in pregnant rats was found to be 3.6 times higher than those measured in pregnant women.4
- The plasma half-life and renal clearance of boric acid has been studied in rats ingesting boric acid. In these studies, the
plasma half-life of boric acid was estimated to be about three hours. None of the measured parameters differed significantly
between pregnant and non-pregnant rats with low dose exposures. At high doses, pregnant females excreted more
- Humans ingesting boron as part of their normal diet excreted boron at rates that were similar in both pregnant and nonpregnant
subjects. The rates ranged from 0.68-2.82 mg boron/day.31
Medical Tests and Monitoring:
- Boric acid and borate salt exposure can be measured as boron in the blood, tissue or urine of exposed individuals using
high-temperature atomic spectrometric or colorimetric methods. However measured levels do not correlate well with any
particular clinical manifestations.17
- Boric acid and borate salts are present in soils throughout the earth’s crust. Many of the naturally occurring minerals in the
earth’s crust contain boron, including sodium metaborate decahydrate (borax).2,3 In soils, inorganic boron compounds can
react with moisture to form borates.2
- Soil boron concentrations vary with soil type, organic matter and rainfall.3 In the U.S., mean soil boron concentrations are
33 mg boron/kg soil. Levels range from less than 20 to over 300 mg boron/kg soil.2
- Boric acid’s mobility in soil is a function of soil pH, with the greatest adsorption occurring at pH 7.5-9.0.2 Other factors
affecting soil mobility include the presence of aluminum or iron oxide in soils. Soil adsorption can be irreversible or not,
depending on soil characteristics.2,3 As such, soil-water partitioning coefficients (Koc) must be determined experimentally
for each soil type.2
- Boric acid and borate salts are soluble in water. They are removed from soils by leaching and uptake by plants.2
- Boric acid and borate salts are soluble in water. Most boron will exist in aqueous solution as boric acid or borate ion.2
- Out of 1577 water samples collected from surface freshwater in the U.S., 97% contained boron ranging from 0.001 to 5
mg/L, with an average concentration of about 0.1 mg/L. Seawater boron concentrations tend to be much higher, averaging
4.5 mg/L.5,42,43 Boron concentrations in drinking water have been reported as high as 3.28 mg/L.2
- Boric acid and borate salts may reach groundwater because of their relatively high water solubility and their variable soil
- The low volatility of boric acid and borates results in only small amounts these compounds being widely distributed in the
- Particulate borates are expected to be removed from the atmosphere through precipitation and dry deposition.2 Airborne
borate particles are estimated to have an atmospheric half-life of a few days depending on the size of the particle and the
- There is no data to show that borates or boric acid are transformed or degraded in the atmosphere through photolysis,
oxidation or hydrolysis.2,3
- Boron is an essential nutrient for plant growth, but too much boron is toxic to plants.3,44 Symptoms of excess boron uptake
include cessation of root and leaf growth and yellowing of the leaf tip. Bark splitting and necrosis at the tips of roots and
leaves may also occur. Damage from excess boron can reduce the overall productivity of the plant and lead to death.
However, plants have been shown to recover when soil boron is reduced.3
- Plant roots take up soil boron mainly as undissociated boric acid through active transport when soil boron levels are low.
Passive diffusion occurs at higher soil boron levels. Boron is transported unchanged to the leaves where water evaporates,
leaving the boron behind to accumulate in the leaves. Because boron is virtually immobile in the phloem of plants, little
moves to other tissues, such as the stems and fruits.3,45
- In general, most vegetable crops are fairly tolerant of high concentrations of boron in soils or irrigation water. However,
tuber and cereals crops are considered semi-tolerant. Citrus, stone fruits and nut trees are most sensitive to boron.3
- Sodium metaborate acts as a non-selective herbicide that can inhibit plant growth in treated soils for a year or more.5
- No data were found on the indoor fate of boric acid or borate salts.
- Boron exists naturally in edible plants. Boric acid and sodium borate salts are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance
when used on agricultural crops. Residues present at the time of harvest are expected to be relatively small compared to
naturally occurring boron compounds in the food items.1,5,46,45
- The naturally occurring boron found in plants varies with the crop but tends to be highest in fruits and nuts. For example,
pears and strawberries have been found to contain about 160 ppm boron, and red cabbage has been reported to have
residues as high as 200-300 ppm boron.5 Peanut butter has been found to contain about 15 ppm boron, avocados about
11 ppm, grapes about 5 ppm, and bananas about 1 ppm.1
- The average daily dietary boron intake in the United States varies, but is generally thought to be in the range of 0.5 to 3.1
mg/day (0.007 – 0.044 mg/kg/day). The FDA estimates an average boron intake of 1.52 mg/day(0.025 mg/kg/day) for adult
- Studies in both bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) have indicated that boric
acid is very low in toxicity to birds.5
- The acute LD50 for bobwhite quail exposed to boric acid is greater than 2510 mg/kg. The dietary LC50 for boric acid in the
feed of bobwhite quail was found to be greater than 10,000 ppm.5
- Dietary intake of boric acid may adversely affect the reproduction and development of birds. Mallards exposed to 30 mg
boron/kg body weight (as boric acid) had ducklings with reduced growth rates. Higher concentrations in the range of 100-400
mg boron/kg body weight resulted in increased duckling mortality, altered behavior, and decreased growth and hatching
Fish and Aquatic Life
- Short-term exposure studies (24-hours) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have reported LC50 values of 65-88 mg boron/L
when exposed to borax, and 100-150 mg boron/L when exposed to boric acid.3
- Bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus) were the most sensitive in acute studies with a 24-hour LD50 equal to 41 mg borax/L (4.6
mg boron/L). Mosquitofish (Gambusia affenis) were the least sensitive with 24-hour LC50 values of 12,002 mg borax/L (1361 mg
boron/L) and 17998 mg boric acid/L (3146 mg boron/L).3
- Among several species of fish that were exposed to boric acid or borate salts on a chronic basis, LC50s ranged from 12.2
to 235 mg boron/L. Based on these results, the World Health Organization (WHO) determined that none of the tested species were
especially sensitive to boron.3
- The concentration of borates in water shown to inhibit the growth of single-celled organisms varies dramatically. No
effects were noted in bacteria (Pseudomonas putida) exposed to 291 mg boron/L for 72 hours in one study. However, in another
study with the same species, growth was inhibited at doses as low as 7.6 mg boron/L.3
- Borax has been shown to inhibit the growth of green algae (Chlorella vulgaris) over 3-4 months when concentrations in
water were at or above 10.6 mg borax/L (1.2 mg boron/L).3
- Boric acid and borate salts have been shown to be toxic to aquatic crustaceans (Daphnia magna) exposed to concentrations
above 54 mg boron/L for two days. Forty-eight hour LC50 values ranged from 133-226 mg boron/L. In longer-term exposures over 21
days, Daphnia magna had decreased reporductive success when exposed to boric acid at doses above 13.6 mg boron/L.3
- The 24-hour NOAEL for aquatic worms (Tubifex sp.) was estimated to be 750 mg borax/L (85 mg boron/L) and 7500 mg boric
acid/L (1311 mg boron/L).3
- Boric acid has been shown to be toxic to frogs and toads with reported LC50 values ranging from 704 – 847 mg boric acid/L
(123-148 mg boron/L) depending on the age and species tested. Similar studies have found borax to be slightly higher in
toxicity than boric acid to frogs and toads with LD50 values ranging from 414-529 mg borax/L (47-60 mg boron/L).3
- Boric acid is low in toxicity to bees. Syrup containing 50 mg/L boric acid fed to bees had no effect on bee survival (NOAEL)
but syrup containing 100 mg/L boric acid was lethal to 50% of the bees tested.3
- The U.S. EPA reported a contact LD50 of greater than 362 ppm and classified boric acid as “relatively nontoxic” to bees.5
- Cockroaches exposed to sub-lethal amounts of boric acid may produce more allergens than non-exposed roaches.49
- The cancer classification of boric acid is “not likely to be
carcinogenic to humans”.1 See the text box on Cancer.
- The U.S. EPA has set the reference dose (RfD) for boron
compounds at 0.2 mg boron/kg/day.20 No RfC could be
determined due to the lack of adequate data.1,4,20 See the
text box on Reference Dose (RfD).
Reference Dose (RfD): The RfD is an estimate of the quantity of
chemical that a person could be exposed to every day for the rest
of their life with no appreciable risk of adverse health effects. The
reference dose is typically measured in milligrams (mg) of chemical
per kilogram (kg) of body weight per day.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System, IRIS Glossary, 2009. https://www.epa.gov/iris/iris-glossary#r
- A 12-hour Restricted Entry Interval (REI) has been established under the Worker Protection Standard (WPS) to protect
workers following agricultural applications of boric acid and borate salts.5
- Boric acid and borates were evaluated as potential drinking water contaminants and the U.S. EPA determined there was
no need to develop primary drinking water standards for boron compounds.50 The Health Advisory level (HA) for a 10 kg
child is 4 mg boron/L for one-day exposures and 0.9 mg boron/L for 10-day exposures. The drinking water equivalent level
(DWEL) is 7 mg boron/L.2
- For occupational exposures to inorganic borates, the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) has been established at 2 mg/m3 for
exposures that could occur eight hours each day, five days each week for a lifetime. For exposures that are likely to last
about 15 minutes, the TLV is higher at 6 mg/m3.51
- The Recommended Exposure Limits (REL) for exposures over a 40-hour workweek are 1 mg sodium tetraborate (anhydrous)/m3 and 5 mg borax/m3.52
- Boric acid and borate salts are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance under CFR 180.1121.1 No maximum residue
levels (MRLs) have been established for boric acid or borates in foods.
- The tolerable daily intake (TDI) estimated by the National Academy of Sciences Food and Nutrition Board is 0.32 mg/kg/
day, whereas the TDI estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) is 0.4 mg/kg/day.1
Date Reviewed: May 2012
Please cite as: Harper, B.; Gervais, J. A.; Buhl, K.; Stone, D. 2012. Boric Acid Technical Fact Sheet; National Pesticide Information
Center, Oregon State University Extension Services. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/archive/borictech.html.
Otitis Externa: Review and Clinical Update
1. Sood S,
Allergic otitis externa. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci.
2. Daneshrad D,
Acute otitis externa. J La State Med Soc.
3. Hannley MT,
Denneny JC III,
Use of ototopical antibiotics in treating 3 common ear diseases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.
4. Aguis AM,
A prospective study of otitis externa. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci.
5. Beers SL,
Otitis externa review. Pediatr Emerg Care.
6. Halpern MT,
Treatment patterns for otitis externa. J Am Board Fam Pract.
7. McCoy SI,
Antimicrobial prescribing for otitis externa in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J.
8. Rowlands S,
Otitis externa in UK general practice: a survey using the UK General Practice Research Database. Br J Gen Pract.
9. Sander R.
Otitis externa: a practical guide to treatment and prevention. Am Fam Physician.
10. Tsikoudas A,
Are topical antibiotics necessary in the management of otitis externa?. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci.
11. Nussinovitch M,
Cotton-tip applicators as a leading cause of otitis externa. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol.
12. Stroman DW,
Microbiology of normal external auditory canal. Laryngoscope.
2001;111(11 pt 1):2054–9.
13. Roland PS,
Consensus panel on role of potentially ototoxic antibiotics for topical middle ear use: intr oduction, methodology, and recommendations [Published correction appears in Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;131:20]. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.
14. Yariktas M,
Asymptomatic food hypersensitivity prevalence in patients with eczematous external otitis. Am J Otolaryngol.
15. Schapowal A.
Otitis externa: a clinical overview. Ear Nose Throat J.
2002;81(8 suppl 1):21–2.
16. Martin TJ,
Fungal causes of otitis externa and tympanostomy tube otorrhea. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol.
17. Weber PC,
The development of antibiotic resistant organisms with the use of ototopical medications. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.
18. Manolidis S,
Comparative efficacy of aminoglycoside versus fluoroquinolone topical antibiotic drops. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.
19. American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Management of Acute Otitis Media. Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media. Pediatrics.
20. Myer CM III.
The evolution of ototopical therapy: from cumin to quinolones. Ear Nose Throat J.
21. Lancaster J,
Comparison of compliance between topical aural medications. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci.
22. Dohar JE.
Evolution of management approaches for otitis externa. Pediatr Infect Dis J.
23. Hajioff D.
Otitis externa. Clin Evid.
24. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health; Task Force on Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. The assessment and management of acute pain in infants, children and adolescents. Pediatrics.
25. Smith IM,
Chronic hypersensitivity in patients with chronic otitis externa. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci.
26. Isaksson M.
Triple sensitization in a child with chronic otitis externa. Contact Dermatitis.
27. Schrader N,
Fungal otitis external—its association with fluoroquinolone eardrops. Pediatrics.
2003;111(5 pt 1):1123
28. Okpala NC,
Radiological and radionuclide investigation of malignant otitis externa. J Laryngol Otol.
29. Pata YS,
Has cerumen a protective role in recurrent external otitis?. Am J Otolaryngol.
30. Nichols AW.
Nonorthopedic problems in the aquatic athlete. Clin Sport Med.
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Ventilation tubes after surgery for otitis media with effusion or acute otitis media and swimming. Systemic review and meta–analysis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol.
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Prevention of divers’ ear. Br Med J.
Boric acid exhibits minimal bacteriostatic and antifungal activity. Boric acid, mediates antifungal action at high concentrations with prolonged exposure.
Local tissue damage from exposure to boric acid, associated with caustic effects.
Boric acid inhibits biofilm formation and inhibits the growth of fungi.
A unique drug of its kind. I like it very much for the low price and efficiency. I appoint it daily. No side effects. A long-liver of drugs that is used in ENT practice for catarrhal processes in the ear. Use and enjoy the action of this drug.
Very rarely causes ear canal dermatitis (but with prolonged and frequent use).
A drug proven for decades for the treatment of acute catarrhal and external otitis media, which has survived the competition with new drugs due to its effectiveness, affordable cost, ease of use. The action is based on the osmotic activity of the alcoholic component to reduce edema and effusion in the middle ear, and the antiseptic effect of boric acid. I prescribe it exclusively in the form of a turunda with a warmed-up preparation in the ear canal, for 3-5 days, making sure to control the absence of perforation of the eardrum.Contraindicated in children under one year old, pregnant women, lactating mothers, as well as with individual intolerance.
Simple instillation is rare, but painful (3-4 cases in 30 years). Once in 30 years there was an episode of individual intolerance in the form of hyperemia, slight edema and itching of the ear canal.
Good old worker, cheap antiseptic, often used in the practice of complex treatment, as well as the prevention of pityriasis versicolor.Perfectly neutralizes the manifestation of symptoms of peeling, hyperemia, edema.
Contraindicated during pregnancy, lactation, children under 1 year of age. Individual use of the drug may be accompanied by burning, itching.
I recommend that you pay attention to this drug, keep it in your home medicine cabinet. If prescribed correctly, it will help to quickly cope with existing rashes.
Use for dressings in the presence of pseudomonal infection in the wound (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Oddly enough, it works well in a mix with modern antiseptics, but only in a mix. Mono-action is weak and ineffective. I use it for heavily contaminated and obviously primarily infected wounds.
Has a specific faint smell.It helps very well with inflammatory diseases of the ear canal and tympanic membrane (in the form of instillation, you first need to consult with an ENT doctor). They can also treat affected skin elements (dermatitis, shallow cuts). No side effects. A fairly cheap drug.
11/15/17 4:57:53 PM
on the face, everything that is found in the patient’s oral cavity settles on the skin, and several people pass during their change.
Use carefully so as not to dry the skin.
Preparation for topical use.
10/18/17 09:21:49 AM
Boric acid in common people, as they used to call, boric alcohol very well helps with acute catarrhal otitis media both in children and adults. Affordable price, good quality.
Apply 2-3 drops 3-4 times a day for 5-7 days, you can apply the drug on a gauze turunda and gently immerse it in the ear canal.With caution, do not apply with perforations (holes) in the tympanic membrane.
06/30/17 07:18:42 AM
Until now, it remains the No. 1 assistant in the treatment of catarrhal otitis media and Eustachitis. The cheapest drug that is sure to be in every home. It can be applied both as an endural drip, and it can be applied with a turunda or a small cotton ball for 20-30 minutes.
Contraindicated for perforated otitis media.
Ease of use of the drug. Low price with good efficiency.
Sometimes I use it in proctological practice. Used for personal needs – compresses in the form of turundas for ear inflammations, very good result. In childhood, a drug was used to treat lichen. Always in the home medicine cabinet.
Our patients really like the price, and the doctors like the efficiency.
Skin dryness may occur if used improperly.
As a dermatovenerologist, I prescribe this drug to patients diagnosed with versicolor versicolor. Excellent results, but a two-step application is essential. First, the skin of the problem area is treated with a cotton swab with this drug, and then the antifungal drug in an ointment form is immediately applied. Thus, the mycelium of the fungus is removed from the skin surface and the penetrating ability of the ointment preparation is enhanced. In the era of innovation, the science of pharmacy is moving forward, but it is difficult to replace such ancient simple but effective means.
boric acid for face rejuvenation
boric acid for face rejuvenation
Boric Acid Facial Rejuvenation
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What is boric acid for facial rejuvenation?
Due to constant stress and troubles at work, at the age of 40, wrinkles appeared on my forehead, around my eyes, and my cheeks sagged.The complexion became sallow. A friend advised me to order Liftensyn serum. I was amazed at how effective and skin-friendly it was. A woman from my office attended meso-procedures – an expensive pleasure! So, my remedy turned out to be much more effective! The face became young, fit. Moreover, a colleague experienced a lot of painful moments and side effects. Use it, you will not regret it. ”
The effect of using boric acid for the face rejuvenation
Liftensyn- quickly relieves you of wrinkles at home.Rejuvenation up to 10 years without injections and operations for women of any age. Smoothes age and expression lines in the face, neck and décolleté area. Maintains firmness, elasticity and youthfulness of the skin. Improves skin color and slows down aging
In addition to its rejuvenating effect, Liftensyn has a healing effect. When used at home, even girls with problem skin, it was noted: elimination of irritations, including atopic dermatitis, allergic reactions; getting rid of peeling, dryness; any inflammation disappears, including acne, acne, acne.Considering that the product has a slight whitening effect, it is possible to significantly lighten the existing age spots, thereby recreating a perfectly even complexion.
How to order
In order to place an order for boric acid for face rejuvenation, you must leave your contact information on the site. The operator will contact you within 15 minutes. Will clarify all the details with you and we will send your order. In 3-10 days you will receive the parcel and pay for it upon receipt.
I will share my problems. About a year ago, I started to notice wrinkles. I don’t know what caused it. I went to a doctor I knew. The dermatologist said that it may be due to a lack of vitamins or banal age-related changes. The doctor advised to radically change the daily diet and try the Ymir complex. I ordered the product after having studied the reviews of other buyers.On the Internet, we most often met the statements of women who managed to return a decent look to their face, I understand that you cannot run away from old age, but I want to extend the effect of a young face for a longer time. I used Ymir’s serum strictly according to the instructions and after 3 days I noticed that the wrinkles began to smooth out. Another big plus – the texture of the cream was perfect for me. This has always been a challenge, combination skin …
In just 3 weeks of use, Liftensyn serum can work wonders: pronounced lifting effect and smoothing of wrinkles; increase in moisture and renewal of the elasticity of the skin; correction of facial contours; rejuvenation of all layers of the skin at the cell level.
The main components of Liftensyn: Collagen. It is a protein that is produced in the human body and is responsible for the good condition of the skin surface. It ceases to be produced by the body after 25 years. The serum saturates the body with this protein, so a woman can quickly get rid of wrinkles, restore elasticity to the dermis, and also cleanse it of toxic substances. Elastin. This component helps to restore the dermis from damage and makes it more elastic. It is noteworthy that its synthesis in the body stops after a person turns 14 years old.Elastin starts the process of skin renewal. The face gradually begins to look younger, while even deep wrinkles disappear. Complex BeauPlex ™ VH. It seemed like the real breakout of 2018. It contains zinc, acetate, and other useful substances. Thanks to this complex, the skin is saturated with vitamins, so dryness, rashes and age spots disappear. Where to buy boric acid for facial rejuvenation? In addition to its anti-aging effect, Liftensyn has a healing effect.When used at home, even girls with problem skin, it was noted: elimination of irritations, including atopic dermatitis, allergic reactions; getting rid of peeling, dryness; any inflammation disappears, including acne, acne, acne. Considering that the product has a slight whitening effect, it is possible to significantly lighten the existing age spots, thereby recreating a perfectly even complexion.
Salicylic acid. It is used for the effective treatment of dermatological problems – skin infections, acne / acne.It perfectly relieves inflammation, has an exfoliating and antiseptic effect. It is applied locally to the affected area. Boric alcohol. The drug is indicated for acne and inflammation. Regular use will cleanse the skin. … Vitamin helps to rejuvenate and improve the structure of the skin and complexion, stimulating the process of cell renewal. The drug is necessary to ensure the regeneration / wound healing process, to protect collagen and elastin from destruction by free radicals. And I’ll start with boric acid.Boric acid is a chemical compound in the form of a white fine-crystalline powder that dissolves in glycerin, hot water, and ethyl alcohol. This acid is an excellent antiseptic agent that heals well burns, cracks, abrasions, mazoli, insect bites, irreplaceable in a first-aid kit. … Boric acid is found in many effective cosmetics used for skin whitening. Since the acid itself is aggressive without any constituents, it is better to use it as one of the components in homemade masks for skin whitening.Boric acid cosmetic recipes. … Then we lubricate the face with an emollient cream. Boric acid for the face is an effective cosmetic product that helps to improve the condition of the skin. It can be purchased over the counter without a prescription, as a powder or in an alcohol solution. On their basis, you can prepare masks and lotions with many useful properties. Boric acid is a valuable antiseptic that has an antimicrobial effect, stops inflammation, and fights the effects of increased sebum production.Let’s take a closer look at this issue in the article. Why is boric acid useful for facial skin? The drug helps to solve many cosmetic problems, namely: Regulates the acid-base balance on the surface of the skin. Such a face without pores is associated with health and youth, the skin of girls on advertising posters looks flawlessly smooth and clean. But the reality is that all people have pores, and only genetics determines their size. With age, with the natural destruction of collagen and elastin, the support for the pores is lost, and they begin to stretch, the face looks loose and not very well-groomed.If you look at the pictures of elegantly aging women, you will understand what I am talking about, because they do not have it. So, although it will not be possible to erase the pores, the correctly selected cosmetics and procedures will help. The use of boric acid for acne on the face. Is it possible to cauterize the rash with it. Correct treatment of acne with Clindovit® gel. … Boric acid is a chemical compound that is composed of oxygen, hydrogen, and boron. It was used in medicine as an antiseptic until analogues with a more powerful effect were found.The most common motive for using boric acid at home is to try to get rid of acne * on your own. But its use for this purpose is irrational, since it is not included in the list of drugs with anti-acne action. In the ASNA online pharmacy, you can profitably buy boric acid cosmetic product 10g novation ltd in the catalog section Antiseptics and disinfectants. Convenient online search for medicines at competitive prices! … Description of the dosage form. Colorless, shiny, slightly oily scales or fine crystalline powder.Reading time for an article: 2 minutes. How to get rid of wrinkles under the eyes? There are many effective ways today. You can do botox injections, plastic surgery, or take care of your face at home and use traditional methods. In addition, in pharmacies you can find serums and creams that, with a long course of treatment, give a positive result and reduce wrinkles. Please consult your doctor before using facial skin care products. Sign up for a free consultation. Causes of the problem: Expression – these are wrinkles that appear due to the habit of squinting your eyes and wrinkling your forehead.Boric acid is an excellent antiseptic agent that heals well burns, cracks, abrasions, calluses, insect bites, irreplaceable in a first-aid kit. Boric acid is available in the form of ointment, powder, boric alcohol. It can be used for a variety of purposes – treating acne, whitening skin, strengthening hair and nails. She also found her use in lotions to care for the skin in case of hyperhidrosis – excessive sweating. Consider how boric acid treats acne, acne and acne.When fighting acne, it cleanses the skin, disinfects and removes excess. The desire to get rid of pigmentation is often accompanied by a request: how to effectively and quickly get rid of age spots. Is it possible to get rid of pigmentation in a few days? Of course not. How to speed up the skin lightening process, make it more effective and what is needed for this is the answer in this article.
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Liftensyn- will quickly get rid of wrinkles at home. Rejuvenation up to 10 years without injections and operations for women of any age.Smoothes age and expression lines in the face, neck and décolleté area. Maintains firmness, elasticity and youthfulness of the skin. Improves skin color and slows down aging
boric acid for face rejuvenation
Due to the constant stress and troubles at work, at the age of 40, wrinkles appeared on my forehead, around my eyes, and my cheeks sagged. The complexion became sallow. A friend advised me to order Liftensyn serum. I was amazed at how effective and skin-friendly it was.A woman from my office attended meso-procedures – an expensive pleasure! So, my remedy turned out to be much more effective! The face became young, fit. Moreover, a colleague experienced a lot of painful moments and side effects. Use it, you will not regret it. ”
A real salvation for aging skin will be a mask with turmeric for the face from wrinkles. It will return youth and beauty, will allow you to resist the aging process and the effects of unfavorable factors for as long as possible. Let’s talk in more detail about the benefits of turmeric, consider the best recipes for masks, and also tell you which is more effective – homemade or store-bought products.Composition. … Mostly an Indian spice used to rejuvenate the skin, however, in addition, it also helps in the fight against age spots, acne and acne. An under eye mask can help you get rid of bags and blue circles. Body care products. Facial skin care. Hair care. Cosmetic kits. Cosmetics for hands and nails. Decorative cosmetics. Bath and shower products. Treatment for atopic skin. Tanning products. … The state of health improves gradually. Non-hormonal drugs have a cumulative effect.Available from pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription. Hormonal agents have a lot of contraindications and side effects. It is unacceptable to take them without first taking tests. In the article, we take apart homemade quick face masks that will refresh its appearance. … Recipes for the best express masks. It happens that there was no time for full-fledged facial skin care, but urgently looking fresh and good is simply necessary. There are many reasons for this, this is a date, a party, and a responsible meeting, when you have to appear in all its glory before many eyes.Even the most delightful outfit and sophisticated makeup cannot fix the situation if the skin on the face is pale, and bags and dark circles under the eyes. Reading time for an article: 2 minutes. How to get rid of wrinkles under the eyes? There are many effective ways today. You can do botox injections, plastic surgery, or take care of your face at home and use traditional methods. In addition, in pharmacies you can find serums and creams that, with a long course of treatment, give a positive result and reduce wrinkles.Please consult your doctor before using facial skin care products. Sign up for a free consultation. Causes of the problem: Expression – these are wrinkles that appear due to the habit of squinting your eyes and wrinkling your forehead. The duration of the course is determined by the doctor. About the mass market and folk medicine. Folk remedies for removing age spots are innumerable: it is recommended to apply infusion of parsley, lemon juice, masks from black currant, cottage cheese, raw potatoes to problem areas … For extreme lovers, an exclusive is offered like a honey mask with fish oil.Is it all effective? The herbal extracts and acids found in folk remedies for skin whitening can indeed provide gentle and gradual lightening as well as improve overall skin condition. The action of starch face masks, the rules for using these funds. All about the benefits of potato, corn starch for the skin. Recipes. … Starch face masks should be used no more than 3-4 times a month. Otherwise, the healing mass with lifting action will lead to clogging of the pores, the skin may suffer.All recipes for starch masks involve a course of treatment for the epidermis. … A remedy with turmeric. Mix a tablespoon each of starch and warm natural yogurt. Add a teaspoon of honey and a pinch of turmeric to the composition. This recipe is especially recommended for dry skin, due to the presence of yogurt in the composition, the medicinal mixture nourishes well, provides a pronounced lifting effect. use anti-aging masks – factory and / or homemade; apply lifting cream daily. Among homemade masks, gelatinous ones are the most popular.Gelatin contains natural proteins, thereby providing a facelift. An example of a mask based on it: butter or vegetable oil – 10 g; mineral water – 30 ml. Cosmetological procedures for the face that should not be carried out after 50 years. At this age, the following hardware techniques are ineffective: microcurrent therapy; Laser facial rejuvenation. Laser peeling. Laser resurfacing (CO2 laser). … Facial rejuvenation. Rejuvenation of the hands. From 30 to 40 years old. … Here are just some real reviews on creams and masks.Myth # 2: Korean patches help to instantly dissolve bags under the eyes! Good Korean (as well as Swiss, Italian, Japanese, German, Russian and others) patches are used only to instantly tone the skin of the eyelids and lightly lighten dark circles under the eyes. Moreover, any patches are a kind of SOS funds intended for collection for important and special events. As a long-term care product, they are completely useless.
Boric acid solution for use on the skin, 25ml
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Boric acid from cockroaches: compare with analogues
The photo shows boric acid from cockroaches
What you need to know about boric acid?
Externally, boric acid is a white substance grains, similar to scales.They have neither taste nor smell; at a temperature of about two hundred degrees, acid particles melt. At the same time, it loses water, and its chemical composition changes.
You need to know: borax is a boric acid salt, which is often found in nature, it is as dangerous for parasites as acid.
By the way, very little boric acid is found in nature. It consists of the sassolin mineral, which can be found in the Middle East or the Mediterranean Sea.Also, this substance can be part of mineral salts. Boric powder is also known as an effective antiseptic. In pharmacies, it can be found in the form of a solution or alcohol (boric alcohol means a solution of a substance in ethanol).
This is what boric acid looks like from cockroaches in powder form
Is boric acid effective in killing pests?
Boric acid has a toxic effect on cockroaches and some other types of pests. It enters the gastrointestinal tract of insects, and then acts on their nervous system.In case of drug overdose, the cockroach can die from suffocation or paralysis.
This means that in order to get a greater effect from the use of an insecticide, it is necessary that it enter the cockroach’s body in sufficient quantities. Large amounts of boric acid can be fatal and can be reduced with plain water. The purpose of using a preparation containing boric acid is to make the cockroach eat it, and at the same time keep it out of the water. But the question of how to eradicate pests using boric acid is solved quite simply, because they themselves are happy to eat the powder, especially with a small food additive.
After settling in the hostel, I immediately noticed a lot of cockroaches. I decided to sprinkle boric acid powder. The remedy worked – there were no cockroaches. But it’s better not to take a Russian drug, I advise you to opt for German.
Boric acid needs to be made into balls
Recommendations for the use of boric acid
Any recipe for boric acid from cockroaches must be used correctly – this is the key to a positive result.For example, it is important that insects certainly eat a poisonous substance. For this you need:
- Spread boric acid in thin strips around the bathtub, toilet and sink. Treat trash can and kitchen cabinet in the same way.
- You can also poison insects with boric acid by placing it in a saucer. It should be left near the bathtub, and also where many cockroaches can be found.
Important: To understand where to put balls from cockroaches with boric acid, a person only needs to look several times in all corners of the room, where he can easily see the excrement of parasites.
By turning on the lights at night, you can see where the insects are located. Cockroaches will rush to run in harsh lighting, but where they will run, the poison should be placed there. It is your observation that will help you understand where to put the boric acid cockroach remedy or any other poison that they should eat.
The recipe is based on egg and boric acid
Recipes for poisoning from cockroaches
In order for the parasites to die, it is enough to scatter the powder around their habitats.In this case, the remaining insects will leave the home forever. If there are a lot of cockroaches in the house, then it is recommended to use baits to fight them. Here are some recipes:
- Recipe for a mixture of boric acid and egg yolk from cockroaches. You need to take an egg and remove the yolk from it, to which you need to add about forty grams of boric acid powder. When preparing eggs and boric acid from cockroaches, it is important to ensure that the substance looks like gruel. Only then will the cockroach remedy, yolk and boric acid be effective.Prescribed cockroach boric acid with an egg should be left near insect shelters.
- Another recipe for boron balls from cockroaches: boric acid is mixed with flour and powdered sugar, water is poured into the mixture to make a kind of dough. Further actions are similar to the first option.
- You can also suggest the following recipe for balls with boric acid from cockroaches: several hundred grams of boric acid are mixed with vanilla sugar, starch and powdered sugar.You need to add a little water to the mixture to obtain a homogeneous mass.
- Here is another folk remedy for cockroaches with boric acid: take potatoes and a boiled egg, make a homogeneous mass out of this and gradually introduce a little powder.
From the prepared mixtures it is necessary to roll small cakes or balls and spread them in the habitats of cockroaches. It is important that there is no other food for the parasites, and they have no choice but to start feeding on the poison. Food is put into the refrigerator or closed in plastic bags, crumbs are wiped off the table and garbage is taken out.
Seeing cockroaches in the apartment, the family got scared. I had to go to the pharmacy and buy boric powder, which was read a lot of positive reviews on the forums. Further, they scattered it everywhere, and did not wash it off for several days. The result was pleasing – almost all the cockroaches disappeared.
Cockroach eats boric acid bait
Is boric acid hazardous to humans?
Despite the fact that boric acid can kill cockroaches, it is not toxic to animals and people.By the way, her wounds were treated earlier, but the drug proved to be a powerful allergen. Once doctors realized this, they stopped using the acid for medicinal purposes and began resorting to safer remedies.
So, those who have pets or children may not be afraid to buy boric acid if it is used for pickling, except for insects, no one will be hurt.
By the way, borax is also not very poisonous, these substances are even considered food additives. If you accidentally eat borax or boric acid, then they will not harm the body.However, these substances are banned in Russia for use in food.
Video: cockroach control
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Global from cockroaches Cockroaches are distinguished by fertility and vitality, they fill the apartments, like hordes of invaders and subsequently behave like owners. Parasites are rarely found only in new buildings, but those who transported things from the old apartment could well have taken a couple of individuals with them. Noticing cockroaches, you should immediately take measures to destroy them, because insects multiply very quickly.Today there is
Chalk Masha against cockroaches Pencil Masha against cockroaches is very easy to use, moreover, it is quite inexpensive. It was used to bait cockroaches back in Soviet times, but this remedy is still effective, and it still reduces the number of parasites in the home. Masha from cockroaches acts on parasites exactly when it comes into contact with an insect. Simply put, for an insect to die, it must
Is the regent agent effective in fighting cockroaches? People have been fighting parasites for a long time, but they do not always manage to do it successfully.Those looking for a way to deal with ginger settlers should be advised to use the Regent cockroach remedy. It works much better than house slippers.
It is still unknown who invented this cockroach control agent, which was originally used to kill colo
Application of the drug Combat from cockroaches Combat from cockroaches differs from its counterparts in that it is most effective in the fight against various insects.