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Is keto net carbs or total carbs: 15 Burning Questions About the Keto Diet, Answered


15 Burning Questions About the Keto Diet, Answered

2. Is the Keto Diet Safe to Follow?

Even though following an extremely high fat diet can feel like a radical way to eat, “the research looking at ketosis via diet has not shown any real negative consequences when done in the short term,” says Scott Keatley, RDN, of Keatley Medical Nutrition Therapy in New York City. (Ketosis is the natural metabolic state that makes keto lead to weight loss.)

But there have been few long-term studies, adds Kendra Whitmire, a nutritionist and dietitian in Laguna Beach, California, who practices functional and therapeutic nutrition. It’s difficult to definitively say that it’s safe, and it also largely depends on the types of foods you’re eating on a keto diet. (For instance, olive oil is a healthier choice than butter; salmon is healthier than bacon.) That said, following the keto diet properly, and particularly with help from a medical professional, should reduce negative health effects, says Whitmire.

RELATED: What Are the Benefits and Risks of the Keto Diet?

3. Is Ketosis Bad?

Typically, your body breaks down carbohydrates as its preferred fuel source. Ketosis is when your body has switched into a fat-burning state and breaks down fat into ketone bodies that are used as energy. Beyond the keto flu, “many studies have shown that entering ketosis via diet does not have any real negative consequence in the short term,” says Keatley.

But long-term studies are needed to truly assess the impact, he adds. Bottom line: Putting your body into ketosis for a limited time is likely not harmful.

RELATED: Should You Use Exogenous Supplements to Put Your Body in Ketosis?

4. How Many Carbs Do You Actually Eat on a Keto Diet? 

A keto diet is generally made up of 70 to 75 percent fat, 20 to 25 percent protein, and 5 to 10 percent carbohydrates, says Jill Keene, a registered dietitian nutritionist in private practice in White Plains, New York. The exact number of grams (g) of carbohydrates will be different for everyone, but is generally around 20 to 50 g per day. Many people on a keto diet count “net carbs,” which is total carbs minus fiber. Fiber isn’t “counted” in the carbohydrate total, because it’s not digested. Either way, this number of carbs is very low and requires careful planning. Eating a little fruit, starchy vegetables, sugary foods, or whole grains can easily kick you out of ketosis.

5. Can You Drink Alcohol on the Keto Diet?

Yes. “Even though there are [often] carbs in alcohol, you can still drink it in limited amounts,” says Keatley. Realize that on days when you do choose to consume alcohol, depending on what you choose, you may have to adjust your carbs from other sources. This may mean making tough decisions, like having a drink but skipping a small amount of fruit or Greek yogurt.

In general, the simpler the better: Spirits are the best choice (avoid mixers that have calories), followed by wine. Your best bet is to stick with a half drink, says Keatley. Because of their lower alcohol percentage and other ingredients, beer and wine “can eat up a lot of your carbs, and they don’t give back in terms of vitamins and minerals. It’s a waste of your carbs,” he says.

Here’s what each alcoholic drink contains, carb-wise:

Spirits: gin, rum, vodka, whiskey, 1.5 fluid ounce (fl oz), 0 g carbs (1 serving)

Red wine, 5 fl oz, 4 g carbs (1 serving)

White wine, 5 fl oz, 4 g carbs (1 serving)

Light beer, 12 fl oz, 6 g carbs (Stick to half of a beer if this is your choice.)

RELATED: A Complete Keto Food List and 7-Day Sample Menu

6. How Much Weight Can You Lose on the Keto Diet?

There’s no doubt that a ketogenic diet may help spur weight loss — and anecdotal reports of drastic transformations are easy to find. “I have clients who have lost a significant amount of weight on a keto diet, but they were obese when starting and had quite a bit of fat to lose. These individuals have fairly drastic body transformations,” says Keatley.

In a study published in February 2017 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, 20 people with obesity who followed a very low calorie keto diet for four months lost an average of 44 pounds (lb), mainly from body and visceral fat. (It’s important to note that there was no placebo group and this was a small sample source, so the findings are limited.) In another study published in February 2017, in Nutrition Metabolism, normal-weight adults who followed a non-energy (calorie) restricted keto diet for six weeks lost about 4 lb in both fat and lean body mass.

But long-term studies show that there’s not much of a difference in weight loss between keto and other diets. One meta-analysis published in October 2013 in the BMJ compared adults on a ketogenic diet (eating less than 50 g of carbs) with those on a conventional low-fat diet. After at least a year, those on the keto diet lost an additional two pounds compared with the group who slashed fat. The bottom line is that diets, including keto, may help you lose the same amount of weight in the long run. With that news, know that there may be a better option out there for you, says Keatley.

RELATED: 21 Tips for Weight Loss That Actually Work

7. What Fruits Can I Eat on the Ketogenic Diet?

Fruit is generally not a mainstay of the keto diet. With so much natural sugar, fruit generally has too many carbs to be included. But you can have small amounts of lower-carb fruits, like berries, says Whitmire. And if you’re really getting technical, avocado and coconut, two higher-fat foods, are, in fact, fruits. Based on U.S. Department of Agriculture carb counts, here’s what can fit on keto:

Raspberries: 3 g net carbs per ½ cup

Strawberries: 2 g net carbs per ¼ cup slices

Blueberries: 4 g net carbs per ¼ cup

Blackberries: 3 g net carbs per ½ cup

Coconut: 2.5 g net carbs per ½ cup, shredded, raw (unsweetened)

Avocado: 3 g net carbs per 1 cup, cubes

*All carb values are net carbs, which is total carbs minus fiber. Fiber is often not counted in net carb totals, as the nutrient isn’t digested.

8. Can I Eat Snacks Like Popcorn, Oatmeal, and Yogurt on Keto?

Unfortunately, high-carb foods like popcorn or oatmeal probably won’t fit in the keto diet. One cup of air-popped popcorn contains 5 g of net carbs, which may be ¼ of your carb allotment for the entire day. It’s also worth mentioning that one cup of popcorn is not a large serving; it contains just 30 calories and no fat, so it won’t be filling. Oatmeal likely doesn’t fit, either. About ¼ cup of plain dried oats (about ½ cup cooked) has 12 grams of net carbohydrates for 77 calories and just one gram of fat.

As for yogurt, it depends on what type you choose and whether it’s keto-compliant. About half of a 7 oz container of Fage plain 5 percent milkfat Greek yogurt, for instance, contains 3 g of carbohydrates. Remember to choose plain versions, as flavored will add more sugar (and, therefore, carbs).

Better keto-compliant snacks include nuts (1 oz almonds has 3 g net carbs), seeds (½ cup of sunflower seed kernels has 3 g of net carbs), and small amounts of low-carb fruits like berries, says Whitmire. Beef jerky and nonstarchy veggies such as broccoli and cucumbers are other good snack options on keto.

RELATED: 10 Quick and Easy Keto Snacks Probably Already in Your Fridge or Pantry

9. Should I Be Concerned About the Keto Flu? 

If you’re interested in the keto diet, you have probably read about the keto flu, one not-so-fun side effect. “The keto flu is definitely real,” says Keatley. “Your body functions really well on carbohydrates — that’s what it was designed for. When it switches to fat burning, it becomes less efficient at making energy,” he says. On keto, you have less energy available and you may feel sick and sluggish, kind of as if you have the flu. As your body naturally adjusts to this new way of drawing energy, you will come out of it. This may take a couple of weeks, says Keatley.

10. Will the Keto Diet Give Me Kidney Stones?

The development of kidney stones is certainly a concern if you’re switching to a diet in which you’re eating more protein. (Though, again, the keto diet is more of a moderate-protein diet.) “Consuming high levels of red meat and not drinking a lot of water may make stones more likely,” says Whitmire. She adds that on a keto diet, you need to stay hydrated and replenish electrolytes (minerals like sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium). “If not, this can increase your risk of side effects like stones,” she says. Past research gives a small glimpse into how likely stones may be. A study published in the Journal of Child Neurology on children using the keto diet to control epilepsy found that about 1 in 15 developed kidney stones, though supplements of oral potassium citrate reduced this risk. Talk to your doctor if you have risk factors, like a family or personal history of stones, about any precautions you should take when on the keto diet.

RELATED: The Short- and Long-Term Effects to Expect on the Keto Diet

11. How Might the Keto Diet Affect My Period?

There’s a possibility you may see a change in menstruation. “Studies on younger women who eat severely low-carb for an extended period of time end up with irregular periods or missed periods,” explains Whitmire. Severely limiting carbohydrates may be taxing on the adrenal system, leading to hormonal imbalances that disrupt a woman’s cycle. Similarly, rapid weight loss can also have this effect. The takeaway? “Women may need more carbs on a keto diet compared to men, especially if a woman is noticing a change in her [cycle],” she adds.

On the other side of the spectrum, there is limited evidence that for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a ketogenic diet may improve their hormonal balance. The small study, published in Nutrition & Metabolism, found that a small group of women with PCOS who followed a keto diet for 24 weeks lost 12 percent of their body weight and reduced testosterone and insulin levels. Again, talk to your doctor, especially if you’re using the diet as part of your treatment.

12. How Long Do You Need to Stay on the Keto Diet to Lose Weight? 

Anecdotally, many people report losing weight quickly on a keto diet, says Keatley. Research in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology found that obese dieters lost an average of 44 lb over four months when following a very low calorie keto diet. That said, Keatley suggests to clients that they spend no more than 12 weeks in ketosis because of the uncertainties of following it long-term and the risk of developing nutritional deficiencies.

When people go off a keto diet and begin to incorporate more carbs into their day, they tend to regain some weight during this adjustment period, he says. They also stand to regain all the weight they lost, and potentially more, if they return to their pre-keto ways of eating after feeling deprived on the plan.

RELATED: The 10 Most Famous Fad Diets of All Time

13. How Will the Keto Diet Affect Your Cholesterol Levels?

The interesting thing about a keto diet is that it often leads to weight loss, something that by itself can improve blood lipid levels. At the same time, you may be consuming more saturated fat than ever, in the form of butter, bacon, cream, and coconut oil.

We’ve long been warned that eating excess saturated fat can raise cholesterol, and thus put us at risk for heart disease. For that reason, many experts express concern that increased fat intake may be especially harmful for people who already have heart disease or have risk factors for it.

A study on obese patients on a keto diet found that after 24 weeks, total cholesterol levels dropped, while “bad” LDL cholesterol decreased and “good” HDL cholesterol increased. This could be reflective of the fact that any weight loss, no matter how it’s achieved, tends to lower cholesterol. Also, as already mentioned, people who have risk factors for heart disease need to consult their doctors before attempting a keto diet. Research, as in this study in the British Journal of Nutrition in April 2013, has concluded that a diet low in carbs but high in fat and protein impaired arterial function in those who were at risk for cardiovascular disease.

What it may come down to is what type of fat you’re consuming on keto. A review and meta-analysis in the December 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics looked at the effect of a low-fat versus a low-carb diet on blood lipids. While lower intakes of saturated fat were associated with lower cholesterol levels, higher intakes of monounsaturated fat (like olive oil or avocado) in the context of a high-fat diet was associated with increased levels of heart-protective HDL cholesterol.

14. How Much Protein Will You Eat on the Keto Diet?

A typical keto diet may include 20 to 25 percent of calories coming from protein, says Keene. One common misconception is that this is a high-protein diet, when in reality, it’s moderate in protein. “Too much protein can be converted and broken down as sugar to be utilized as an energy source,” she says.

That said, you don’t want to go too low in protein. “You want to be able to stay in ketosis without sacrificing lean body mass [muscle] if you lose weight,” says Whitmire. This can loosely equate to 1.2 to 1.5 g of protein per kilogram of body weight. (The recommended daily allowance is currently 0.8 g per kg of body weight, according to Harvard Health Publishing, so under keto it’s significantly more.) Therefore, a 140-lb woman may aim for 76 to 95 g per day. For reference, one 3.5-ounce skinless chicken breast offers 31 g of protein.

One of the best sources of protein on a keto diet is fatty fish (like salmon or mackerel), says Keene, as it offers a source of heart-healthy protein and omega-3 fatty acids. Eggs are another good choice; one large egg contains 6 g of protein and 5 g of fat.

While a keto diet may focus on fat, that doesn’t mean you have to eat bacon and sausages all day. There is room for leaner proteins, like chicken or cod; just remember to add fat (for example, roast the chicken with olive oil) to these lower-in-fat sources, she says. Many cuts of beef are also considered lean or extra lean, as they contain 10 g or less of total fat, as well as a modest amount of saturated fat (4.5 or 2 g or less, respectively). These include eye of round roast and steak, sirloin tip side steak, top round roast and steak, bottom round roast and steak, and top sirloin steak, notes the Mayo Clinic.

RELATED: What Is Keto Cycling and Can It Help You Stick With the Keto Diet?

15. Can the Keto Diet Reverse Type 2 Diabetes?

“Though this isn’t the first tool I’d use to help someone control their insulin — carb counting, evenly distributing carbs throughout the day, may be easier to commit to — it’s not off the table, especially with stronger emerging research,” says Keene.

It’s true: Some preliminary research suggests keto may be a good approach for some people with type 2 diabetes. For example, one small February 2017 study in the Journal of Medical Internet Research randomized overweight adults with type 2 diabetes into two groups: one that consumed a keto diet, and a control group that ate a low-fat diet recommended by the American Diabetes Association. After 32 weeks, the keto group saw their A1C (a measure of average blood sugar over a three-month span) fall more compared with the control group, and half lowered their A1C to less than 6.5 percent (less than 5.7 percent is considered normal). The keto group also lost 28 lb compared with about 7 lb for the control group.

But long-term studies are needed, and keto can pose health risks to people with diabetes, especially if you’re following it without supervision from a medical professional. Importantly, anyone who is on medication to lower blood sugar or who is using insulin should be aware that drastically cutting carbs, as you must do on keto, can lead to dangerously low blood sugar, research shows. Unaddressed, this condition, called hypoglycemia, may lead to seizures, loss of consciousness, and blurred vision, according to the Mayo Clinic. (People with type 1 diabetes should not try the keto diet, experts warn.)

The takeaway? Be sure to work with your doctor if you have type 2 diabetes, and manage your expectations. Not only is there no consensus on whether keto is an effective diet approach for diabetes, it’s also tough to stick with, according to research published in the European Journal of Nutrition in March 2018. Keep in mind that type 2 diabetes cannot be reversed, but it can be put into remission.

RELATED: Does the Ketogenic Diet Work for Type 2 Diabetes?

The Truth About Net Carbs vs. Total Carbs

Watching your carb intake may be second nature to many of you by now, but if you’re new to eating keto you’ll probably start to hear words like carb count, macros, and net carbs thrown around a lot. Today, we’re going to go over net carbs vs. total carbs, and which you might want to focus on counting on your keto diet. If you haven’t read our post on keto and fiber, we recommend you read it now!

This post will cover:

  • The difference between net and total carbs
  • Which carbohydrates to focus on when tracking macros
  • When to be cautious about net carbs
  • How to starting tracking your carb macros

Counting Macros

Before we get started, lets discuss why we’re talking about counting carbs. When you switch to eating a ketogenic diet, you will need to keep your macronutrients, aka ‘macros’ within a certain range. Macros are just a fancy word for the three nutrients the human body needs in the largest quantity. The three macronutrients are protein, fat and carbohydrates (carbs). On a ketogenic diet, you’re getting about 70-80% of your calories from fat, 20-25% from protein, and 5-10% from carbs. This is why there is a large focus on tracking your carbohydrate intake. Coming from a standard diet you’re greatly reducing your carb intake, and unless you track, it can be easy to over eat this macronutrient in the beginning.

The Difference Between Net Carbs and Total Carbs

When reading a standard nutrition label, it is important to note the total carbohydrate count will include additional components that count towards the total carbohydrate number. In other words, the total carbohydrate number is referring to the carbs from all sources. Usually included on labels are sugar, fiber, and sometimes sugar alcohols. Taking the label below as an example, we can see the total carbohydrates equals 37 grams. You do not need to add fiber and total sugar to this, they are included in the total carbohydrate count.

Total carbohydrates: the total number of carbohydrates from all sources

When we talk about net carbs, we’re talking about everything included in that total number, minus the fiber. Put simply, net carbs = total carbs – fiber. Using the same label, we can see the total carbs are 37 grams, and the fiber is 4 grams. To get our net carb count we’re going to minus 4 from 37, giving us a net carb count of 33 grams. Note: the words dietary fiber and fiber are used interchangeably.

Net carbohydrates: the total carbohydrates minus the fiber

Which carbohydrates do you focus on when tracking macros?

Fibre: As we discussed in our previous blog post, fiber is the portion of carbohydrates found in plants that passes through your body undigested. In other words, fiber is not absorbed by the body, and generally does not impact blood sugar like other carbohydrates. Net carbs are the carbs left over that will be absorbed by the body. While we do know that insoluble fiber leaves the body completely undigested, the role of soluble fiber in the body is a little more complicated. Soluble fiber may be partially digested and doesn’t necessarily have zero impact on blood sugar.  

Sugar: On a nutrition label, sugar also falls under the category of carbohydrates. This number will include both added sugar and sugars found naturally in foods. So a food with a number other than zero isn’t automatically banned from a keto diet, it just depends where the sugar is coming from. Avoiding all adding sugar is recommended, but natural sugars found in foods will not be. Even cauliflower has natural sugars! Reading the ingredient list if you’re buying pre-packaged food will be a habit to form now that you’re eating keto.

Sugar Alcohols: Sugar alcohols include xylitol and erythritol. They are derived from plant sources, and generally speaking do not impact blood sugar levels. Like fiber, they pass through the digestive track undigested, and therefore do not need to be counted toward your total carb count.  There are some sugar alcohols that have been shown to increase blood sugar – Maltitol and sorbitol being two. If you see these listed, just know they may impact your blood sugar levels, although still not to the degree that real sugar would. 

So which should you count? When eating a low-carb high-fat diet, we generally want to avoid all added sugar as a rule of thumb. After that, sticking to the net carb count will usually allow us to maintain nutritional ketosis and not go over our carb count. However if you’re particularly carb sensitive, or eat a lot of high fiber foods, you may want to watch your total carb intake if you’re not able to maintain ketosis. 


There are instances when net carbs may not be the best marker for counting carbs on a low-carb keto diet. In people with type 1 diabetes, fiber may still influence blood sugar, although the research is not conclusive. Those dealing with this condition may be better off counting total carbs.

Additionally, some processed foods labelled as low-carb or keto-friendly may also have an impact on blood sugar. This is because some companies add fiber into products in order to be able to decrease the total carb count. However, if these products contained ingredients that already raised blood sugar to begin with, adding fiber will not cancel the effect of the other ingredients.

Example: Let’s say you’re eating a protein bar with a total carb count of 20 grams and 15 grams of fiber. We can see here the net carb count of this bar would be 5 grams, not too shabby. However, let’s say one of the ingredients in this bar was dextrose, or even cane sugar juice. These ingredients are still pure sugar, and will raise blood sugar despite the bar having a high fiber count.

So, how to you avoid this? We recommend always reading the label, and looking at the ingredient list as well as the nutritional information. Unfortunately, on some products the net carb count can be misleading. Sticking to unprocessed whole foods can also be a good way to stay clear of this trap.

Tracking Carbohydrates

Although there is no one correct limit for carbohydrates, and sensitivity to carbs will vary from person to person, there are some general rules you can use as a starting point. When counting net carbs, usually sticking below 25 grams per day will be effective in achieving nutritional ketosis. If you’re counting total carbs, keeping your total to around 50 grams or less will be a good place to start.

Ultimately, it is up to the individual to determine his or her own carb tolerance. There is no short cut, but rather trial and error can be used find your own sweet spot. If you do plan to count carbs, there are some great tools like carb manager and my fitness pal that can help you get started. We’ve add all our Ketolibriyum products to these apps to make tracking our food easy and hassle free! Additionally, those focused on eating low-carb high-fat rather than strict keto will have more flexibility with the number.

To read about how alcohol affects your keto diet click here. 

What is the Difference Between Total Carbs & Net? |KETO-MOJO

The minute you begin exploring the keto / low-carb diet, you’ll learn that in order to follow it successfully, you need to significantly restrict your carbohydrate intake. But by how much? Some sources say you should limit your intake to 20 total carbs per day, while others say 20 net carbs per day. What’s the difference between total carbs and net carbs and why does it matter? We’ll explain everything you need to know here so you can decide the daily carb intake that’s right for you. 

What’s the Purpose of Limiting Carbs?

To understand why you need to know about net and total carbs, it’s good to have a solid understanding of the role carb-limitation plays in the keto diet:

The entire goal of a ketogenic diet is to get and keep your body in a state of ketosis. This is where the body relies on fat for energy rather than carbs (sugar), and your ketone levels are at least 0.5 mmol/L when you test them (your blood glucose lowers significantly too, as sugar/carbs are known to raise blood sugar).

The only way to achieve ketosis is to drastically restrict your carb intake long enough so your body trains itself to produce ketones from stored and consumed fats and use them for energy. Once you’re in ketosis, the goal is to stay there and optimize its many benefits. The only way to do this is to continue to limit your carb intake. 

But by how much exactly?

How Many Carbs Should You Eat per Day on a Keto Diet?

Fortunately, the amount of carbs you should eat on a keto diet is not arbitrary. In fact, it’s scientific, though there is some confusion due to nuances we explain here: 

Total Carbs

It’s widely agreed upon by physicians that people following a ketogenic diet for medically therapeutic reasons, such as cancer or epilepsy, should limit their total carb count to 20 grams of total carbs per day. Strict adherence ensures maximum benefit from higher ketone levels. 

Here, “total carbs” is exactly what it sounds like—the total number of carbs consumed in one day (For success, it’s important to track your food intake, also known as macros or macronutrients, and carefully track your carb count using a tracker, since carbs can easily sneak into your diet.)

Net Carbs

For the general population, there’s a consensus among experts that pretty much anyone can stay solidly in ketosis (i.e. maintain ketone levels of at least 0.5 mmol/L or more), if they consume 20 grams of net carbs per day. 

Here’s where it can get confusing for keto newcomers: “Net carbs” are not the same as “total carbs.” 

Net carbs are the total grams of carbohydrates in any given food minus its grams of fiber and sugar alcohols. (The sugar alcohols and fiber are subtracted because they are not digested by the body.)

Here’s the basic formula:

Net carbohydrates = total carbohydrates – fiber – sugar alcohols (if applicable).

When we say “fiber” we mean insoluble fiber and soluble fiber.

If you’re not familiar with sugar alcohols, you can learn about them here.

Here’s an example of the net carb calculation, using 1 cup of cauliflower rice:

1 cup of cauliflower rice contains 4.8 grams of total carbs and 3.2 grams of fiber. So, to get its net carbs, you subtract the fiber (3.2 grams) from the total carbs (4.8 grams), which leaves you with 1.6 grams of net carbs (i.e., 4.8 grams carbs – 3.2 grams fiber = 1.6 grams net carbs for 1 cup cauliflower rice). 

If you’re following a keto diet for weight-loss or general health reasons, staying within 20 net carbs per day is the way to go. It’s easier to do, allows you far greater consumption of vegetables and other wholesome foods that contain carbohydrates, and, as we mentioned, still allows you to stay in ketosis. 

Now let’s try an example of calculating net carbs with a food that contains sugar alcohols. There are many keto and low-carb products that utilize sugar-alcohol-based sweeteners to sweeten food products without adding carbs (or in the case of some sugar alcohols, adding minimal carbs). But there are also recipes that call for sugar alcohols. While there are many out there (maltitol, xylitol, sorbitol, etc.), we recommend erythritol sweetener, which, unlike some sugar alcohols, contains absolutely no carbs and doesn’t tend to affect blood-sugar levels. So, for this example, we’ll go with homemade keto whipped cream (2 cups heavy whipping cream and 2 teaspoons erythritol, whipped together). 

Here, the whipping cream contains 32 grams of carbohydrates and 0 dietary fiber (or 32 total carbs), while the erythritol contains 8 grams of total carbs and 8 grams of fiber. So, the net carbs count is 32 – 0 + 8 – 8 = 32 carbs total for enough whipped cream to serve 16 people (thus 2 net carbs per serving).

Testing for Your Carb Edge or Bio-Individuality

Once you’re solidly in ketosis for three or more months, some people like to test their “carb edge,” to determine whether they can consume more than 20 net carbs per day and still stay in ketosis. You can do this by gradually increasing your daily carbohydrate consumption and testing your glucose and ketones daily to see if you get glucose spikes, or pushed out of ketosis by eating more carb foods, including carb-heavy veggies. 

It’s also common to test yourself for bio-individuality, or how your unique body reacts to certain keto-friendly foods or processed foods. Some people get a glucose spike with certain sugar alcohols or dairy, for example. Testing your glucose and ketones before and after eating questionable foods allows you to discover if a food sensitivity is impeding your ability to stay in ketosis and achieve keto success. 

The Final Word on the Difference Between Total Carbs vs Net Carbs

Total carbs are exactly that—the sum of all the carbs you eat in a day. Net carbs are calculated by taking your total carbs and subtracting fiber and sugar alcohols. You can make these calculations by reading food labels or calculating the macros of ingredients in the recipes you make.

Whether total carbs or net carb count is better for you to follow on a ketogenic diet depends on your goals. The bottom line: if you’re following a ketogenic diet for medically therapeutic reasons, it’s best to start at 20 TOTAL carbs per day. If you’re following the diet to battle obesity or insulin resistance (it helps stabilize insulin levels), for weight-loss, or preventative health measures, 20 NET carbs should do the trick.

Still, it’s a good idea to test your ketones along the way to find your carb edge and learn whether any food sensitivities are affecting your success. It’s also important to eat whole foods, avoid foods with added sugar (i.e. stay sugar-free), read nutrition facts and nutrition labels, and check with your primary care provider or dietitian before embarking on any diet.

Disclaimer: it’s always a good idea to consult with a dietitian and your primary care provider before starting any new diet. 

What To Count On A Keto Diet

The short answer: yes, several. Miller feels quite strongly that focusing on only net carbs isn’t an accurate measure of carb intake because the way each individual processes and metabolizes “non-impact” carbs like fiber is different.

“In my 10-plus years of using the ketogenic diet for beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and neurological influences on the body, I have always stuck with total carbs because there are variances in our individual blood sugar responses to fibers, depending on the unique state of our gut bacteria and blood sugar metabolism,” she says. “Also, the form of fiber (soluble vs. insoluble) may be metabolized differently, and the source of the fiber in many packaged foods is highly processed and could still yield a blood sugar spike.”

And while the net carb formula is likely flawed across the board, it’s probably the least useful when it comes to packaged foods. At least with a whole plant food like raspberries, you know that the low net carb number is a result of naturally high fiber content—which is awesome for your health for a number of reasons. But with packaged foods, these added fibers and sugar alcohols are not something your body typically encounters (at least not in such high quantities), which can lead to its own set of issues.

“As soon as the food industry caught on to the value of fiber, they started adding processed industrialized ingredients to packaged foods to increase the total fiber count, but many of these ingredients can be gut irritants,” says Miller. “I always say focus on whole food ingredients—the impact of the fiber from leafy greens, avocado, nuts, and seeds is superior to that in a processed product using inulin, corn fiber, or other additives.”

Cording agrees, adding that another common issue with tracking net carbs is that it can lead to excessive calorie intake if someone has the idea that they can simply “cancel out” a higher-carb foods with loads of fiber. Plus, on a mental level, tracking net carbs can lend itself to a lot of overthinking and may make it harder for someone to be able to enjoy a balanced meal when they don’t know the breakdown of total carbs vs. fiber vs. sugar alcohols.

How to Calculate Net Carbs on Keto

  • If you follow the ketogenic diet, it’s essential that you know how to calculate net carbs: the carbohydrates that your body actually processes and uses for energy.
  • Fiber and certain sugar alcohols don’t count toward your total carbs on keto, so you can subtract them from your daily total—with some important exceptions.
  • Find out how to calculate net carbs, how many you should aim for and why not all sugar alcohols are truly low-carb.

If you’re new to the ketogenic diet, you’re probably asking yourself, “What are net carbs, and why should I care?” On a lower-carb diet, net carbs vs total carbs is actually a big deal.

Every gram of carbohydrate you eat counts, so it’s essential to know how to calculate net carbohydrates correctly so you don’t go over your daily carb limit. This guide explains what net carbs care, why they matter and how to use a manual net carb calculator to figure them out for yourself.

What are net carbs?

There’s more to a food label than just total carbohydrates. That total can also include fiber, sugar and sugar alcohols, which help determine your net carb intake.

What does net carbs mean? Net carbs are the carbohydrates in food that you digest and use for energy.

It might be surprising to hear that your body doesn’t use everything you eat. In reality, your body can’t completely break down and absorb some types of carbs, like fiber and sugar alcohols. They pass through your body without being digested. That’s why most fiber and sugar alcohols can be subtracted from your daily carb total.

On a keto diet, eating too many carbs can kick you out of ketosis. When you calculate net carbs, you’ll have a better idea of how many carbs you’re actually eating in a day.

Carbs vs. net carbs

If you look at the nutrition facts label of most packaged foods in the United States, you’ll see total carbohydrates, dietary fiber and sugar. This information is regulated by the FDA and has an official, legal definition.

Net carbs are different. Food manufacturers came up with the term “net carbs” in the early 2000s when low-carb diets went mainstream. Today, you might even see net carb callouts on the labels of lower-carb and keto foods.

However, there’s no official definition of net carbs, so the way that companies calculate their totals can differ.

To calculate net carbs for keto for yourself, take a food’s total carbohydrates and subtract:

  • Dietary fiber: Although fiber is technically a carb, your body doesn’t have the enzymes to break it down. So, it passes through your digestive system unchanged. This means (for keto, at least) that grams of fiber have zero net carbs and zero calories.
  • Certain sugar alcohols: Sugar alcohols taste sweet, but their molecular structure is slightly different from that of sugar molecules. A lot of sugar alcohols are either partially or entirely indigestible by humans.

Note that certain sugar alcohols do impact your blood sugar, and you should factor them into your keto carb count if you eat a large amount. For details, see the “How to calculate net carbs for keto” section below.

Why is counting carbs on keto so important?

When you keep net carbs low enough—typically under 50 grams of net carbs per day—your body enters ketosis: a metabolic state where you shift from burning carbs for energy to burning fat for fuel.

Getting into ketosis, and staying there, is the whole goal of keto. When you’re in ketosis, you feel lasting energy, a cognitive boost and fewer cravings, to name just a few benefits. Keto can even help you stay at a healthy weight.

The problem is that eating too many carbs can prevent you from reaching ketosis and staying there. That’s why learning how to figure out net carbs is so important.

Go over your carb limit, and you’ll fall out of ketosis and lose out on all the benefits. If you’re not seeing results on keto, our number one recommendation is to look at your macronutrient breakdown (how much carbs, fat and protein you eat daily). This is true whether you follow clean keto or a dirty keto diet.

Regardless of your diet, a high amount of carbs (and especially refined ones, like starches and sugars) can also contribute to the following side effects:

  • Spikes in your blood sugar
  • Inflammation[1][2]
  • Food cravings[3]
  • Disruptive changes to your hormones[4]
  • Shifts in your gut bacteria
  • Health conditions like obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome[5]

The trick is figuring out what your ideal carb intake looks like.

The reality is, carbs are fine in moderation. But if you’re on a strict keto diet, you have to pay attention to every single gram and how your body responds to different foods.

Net carbs are important, but they’re not the whole picture on keto. Keep reading to find out why.

How many net carbs on keto should I be aiming for?

On the standard ketogenic diet, you might eat as few as 20 grams of net carbs per day, or 5-10% of your total calorie intake. However, the “right” number of net carbs really depends on you.

Some people can eat slightly more carbs and stay in ketosis. Others need to stay on the lower end of the spectrum. Here are three examples:

  • You’re highly active: Let’s say you exercise three to four times per week, and you’re in the gym for about an hour. You’re more likely to burn through your glycogen stores and stay in ketosis. You might notice improvements in your workouts when you bump up your carb intake.
  • You’re pretty sedentary: You spend most of your day sitting down at a desk or in the car, and you want to lose some body fat. Keep your net carb intake on the lower end, around 5% of your total calories.
  • You’re feeling tired: Other people feel more energized and sleep better when they bump their net carb intake up to 6% of their total calories, a style of eating also known as “modified keto.” If you’re dealing with poor sleep and fatigue that just won’t quit, your body might be asking for more carbs.

How to calculate net carbs for keto

Wondering how to count carbs and stay in ketosis? Use this manual net carb calculator:

Grams of total carbs – fiber – sugar alcohols = Net carbs

Here’s one important element to factor into your net carb formula: Not all sugar alcohols are truly carb-free.

Some sugar alcohols can actually kick you out of ketosis because they have a high glycemic load. However, certain manufacturers selling “low-carb” or “sugar-free” foods will subtract those sugar alcohols from the total carb count. This makes products appear lower-carb than they actually are. Yikes.

On the other side of things, manufacturers will sometimes list sugar alcohols that don’t affect your blood sugar as if they were normal carbs, making net carb counts seem higher than they actually are.

So, how are you supposed to calculate net carbs for keto? Know your sugar alcohols.

Sugar alcohol on the keto diet

First up, what is sugar alcohol? It’s a type of carbohydrate that tastes sweet. On a molecular level, it looks like sugar and alcohol (hence, the name). Some sugar alcohols naturally occur in fruits and vegetables, and others are made by processing sugar.

But your body doesn’t treat it the same as sugar. Your body processes regular sugar pretty easily. Sugar alcohols aren’t as easily digested or absorbed, which is why they’re used in sugar-free and lower-carb foods.

So, do sugar alcohols count as carbs? It depends on the type.

The following sugar alcohols do not count toward net carbs for keto. If you’re eating something with these sweeteners, you don’t need to include them in your carb count:[6][7][8]

  • Erythritol
  • Xylitol
  • Mannitol
  • Lactitol

Exception: These sugar alcohols below do count (at least partially) toward net carbs:[9]

  • Maltitol
  • Sorbitol
  • Isomalt
  • Glycerin

Each gram of maltitol, sorbitol, isomalt or glycerin counts as about half a gram of carbs for keto.

Although sugar alcohols are not digestible carbs, your gut bacteria can ferment them, creating gas and bloating in your small intestine. For this reason, be wary of mannitol, maltitol and sorbitol—you may end up with digestive discomfort.

Here’s a good rule of thumb: Whether or not you follow the keto diet, avoid eating more than roughly 15 grams of sugar alcohols at a time, and pay attention to how you feel after eating them.

How to calculate sugar alcohol on a low carb diet

If you’re eating something that contains one of these sugar alcohols, use a slightly different formula to calculate total net carbs.

Take the number of grams of the sugar alcohol, divide by 2 and add it to your carb count. For example:

Grams of total carbs – fiber – sugar alcohols + (maltitol / 2) = Net carbs

Additional considerations when counting carbs on keto

We’ve established that you should always read the nutrition facts on your foods, and when you eat carbs that don’t raise your blood sugar, you can take them out of your net carb total.

You also want to avoid highly insulinogenic carbs, which are food choices that trigger a blood sugar response in the body. These foods are higher on the glycemic index (GI)—a numerical score that indicates how a food will affect your blood sugar.

On keto, you want to avoid foods with a high GI, which means it will have a larger effect on your blood sugar. The GI score also explains why you should avoid foods like potatoes, carrots and legumes—even though they contain fiber, they’re more likely to mess with your insulin levels and kick you out of ketosis.

Net carbs can feel like a confusing topic, but what it really means is that you have flexibility in your carb total. That’s good news if you want to leave room in your macros for other foods and drinks, whether you’re drinking alcohol on keto or enjoying a slightly higher-carb meal.

After all, flexibility and moderation are keys to a lifelong relationship with a healthful diet. Consider this information even more reason to scope out those nutrition labels, and keep rolling with the diet that works for you.

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Total Carbs vs. Net Carbs: Why the Difference Matters on Keto | by Sofia Norton, RD

The keto diet is a low-carb-type of diet. Its aim is to put the body in ketosis, a metabolic state characterized by enhanced fat burning and ketone body production. But for ketosis to happen, carb intake needs to be very low. This creates an energy crisis that your body handles by burning fat for fuel instead of carbs.

But how do you make sure your carb intake is low enough?

One way is by paying special attention to the type of carbs you’re eating.

As you know, carbs come in many different forms. Some impact your blood sugar, others do not. Some are healthy, others not so much. But you don’t need to know about every single type of carb that’s on your plate. The nitty-gritty of low-carb eating on keto can be explained by learning the difference between total carbs vs. net carbs.

Here, I’ll explain more about carbs in general and tell you everything you need to know about total vs. net carbs on a keto diet, including how to calculate them.

Carbohydrates are a group of biomolecules that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose.

In nature, carbs serve a multitude of purposes. For example, they give plants structure (cellulose) and some are used for storage of energy (starch). Carbs are also important components of coenzymes and even your DNA.

Dietary carbs, however, are defined as a macronutrient. Macronutrients are those nutrients that we need to consume in large amounts to stay healthy and that provide energy (aka calories). Carbs are the predominant energy-giving nutrient in most places across the globe [1], and they’re found in:

  • Grains and legumes
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Vegetables and fruits
  • Dairy

But despite being so ubiquitous, carbs are surprisingly not essential like protein, fat, and vitamins are, for example. The fact of the matter is that we can survive without any carbs in our diets [2, 3]. It’s just that our bodies prefer using them for energy.

This is important to know when you go on a keto diet and are worried about limiting this macro to an extreme degree.

Just to showcase how unimportant dietary carbs are in your diet, consider the fact that there’s no set recommended dietary intake (RDI) or adequate intake (AI) for this macronutrient [4]. And as explained in an old report of the IDECG Working Group [5]:

“The theoretical minimal level of carbohydrate (CHO) intake is zero, but CHO is a universal fuel for all cells, the cheapest source of dietary energy, and also the source of plant fiber.”

Now that you know that you can survive on very little carbs on your keto diet, let’s move on to the differences between total carbs vs. net carbs and explain why that’s so important to know.

Companies created the phrase “net carbs” sometime during the early 2000s when low-carb diets became a thing [6]. This term, along with low-carb and impact carb, is not defined by the FDA. But you will still find it on food labels, especially on products aimed at low-carb eaters, keto dieters, people with diabetes, etc.

But what exactly are net carbs?

Net carbs are essentially those carbs that raise blood glucose levels. They’re calculated by subtracting the grams of fiber and sugar alcohols from the grams of total carbs in a serving. Fiber is an indigestible carb that does not raise blood glucose levels, and some sugar alcohols have no impact on blood glucose levels as well [7, 8].

However, that doesn’t mean all fiber and sugar alcohols are completely calorie-free. Your body cannot digest dietary fiber, true, but the bacteria in your gut can use it to make short-chain fatty acids [9]. These are then used for energy. Researchers believe soluble fibers can provide around 2 kcal/g, which is half the calories provided by net carbs.

Sugar alcohols are compounds derived from sugar. Things get even more complicated with them. Some are truly calorie-free, others provide calories, and some can even raise blood glucose levels [8].

But all in all, what you need to know is that net carbs are those carbs that you need to keep an eye on if you want to enter and stay in ketosis. They include sugar and starches, but some sugar alcohols may fall under this category as well.

Calculating net carbs is easy. Just pick up any packaged food item and take a look at the Nutrition Facts label on the back or go to the USDA Food Data Central for unpackaged items. Look for the total carbohydrates, fiber, and sugar alcohols (if added). Lastly, use this formula:

Total carbs − fiber (and sugar alcohols) = net carbs

Say a food item has 15g total carbs, 4g of fiber, and 3g of sugar alcohols. That would amount to 8g of net carbs: 15g total carbs − 4g fiber − 3g sugar alcohols = 8g net carbs.

Because not all sugar alcohols impact blood glucose levels, there’s no need to include all of them into this equation. Those that you should include are:

  • Erythritol
  • Mannitol
  • Sucralose

These contain negligible calories or no calories at all, so their impact on blood glucose levels is insignificant. You can also factor in stevia, monk fruit, saccharin, and other zero-calorie sweeteners when calculating a food’s net carb count.

In case you need to have a better idea of the carb composition of your favorite keto foods, here are a couple of examples:

A lot of keto beginners are confused about the right way to count carbs on a keto diet. Some believe that the total carb count is what matters when determining your carb limit, while others find this to be overkill.

When the keto diet is used for its original purpose, that is to treat epilepsy, clinicians will often restrict total carbs rather than net carbs [10]. This is to play it safe since the carb composition of a food can vary greatly, and it’s really important to achieve deep ketosis to reduce seizures with a keto diet.

However, since you’ll likely be following the keto diet with other objectives in mind (weight loss, glycemic control, just feeling good), you don’t need to restrict carbs as drastically. In fact, you would probably benefit more with a moderate approach, i.e. restricting net carbs only!

Because, you see, when you eat carb-containing food, your body breaks down and digests only net carbs. These are converted into blood glucose, which the body then uses to make energy. Fiber and other indigestible carbs, on the other hand, end up in your large intestines untouched or fermented [9].

For your body to reach ketosis, your body needs to reach a point where it can no longer make enough blood glucose (through carb restriction). Since it cannot use fiber to make blood glucose, there’s no need to restrict it on a keto diet. You’re better off eating enough of this indigestible carb since it keeps your digestive tract, your cardiovascular system, and your immune system strong and healthy [11].

While the FDA does not recognize “net carbs” as a category, keto eaters surely do!

Calculating net carbs allows keto dieters to enjoy greater volumes of carb-containing food. Because net carbs are those carbs that raise blood sugar and prevent your body from going into ketosis, they should be your primary concern. All other carbs don’t interfere with the keto diet like that. In fact, fiber, which is a type of carbohydrate, can provide a host of health benefits on this diet.

Luckily, calculating net carbs is fairly easy. All you need to do is subtract fiber (and sometimes sugar alcohols) from a food’s total carb count and that’s it! For fresh produce and other unpackaged items, you can easily find all the info you need on online food databases and even diet apps. And what’s even better, many keto and low-carb food manufacturers have already done the work for you by specifying the number of net carbs a serving has on their product labels, making everything so much easier!


  1. Macronutrients. The World Health Organization. Accessed Apr. 2020. — http://www.emro.who.int/health-topics/macronutrients/index.html
  2. Ludwig DS, Hu FB, Tappy L, Brand-Miller J. Dietary carbohydrates: role of quality and quantity in chronic disease. BMJ. 2018 Jun 13;361:k2340. — https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996878/
  3. C Westman E. Is dietary carbohydrate essential for human nutrition? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 75, Issue 5, May 2002, Pages 951–953, — https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/75/5/951/4689417
  4. Ministry of Health. Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. Carbohydrate. Oct. 2015 — https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/carbohydrate
  5. Bier DM1, Brosnan JT, Flatt JP, et. al. Report of the IDECG Working Group on lower and upper limits of carbohydrate and fat intake. International Dietary Energy Consultative Group. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;53 Suppl 1:S177–8. — https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10365996
  6. Marcason W. What do “net carb”, “low carb”, and “impact carb” really mean on food labels? J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jan;104(1):135. — https://jandonline.org/article/S0002-8223(03)01588-8/pdf
  7. Slavin J, Carlson J. Carbohydrates. Adv Nutr. 2014 Nov; 5(6): 760–761. — https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4224210/
  8. Regnat K, Mach RL, Mach-Aigner AR. Erythritol as sweetener — wherefrom and whereto? Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018; 102(2): 587–595. – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756564/
  9. Kolderup Hervik A, Svihus B. The Role of Fiber in Energy Balance. J Nutr Metab. 2019; 2019: 4983657. — https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360548/
  10. Wirrell EC. Ketogenic Ratio, Calories and Fluids: Do They Matter? Epilepsia. 2008 Nov;49 Suppl 8:17–9. — https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2656445/
  11. Anderson JW1, Baird P, Davis RH Jr. Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutr Rev. 2009 Apr;67(4):188–205. — https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8d0680bq

Carbs and Net Carbs | Prospect Medical Systems

If you’ve been hearing about low-carb and the keto diet, you may be wondering what are carbs and net carbs and why should I care? When you’re on a low-carb or keto diet, carbohydrates are pretty much the first thing you check when looking at nutrition facts. But there’s more to the label than just carbohydrates. Fiber, sugar, sugar alcohols—they’re all listed under carbohydrates. It’s important to know which ones  you should pay attention to so you don’t go over your daily carb limit.

The key to figuring out carb count is calculating net carbs. These are the carbs in food that actually impact your blood sugar. Just beware: There’s no official definition of net carbs, so the net carb count on labels is often deceiving.

When you’re doing a keto or low-carb diet, each gram of carbohydrate counts, so it’s imperative to track net carbs accurately. 

What Are Net Carbs?

Net carbs are the carbohydrates in food that you can digest and use for energy. To calculate net carbs, take a food’s total carbs and subtract:

  • Fiber. Since our body doesn’t have the enzymes to break down fiber, it passes through our digestion system unchanged.

  • Sugar alcohols like xylitol and erythritol. Sugar alcohols taste sweet but their molecular structure is slightly different from that of sugar molecules, which leaves sugar alcohols indigestible. (Note that certain sugar alcohols do impact blood sugar, and you should factor them into your net carb count if you eat a large amount or are diabetic.)

Why Net Carbs Matter 

Carbs are OK in moderation. In fact, most people do better with some quality carbs. Excess carbs—and especially refined carbs like bread, pasta, sugars, etc.—can:

  • Spike your blood sugar

  • Cause inflammation

  • Trigger food cravings

  • Disrupt your hormones

  • Mess up your gut bacteria

  • Contribute to obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

So you don’t want too many carbs. A better option is to keep carbs low and eat more good fat. Just be sure to get your fat from good sources like grass-fed animals, wild-caught fish, avocados, olive oil, and pastured egg yolks.

When you keep net carbs low enough—under about 50 grams a day—your body goes into ketosis: a state in which you shift from burning glucose, or carbs, for energy to burning fat, including body fat. On a keto diet, or any other kind of low-carb diet, you must limit the carbs you eat so you can maximize fat-burning and minimize inflammation. That’s why it’s so important to know how to figure out net carbs. If you go over your carb limit, you’ll fall out of ketosis, and lose all the benefits.

How to Calculate Net Carbs

Net carbs = total carbs – fiber – sugar alcohols

Just remember not all sugar alcohols are truly carb-free, and some manufacturers are selling “low-carb” foods that have more carbs than they actually are claiming.

The following sugar alcohols do not count toward net carbs:

  • Erythritol

  • Xylitol

  • Mannitol

  • Lactitol

The sugar alcohols below partially count toward net carbs:

  • Maltitol

  • Sorbitol

  • Isomalt

  • Glycerin

Each gram of maltitol, sorbitol, isomalt, or glycerin counts as about half a gram of carbs, so take the number of grams of the sugar alcohol, divide by 2, and add it to your carb count. For example:

Net carbs = total carbs – fiber – sugar alcohols + (maltitol / 2)

Another thing to note is that your gut bacteria can ferment sugar alcohols, which creates gas and bloating in your small intestine.

Always eat less than 15 grams of sugar alcohols and be wary of mannitol, maltitol, and sorbitol—your gut bacteria love fermenting them.

Everyone is slightly different. What matters is finding the net carb intake that works best for you.


What is the Difference Between Total Carbs & Net? | KETO-MOJO

The moment you start learning about the keto / low-carb diet, you will learn that in order to successfully follow it, you need to significantly limit your carbohydrate intake. But how much? Some sources say that you should limit your intake to 20 total carbohydrates per day, while others say 20 network carbohydrates per day. What is the difference between total carbs and net carbs, and why is it important? We’ll explain everything you need to know here so you can choose the daily carbohydrate intake that’s right for you.

What is the purpose of restricting carbohydrates?

To understand why you need to know about net and total carbohydrates, it is helpful to have a clear understanding of the role of carbohydrate restriction in the keto diet:

The whole purpose of the ketogenic diet is to get and maintain your body in ketosis. This is where the body relies on fat for energy, not carbohydrates (sugar), and your ketone levels are at least 0.5 mmol / L when you test them (blood glucose also drops significantly as sugar / carbohydrates are known to raise blood sugar levels).

The only way to achieve ketosis is by drastically limiting your carbohydrate intake long enough for the body to train itself to make ketones from stored and consumed fats and use them for energy. Once you’re in ketosis, the goal is to stay there and optimize its many benefits. The only way to do this is to continue restricting your carbohydrate intake.

But how much exactly?

How many carbs should you eat per day on a keto diet?

Fortunately, the amount of carbs you should eat on a keto diet is not arbitrary.In fact, this is scientific, although there is some confusion due to the nuances we are explaining here:

Total Carbohydrates

Doctors widely agree that people on a ketogenic diet for therapeutic reasons such as cancer or epilepsy should limit the total amount of carbohydrates to 20 grams. total carbohydrates per day. Strict adherence ensures maximum benefit from higher ketone levels.

Here, “total carbs” is exactly what it sounds like – the total carbs consumed in one day (for success, it is important to track your food intake, also known as macros or macros, and carefully track your carbs with the tracker because carbohydrates can easily enter your diet.)

Net carbohydrates

For the general population, there is a consensus among experts that almost everyone can remain firmly in ketosis (i.e. maintain ketone levels of at least 0.5 mmol / L or more) if they consume 20 g network carbohydrates per day.

Here’s where it can confuse newcomers to keto: “Net carbs” are not the same as “full carbs.”

Net carbs are the total grams of carbohydrates in any food minus grams of fiber and sugar alcohols.(Sugar alcohols and fiber are deducted because they are not absorbed by the body.)

Here is the basic formula:

Net Carbohydrates = Total Carbohydrates – Fiber – Sugar Alcohols (if applicable).

When we say fiber, we mean insoluble fiber and soluble fiber.

If you are not familiar with sugar alcohols, you can inquire about them Here is .

Here’s an example of calculating net carbs using 1 cup of cauliflower rice:

1 cup of cauliflower rice contains 4.8 grams of carbohydrates and 3.2 grams of fiber.So, to get net carbs, you subtract fiber (3.2 grams) from your total carbs (4.8 grams), leaving you with 1.6 grams of net carbs (i.e. 4.8 grams of carbs – 3 , 2 grams of fiber = 1.6 grams of net carbs for 1 cup of cauliflower rice).

If you are on a keto diet due to weight loss or general health, it is best to stick to a level of 20 net carbs per day. It’s easier to do, allows you to significantly increase your intake of vegetables and other healthy carbohydrate foods, and, as we mentioned, still allows you to stay in ketosis.

Now let’s try an example of calculating net carbs from food containing sugar alcohol. There are many keto and low carb foods that use sugar alcohol sweeteners to sweeten foods without added carbohydrates (or, in the case of some sugar alcohols, with minimal added carbohydrates). But there are also recipes that require sugar alcohols. Although there are many (maltitol, xylitol, sorbitol, etc.), we recommend an erythritol sweetener, which, unlike some sugar alcohols, contains absolutely no carbohydrates and does not affect blood sugar levels.So, in this example, we’ll choose homemade keto whipped cream (2 cups heavy whipping cream and 2 teaspoons of erythritol, whipped together).

Here, whipped cream contains 32 grams of carbohydrates and 0 dietary fiber (or 32 total carbohydrates), while erythritol contains 8 grams of carbohydrates and 8 grams of fiber. So the net carbs is 32-0 + 8-8 = 32 carbs for whipped cream, enough to serve 16 people (thus 2 net carbs per serving).

Testing for Your Carb Edge or Bio Personality

After being firmly in ketosis for three months or more, some people like to test their carb edge to determine if they can consume more than 20 net carbs per day and still stay in ketosis. You can do this by gradually increasing your daily carbohydrate intake and checking your glucose and ketone levels daily to see if you are having glucose spikes or out of ketosis by eating more carbohydrates, including carbohydrate-rich vegetables.

It’s also common to test yourself for bio-personality or how your unique body reacts to certain keto-friendly foods or processed foods. Some people, for example, have high glucose levels when they consume certain sugar alcohols or dairy products. Testing your glucose and ketone levels before and after consuming questionable foods can determine if your food sensitivities are interfering with your ability to stay in ketosis and succeed in keto.

The final word on the difference between total carbs and net carbs

Total carbs are the sum of all carbs you eat in a day. Net carbs are calculated by subtracting total carbs and subtracting fiber and sugar alcohols. You can do these calculations by reading food labels or by counting macros for ingredients in recipes you are preparing.

Whether you are better off on a ketogenic diet, total carbs or net carbs, depends on your goals.Bottom line: If you’re following a ketogenic diet for therapeutic reasons, it’s best to start with 90,013 20 TOTAL 90,014 carbs per day. Whether you’re on an obesity or insulin resistance diet (it helps stabilize insulin levels), weight loss or health preventive measures, 20 net carbs should do the trick.

Still, it’s a good idea to test your ketones along the way to determine your carbohydrate storage and see if any food sensitivities are affecting your success.It’s also important to eat whole foods, avoid foods with added sugar (i.e. stay sugar-free), read nutritional facts and nutrition labels, and consult with your healthcare provider or dietitian before going on any diet.

Disclaimer: It is always a good idea to check with a dietitian and your healthcare professional before starting a new diet.

what is it and why is it needed

“How much should we weigh in grams?” This question is relevant if you are new to keto, an athlete, or following a medically prescribed diet.Sorted out with experts when you need a macro calculator.

Keto Calculator is an algorithm that helps to determine the exact amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates required to achieve ketosis, and with it the target weight (if such a task is needed) and other useful special effects of the ketogenic diet.

That is, this is a macro calculator that helps to keep track of whether the diet is within the keto ratio (80% fat, 15% protein, 5% carbohydrates) or goes beyond it.

Important: The keto calculator is not a calorie calculator. On keto, they eat as much as they want, until they feel full. Counting is carried out only in relation to BZhU macros.

Read also: Why you shouldn’t count calories on keto

When you need a keto calculator

Sergey Klimenkov,

“If we do not have any health problems and we eat keto food, then we simply remove carbohydrates – we don’t need a keto calculator,” explains nutritionist Sergey Klimenkov.- If our task is to remove excess weight, then we eat keto food and monitor weight. If kilograms or volumes go away, then again we don’t count anything and we don’t get the keto calculator – we just eat until we are full.

If the loss of weight or volume has stopped, then we take the keto calculator and start counting. It can be seen somewhere we are making a mistake: either we go through carbohydrates, or we go through proteins. And the second option, when a calculator is needed – if a person has diabetes mellitus, oncology, when it is necessary to strictly observe the proportions of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.Then you really need a calculator, and count before eating, not after. ”

Why do you need a keto calculator

Katya Young,

“My opinion is that counting calories is a path to neurosis, and you won’t be able to accurately count them,” says endocrinologist Katya Yang. “But as for the model of the daily diet, here you can define the framework.”

Essentially, a keto calculator is a crutch that is easier to lean on until you learn to walk freely, that is, intuitively create a low-carb menu.He helps:

  • Achieve weight loss or weight gain goals
  • Easy to enter and stay in ketosis
  • Accurately track macros on the keto diet
  • Stop painfully guessing and counting in your head what and how much to eat
  • Enjoy great well-being.

How to use the keto calculator

All you have to do is enter a few key parameters.

  1. Sex, age, weight and height (for understanding energy expenditure at rest).
  2. Physical activity level (to determine energy expenditure in an active state).
  3. Goal (to lose, gain or maintain current weight and general tone).

Basically that’s all.

There are, of course, advanced keto calculators, where a more advanced questionnaire is required to calculate the percentage of fat and muscle in the body. But if you are not a professional athlete and do not set yourself some short-term goals to achieve a specific weight category and muscle condition, you do not need it.

In medical institutions where ketration is used as a treatment strategy for various somatic diseases, a keto calculator is used: doctors calculate the necessary macro ratios to achieve therapeutic ketosis.

Optimal ratio of macronutrients

Recall that for the classic ketogenic diet, the BJU ratio will be distributed as follows:

  • 70-80% of calories from fat
  • 20-25% of calories from protein
  • 5-10% of calories from net carbohydrates (net carbohydrates are the grams of carbohydrates in food minus grams of fiber in it)

With this Situation a person consuming 2500 calories per day will eat on average:

  • 208 g fat
  • 125 g protein
  • 30 g carbohydrates

However, these are all numbers, but in real life you can eat more or less calories per day, so the number of grams for each macronutrient will look like + / – differently.

How much protein to eat on keto

“Ketoration is a high fat, low carbohydrate diet. But its protagonist is not fat, but protein. It should be your goal and your starting point for keto, – recalls the leader of the ketosect Olena Islamkina. – Protein can be limited in therapeutic protocols. But when losing weight, recomposing the body, increasing productivity, it is important to achieve the protein goal. ”

Protein must be in adequate proportions. Ideally, 1 to 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight.More protein is needed only if the goal is to build muscle. “If you are not a professional athlete, then you shouldn’t go overboard with protein.

This is the case when excess is not good, there is a risk of kidney stones, especially if you do not drink enough water, ”says Katya Young.

Read also: How to calculate the amount of protein on a keto diet?

Fatty protein sources are preferred, such as:

  • fatty cuts of grass-fed beef
  • pork
  • lamb
  • chicken and duck
  • fatty fish (salmon, tuna, sardines, mackerel)
  • seafood

Don’t eat too much tart will knock you out of ketosis.Yes, the body does indeed undergo a metabolic process called gluconeogenesis, which is responsible for the production of glucose from protein as well. But this is a very stable mechanism, so even if you eat more protein than the standard keto macros allow, you will not increase the rate of gluconeogenesis enough to break out of ketosis.

Read also: How to replace your usual products with keto

How many carbohydrates you can on keto

For most people, 20-50 g of carbohydrates per day is ideal for losing weight, healing or maintaining general tone on a keto diet.If you’ve used the standard keto calculator, then target carbs should be in this range for best results.

Remember, carbohydrates are the trickiest nutrients and the easiest to overeat. Therefore, it is important to read labels to avoid hidden sugars, and only eat whole foods with a low glycemic index to stay in the desired range. We wrote about what products can be on the keto diet here.

How much fat do you need for keto

The remaining 70-80% of calories come from fat.Since fat is the main source of nutrition in a ketogenic diet, it is important to use quality, healthy fats.

Part of the fat will come from fatty protein products (see above), and the rest from other sources:

  • coconut oil
  • olive oil
  • MCT oil
  • avocados and butter
  • dairy products (butter and ghee, aged or cream cheese, heavy cream, sour cream and cottage cheese)
  • nuts and seeds and oils from them (there are nuances here).

If there is no goal to lose weight, then fat can be added to keto as much as your darling asks. If the task is to lose weight, then we do not additionally season the steak with butter – we eat it as it is, it itself is made from fatty meat, not lean.

Katya Young: “Healthy fats per day: from 1 g or more per kg of body weight”.

Read also: Fats on the keto diet: what they are and how to eat them

How Much to Hang in Grams?

To count calories or not? Here is what the keto coach Marina Kozachinskaya writes about this: “This is not the indicator that we are guided by for entering and staying in ketosis.But kcal are needed just to calculate the ratio of BJU in grams.

There are many different calculators for calculating calories […] But you can calculate it yourself, for example, using this simple formula:

Specify the desired weight:

  • Weight (kg) x 25 = calories to lose weight
  • Weight (kg) x 30 = calories to maintain

It is worth remembering that this formula determines the body’s basic energy requirement, but does not include physical activity.Alas, it is impossible to accurately calculate it ”.

For example, for a person consuming 2000 calories a day, 70-80% of fat will be about 144-177 g every day. If the need for calories is greater, then the amount of fat can be increased, while leaving the carbohydrates in the same range of 30-50 grams per day.

Online keto calculators

The best way to achieve keto macros is to track your daily food intake. This is easily done through the app, in which you record everything you ate during the day.

Top most popular BJU tracking applications:

MyFitnessPal (The Most Comprehensive Nutrient Database)
Perfect Keto
Carb Manager

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We disassemble shallots, leeks and turnips for coals

Important nuances:

  • Heat treatment makes the fiber of most vegetables more readily available and the amount of “net” carbohydrates increases.Consider this point, but do not go to extremes;
  • this kind of math is for those who eat mainly meat, fish, poultry, vegetables and greens on healthy fats and are not addicted to ketogenic sweets. If your diet is full of muffins, count all carbs, don’t subtract fiber.

What kind of bow can you eat on keto?

Catch our bow guide: from worst to best. In terms of carbohydrates, of course, we didn’t want to hurt any of the onion senses.


It tastes a little more refined than its counterparts; shallots are inferior to them in keto-friendliness.It will not be easy to fit it into the framework of a keto diet, it is better to eat spinach for these carbohydrates (or drink a glass of wine, as it goes).

Per 100g:
Total Carbohydrates: 17g
Of which Fiber: 3.2g
Net Carbohydrates: 13.8g


The hero of haute cuisine, delicate, spicy and rather sweet. A couple of leeks won’t kill anyone, of course, but making it into keto onion soup isn’t a good idea.

Over 100:
Total Carbohydrates: 12g
Of which Fiber: 2g
Net Carbohydrates: 12g

White onion

It is sweet and tender.But there is a decent amount of sugar in it, so, by the way, it does not “live” for a long time. It will last a couple of days without the peel (significant, right?).

Per 100g:
Total Carbohydrates: 9.6g
Of which Fiber: 1.2g
Net Carbohydrates: 8.4g

Red onion

It also has a mild sweet taste, but it is already more suitable for keto when compared with previous companions.

Per 100g:
Total Carbohydrates: 9.7g
Of which Fiber: 2.2g
Net Carbohydrates: 7.5g


The simplest and most familiar turned out to be ahead of more expensive options.Onions have even less carbohydrates. True, there is not much fiber.

Per 100g:
Total Carbohydrates: 8g
Of which Fiber: 0.9g
Net Carbohydrates: 7.1g

Green onions

First place, ladies and gentlemen. A participant in all summer meals and just a hero. Green onions are more like greens. And most likely you will not cook it, just crumble it into a salad, which means that the fiber will be intact.

Over 100:
Total Carbohydrates: 7g
Of which Fiber: 2.6g
Net Carbohydrates: 4.4g


Green onions are greens , eat as much as you want (and get a couple of steps away from us, yeah).

Onions – an acceptable ingredient for keto food in small quantities.

If you’re a ketone person and haven’t switched to fats yet, any excess carbs will not be good for you. Therefore all other refined bows can be used in very moderation after adaptation. After all, you don’t need much of it per dish, it’s purely for taste, right?

90,000 Net Carbs and Fiber: Are All Fiber Really Ketogenic?

We’ve all seen this on food labels: “Only 2 grams of net carbs” or “Low net carbs.”But what does this really mean? What are net carbs and why is it important? Are all net carbs the same, or are we stretching these criteria too far? After reading this article, I think you will agree that there is an urgent need to accurately quantify net carbs and to explain exactly what true fiber is. This topic is very personal to me. I have overweight family members, some of whom have diabetes and others who deal with a variety of autoimmune diseases.The only thing that saddens me more than it is misleading, the facts about supplements (another article) is misleading information posted on food labels, which often can not provide the consumer with information about the metabolic response that food actually has on the body. The purpose of this article is to help companies and consumers understand exactly what net carbs are and how different fiber sources affect critical biological responses, glucose and insulin levels.

Low Carb Foods

Walk around any fitness show or even the “snack” aisle at the grocery store and you’re bound to see loads of low carb, high protein food packages, cookies, candy, and whatever. whatever. Protein bars are in the mainstream right now, and they seem to be everywhere, from your local grocery store to the airport and even gas stations. Companies have mastered the ability to create something that delights both the eye and the palette (i.e., flavors like chocolate chip cookie dough, birthday cake, chocolate brownie, peanut butter, etc.)but at the same time they provide a sufficient amount of protein, although they are “low” in carbohydrates. If you are attending any fitness or food-related trade show, you know very well that the stands with the longest lines offer their latest protein bars or “high protein, low carbohydrate” treats (cookies, cakes, ice cream, etc.). .). However, in a free market (that is, a market driven by competing industries) that is awash with these “healthier, higher-protein” alternatives, what really separates one product from another?

First, there is taste.Consumers want to get their cake and eat it too. After all, if a proposed sweet taste tastes more like a piece of chalk, then there is a high likelihood that consumers will not chase the product to buy it. In my opinion, most companies have worked this aspect to some extent. Most of the energy bars, cookies, or other low carb snacks I’ve tried are actually delicious. However, even if the product can meet consumer standards for flavor and quality, true separation occurs at the fiber source level.The buzzwords “high in fiber” and “low in carbohydrates” are instant attention in today’s society. Thus, companies are trying to find ways in which they can add fiber to their foods, thereby improving their nutritional profile while reducing net carbs. Now the question arises: are all sources of fiber the same, and if not, what does this mean for the consumer?

What is fiber?

Dietary fiber refers to nutrients that are not digested by gastrointestinal enzymes.Although true fibers are digested, they are not digested in the small intestine like normal carbohydrates, but are digested (fermented) by bacteria in the large intestine. True fiber must be digested by bacteria in the colon. Going back to the previous example on fitness, you can certainly “smell” and often sense which high-fiber bars contain “true” fiber, which is used in the digestion fermentation process.

There are two main categories of dietary fiber: soluble and insoluble.Fibrous products usually contain both soluble and insoluble fiber. As a group of people, we recognize the importance of fiber, including the benefits associated with reduced body fat, reduced prevalence of diabetes, increased insulin sensitivity, reduced risk of heart disease and increased satiety, and the importance of beneficial bacteria in our digestive system. [1] . Unfortunately, less than 5% of Americans actually meet the recommended intake of 30 grams per day.To help increase your fiber intake, a growing number of companies have developed a variety of delicious, low-carb, high-fiber treats. Regardless, it is important to understand how the body processes two of the most abundant “fibers” on the market that are used in these foods: isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) and soluble corn fiber (GFR).

Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) (IMOs): Real Fiber?

Most of the time, if you accidentally grab a bag of low carb food off the shelf of the grocery store and look at the label, you will see in the overall nutrient profile that it contains about 20 grams of carbs, but perhaps 15 of those grams referred to as “fiber”.The result is five grams of net carbs, right? Not so fast. If a Type I diabetic consumes this bar, cookie, or cake with five grams of net carbs, then there should be no need for insulin, since theoretically the minimum amount of glucose from these five grams of net carbs enters the system, this is the amount of carbs that should not cause an insulin reaction. …

Unfortunately, the theory and the result in practice do not always coincide. IMO can be made in several ways, but they are mostly derived from a sugar called maltose.IMO is marketed as a prebiotic, dietary fiber with a slight sweet taste. Its functional properties (i.e. moisture retention, low viscosity) make it suitable for bars, cookies, candy and the like. To fully understand IMOs and how the body processes them, we first need to understand how starches are digested in the body. Starches, also known as polysaccharides, are long and sometimes branched chains of glucose molecules. Initially, starch digestion begins in the small intestine with an enzyme called amylase.Amylase breaks down these long glucose chains into much shorter chains called oligosaccharides, which are made up of two or about 10 glucose units. After that, specific enzymes of the villi of the small intestine further decompose these oligosaccharides into individual units of glucose (monosaccharides), which are then absorbed.

One of the most common disaccharides (two monosaccharides joined together) is maltose. Maltose is generated when two glucose molecules are bonded to each other via an α-1,4 chemical bond (the 1st carbon is bonded to the 4th carbon, making it easily digestible).The type of bond involved in a saccharide bond is critical as it determines its ability to be hydrolyzed by the enzymes we described above. As such, the α-1,4 chemical bond, as indicated in the above example (maltose), has the ability to hydrolyze (degrade). A close relative of maltose is a molecule known as isomaltose (commonly found in foods like beer and honey). The biggest difference between maltose and isomaltose is that isomaltose is bonded together by an α-1,6 bond, not an α-1,4 chemical bond.

Scientists suggest that by adding a certain enzyme (transglucosidase) to the high maltose syrup, they can change the bonds from α-1,4 to α-1,6, thereby making it more resistant to degradation by enzymes, as described above. compared to maltose. Again, while this sounds great in theory, it is not necessarily what happens in our bodies in practice. In fact, isomaltose (and therefore the IMO syrups used in some of these products) is broken down by certain enzymes at the border of the villi of the small intestine [2] .Although the α-1,6 bond breaks down more slowly than the α-1,4 bond, these IMO syrups, which often use a mixture of di- and oligosaccharides, are eventually metabolized into small amounts of glucose and maltose [2] and thus , this product should be viewed as a slow carbohydrate and not fiber.

So, we have established what IMO is and how their structure can differ in relation to its carbon bonds. The real question is, “What are the metabolic reactions to foods that contain these IMOs?” The IMO glycemic index is very low [3] , however, it has been shown that IMO is almost completely digested (83% or more) by enzymes at the border of the villi of the small intestine [3] .Thus, IMOs do not have to be classified as true fiber, but rather as a low-glycemic carbohydrate like chopped oatmeal, at around 3.3 calories per gram.

In one of the first studies of IMO syrup [2] , six patients consumed 25 grams of IMO syrup. These researchers found that glucose levels increased from 109 mg / dL before ingestion to a peak of 136 mg / dL 30 minutes after ingestion. In addition, insulin levels rose to nearly parallel levels with glucose levels ranging from 4.8 μU / ml before meals to nearly 32 μU / ml 30 minutes after meals.These values ​​clearly indicate that some digestion is taking place. In addition, these researchers found that IMO was approximately 83% absorbable as maltose at rest and approximately 69% absorbable after a period of exercise. Taken together, these data suggest that most of the carbohydrates in IMO syrup were actually digested, absorbed and metabolized.

Finally, one of the advertised benefits of IMO is the potential for prebiotic activity. Prebiotics are essential because they feed the beneficial bacteria in our digestive system, especially the colon.These bacteria have several amazing functions, such as reducing body fat, increasing insulin sensitivity, and reducing depression. Two prebiotics considered the “gold standard” in the industry are inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Inulin and FOS are indigestible carbohydrates that significantly increase the number of beneficial bacteria. The problem, however, is that both inulin and FOS, due to their rapid absorption by intestinal bacteria, lead to low stomach tolerance and ultimately gastric distress.In addition, inulin and FOS, when added to protein bars or other products, can degrade into individual sugars over time. Despite this, one study comparing inulin with IMO showed that the prebiotic activity in inulin was 14 times higher than that of IMO [4]. . This makes sense because, as you recall from the above, approximately 70-90% of IMOs are digested. Thus, only a small portion of this prebiotic fiber ends up in the colon, in which two out of three studies have shown that this small portion may indeed have some prebiotic effects.

Is Soluble Corn Fiber (SCF) Real Fiber?

Increased awareness of the importance of fiber in addition to its various metabolic effects has led to an increase in companies switching to alternative fibers known as soluble corn fiber (SCF). Interestingly, SCF has been available in the US market since 2007 and is used in food and beverage products in the Americas, Europe, and Southeast Asia. SCF is produced in an intense process: corn syrup is exposed to a number of enzymes for at least 48 hours, some of which are found on the villi of your small intestine as well as in the pancreas [5] .Interestingly, most corn syrup contains digestible carbohydrates; however, a small portion is not actually absorbed. At the end of this enzymatic action, a certain amount of digestive-resistant carbohydrates remains, which are then filtered several times. The resulting product is a “true fiber” that contains a mixture of α-1,6, α-1,4, α-1,2 and α-1,3 glucosidic bonds, which, as mentioned above, contribute to its low digestibility.

Both animal and human studies have shown that SCF resists digestion in the small intestine and travels to the large intestine where it is fermented [3.5] .The glycemic index for SCF is approximately 25, which is a very low [3] .

One study compared SCF glycemic response to glucose glycemic response in 12 healthy adults in a randomized controlled crossover study [6] . The results of this study showed that SCF provided significantly less incremental glucose and insulin responses than the control group to glucose levels. In addition, another study observed a significant decrease in postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels (during or after meals) (which coincides with an increase in fat oxidation) when consuming 55 grams of SCF in 18 overweight adults when compared with a control group. with full calorie control.

Taken together, the above studies raise the question: what is the prebiotic activity of SCF? If it is a true fiber, according to our definitions above, then SCF should have a beneficial effect on gut bacteria. In a study of 24 adolescents, there was an increase in beneficial bacteria (eg, bacteroids, butyricococcus, oscillibacter, and dialyzer). In addition, it correlated with an increase in calcium uptake when consuming 12 g of SCF per day for three weeks [7.8] .An additional study in which 8, 14 and 21 grams of SCF were injected for 14 days showed that the number of beneficial bacteria (such as Bifidobacteria) increased and peaked at 8 grams per day. This value is almost identical to inulin, which is considered the “gold standard”. Although it almost parallels the action of inulin at 8 grams / day, studies have shown that SCF is 3-4 times more tolerable than inulin due to its lower rate of digestion by intestinal bacteria. In fact, 26 grams of SCF barely exacerbated GI symptoms when compared to placebo!

How Do SCF and IMOs Compare to One Another?

To date, no study has directly compared SCF and IMO.Fortunately, here at the Applied Science and Productivity Institute (ASPI), our passion is to test these ideas on the spot and report our findings directly to you in real time! To resolve this issue, we conducted an experimental study in our laboratory.

Below are the three key variables we looked at:

  1. Blood glucose response to SCF and IMO.
  2. SCF insulin response against IMO.
  3. Respiration response to hydrogen * both SCF and IMO.

Respiratory Hydrogen is an analysis that shows in real time whether a particular nutrient is being processed. When you eat a standard carbohydrate (like rice), you can see that it is broken down in the small intestine and, as a result, your blood glucose levels rise. If carbohydrates are not digested in the small intestine, they are transferred to the large intestine. This indicates that this is “true fiber.” In the colon, bacteria digest fiber through a process called fermentation.In doing so, the bacteria produce hydrogen ions (H +), which circulate into the bloodstream through our lungs and are then exhaled outside. We observed a subject consuming IMO or SCF, respectively, and then monitored the variables listed above for 150 minutes after consumption.

Below are preliminary results:

As can be seen from the graphs above, unlike IMOs, which rapidly increased blood glucose to 125 mg / dL, SCF did not induce any blood glucose response [9] .In addition, while insulin was elevated with IMO consumption, it actually tended to decrease with SCF consumption! Despite the results of responses to blood glucose and insulin, a hydrogen breath test will determine what is “true fiber.” Our data below clearly show that SCF actually travels to the colon, as indicated by the large hydrogen response of respiration. Strong contrast – IMO no.

Conclusion. O Pure Carbohydrates and Fiber

Taken together, previous research combined with our laboratory’s current research suggests that IMO should not be classified as “true fiber.”Rather, IMO should be seen as a very low glycemic response food ingredient, very similar in quality to non-crushed oatmeal. Basically, if you see a food in a bag that says it’s low in carbs and contains 20 grams of IMO fiber, it’s likely that approximately 16 grams of that fiber will act as a slow-digesting carbohydrate and four grams as indigestible fiber. … Those on a ketogenic diet should be aware of these types of fiber and be careful when consuming large amounts of them, as they can increase blood glucose and insulin levels.The safer type of fiber for the ketogenic diet is SCF, which has been shown to act like more real fiber. In addition, SCF is very well tolerated by the intestines, despite its profound prebiotic activity. It’s important to remember that everyone is metabolically different from each other, so if you consume foods with these types of fiber, be sure to monitor your blood glucose and ketone readings to find out how each of these types of fiber affects you personally.


  1. 1. Slavin, J. (2013). Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients , 5 (4), 1417-1435.
  2. 2. Kohmoto, T., Tsuji, K., Kaneko, T., Shiota, M., Fukui, F., Takaku, H., … & Kobayash, S. (1992). Metabolism of 13C-isomaltooligosaccharides in healthy men. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry , 56 (6), 937-940.
  3. 3. Kendall, C. W., Josse, A. R., Potter, S. M., Hoffman, A. J., & Jenkins, D. J. (2007). Effect of novel maize-based dietary fibers on postprandial glycemia.
  4. 4. Oku, T., & Nakamura, S. (2003). Comparison of digestibility and breath hydrogen gas excretion of fructo-oligosaccharide, galactosyl-sucrose, and isomalto-oligosaccharide in healthy human subjects. European journal of clinical nutrition , 57 (9), 1150.
  5. 5. Cervantes-Pahm, S. K., Kim, B. G., & Stein, H. H. (2009). Digestible energy in resistant starch and dietary fiber sources fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci , 87 , 547.
  6. 6. Kohmoto, T., Tsuji, K., Kaneko, T., Shiota, M., Fukui, F., Takaku, H., … & Kobayash, S. ( 1992). Metabolism of 13C-isomaltooligosaccharides in healthy men. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry , 56 (6), 937-940.
  7. 7. Bouhnik, Y., Raskine, L., Simoneau, G., Vicaut, E., Neut, C., Flourié, B., … & Bornet, F. R. (2004). The capacity of nondigestible carbohydrates to stimulate fecal bifidobacteria in healthy humans: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response relation study. The American journal of clinical nutrition , 80 (6), 1658-1664.
  8. 8. Kaneko, T., Kohmoto, T., Kikuchi, H., Shiota, M., Iino, H., & Mitsuoka, T. (1994). Effects of isomaltooligosaccharides with different degrees of polymerization on human fecal bifidobacteria. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry , 58 (12), 2288-2290.
  9. 9. Lowery, R. P., Wilson, J. M., Barninger, A., Sharp, M. H., Irvin, C., Stefan, M., … & Wagner, R.(2018). The effects of soluble corn fiber and isomaltooligosacharides on blood glucose, insulin, digestion and fermentation in healthy young males and females. Journal of Insulin Resistance , 3 (1), 1-6.

The Keto Diet Program – The Keto Diet Meal Plan

Who Can Join The Keto Diet?

Anyone over the age of 16 can join the detox program and we encourage them to do so. Especially because of our unnatural lifestyle in the 21st century, this is almost certain.The only exceptions are pregnant or lactating women, as well as those who have recently undergone surgery. In addition, anyone can join one of our programs at The LifeCo.

Will I get the support I need during the program?

During the program, you will be monitored daily by our medical staff and detox specialists. Every day, blood sugar and blood pressure will be measured, and you can make an appointment with our doctor for any special questions.

Is a colon cleanse healthy and necessary during detoxification?

Colon Cleanse is a very important part of LifeCo’s Detox program. Our gut is the first organ where toxins accumulate and we need to make sure they function effectively. There is debate about how beneficial a colon cleanse is, and recent scientific studies show that it is very important that our colon is flushed at least once every 6 months. The healthy bacteria living in our colon, probiotics, can multiply very quickly to cover the missing healthy bacteria.It is also known that unlike toxins, probiotics are hardly absorbed into our colon and are very difficult to flush out during a colon cleanse.

Can I join the Keto Nutrition program at any time?

You can join the program at any time as long as we have free seats. For more information and to check availability, depending on your center preferences, you can send an email to [email protected], [email protected] or [email protected]

Carbohydrates “Polyclinic No. 2


Many diets struggle precisely with the carbohydrate part of the human diet, guided by the fact that it is precisely because of their excess in the average diet that people suffer from excess weight, but it should be noted that without carbohydrates a person cannot will be able to fully exist as such.The point is not at all about carbohydrates, but about what kind of carbohydrates they are.


Carbohydrates are macronutrients (macronutrients) that can be found in many foods and drinks. The natural origin of the absolute majority of carbohydrates is plants and food prepared from plants. In addition, carbohydrates can be found in a variety of “store-bought” foods, where they are added by the manufacturers of these products, in the form of starch or sugar.The simplest carbohydrate is a sugar molecule that combines one or two units of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Other carbohydrates contain three or more units of the above trio, of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Sources of carbohydrates of natural origin are fruits, vegetables, milk, nuts, grains, seeds and legumes.


  • Sugar. Sugar is the simplest form of carbohydrates (the “trio” described above).It is naturally present in fruits, vegetables and dairy products. There are three types of sugars: fructose – fruit sugar, sucrose – table sugar and lactose – milk sugar.
  • Starch. Starch is a series of sugar molecules bound together. Natural sources of starch: vegetables, cereals, legumes and peas.
  • Fiber. Fiber is also composed of sugars combined in a specific way. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are high in fiber.

There is such a term – net carbs used in low-carb diets. The meaning of this terminology is in calculating these very “pure” carbohydrates … so if you take the entire amount of carbohydrates in a product and subtract the weight of fiber and sugar alcohols from it, we will find out how many “pure carbohydrates” are contained in it. As a scientific term, “net carbs” do not exist and their “purity” is not regulated in any way.

Glycemic index. Almost everyone who is interested in the topic of healthy eating has come across this term. The meaning of the glycemic index is the classification of carbohydrate-containing foods according to their potential for raising blood sugar. That is, the higher this indicator is for a product, the more it increases the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. It is not difficult to guess that the more sugar in the product, the higher the glycemic index … although there are not sweet foods with a high GI, but still sweetness is one of the most important indicators.

IMPORTANT! Energy received by the body from carbohydrates should be 45-65% of the total number of calories received during the day. For example, if your daily diet contains 2000 kcal, then you should extract 900-1300 kcal from carbohydrates. If you translate calories into grams, then 225 – 325 grams of carbohydrates per day will come out.

Sources of carbohydrates are the following food components: starch, fiber, polyols (sorbitol, xylitol, etc.) and, of course, sugar. It is not difficult to guess that the main source of carbohydrates for a modern person is sugar, in its refined form (which is very sad).I will add one more, albeit obvious, remark – there are practically no carbohydrates in animal food … they are not in meat, they are not in lard, they are not present in butter and milk, too, just a little, in the form of lactose.


Carbohydrates have a bad reputation … well-known sayings and slogans go on like this: “Sugar is evil!” or there “The place for starch is only on the collars!” and so on, and so on. And indeed, in the plumped up human bodies there are many cakes, ice cream, buns, sandwiches (of various configurations), cookies, croissants, energy bars… decaliters of sweetened drinks, and countless quantities of sweets, in the end that! Carbohydrates! Carbohydrates!! Carbohydrates!!! But despite all of the above, carbohydrates should make up at least half of the diet. Here’s why:

  • Power . Your body always uses carbohydrates as its main source of energy. In the process of digestion, starches and sugars (as the main sources of carbohydrates) are converted into simple sugars, which are subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream. Everyone knows the term “blood sugar”, indicating the amount of glucose in it.Further, glucose, with the help of insulin, enters all the cells of our body. Part of the glucose is spent on providing the body with energy: whether it is physical activity (favorite work, dancing, fitness, walking or jogging behind the bus … in general, any physical activity), and another part is spent on natural life support: breathing, contraction of the heart muscle , maintenance of body temperature, etc. Excess glucose is first deposited (stored) in the liver and muscles (in the form of glycogen), and in case of unnecessary it is converted into fat;
  • Protect against disease. Multiple studies have shown that foods high in fiber (one of the sources of carbohydrates) help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fiber is also extremely important for the health of the digestive system;
  • Helps control weight. Isn’t it strange to see such a point? Considering that carbohydrates are considered the main cause of excess weight … it really seems like a strange statement like this. But! The source of these very carbohydrates is extremely important: if these are whole grains, fruits and vegetables – everything is OK! Other sources of carbohydrates are a different story altogether… 🙂 Although, in fairness, I must add: there are effective “meat” diets that promote the maximum restriction of carbohydrates in any form. Examples of protein diets: Ducan, Atkins, Kremlin.

Carbohydrates are an integral part of a healthy diet and are very nutritious. However, not all carbohydrates, or rather their sources, are the same and healthy.Here are some tips to help you make the right choice:

  • Fruits and vegetables. Aim to eat as many fresh, frozen, or canned vegetables and fruits as possible without added sugar. Fruits and vegetables in this form are much healthier than fruit juices and dried fruits, which are concentrated sources of natural sugars and therefore more nutritious. Also, fresh vegetables and fruits contain fiber and water, which makes it possible to feel full without consuming a lot of calories.
  • Whole grain. Cereals of any kind are very healthy and are good sources of carbohydrates. They are good for their vitamin and mineral composition and, in addition, they are not fatty in and of themselves. But it is very important to understand that whole (not refined) grains and products made from it are much healthier than refined ones. In the process of refining, the grain loses some of its parts (supposedly not edible), and at the same time the lion’s share of selenium, magnesium, potassium and, of course, fiber.
  • Beans and beans. All popular legumes – beans, beans, peas and lentils – are among the most versatile and nutritious foods. Legumes are generally low in fat and high in folate (vitamin B9), potassium, iron, and magnesium. Good source of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Due to the fact that legumes are very rich in protein, they can be perceived as an alternative to meat, which in turn is loaded with cholesterol and “bad” fats.

So try to design your menu wisely, don’t avoid carbohydrate foods, you just need to give preference to the “right” carbohydrates.Limit the consumption of sugar-containing foods and refined grains, for example: sugary drinks, desserts and candies are extremely high in calories, but contain very few nutrients. Choose whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.

Keto Diet Watermelon – Telegraph


Watermelon Keto Diet
Home / Fitness / Is Watermelon Keto Friendly?
Watermelon is a delicious and refreshing product in summer.In addition to hydration due to its high water content, it is a good source of several nutrients, including vitamins C and A. (1) Bo
Watermelon is a delicious and refreshing food in summer.
In addition to hydration due to its high water content, it is a good source of several nutrients, including vitamins C and A (1).
What’s more, watermelon contains several antioxidants, such as lycopene, which may be associated with improved heart health and reduced risk of certain cancers (2).
You may be wondering if watermelon can fit into a ketogenic or keto diet, a diet that involves limiting your carbohydrate intake and eating a lot of healthy fats instead.
Given that the keto diet is very strict and requires strict adherence to achieve maximum results, many fruits are considered illegal, which makes it difficult for some to follow.
This article determines if watermelon can be consumed as part of a healthy keto diet.
Because most fruits are high in carbohydrates, ketogenic diets can only enjoy them in small amounts.
However, compared to other fruits, watermelon is relatively low in carbohydrates.
In fact, 1 cup (152 grams) of diced watermelon contains about 11.5 grams of carbs and 0.5 grams of fiber, which means it contains about 11 grams of net carbs (1).
Net carbohydrates is a term used to describe the amount of carbohydrates in a serving of food that is absorbed by the body.They are calculated by subtracting grams of fiber from grams of total carbohydrates.
Whether watermelon is suitable for a ketogenic diet depends on what else you eat during the day.
On a 2,000 calorie diet, you can limit your carbohydrate intake to 100 calories or 25 grams per day.
Thus, one serving of watermelon can take up almost half of your daily carbohydrate intake.
While you can definitely add watermelon to your keto diet, it can take careful planning and require you to reduce your portion sizes to keep your carb intake in check.
Watermelon can fit into a ketogenic diet, but it may require careful planning and reducing portion sizes to stay within your daily carbohydrate intake.
Limiting your carbohydrate intake does not mean that you need to completely eliminate fruits from your diet.
In fact, a few fruits fit easily into a well-planned ketogenic diet.
For example, avocados are low in carbohydrates but high in heart-healthy fats and fiber, as well as a number of other important vitamins and minerals (2).
Lemons and limes are also much lower in carbohydrates than other fruits (3, 4).
In addition, some types of berries can be consumed in moderation.
For example, strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries are moderate in carbohydrates but high in fiber, making them less pure (5, 6, 7).
In addition to watermelon, several other low-carb fruits can be eaten in moderation on a ketogenic diet.
The ketogenic diet requires you to significantly reduce your carbohydrate intake, which often means cutting out high carbohydrate foods such as fruits from your diet.