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Is warts hpv: Genital warts – Symptoms and causes


Female genital warts – Mayo Clinic

Genital warts are a common sexually transmitted infection. They can appear on the genitals, in the pubic area or in the anal canal. In women, genital warts can also grow inside the vagina.


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Causes, Testing, Treatment & Prevention


Female pelvic anatomy

What is human papillpoma virus (HPV)?

HPV stands for human papilloma virus. It is a very common virus. There are about 100 types of HPV that affect different parts of the body. About 30 types of HPV can affect the genitals — including the vulva, vagina, cervix, penis and scrotum — as well as the rectum and anus. Of those, about 14 types are considered “high risk,” for leading to cervical cancer.

Male pelvic anatomy

How common is HPV?

HPV that affects the genitals is very common. Approximately 79 million Americans are currently infected with HPV, with roughly 14 million people becoming newly infected each year. Most men and women — about 80 percent of sexually active people — are infected with HPV at some point in their lives, but most people never know they have the virus.

Can men get HPV?

Yes. In men, genital warts most often appear on the penis, on the scrotum, in or around the anus, or on the groin. For men, HPV infection — including those that can cause cellular changes — cause no symptoms, so diagnosing HPV in men is difficult. The diagnosis of HPV in men is made when external genital warts are seen.

Since there is no treatment for HPV that has no symptoms, most men with the infection are not treated. Sometimes, a healthcare provider can see small warts that might have otherwise gone unnoticed. In general, HPV infection does not place a man at a much higher risk for health problems. However, HPV prevention is still important for men, as the virus has been linked to uncommon cancers such as penile, anal, and head and neck.

How is HPV related to cervical cancer?

Certain strains of HPV can cause changes in the cells of the cervix, a condition called cervical dysplasia. If it is not treated, dysplasia can advance to cervical cancer. HPV is almost always the cause of cervical cancer. However, just because a woman has HPV or cervical dysplasia does not necessarily mean she will get cervical cancer.

Regular Pap tests are the best protection against cervical cancer. The test detects pre-cancerous changes and cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is almost always preventable or cured if pre-cancerous changes are detected and treated early, before cancer develops.

Before age 30, HPV infection is usually transient (gets better on its own). By age 30, finding HPV during Pap screening can help determine how often to be screened. The absence of high-risk HPV types usually means that a woman is at low risk for developing cervical changes related to the risk of cervical cancer. In this case, the period between Pap test screenings is usually five years for most women.

If a woman tests positive for high-risk HPV types, her healthcare provider will perform more frequent Pap tests to check for any cell changes that might be pre-cancerous or that need to be treated .

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is a condition in which the cells in the lining of the cervix — the narrow, outer end of the uterus — change and grow very fast, producing a grouping of cells called a tumor. This condition usually develops over time. It can affect women of any age, but it is most common in women in their mid-40s. A type of virus, called HPV, is the cause of most cases of cervical cancer.

Symptoms and Causes

How do you get human papilloma virus (HPV)?

Genital HPV is spread through contact with (touching) the skin of someone who has an HPV infection. Contact includes vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Some types of HPV cause genital warts, which are hard, rough lumps that grow on the skin. Anyone who is sexually active can get HPV and genital warts.

In women, genital warts most often appear in the following areas of the body:

  • On the vulva (the outer female genital area)
  • In or around the vagina
  • In or around the anus
  • On the groin (where the genital area meets the inner thigh)
  • On the cervix

What are the symptoms of HPV?

In many cases, HPV causes no symptoms. When they do occur, the most common symptom is warts in the genital area. Signs of infection can appear weeks, months, or even years after the person has been infected with the virus.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is human papilloma virus (HPV) diagnosed?

There are no blood tests for HPV, but some tests can help your healthcare provider diagnose the infection:

  • Pap test: During this test, the healthcare provider removes a sample of cells from the cervix. The cells are then examined under a microscope to look for any changes in the cells, even if the patient does not have genital warts.
  • Colposcopy: For this test, a healthcare provider uses an instrument — called a colposcope — that shines a light and enlarges the view of the cervix. A vinegar solution is placed on the cervix. The solution turns abnormal cells that are infected with HPV white, so they can be seen more easily.
  • HPV DNA test: This test looks directly for the genetic material (DNA) of the HPV within a sample of cells. The test can detect the type of HPV connected to cervical cancer. The sample used for this test is generally collected at the same time as a Pap test.

Management and Treatment

How is human papilloma virus (HPV) treated?

There is no cure for the virus itself, but many HPV infections go away on their own. In fact, about 70 to 90 percent of cases of HPV infection are cleared from the body by the immune system.

When treatment is needed, the goal is to relieve symptoms by removing any visible warts and abnormal cells in the cervix. Treatments might include:

  • Cryosurgery: Freezing the warts off with liquid nitrogen.
  • Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP): Using a special wire loop to remove the abnormal cells.
  • Electrocautery: Burning the warts off with an electrical current.
  • Laser therapy: Using an intense light to destroy the warts and any abnormal cells.
  • Prescription cream: Applying medicated cream directly to the warts. (Do not use over-the-counter wart treatments on the genital area.)

In some cases, no treatment is needed. However, your doctor will closely watch any cell changes during your regular screening appointments.

Only a small number of women infected with HPV will develop cellular changes that need to be treated.


Can human papilloma virus (HPV) be prevented?

Using condoms correctly every time you have sex can help reduce the risk of HPV. You should be aware, however, that condoms do not cover all of the genital skin, so they are not 100 percent effective in protecting against the spread of HPV. A person with genital warts should not have sex until the warts are removed. This might help reduce the risk of spreading HPV.

Here are some other ways of reducing the risk of HPV:

  • Women should have regular Pap tests to look for abnormal changes in the cervix that might be pre-cancer.
  • Men and women should stop having sexual contact as soon as they know or think they have genital warts, and they should seek treatment immediately.
  • Get vaccinated with one of the three available HPV vaccines. Gardasil® and Gardasil9® protect against the development of cervical cancer and genital warts. They are approved for girls and women ages 9 to 26, as well as for boys and men ages 9 to 26 to protect against genital warts. The third vaccine, called Cervarix®, is approved for women only to protect against cervical cancer (does not protect against several of the HPV strains that cause warts).

It is best to get the vaccine before the start of sexual activity. The vaccine consists of a series of three shots, with the second shot coming two months after the first, and the third coming six months after the first. If you already have HPV, the vaccine does not treat or cure, but can still help protect against other types of HPV infections.


Glossary of terms

  • Cervical dysplasia: A pre-cancerous condition that occurs when the human papilloma virus (HPV) leads to changes in the cells of the cervix
  • Cervix: The tip of the uterus, where the vagina meets the uterus
  • Genital warts: Hard, rough lumps that develop on the skin
  • Groin: Where the genital area meets the inner thigh
  • Vulva: The outer female genital area

Genital Warts | STD Symptoms, Treatment and Removal

What are Genital Warts?

Genital warts are common and are caused by certain types of HPV. Genital warts can be annoying, but they’re treatable and aren’t dangerous.

Genital warts are caused by HPV

Genital warts show up on the skin around your genitals and anus. They’re caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). You might’ve heard that some types of HPV can cause cancer, but they’re NOT the same kinds that give you genital warts.

HPV can be a tricky STD to understand. It’s the most common STD, but most of the time it goes away on its own. Sometimes certain types of “high-risk” HPV can develop into cancer if left untreated. Other “low-risk” types of HPV can cause warts on your vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis or scrotum. Genital warts are common — about 360,000 people get them each year.

How do you get genital warts?

You get genital warts from having skin-to-skin contact with someone who’s infected, often during vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Genital warts can be spread even if no one cums, and a penis doesn’t have to go inside a vagina or anus to get them. You can spread them even when you don’t have any visible warts or other symptoms, though that’s less common. You can also pass genital warts to a baby during vaginal childbirth, but that’s pretty rare.

Genital warts are different from warts you might get elsewhere on your body. So you can’t get genital warts by touching yourself (or a partner) with a wart that’s on your hand or foot.

You’re more likely to pass genital warts when you’re having symptoms. So if you notice a wart, it’s best to get tested and treated to help lower the risk of passing genital warts on to a partner.

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3 Types, Treatment, and Prevention

Warts are skin growths that are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). There are more than 60 kinds of HPV, some of which tend to cause warts on the skin. HPV stimulates quick growth of cells on the skin’s outer layer. In most cases, common warts appear on the fingers, near the fingernails, or on the hands. Certain types of HPV can also cause warts to appear in the genital area.

Types of Warts

  • Plantar warts: This type of wart usually appears as flesh-colored or light brown lumps that are flecked with small clotted blood vessels that appear as tiny black dots. Plantar warts appear on the soles of the feet.
  • Genital warts: Genital warts can appear in the pubic area, on the genitals, in or around the anus, and/or in the vagina. They look like small flesh-colored, pink, or red growths. The warts may look similar to the small parts of a cauliflower or they may be very tiny and difficult to see. They often appear in clusters of three or four, and may grow and spread rapidly. They usually are not painful, although they may cause mild pain, bleeding, and itching. HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease in North America and certain forms of the virus can cause cervical cancer.
  • Flat warts: This type of wart is more common in teens and children than in adults. Flat warts are smoother, flatter, and smaller than other warts and they generally occur on the face. Flat warts also can appear on the legs, especially among females.

Warts are caused through direct contact with HPV, which is contagious. HPV may spread by person-to-person contact or through direct contact with an object used by a person with the virus. The virus that causes warts also can spread to other places on the body of the person with warts.

How Are Warts Treated?

In most cases, warts found on the skin are harmless and can disappear without treatment. However, genital warts should be evaluated by a doctor.

Sometimes, warts may recur after treatment and more than one type of treatment may be necessary. Although practitioners attempt to clear warts quickly, most methods require multiple treatments. Treatments may include:

  • Freezing (Cryotherapy): can be done with over-the-counter freezing spray products or by your doctor, who will use liquid nitrogen to freeze a wart. For the at home treatment, temperatures can reach as low as a negative 100 degrees. The down side of this home treatment is that it may not freeze the wart deep enough to be effective. It can also be painful because the spray needs to be applied longer than if you were being treated in a doctor’s office. When it works, a blister forms around the wart and the dead tissue falls off within one to two weeks.
  • Cantharidin: This substance, an extract of a blister beetle and applied to the skin, forms a blister around the wart. After cantharidin is applied, the area is covered with a bandage. The blister lifts the wart off the skin.
  • Other medications: These include bleomycin, which is injected into a wart to kill a virus, and imiquimod (Aldara and Zyclara), an immunotherapy drug that stimulates your own immune system to fight off the wart virus. It comes in the form of a prescription cream. Although imiquimod is stated for genital warts, it is modestly effective on other types of warts.
  • Salicylic acid: Over-the-counter wart treatments come in several forms (gel, ointments or pads) and contain salicylic acid as the active ingredient. When applied on a regular basis, the acid gradually dissolves the wart tissue. The process may take several weeks.
  • Minor surgery: When warts cannot be removed by other therapies, surgery may be used to cut away the wart. The base of the wart will be destroyed using an electric needle or by cryosurgery (deep freezing).
  • Laser surgery: This procedure utilizes an intense beam of light (laser) to burn and destroy wart tissue.
  • Over-thecounter medication: Usually this contains salicylic acid and is applied in gel, ointment or lotion form. Applied regularly, the wart eventually peels off. This is not for use in genital warts.

Can Warts Be Prevented?

If you already have warts, you can prevent them from spreading by not picking at them. Consider covering warts with bandages. In addition, keep hands as dry as possible — warts are harder to control in moist environments. You should never brush, comb, or shave areas where warts are present as this can cause the virus to spread. Wash hands thoroughly after touching any warts.

To prevent genital warts, some of the steps you can take include:

  • Abstaining from sexual contact
  • Using condoms during sexual activity
  • Having sex only with a partner who is not having sex with other people
  • Avoiding sex with anyone who has visible symptoms of genital warts
  • Get the HPV vaccine, called Gardasil

How Do I Know If I Have Genital Warts? HPV Symptoms & Diagnosis

Both men and women can get genital warts, but the symptoms might be different. Here is what you need to know.


In women, genital warts appear in and around the vagina or anus, or on the cervix. They might be very small or appear as large clusters. They may be reddish in color or white. Sometimes, you can have genital warts but show no symptoms at all.

If you’re a woman who’s had unprotected sex, you’ll want to have your doctor examine you. Testing for low-risk HPV — the virus that causes genital warts — isn’t routinely done. Your doctor will have to examine you to see if you have the virus to know for sure. Warts may appear months or years after sexual contact.

Sometimes, genital warts can form inside your vagina and be hard to spot. You could also have symptoms that look like genital warts but turn out to be something else.


In men, the warts may appear on the penis, scrotum, or around the anus. For men, there’s no reliable test that can find the virus responsible for genital warts. You’ll need to ask your doctor for an exam or get regular exams.

In both men and women, genital warts can also show up on the lips, mouth, tongue, and throat.

See your doctor right away if you or your partner develops bumps or warts in the genital area or if:

  • You have an abnormal discharge from your vagina or penis
  • You have burning, pain, or bleeding when urinating or during sex
  • Your partner is diagnosed with genital warts or is having some of the symptoms
  • Your child has genital warts

What Happens During the Exam?

Your doctor will ask a number of questions, such as:

  • Do you practice safe sex?
  • Do you have multiple partners?
  • Have you or your partner been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)?
  • Are you having any symptoms?
  • Are you pregnant or planning to get pregnant?

Your doctor will examine you or take a biopsy (a sample of the wart) to see if you have genital warts. They might draw a blood sample to test for HIV and syphilis. Depending on the results, they may also refer you to a specialist for further testing.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Genital Warts

What is HPV Infection?

HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is a family of over 100 types of viruses that can infect the penis, vulva (area outside of the vagina) or anus, and the linings of the vagina, cervix or rectum.

Most of the time HPV infection does not have any symptoms, and will go away on its own without treatment. The virus is most commonly found on the genitals and anus. It is found less often on the mouth or in the throat.

Of the more than 100 types of HPV, about 40 of these affect the genitals. Two types cause 70 per cent of cancers of the cervix, plus some less common cancers of the throat, anus, penis, vagina and vulva.

Two other types of HPV cause most cases of genital warts, which are flat or cauliflower-like bumps that occur in the genital area.

It is possible to have more than 1 type of HPV infection at the same time. For an accurate diagnosis, a health care provider should check all suspicious bumps and lesions. Cervical cancer that is caused by HPV is detected using a Pap test, which is a routine part of a female sexual health exam.

How is HPV spread?

HPV spreads by skin-to-skin contact. This can be during oral, vaginal or anal sex, or during any other sexual activity in which skin-to-skin contact takes place.

How common is HPV infection?

Three out of 4 sexually active people will get at least one HPV infection at some time in their lives. The more sexual partners you have, the higher the possibility of getting an HPV infection.

What are the symptoms of HPV?

Genital warts are a symptom of HPV infection. Genital warts are flat or cauliflower-like bumps that are usually painless, may be itchy, and sometimes bleed. They can be found in the groin, genitals, buttocks and inside the vagina or anus. They are rarely found in the mouth.

Since many strains of HPV do not produce visible warts, most people do not show any signs or symptoms of an HPV infection. As a result, they can pass HPV to others without knowing it.

What are the risks of HPV infection?

Most people who have an HPV infection clear it within 2 years. When it does not clear, cells infected with a cancer-causing type of HPV start to change. This change can lead to cancer of the cervix, anus, vagina, vulva, penis and throat. Of these types of cancers, cervical cancer is the most common. Approximately 200 women develop cervical cancer every year in B.C., and close to 50 women die from the disease.

How are Genital Warts treated?

Genital warts can be treated using topical prescription medication or freezing. The length of treatment may vary depending upon the severity of the warts and the treatment that is used. These treatments do not get rid of the HPV infection. A person may still pass the infection on after treatment, even if the warts are no longer visible.

Caution: Do not use non-prescription wart removal products to treat genital warts. These products are not intended for use in the genital area and may cause serious burning.

Is there a vaccine for HPV?

There are 2 HPV vaccines available in Canada: Cervarix® and Gardasil®9. Both vaccines protect against infection by HPV types that cause most cases of cervical cancer and several less common cancers. Gardasil®9 also protects against infection by HPV types that cause most cases of genital warts. The vaccines help prevent HPV infection but do not get rid of the infection once it has occurred. For more information on the HPV vaccines, see HealthLinkBC File #101b Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines.

How can I reduce my chance of getting a sexually transmitted infection (STI)?

Practice safer sex by using a condom

When used correctly, external (“male”) and internal (“female”) condoms help prevent the spread of many STIs during vaginal, anal and oral sex. Condoms are less effective at protecting against STIs transmitted by skin-to-skin contact, such as herpes simplex virus, genital warts (human papillomavirus (HPV)) and syphilis (when sores are present).

Important things to remember when using condoms:

  • Check the condom package for damage. Do not use a damaged condom
  • Check the expiry date. Do not use a condom after its expiry date
  • Carefully open the package so that the condom does not tear. Do not use a torn condom
  • Keep condoms away from sharp objects such as rings, studs or piercings
  • Store condoms at room temperature
  • Use a new condom every time you have sex. Do not reuse condoms
  • Do not use 2 condoms at once. Using 2 condoms together may result in a condom breaking
  • Use only water-based lubricants with external (“male”) latex condoms. Oil-based lubricants, such as petroleum jelly, lotion or baby oil, can weaken and destroy latex
  • Water or oil-based lubricant may be used with polyurethane/nitrile condoms
  • Use only condoms made of latex or polyurethane/nitrile/polyisoprene rubbers. Latex and polyurethane condoms are the best types of condoms to use to help prevent pregnancy and STIs. (Lambskin and sheepskin condoms can help prevent pregnancy but don’t work as well as latex or polyurethane condoms to prevent STIs)
  • Avoid using condoms with spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 (N-9). N-9 can irritate tissue and may increase the chance of getting an STI

Get vaccinated

Vaccines can prevent some STIs, such as hepatitis A, B and human papillomavirus (HPV). Talk to your health care provider about how to get these vaccinations.

Know your sexual health status

If you have recently changed sexual partners, or have multiple sex partners, getting regularly tested for STIs will tell you if you have an infection. Some people can have an STI and not have any symptoms. Finding and treating an STI reduces the chances of passing infections on to your partner(s).

The more partners you have, the higher your chances of getting exposed to STIs.

Talk about prevention

Talk to your partner(s) about STIs and how you would like to prevent them before having sex. If you are having trouble discussing safer sex with your partner(s), talk about it with your health care provider or a counsellor.

For tips on how to talk to your partner(s), visit the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) Smart Sex Resource https://smartsexresource.com/sex-talk/talk-about-it.

Informing Partners

If you have a sexually transmitted infection and are sexually active, it is important to tell your sexual partner(s). This will enable them to make decisions about their health and getting tested.

For More Information

For more information on how you can reduce your chance of getting an STI, see HealthLinkBC File #08o Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs).

Genital Warts (HPV Infection): Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

Genital warts are usually spread by sexual contact. They are the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a virus. During pregnancy or delivery the HPV virus can be passed on to the baby from an infected mother. This is why all sexually active females should be checked, even if they cannot see any warts.

Your doctor will talk to you about how often to have a Pap test. Typically, your first Pap will be at age 21 and every three years thereafter.


Some warts are big enough to see or are in areas that you can see. Most warts are diagnosed by a doctor during an examination. Some warts are the flat type found by a Pap test of the cervix. HPV on a Pap test only means that the virus has been detected. It does not always mean you have warts.

If the HPV virus was found with a Pap smear, we will schedule you for a colposcopy (kole POSS koe pee). The colposcope magnifies the cervix and lets the doctor look for any abnormal areas. See Helping Hand HH-III-83, Colposcopy – Directed Biopsy.


There are several treatments for warts. Your doctor may treat warts in the clinic with a medicine called TCA (trichloroacetic acid) to treat the warts. Another treatment is a cream called imiquimod (Aldara®). If there are many warts, they may need to be removed by surgery or with a laser. We will refer you to a doctor who does this procedure.

  • The TCA medicine does not need to be washed off until you shower (unless you have pain or stinging).
  • Do not have sexual intercourse until your doctor says it is okay. Then a condom should be used. Sex partners may need to be treated also.

NOTE: Special care is needed when treating pregnant females. Please tell your doctor if there is any chance you may be pregnant. The doctor may want to freeze the warts or remove them surgically.

Where to Get Treatment

If you live in the Columbus area, your partner(s) can be treated at the Columbus Public Health Department at 240 Parsons Avenue, 2 blocks North of Nationwide Children’s Hospital. The phone number is (614) 645-7772.

If you live outside the Columbus area, call your local health department.

Prevention of Future Infection

Not having intercourse is the only 100% sure way to prevent genital warts, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV (the virus that causes AIDS).

If you choose to have sex, you can do some things that might help prevent the spread of HPV and other STIs:

  • Respect yourself and your partner.
  • Limit the number of sexual partners.
  • Know your partner and his or her sexual history.
  • Always use a condom. Use it correctly. Use a condom every time you have sex.
  • Be prepared. Have another condom ready in case the one you are using breaks.
  • Avoid alcohol and other drugs. You can’t make good choices if you are drunk or stoned.
  • Be tested for STIs at least once a year, even if there are no symptoms. Females should have yearly Pap tests. Males should have yearly urine tests.
  • Some STIs make it easier for HIV to enter the skin or mucous membranes. If you get more than one STI infection, you should be tested for HIV.
  • There is a vaccine that may help protect against HPV. It is recommended that both boys and girls have the vaccine series at age 11.

Caring for Babies and Young Children

Wear gloves when changing diapers or bathing children to keep from spreading the HPV infection to their skin.

If you care for babies or children with HPV, read Helping Hand HH-I-398, Genital Warts in Babies and Children. If a doctor prescribes TCA for the children, apply the medicine to the warts again each time you clean the diaper area, and after you bathe them. Always wash your hands with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds before and after applying the medicine, diapering, or changing their clothes.

More Information

For more facts about HPV and other STIs call the National Hotline at 1-800-227-8922 (8:00 a. m. to 11:00 p.m. Monday through Friday). If you have any questions, be sure to ask your doctor or nurse, or call the Adolescent Health Center at (614) 722-2450.

Genital Warts (PDF)

HH-I-102 6/84, Revised 12/15 Copyright 1984, Nationwide Children’s Hospital

90,000 HPV – 21 types (6,11,44,16,18,26,31,33,35,39,45,51,52,53,56,58,59,66,68,73,82)

HPV – 21 types (6,11,44,16,18,26,31,33,35,39,45,51,52,53,56,58,59,66,68,73,82)

Human papillomaviruses 6, 11 are non-enveloped DNA viruses that are members of the Papillomaviridae family. Viruses are transmitted by microtraumas of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as sexually. During childbirth, viruses are transmitted to newborns.HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The risk group for HPV infection includes almost all people who are sexually active.

HPV infects and multiplies in the skin epithelium, forming benign warts, and in the mucous membranes, causing genital, oral and conjunctival papillomas, can be clinically expressed, subclinical or latent. In women, the area of ​​the vestibule, the walls of the vagina, the cervix, the external opening of the urethra, and the anal region becomes infected and covered with genital warts.In men, the head of the penis, foreskin, scrotum, and anal region are affected.

Indications for the delivery of analysis:

1. Warts, genital warts.

2. Detection of epithelial dysplasia by cytological examination.

3. Preventive screening studies.

Material for analysis

Men – urogenital scraping, women – scraping from the cervical canal.

HPV 16, 18 belong to the group of high and medium risk of malignancy of the affected cells.

Infection is carried out in the following ways:

1. Transmission of HPV type 18, 16 in casual intimate relationships without contraceptives.

2. Contact method at home.

3. Transmission of papillomavirus 16, 18 types to the fetus through the maternal placenta.

Development of human papillomavirus 16, 18 types are divided into several stages:

1. Incubation period. It is characterized by the asymptomatic development of the infectious process.The length of the period cannot be predicted.

2. Stage of active growth of neoplasms. The appearance of characteristic signs is observed – papillomas of type 16. The dividing process of these structures is accelerated and becomes irregular, resulting in the growth of neoplasms.

3. Dysplasia.

Detection of a precancerous condition is an indirect indicator of HPV 16, 18 types. At an early stage, the disease is easily treatable. Prevention of malignancy of the disease requires urgent measures.

4. Malignant form of the disease. After a change in the cellular structure, cell mutations occur under the influence of the causative agent of papilloma 16, 18 and an oncological process develops.

Human papillomas 16, 18 are round-shaped growths connected to the body through a thin stem. The formations have a soft structure, painless. In color, the growths practically do not differ from healthy skin. On the mucous membranes, genital formations often appear – condylomas.Such outgrowths are often localized in groups that look like coral. In case of activation of the disease, more pronounced signs of the papilloma virus type 16 may appear: burning and irritability in the genital area, the appearance of uncharacteristic discharge with an unpleasant odor. HPV type 18 causes about 60% of cases of oncological diseases of the female and male genital organs.


The most accurate and diagnostically important method is polymerase chain reaction or PCR analysis.

PCR is based on the determination of the DNA of the virus in the investigated biological environment, obtained from the subject. It can be blood, saliva, urine, into which a special reagent is injected to determine the virus.

Types 31, 33, 35 belong to the group with a high degree of oncogenic risk and most often lead to diseases such as bowenoid papulosis and intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix.

Bowenoid papulosis occurs in men, and the risk of developing this disease is increased with an excessive number of sexual partners.

Cervical neoplasia can be mild, moderate and severe. In the first case, all changes are detected only with a cytological examination of a smear. Severe neoplasia is already considered intraepithelial cancer. Neoplasia in women is often combined with the formation of genital warts arising under the influence of the virus of 6 and 11 types.

In cases of development of cervical cancer, erosion first appears, then dysplasia (3 degrees, the last is the oncology). These processes are caused by oncogenic HPV types 18, 33, 35. Men are often carriers of HPV 33, 51 and other types.Sometimes you can observe the appearance of non-condylomatous formations on the body, which can grow quickly and disappear just as quickly.

Indications for the delivery of analysis

1. Pain in the lower abdomen, during and after intercourse.

2. The presence of secretions, including those mixed with blood.

3. Diagnosis of cervical erosion.

4. Genital warts were found in the vagina.


To identify HPV in women, the gynecologist examines in a chair using a mirror.If flat growths are found on the mucous membrane of the vagina, the walls of the uterus, or genital warts are found on the labia minora, vulva, it is necessary to take a smear for cytological studies.

When growths caused by HPV are not detected, colposcopy is performed. This diagnostic method involves examining the walls of the vagina and cervix under a microscope. If no external manifestations are observed, the walls are lubricated with a 3% solution of acetic acid – pathological formations turn white, and the color of a healthy mucous membrane does not change.Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the presence of a virus in the body is determined

HPV 51, like HPV 31, belongs to the group of medium oncogenic risk, the route of transmission is mainly sexual, contributes to the appearance of malignant formations of the genital organs. HPV type 51, in addition to the formation of genital warts, leads to the appearance of a giant condyloma Buschke-Levenshtenn. The risk of malignant processes increases with frequent changes in sexual partners and with homosexual contacts.

HPV type 52, like HPV 51, belongs to the group of viruses that provoke oncology. The main causes of damage to the body are a decrease in the work of defense mechanisms, endocrine problems, smoking, general diseases with suppression of immunity.

HPV 56 type. It enters the body through microtrauma on the skin and through the mucous membrane. The process is more often localized in the uterus, in the vagina, urethra, on the head of the penis. The risk group includes patients with a lowered immune system, burdened by heredity, with exacerbations of chronic pathology.HPV 56 belongs to a group of high oncological risk and, upon confirmation of diagnostic examinations, requires immediate intervention.


To identify HPV in women, the gynecologist examines in a chair using a mirror. If flat growths are found on the mucous membrane of the vagina, the walls of the uterus, or genital warts are found on the labia minora, vulva, it is necessary to take a smear for cytological studies.

When growths caused by HPV are not detected, colposcopy is performed.This diagnostic method involves examining the walls of the vagina and cervix under a microscope. If no external manifestations are observed, the walls are lubricated with a 3% solution of acetic acid – pathological formations turn white, and the color of a healthy mucous membrane does not change. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the presence of a virus in the body is determined

Human papillomaviruses, which include HPV type 21, affect the skin and mucous membranes of people, the infection is detected at the sites of penetration by the presence of warts and genital warts

The group of pathogens under this name includes strains that cause the appearance of warts on the skin, benign tumors on the skin.

Warts with a virus, in the presence of constantly acting factors, can degenerate into skin cancers. These reasons include:

1. Frequent mechanical irritation of the papilloma.

2. Chemical effect on it.

3. A sharp decrease in the immunity of the carrier of the virus.

Infection with type 21 virus occurs from contact with a sick person or through everyday life – through things that got the virus


Manifested by formations on the hands in the area of ​​the hands, on the fingers and palms, neck, face, at the nose and lips, on the soles.

In appearance, warts are a dense growth of keratinized flesh-colored epithelium, slightly lighter than the usual color of the skin. Inside the growth, black dots are visible – capillaries that have been damaged by an infection. The shape of the warts is predominantly round, with smooth edges, they adhere tightly to the skin and do not have a leg. Around the warts – healthy skin without any signs of redness, they do not cause any pain.

Before performing the procedure, a number of requirements must be fulfilled:

1.Not having sex for two days

2. Do not take any medication.

3. Refuse from chemicals when bathing

4. Do not go to the toilet for 2 hours.

5. Do not drink a lot of fluids.

Sampling material: Scraping of epithelial cells of the urogenital tract.

Test for HPV – 21 types (6,11,44,16,18,26,31,33,35,39,45,51,52,53,56,58,59,66,68,73,82 ) in Yekaterinburg can be at the addresses of Bolshakova st., d. 68 and st. Vikulova 33/2

90,000 12 myths about human papillomavirus

In the modern world, a person is surrounded by a huge amount of information about himself and about his health, which is sometimes contradictory and sometimes false.And only having the right information will help you live a long and happy life and allay fears for your health and well-being.

So too many rumors and speculations that do not correspond to reality are associated with the carriage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) In this article we will try to illuminate and refute the most common of them.

Truth: Many types of HPV do not cause problems. HPV infections usually go away on their own, without any intervention, a few months after they are acquired, and about 90% go away within 2 years.And only a small number of types of human papillomaviruses can provoke the development of malignant neoplasms in the distant future.

Myth No. 2: The papilloma virus in women during pregnancy will certainly transmit the disease to the child

True: This myth is explained by the existing possibility of infection of the child during its passage through the birth canal of a mother infected with HPV. The risk is real, but very small, and is associated with only two specific types of the virus – types 6/11.If the baby does get HPV during childbirth and the infection takes root, the baby may develop damage to the nasopharynx, which can interfere with normal breathing. This condition, called respiratory papillomatosis, is treatable. Prompt birth allowance increases the child’s chances, but does not give a 100% guarantee. In general, the risk of respiratory papillomatosis for a baby is much lower than complications associated with caesarean section. Pregnant women with genital warts should discuss the risk of infection and the options with a doctor well before giving birth, and decide which one is preferable.

Myth # 3: Human papillomavirus can be cured

Truth: It is not the virus itself that lends itself to treatment, but the diseases that it caused. You can get rid of genital warts, you can remove warts, you can even cure a precancerous condition of the cervix. But the virus itself, unfortunately, remains in the human body.

Truth: Unfortunately, there is currently no therapy aimed at eliminating the human papillomavirus from the body. Despite the absence of etiopathogenetic treatment, the manifestations of HPV infection, diseases caused by this virus, are quite successfully amenable to therapy.

Myth # 4: In a monogamous relationship, a HPV diagnosis means that one partner has cheated on the other

Truth: It is this myth that has led many people to tragically incorrect conclusions and caused many couples to fall apart. Even if you and your man are together from school, the HPV diagnosis only means that one of you at some point in your life contracted a human papillomavirus infection, since one of the most mysterious aspects of genital HPV is the ability of the virus to be latent.

Myth No. 5: “If there are no warts, and a smear has detected viruses, then I have cervical cancer?”

Truth: Don’t jump to conclusions. Viruses can circulate in the human body for a long time without manifesting themselves in any way. The presence of HPV does not yet indicate a precancerous condition. The appearance of these viruses in the analyzes suggests that its number has increased, and this occurs as a result of a decrease in the nonspecific protective functions of the body. Therefore, the main thing that should be paid attention to based on such an analysis result is the state of immunity, and it is better to carry out treatment aimed at strengthening it.

Myth number 6: Women of age do not need to be tested for HPV

True: Women aged 65 and over account for 25% of all cases of cervical cancer and 41% of deaths associated with this pathology. Regular screening for papillomavirus in women is extremely important, since HPV can reappear after many years of latent course. It is advisable to perform the analysis every three years for women aged 21 to 29 years, and every 3-5 years in the interval from 30 to 65 years.

Myth # 7: It is more effective to have a smear test than to be vaccinated against HPV

True: A screening study can only determine the presence of mutated cells that make up a malignant neoplasm. At the same time, vaccination is a mechanism that allows the body’s immune system to create a specific defense of a cell against the entry of a virus that causes cancer into it. So it’s definitely better not to skimp on vaccinations than waiting for the cells to start to become cancerous.


Myth # 8: “If I have genital warts, will it lead to cervical cancer?”

Truth: It is not known how many sleepless nights this myth gave rise to. In fact, things are not entirely so gloomy. The appearance of genital warts, and the development of cervical cancer are based on infection with the human papillomavirus. However, with completely different strains of it. Thus, the appearance of genital warts can extremely rarely have a causal relationship with the development of oncological pathology.

Myth No. 9: Women are most often infected with the papillomavirus

Truth: The epidemiology of HPV infection, fortunately or unfortunately, does not have a clear gender structure. On a par with women, both men and children are infected with HPV. Unfortunately, no one is immune from HPV.

Myth number 10: If you always use a condom, you will not catch papillomaviruses

Truth: Barrier contraception certainly reduces the likelihood of contracting HPV and sexually transmitted diseases.However, protected sex is not an absolute guarantee, since the papillomavirus is transmitted through any contacts of the mucous membranes. Also, the human papillomavirus can be transmitted by touching, using some toilet and hygiene items. If papillomas are located on the mucous membrane of the lips, then the transmission of papillomavirus through a kiss is possible. However, all of the above does not negate the need to use condoms!

Myth # 11: If you get HPV it will come back again and again

Truth: Not necessary at all.Yes, the doctor will most likely see the presence of strains on smears. But if you lead a healthy lifestyle, as a result, you have good immunity – nonspecific factors of the body’s defense will suppress the development of both the virus itself in the cells and its manifestations.

Myth number 12: There is no reliable data on whether vaccination against HPV helps, so you can not get vaccinated

Truth: This statement is only partly true and is based on a distorted view of the layman and the mechanism of development of specific immunity and vaccination in general.In fact, there are over 100 strains of papillomaviruses. Unfortunately, there really is no complete certainty that the vaccine will protect against everyone. However, vaccination for 5 years will protect you from the most aggressive strains. The vast majority of recipients did not experience side effects from the vaccine, and the claims about the dangers of vaccines do not have any solid scientific basis and evidence, therefore, in our opinion, it is better to get vaccinated after all.

Frequently asked questions about human papillomavirus

1.How do I know if I have human papillomavirus (HPV) if I do not have genital warts?

Basically, if you and your partner do not have warts, it is impossible to determine, except by laboratory tests, if you have HPV. Sometimes you notice itching or skin changes, but more often than not, HPV does not show itself in any way. Therefore, it is better for women to regularly visit a gynecologist and have Pap tests. It is also better for men to visit their doctor to find out as much as possible about this disease.

Since HPV can indicate possible development of cervical cancer, many doctors now perform additional tests in addition to the Pap test. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method uses technology to detect HPV, aimed at identifying specific DNA fragments of the human papillomavirus. This HPV PCR test can be combined with the Pap test, which also takes a sample of the cervical tissue. Since March 2003, the FDA has expanded the use of this test among women over 30.It is performed along with the Pap test. Also, the US Department of Health approved two tests for dangerous HPV. The first, Cervista HPV HR, is similar to a DNA-based test and recognizes 15 dangerous HPV strains. The second, Cervista 16/18, recognizes the two types of HPV most commonly associated with cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18).

2. Can I get HPV through oral sex?

Yes. HPV is transmitted through skin contact, mainly during intercourse, even if the warts are not visible.HPV infections most commonly progress in the genitals, anus, and mouth. The increase in the number of cases of oral and tonsillar cancers may be due to the dangerous types of HPV that are transmitted through oral sex.

3. If the wart was removed, can it appear again?

Since HPV is a virus, it is up to your immune system to see if the warts come back. In some cases, they may appear again. However, in most cases, the infection disappears within 2 years.Because the virus spreads deep into tissue, it cannot be determined whether it has been removed or is simply suppressed so that it is difficult to detect with conventional tests.

4. If I use a condom, can I get HPV?

Yes. Unfortunately, condoms do not offer complete protection against HPV because they do not cover the entire possible infected surface of the skin, which includes the genitals, anus, and mouth. But this does not mean that they should not be used.While condoms are unreliable, they can be the most affordable form of protection, especially for people with multiple sex partners. Research has shown that condoms reduce the risk of HPV infections, but they do not provide 100% protection.

5. If I have HPV, does this mean that I may have other sexually transmitted infections or cervical cancer?

Yes. Having HPV increases the likelihood that a woman may have another sexually transmitted disease or cervical cancer.However, only certain types of HPV cause cervical cancer. Women of all ages should regularly visit a gynecologist and undergo diagnostic tests, including tests for other sexually transmitted diseases (chlamydia, gonorrhea, HIV), if necessary. Talk with your doctor about how often the tests should be done.

6. How does HPV affect reproductive function?

HPV is different from other sexually transmitted diseases (such as chlamydia), which can damage reproductive function.Dangerous types of HPV can lead to cervical cancer. In addition, some HPV treatments can scar or damage the cervix (such as electrosurgical snare removal or conization of the cervix)

7. What is the best treatment for removing papillomas?

This depends on which type of HPV is causing the genital warts or dysplasia. There is no single treatment for all HPV cases. Each case is different, and you need to discuss with your doctor which treatment is right for you.

8. If my partner has HPV, does it mean that he or she cheated on me?

HPV is a group of more than 100 viruses that can manifest themselves in weeks, months or even years (if they do show themselves at all). Just because your partner has HPV doesn’t mean that he or she recently cheated on you. It is very important for you and your partner to learn as much as possible about this condition. An estimated 75 percent of men and women of reproductive age have one or more types of HPV, and most are unaware of this because not all viruses cause warts.In addition, the immune system automatically fights the virus and the virus may disappear within one or two years.

More detailed information about the human papillomavirus can be obtained from the gynecologists of the Zdorovye 365 clinic in Yekaterinburg.

Related topics:


Inflammatory diseases

Bacterial vaginosis

Menstrual pain

Ovulatory syndrome

Pain in the lower abdomen

Signs of pregnancy



Ectopic pregnancy

Premature birth




Gynecological operations

Removal of the uterus

Uterine myoma


Ovarian cyst


Ultrasound of the small pelvis

Ultrasound of mammary glands



90,000 What is HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)?

HPV is a common viral disease characterized by neoplasms (warts and genital warts and papillomas) in the anogenital region, on the body and mucous membranes.There are many types of virus. Among them there are safe ones, and there are those that become a risk factor for the development of dysplasia or cancer (types 16 and 18 most often provoke these changes) upon reaching a certain viral load. For women, the cervix may become an organ of cancer risk. You must carefully monitor your health. If you have been diagnosed with cervical erosion, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the tissues at least once every six months. Once in the body, the virus remains in it forever.

May disappear and appear under unfavorable factors (stress, decreased immunity). Many people are carriers and do not even know about it. The presence of the virus does not affect a woman’s ability to have a child, or the fetus itself during pregnancy. If the virus is detected during pregnancy, we recommend that you see a good gynecologist and monitor your immunity. Infection from mother to child is possible, but quite rare.

Reasons for appearance:

The source of the human papillomavirus is the cells of the skin or mucous membranes.When papillomas appear, even the smallest, a person is already considered infectious and can infect others. The virus can enter the body through sexual contact or through damaged skin through direct contact with an infected skin or mucous membrane. Can be passed from mother to child. Theoretically, there is a possibility of infection by a contact-household method: through personal hygiene items, the rim of the toilet bowl, etc.


Papillomas, genital warts, warts, dysplasia and cervical cancer.

Diagnostics and treatment:

If symptoms of (papillomas, genital warts) appear in the anogenital region, , you should see a doctor . At the reception, a sampling of biomaterial for research will be made, according to the results of which it will become clear to what type the virus belongs, what is its concentration and activity. If the clinically significant indicator of the virus is low, then the risk of developing the disease is low, but if the viral load is high, then it is necessary to conduct a study of the biomaterial (pass tests) to exclude cervical dysplasia (smear for oncocytology, biopsy) and undergo treatment without fail.

Treatment includes: removal of neoplasms (papillomas, condylomas, dysplasia (erosion)) by a non-contact radio wave method; taking antiviral drugs; strengthening and enhancing immunity. This treatment regimen is effective and is carried out under the supervision of a physician. Remember, if an infection is detected, examination and treatment of the sexual partner is necessary. At the Central Clinic, a urologist, a gynecologist and a dermatovenerologist are receiving appointments. If HPV is found, both partners need to be treated.The main stage in the treatment of this disease is the correct diagnosis, but nevertheless, prevention is the best treatment. Take care of your health and keep your immunity at its best, then no viruses will be scary!

90,000 Human papillomavirus infection (warts): clinical and treatment aspects

Human papillomavirus infection of the skin (papillomatosis, or warts) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) viruses. The HPV group is a DNA-containing papovavirus ( Papovaviridae ) 40-50 nm in size.

More than 100 types of HPV are known, of which more than 40 can cause damage to the anogenital tract (genitals and anus) and the appearance of genital warts.

Warts are one of the most common clinical manifestations of HPV infection. The histological picture is characterized by the proliferation of the epidermis with impaired keratinization, vacuolization of cells and hypertrophy of the papillary dermis [1].

Distinguish between vulgar, flat, plantar, filiform and pointed warts.

Types of warts

Vulgar (simple) warts account for up to 70% of all skin warts and are found mainly in school-age children. These are rounded papules ranging in size from a pinhead to a pea, with an uneven, keratinized surface, grayish, yellowish-brown or flesh-colored, which can merge with each other. Favorite localization – brushes, but can appear on the face, the red border of the lips and, extremely rarely, on the mucous membrane of the mouth.Usually among the warts there is the largest – “maternal”. When the maternal wart is removed, all the rest often disappear.

Flat (juvenile) warts are less common (4%) and are observed mainly in children and young people. They are small in size, have a smooth surface, normal skin color or are slightly yellowish, rise above the level of the skin. The shape can be round, polygonal. Flat warts are characterized by multiple rashes of elements, mainly on the back of the hands and feet, face, oral mucosa.Flat warts can be localized on the skin of the penis, cervix, rectum.

Palmar-plantar warts are common among adults and young adults and occur in 34% of skin warts. They appear as dense formations with horny layers. Plantar warts are the most difficult to diagnose: they must be distinguished from calluses, callosities, horny syphilitic papules of the soles.

Palmar-plantar warts are more common in areas of pressure from uncomfortable shoes and can cause pain when walking.In patients with excessive sweating of the hands and feet, the warts spread quickly and are difficult to treat.

Filiform warts are soft papules, flesh to dark brown in color, often with a pedicle. They are often located on the neck, eyelid skin, armpit, groin, and under the mammary glands. Their size, as a rule, is 1-4 mm, but sometimes it reaches 3 cm or more in diameter.

A pronounced tendency to autoinoculation (self-infection) proves the viral origin of filamentous warts, and a frequent combination with diabetes mellitus, obesity, pregnancy, menopause indicates that they are hormonally conditioned.

Genital warts (genital warts) are usually localized in the intergluteal folds, on the skin of the perineum, external genitalia. The appearance of genital warts is facilitated by the discharge that occurs during inflammatory diseases of the genital organs. Sexual transmission is also possible. At first, genital warts are soft, papuloid, pointed nodules that tend to fuse into tumor-like conglomerates with a surface that resembles a cockscomb or cauliflower (giant genital warts).In genital warts, the hyperplastic epidermis retains its typical structure, although keratinization is disturbed (parakeratosis). Usually, condylomas are caused by HPV type 6-11, their malignant transformation is rare.

Causes of warts

HPV is transmitted by contact from people or animals suffering from diseases caused by HPV, as well as through contact with a virus carrier that does not have clinical manifestations of the disease.Intensive reproduction of HPV occurs in the surface layers of the skin. Another type of spread of infection is autoinoculation (self-infection). For example, warts in the periungual area are mainly observed in people who have a habit of biting their nails, and the appearance of flat warts on the cheeks, chin and lower legs can be caused by shaving, hair removal, or cosmetic peeling.

Microtraumas of the skin (abrasions, cracks) serve as the “gateway” for the penetration of the virus. Infection can occur in swimming pools, saunas, gyms.People who cut meat, fish and poultry often suffer from warts in the area of ​​the hand and forearm (“butcher’s warts”).

The incidence of warts has not been studied, but, according to various sources [2, 3], they occur in 10% of children and adolescents, most often in the age group 12-16 years.

Treatment methods

Therapy of HPV infection is reduced to a treatment aimed at removing areas of altered epithelium along with viruses.For this, along with surgical methods, podophyllin, podophyllotoxin, liquid nitrogen, laser, electrocoagulation, acids and mixtures of acids are used.

Surgical methods

Cold treatment (cryodestruction). The advantage of the method is the ability to treat extensive lesions. Side effects – pain during processing, the formation of erosions and ulcers, the occurrence of hyperpigmentation (darkening) of the skin.

Coagulation using electrosurgical instruments or laser.In recent years, this method has been increasingly abandoned, as smoke can be potentially dangerous and more for the doctor than for the patient. The high risk of contracting the surgeon’s HPV through the smoke arising from the evaporation of tissues has been proven. A mask of any density is ineffective. Unfortunately, the pharynx, larynx, respiratory tract, mouth and nose are unpleasant localization of warts when infected through smoke.

Surgical excision is effective, but has some recurrence rate.63-91% of patients are cured.

Local drug treatment

Local drug treatment is most preferred in modern conditions.

Podophyllin (podophyllin). A resin derived from plants that has a cytotoxic effect. Usually a 10-25% solution is used on an outpatient basis 1-2 times a week for no more than 5 weeks.

Podophyllotoxin (podophyllotoxin) is the most active substance in the composition of podophyllin.It is the active ingredient of several well-known old drugs, including those prepared in pharmacies.

Oxolinic ointment 3% (unguentum oxolini 3%). Possesses virucidal activity. To remove genital warts, apply 3% ointment 2-3 times a day for 2 weeks to 2 months. Wax paper is applied on top. In general, this method of treatment is complex and insufficiently effective.

Feresol is a mixture of phenol (60%) and tricresol (40%).Treatment of genital warts is carried out with a break of 1 week. The mechanism of action of this drug is a chemical burn, so its use is possible only in hospitals and not in all patients. At the same time, efficiency balances with safety, since there is always a risk of under-treatment or excessively deep or extensive exposure up to scarring.

Trichloroacetic acid at a concentration of 80-90% is a weak destructive chemical that causes the formation of local necrosis.Recommended for mild process and pregnancy. Unfortunately, the relapse rate with this method of treatment is quite high.

Various mixtures of organic and inorganic acids , produced by pharmacies (now rare). They have a coagulating effect on altered tissues. Treatment of genital warts with such drugs is carried out using a special applicator, which allows the drug to be applied locally to the formation, preventing its spread to the surrounding tissues.The procedure is painless. The break between sessions can be 1-4 weeks, the scab disappears on the 3-5th day.

Apparently, the best known method of combating HPV infection, both in terms of simplicity and effectiveness, is modification of the acid treatment method – in the form of ready-made preparations containing both salicylic and lactic acids.

Salicylic acid has a keratolytic effect and has antimicrobial activity. Lactic acid causes the chemical destruction of warts.

In practice, salicylic acid has been used for many years in different concentrations – from 15 to 60% (most often 15-26%; without lactic acid). According to numerous data [4], the effectiveness of such treatment reaches about 60-75%.

For the treatment of warts in modern conditions, special varnishes are used in the form of an elastic collodion, into which a combination of salicylic and lactic acids is injected. This varnish is used to remove calcifications, warts, etc. When applied to the skin, the varnish solidifies in the form of a thin film, which is strong enough and prolongs the medicinal effect.

If necessary, the film can be removed from the skin with intense mechanical action or easily with gasoline. The varnish has the property of deeply penetrating the skin, which has a positive effect on the effectiveness of the treatment.

This varnish can be made ex tempore with a doctor’s prescription. But now there is also a finished dosage form in the form of Kollomak varnish.

Kollomak is a modern multicomponent preparation, which contains active ingredients: keratolytics – salicylic (20%) and lactic (5%) acids, emulsifier polidocanol 600 (2%), as well as special fillers that form the basis of the varnish dosage form , film-forming agent (ethyl cellulose 5.5%), plasticizer (dibutyl phthalate 1%), solvents (acetone 6.65%).Polidocanol, component of Collomac , plays another important role: it causes sclerosis and obliteration of small veins and arteries at the base of the papilloma.

Collomak is applied to a wart or corn, after which the horny layers are easily removed. If necessary, this treatment is repeated several times. To avoid damage to the surrounding skin when applying Kollomak it is protected with an indifferent zinc paste. You can protect the surrounding skin with adhesive tape by cutting a hole in the middle.The duration of treatment is set depending on the effectiveness of the drug. For adults, the maximum dose of Kollomak is 10 ml / day, which corresponds to 2 g of salicylic acid; for children – 1 ml, which corresponds to 0.2 g of salicylic acid. It is not recommended to exceed this dose and treat several areas of the skin and mucous membranes at the same time. During pregnancy, the use of Kollomak is permissible only when applied to a limited surface (no more than 5 cm).When using the drug in the maximum daily dose in adults and children, the duration of treatment should not exceed 1 week. The positive experience of Kollomak allows us to recommend this drug for widespread use in gynecological and dermatological practice in the treatment of warts, including genital warts [5].

Modern topical medications for HPV treatment have undoubtedly made a big step forward in comparison with the previously used drugs.This progress is a consequence of perfection of finished dosage forms from ingredients previously known. In the combined preparations, the effective properties of their predecessors, monopreparations, have been preserved and strengthened, and the disadvantages, first of all, excessive resorption and rather extensive local irritation, have been eliminated.

This is how the emergence of modern combined agents for the treatment of HPV, which are currently undoubtedly the drugs of choice, is seen.

90,000 Human Papillomavirus low (HPV 6, 11, 44) and high (HPV 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73, 82) carcinogenic risk, DNA (detection, genotyping and quantification) [real-time PCR]

Molecular genetic study, which allows to determine and differentiate 21 genotypes of human papillomavirus in the test material, which makes it possible to characterize the oncogenic potential of infection and plan treatment tactics.

Synonyms Russian

Human papillomavirus (HPV) with genotype determination.

English synonyms

Human Papillomavirus (HPV), DNA, Genotyping.

Research method

Real-time polymerase chain reaction.

What kind of biomaterial can be used for research?

Scraping from the rectum, urogenital scraping.

General information about the study

Human papillomavirus is a DNA-containing virus from the papovavirus family associated with the development of genital warts, warts, precancerous changes in the anogenital region, and cervical cancer.There are more than 100 types of HHV, about 30 of them can infect the reproductive tract, and about 14 genotypes are associated with the development of cancers of the cervix, rectum, penis, and other neoplasms (for example, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma).

Oncogenic papilloma viruses contain E6 / E7 proteins in their DNA, which are capable of suppressing the processes of apoptosis (programmed death) in cells with altered genetic material. Genotypes 1, 2, 3, 5 are considered non-oncogenic, and genotypes 6, 11, 42, 43, 44 refer to papilloma viruses of low oncogenic risk.HPV of high oncogenic risk are genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73 and 82.

The main route of spread of the virus is sexual. Possible vertical (from mother to child) and contact-household transmission of infection. Several types of HPV can enter the human body at the same time. They usually become infected after the onset of sexual activity at the age of 16-25. When infected with oncogenic genotypes of the virus between 25 and 35 years of age, intraepithelial lesions are likely and cancer will develop after several years.In 70% of cases during the first year and in 90% of cases 2 years after infection, self-healing is possible.

Infection by various routes, as well as by different types of the virus, determines the peculiarities of the course of the disease, the localization of epithelial changes and the risk of developing neoplastic processes in the areas of skin and mucous membrane lesions. Plantar warts are caused by genotypes 1, 2, 4, 63, and common warts are caused by HPV types 2 and 7. Papilloma virus of the 6th, 7th, 11th, 16th and 32nd types can cause papillomas of the oral cavity and larynx, and HPV of the 6th, 11th, 42nd, 44th types – anogenital warts.Papillomas caused even by non-oncogenic or low-oncogenic papilloma viruses are recommended to be removed. It should also be noted that the risk of neoplasms is higher in people with immune deficiencies.

Infection with oncogenic viruses does not mean that the patient will have cancer, but requires further careful regular monitoring of the infected. If changes in the skin and mucous membranes with the formation of genital warts, warts or intraepithelial dysplasia are detected, it is recommended to exclude papilloma-viral infection and determine the genotype of the virus, which makes it possible to assess the risk of developing cancer and determine the tactics of treatment.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detects human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA with high specificity and sensitivity. Determination of the DNA of various genotypes of the virus must necessarily be carried out taking into account the results of cytological and histological studies of a biopsy sample, a removed papilloma, a wart, a smear from the cervix or an area with dysplasia, metaplasia or signs of malignancy.

What is the research used for?

  • To confirm the presence of a papilloma-viral infection.
  • For the diagnosis of simultaneous infection with several types of HPV.
  • For differential diagnosis of HPV genotypes.
  • To assess the risk of developing neoplasms associated with HPV (cervical cancer, rectal cancer, anogenital cancer, oropharyngeal carcinoma).

When is the study scheduled?

  • When cytological changes are detected in a smear for atypia, in a Pap smear.
  • In the presence of genital warts, warts and other morphological changes in the epithelium of various localizations.
  • When an unspecified human papillomavirus is detected (according to laboratory analysis).

What do the results mean?

Reference values: negative.

KVM: ≥ 4.0

* Control of the taking of material (CME) – required to analyze the quality of taking the test material. In a relative type of analysis, it is used to normalize the amount of virus DNA in a sample.

Reasons for a positive result

  • Human papillomavirus infection
    • Low oncogenic risk genotypes: 6, 11, 44
    • HPV of high oncogenic risk: 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73 and 82

Reasons for negative result

  • Absence of human papillomavirus genetic material in the test material

Human papillomavirus (HPV) in women – health articles

Table of Contents

HPV (human papillomavirus) in women is a common infection that affects the mucous membranes and skin. It is dangerous because it can “live” in the body for a long time without showing itself in any way. Signs of pathology become noticeable only with a decrease in immunity. For women, HPV is dangerous because it can cause cancer of the vagina and cervix.


Human papillomavirus is transmitted by the following routes:

  • sexual (oral-genital, genital and anal)
  • contact and household (when using some personal items, when touched, etc.)

Transmission of the virus from mother to child during childbirth is also possible.

Factors contributing to infection and the manifestation of symptoms of the disease are:

  • early sexual activity and multiple sexual partners
  • non-observance of basic hygiene rules
  • bad habits (alcohol abuse and smoking)
  • untimely appeal to the gynecologist
  • weakened immunity
  • stress
  • use of hormonal drugs
  • injuries of mucous membranes and skin
  • pregnancy
  • miscarriages and abortions
  • cervical dysplasia, etc.

The infected person often suffers from the external manifestations of the virus. With the development of pathology, unaesthetic growths of various types appear on the skin.


With the development of HPV in women, the following are formed:

  • Genital warts. These neoplasms appear mainly in the genital area and are among the most dangerous. Condylomas have a pale pink (flesh) color and papilla shape. Over time, they can degenerate into malignant tumors
  • Flat warts. These lesions are relatively safe and benign. They are formed mainly on the face, hands and legs, are small in size and have a rounded shape. Flat warts do not develop into cancerous tumors
  • Bowenoid papules. Such neoplasms appear in the perineal area and on the genitals. They are pink or yellow in color, plaque-like and rise slightly above the mucous membranes and skin

Also, HPV of various types in women can manifest itself in the form of cervical dysplasia.

Important! With early detection of the disease, the patient can be cured.


To identify various types of HPV in women, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is used. For analysis, a smear is taken from the vagina. The method is simple enough to implement, but it is highly sensitive.

Colposcopy is performed to diagnose changes in the cervix. Such an examination is performed using a special device and includes 2 samples:

  • Acetic acid test
  • Test using iodine solution

Biopsy of suspicious lesions may be done after smear and colposcopy.It allows you to differentiate benign and malignant neoplasms and make a decision on further therapy for a woman.

How is human papillomavirus treated in women?

It should be understood that modern advertised drugs that are aimed at increasing immunity are not effective in therapy! They haven’t gone through the necessary research and proven to be productive.

How then is HPV treated in women?

At the moment there are no effective methods of therapy.You can only remove pathological neoplasms (papillomas, etc.) from the mucous membranes and skin. It is also possible to treat identified dysplasia and other precancerous conditions and cancer. The therapy is carried out in a complex manner, often includes surgical interventions and other methods.

Important! Treatment of the human papillomavirus in women with medicines is impossible! If you are offered to undergo it, we advise you to change the clinic and specialist. You will only waste your time and allow the development of the spread of a potentially dangerous virus.

It is possible to get rid of neoplasms quickly enough. Interventions are carried out in a standard surgical way, using a laser, radio knife, cryodestruction and other techniques. The appropriate technique is selected individually, taking into account the characteristics of the neoplasms.

In MEDSI, the following methods are used to remove neoplasms with human papillomavirus in women:

  • Electrocoagulation. This procedure is also relatively safe and effective.It consists in the destruction of education by exposing it to a high frequency current. A small wound resulting from the procedure heals quickly. No major scar remains
  • Radiosurgery. To carry out such a procedure to remove neoplasms, a radio knife is used. This instrument is capable of rapidly heating tissue and vaporizing abnormal cells. Radiosurgery is especially relevant in the presence of neoplasms in open areas of the body, as it provides a pronounced aesthetic effect (no large scars remain)
  • Cryodestruction. This technique consists in removing neoplasms by exposing them to liquid nitrogen. Such a substance has a very low temperature and allows for the self-rejection of pathological cells
  • Surgical excision. This technique is used for deep germination of formations and their large sizes. The surgeon works manually with a scalpel, which makes it possible to take abnormal cells and send them for histological examination, which makes it possible to determine the nature of the papilloma (benign or malignant)

The proposed treatment (removal) of HPV manifestations in women does not require significant time expenditures.All procedures are carried out within 10-15 minutes. Immediately after removal of the neoplasms, the patient can return to her usual lifestyle. Usually restrictions are imposed only on baths, saunas and swimming pools. It is not recommended to wet the wound and use various care products.

Important! The doctor will tell you about all the features of recovery after removal of neoplasms.


Although there is no treatment for human papillomavirus in women, it is possible to prevent infection and the onset of symptoms.For this, it is necessary to carry out prevention!

The main method of effective prevention today is vaccination. The administration of the vaccine allows you to provide protection against infection and reduce the risks of life-threatening consequences of the development of the virus.

In our country at the moment there are registered 2 drugs for vaccination: “Cervarix” and “Gardasil”. Both vaccines are safe and effective. “Gardasil” is more productive, as it works against 4 types of the virus.

Vaccination is possible at the age of 9 to 45 years and involves the introduction of 3 doses of the drug. In this case, the scheme is used: 0-2-6. This means that first the first dose is administered, after 2 months another one and after 6 months (from the date of the first administration) – the third.

Important! Vaccination can be carried out even for patients who have already been diagnosed with the human papillomavirus. This is because a woman can only be infected with certain types of HPV.

In many European countries and in the United States, the vaccine is already on the mandatory list.The studies have proven the effectiveness of preventive measures.

Also, the patient should undergo regular examinations by a gynecologist and the necessary screening examinations. They will allow timely detection of HPV symptoms in a woman and take the necessary measures to prevent the development of cancerous neoplasms.

Advantages of contacting MEDSI

  • Possibilities for effective HPV diagnosis. In our laboratory, you can pass tests to identify the presence of oncogenic HPV categories in the body.This examination is especially important when vaccinating patients over the age of 25
  • Experienced professionals. Our doctors are always ready to provide comprehensive support to all categories of patients. They will not only advise you, but also diagnose, treat (remove detected neoplasms) and prevent various pathologies, if necessary
  • Possibilities for removing neoplasms. We use classic and modern technologies.This allows you to choose the appropriate method for removing neoplasms for each patient
  • Timely vaccination. The preparation for setting the vaccination is always available. By contacting us, you will not have to postpone vaccination. It is possible on the day of circulation
  • Use of a modern highly effective drug.