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Red, Itchy Rash? | NIH News in Health
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Get the Skinny on Dermatitis
You’ve probably had a rash at some point or another, whether from poison ivy or the chickenpox or something more unusual. Why does your skin break out in red blotches like that? More important, is there anything you can do about it?
We often think of the skin as a barrier—it keeps the insides of our bodies in, and it keeps the outside world out. But our skin is also filled with special cells of the immune systemThe system that protects your body from invading viruses, bacteria and other microscopic threats.. These cells protect the skin and body against viruses, bacteria and other threats. Whenever these cells detect a suspicious substance, they begin a chain reaction in the skin that leads to inflammationHeat, swelling and redness caused by the body’s protective response to injury or infection. . The medical name for this reaction is dermatitis. But it’s more commonly known as a rash.
There are many different types of dermatitis, and each has a distinct set of treatments. Sometimes the skin’s immune cells react to something that directly touches the skin. Other times, the immune system flares in the skin because of a whole-body infection or illness.
The symptoms of these different types of rashes often overlap. “Itching is a common symptom for all these problems,” says Dr. Stephen I. Katz, director of NIH’s National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Many rashes are red, painful, and irritated. Some types of rash can also lead to blisters or patches of raw skin. While most rashes clear up fairly quickly, others are long lasting and need to be cared for over long periods of time.
Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a dry, red, itchy rash that affects up to 1 in 5 infants and young children. It often improves over time, although it can last into adulthood or start later in life. In this condition, the water-tight barrier between skin cells gets weak, which lets moisture out and other things in. That’s why people with atopic dermatitis have to moisturize their skin, and they’re more susceptible to skin infections.
Researchers have recently identified specific genesStretches of DNA, a substance you inherit from your parents, that define characteristics such as how likely you are to get certain diseases. that are involved in maintaining the skin barrier. People with certain versions of these genes are more likely to get atopic dermatitis.
“The skin is the outermost sentinel for fighting off bacteria and noxious agents,” says Katz. “If the barrier is broken somehow, you can become more allergic to things.”
A skin allergy, or allergic contact dermatitis, produces a red, itchy rash that sometimes comes with small blisters or bumps. The rash arises when the skin comes in contact with an allergen, a usually harmless substance that the immune system attacks. Allergens trigger allergic reactions. Allergens can come from certain soaps, creams and even pets.
Your immune system might not react the first time you encounter an allergen. But over time, your immune system can become sensitive to the substance. As a result, your next contact may lead to inflammation and an allergic rash.
“The most common form of dermatitis that is seen anywhere is an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel,” says Katz. “Why? Because of ear piercing.” Many inexpensive earrings are made of nickel, and over time, wearing nickel earrings can cause an allergic reaction to the metal.
Other common causes of allergic dermatitis are poison oak and poison ivy. The stems and leaves of these plants produce a chemical that’s likely to cause allergies. If you touch one of them, wash your skin as soon as possible. The chemical can also remain in clothing for a long time, so it’s important to wash any clothes or shoes—or even pets—that come into contact with these plants.
Mild cases of allergic contact dermatitis usually disappear after a few days or weeks. But if the rash persists, is extremely uncomfortable or occurs on the face, it’s important to see a physician. A doctor can prescribe medications that will tone down the immune reaction in the skin. This eases swelling and itching and will protect your eyes and face.
The immune cells of the skin can also produce rashes when they react to invading germs—like bacteria, fungi and viruses. Bacterial and viral infections within your body can cause your skin to break out in spots as well. The chickenpox virus, for example, can cause itchy spots in children. Years later, in older adults, the same virus may reappear as shingles, bringing a painful rash and high fever. Vaccines can prevent several rash-causing diseases, including chickenpox, shingles and measles.
Certain drugs, including antibiotics like amoxicillin, may also cause itchy skin rashes. If you’re allergic to a drug, a rash can be the first sign of a serious reaction. As with other allergies, a reaction to a drug may not occur the first time you take it. It could show up after several uses. Not all drug rashes are due to an allergy, however. If you break out in itchy spots after starting a new drug prescription, contact your doctor right away.
While most rashes get better with time, some can last a lifetime. Psoriasis, a condition where skin cells build up into thick red patches, tends to run in families. “It’s a complex genetic disease, in that there’s not one gene that causes psoriasis but many,” says Katz. Even though none of these genes alone has a great effect on the disease, knowing which genes are involved can help researchers design potential new treatments. Other long-term diseases that can produce rashes include autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, and some forms of cancer.
If you notice an itchy or painful rash on your skin, think twice before going to the drugstore and getting some cream if you don’t know the cause. “The creams that you buy can produce problems that make your original problem even worse,” Katz says. Because rashes can be caused by many different things—bacteria, viruses, drugs, allergies, genetic disorders, and even light—it’s important to figure out what kind of dermatitis you have.
“If you have any significant rash, you should see a dermatologist,” says Katz. A dermatologist, or skin doctor, is specially trained to figure out what’s causing a rash and help you get the right treatment.
Your skin is your protection. It’s not just the covering that keeps your body in; it’s also your first line of defense against germs and chemicals. Take care of your skin so your skin can take care of you.
Red Itchy Bumps: 10 Common Causes & Treatments
Regardless of your skin type, chances are you’ve experienced red itchy bumps bumps at one time or another. Although they can be caused by many different things, they’re basically a universal sign that your skin is irritated.
In most cases, they can be treated at home or will just go away with time. So, if your bumps aren’t affecting your daily life, they’re not covering your whole body, and you’re not feeling sick otherwise, chances are they’re nothing to worry about, Rebecca Kazin, M. D., dermatologist and associate director at the Washington Institute of Dermatologic Laser Surgery, tells SELF.
Sometimes, treating itchy, red bumps with over-the-counter treatments like hydrocortisone cream are enough to make them go away. But if the itchy, red bumps last for over two weeks, or they go away and come back, it’s a good idea to visit your dermatologist. You might need a stronger, more targeted medication to clear things up.
In the meantime, it’s important to consider the cause of your itchy, red bumps. And if they’re on your face, it’s probably a good idea to cut back on your skin-care routine, keeping just the essential gentle cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Keep reading to find out the top 10 causes of itchy, red bumps, plus how you can get some (much-needed) relief.
1. Contact dermatitis
This is a type of skin rash that happens when you touch a certain chemical or substance that you’re sensitive to that may be lurking in cosmetics, skin care, hair care, and even your laundry detergent. Although it’s technically possible to have a reaction to pretty much anything in these products, some ingredients are known to cause more issues than others.
There are actually two types of contact dermatitis—allergic and irritant—although they cause basically the same symptoms (burning, itching, redness).
“In some cases, when the skin comes in contact with a chemical topically, it can either lead to direct irritation or elicit an immune response causing an allergic reaction,” Joshua Zeichner, M.D., director of cosmetic and clinical research in dermatology at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City tells SELF.
Allergic contact dermatitis happens when your skin comes into contact with a substance that it’s actually allergic to. If your dermatitis is due to an allergy, you might not have a reaction the first time you use the substance. But, after a few uses, your skin becomes sensitized to it and you react. If it’s a true allergic reaction like this, you might notice some swelling and redness that goes beyond the area that you applied the product, SELF explained previously.
You can be allergic to basically anything in cosmetics and skin-care products, but some common allergens include botanical extracts, essential oils, fragrances, and dyes. Sometimes, being exposed to sunlight or sweating can trigger your reaction to a compound that you’re allergic to, the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) explains, which makes it seem like the reaction came out of nowhere.
Irritant contact dermatitis doesn’t involve an actual allergic response, but it can still be uncomfortable. In this case, your skin is getting irritated for one reason or another due to an ingredient in the product. You’re more likely to get this type of contact dermatitis shortly after using a product for the first time. It’s not always easy to predict what types of products will cause this type of reaction, but some common culprits include preservatives, strong acids in skin-care products, fragrances and dyes.
The treatment for contact dermatitis depends on its severity and the root cause. If you know what caused the reaction, obviously stop using it. Often just avoiding the trigger can clear the reaction, the AAD says. While you wait for it to heal, you should wash your skin with cool water to get the product off and soothe the skin. If the reaction is on your face, stick to a basic skin-care routine composed of gentle products for a few days or weeks. You can also take an over-the-counter oral allergy medication and use an over-the-counter 1 percent hydrocortisone product, both of which will help reduce any itchiness.
12 Common Summertime Skin Rashes in Children
Sunny days and starlit evenings spent playing, splashing, and exploring can leave kids with more than warm summertime memories. Balmy weather also can lead to itchy, irritated skin.
Check out the list from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to see how you can help prevent, identify, and soothe these common summertime skin rashes.
1. Heat Rash
Heat rash (also known as prickly heat or miliaria) is seen most often in babies and young children when sweat gland pores become blocked and perspiration can’t escape. The rash looks like patches of small pink or red bumps or blisters under clothing or spots where skin tends to fold—on the neck, elbows, armpits, or thighs—although heat rash can occur on other covered areas.
What parents can do:
Keep kids cool. Dress your child in clothing that keeps the skin cool and dry. If possible, use fans and air conditioning to avoid overheating.
Pay attention to hot spots. Wash areas of the skin that stay wet with sweat, urine, or drool with cool water. Pat them dry.
Keep skin bare. Leave areas open to air without clothing. Do not apply skin ointments.
2. Poison Ivy & Other Plant Rashes
Many children get a burning, intensely itchy rash where their skin touches plants—such as poison ivy, poison oak, sumac—containing a sticky oil called urushiol. An allergic skin reaction causes redness, swelling and blisters. Other plants—such as wild parsnip, giant hogweed, and citrus—contain chemicals that make skin hypersensitive to sunlight and cause a phytophotodermatitis rash.
What parents can do:
Prevent exposure. Teach your child what these plants look like and how to avoid them. Both poison ivy and poison oak have shiny green leaves that grow three to a stem, so you might share the rhyme: “Leaves of three, let them be.” The sumac shrub has stems that contain 7-13 leaves arranged in pairs, while wild parsnip and giant hogweed have clusters of small, flat-topped yellow and white flowers. If you have younger children, inspect the parks they play in and have rash-causing plants removed.
Wash and trim. If your child comes into contact with these plants, wash all of his or her clothes and shoes in soap and water. Also, wash the area of the skin that was exposed with soap and water for at least 10 minutes after the plant or the oil is touched. To discourage scratching and further damage to the skin, keep your child’s fingernails trimmed. This will also prevent the rash from spreading if there is still a small amount of oil under the fingernails.
Soothing salves. If the rash is mild, apply calamine lotion to cut down on the itching. Avoid ointments containing anesthetics or antihistamines—they can cause allergic reactions themselves. Another good option to reduce skin inflammation is 1% hydrocortisone cream.
Talk with your pediatrician. While mild cases can be treated at home, talk with your pediatrician if your child is especially uncomfortable, the rash is severe and/or isn’t going away, if the rash is on your child’s face or groin area, or if you notice signs of infection (i.e., fever, redness, swelling beyond the poison ivy or oak lesions).
Eczema (also called atopic dermatitis or AD) is a chronic condition common in children that causes patches of dry, scaly red skin and tends to flare up during colder months when there’s less moisture in the air. But dryness caused by air conditioning and pressurized planes during summer travel can cause problems, too. Overheating, sweating and chlorine in swimming pools also can trigger eczema.
What parents can do:
Moisturize. Apply fragrance-free creams or ointments at least once a day or more often if needed. After a bath or swimming, gently pat your child’s skin with a towel and then apply moisturizer to his or her damp skin.
Dress wisely. Choose clothing made of soft, breathable fabrics like cotton when possible. Wash clothes in a detergent free of irritants such as perfumes and dyes.
Don’t scratch. Keep your child’s fingernails short and smooth, and remind him or her not to scratch. Scratching can make the rash worse and lead to infection.
Talk with your pediatrician. Ask your child’s pediatrician if allergies, sometimes triggered by trees and plants that bloom during summer, could be a cause of the eczema. Your child’s pediatrician may recommend medicines to help your child feel better and to keep the symptoms of eczema under control.
4. Insect Bites & Stings
Insects such as bees, wasps, mosquitos, fire ants, and ticks can cause itching and minor discomfort where they prick the skin. For some children, insect bites and stings can cause a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis—which includes a rash or hives and life-threatening symptoms such as airway swelling. (For children with a known allergy to insect bites and stings, it is important to have anaphylaxis emergency care plan in place). Other times, diseases spread by insects such as Lyme Disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Zika Virus can cause rashes and other health problems.
What parents can do:
Avoidance. When spending time outdoors, avoid scented soaps and shampoos and brightly colored clothing—they can attract insects. If possible, steer clear of areas where insects nest and gather (i.e., stagnant pools of water, uncovered food, and blooming flowers).
Use insect repellent. Products with DEET can be used on the skin, but look for family-friendly products that contain concentrations of no more than 30% DEET. Wash the insect repellent off with soap and water when your child returns indoors.
Cover up. When in wooded areas or in or near tall grass, stay on cleared trails as much as possible. Have your child wear a long-sleeved shirt, pants, and hat. Avoid wearing sandals in an area where ticks may live.
Look closely. Wear light-colored clothing to make it easier to spot ticks. After coming indoors, check for ticks on your child’s skin—they often hide behind the ears or along the hairline.
Remove stingers and ticks. To remove a visible stinger from skin, gently scrape it off horizontally with a credit card or your fingernail. If you find a tick, gently grasp it with fine-tipped tweezers as close to the skin as possible. Without squeezing the tick’s body, slowly pull it away from the skin. See How To Remove A Tick for more information.
Clean the skin. After the stinger or tick is out, clean the bitten area with rubbing alcohol or other first aid ointment.
Treat swelling. Apply a cold compress or an ice pack to any swelling for at least 10 minutes.
Help relieve the itch. Applying ice, along with calamine lotion or 1% hydrocortisone cream, can also help relieve itching.
Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection that’s more common during hot, humid weather. It causes a rash that may have fluid-filled blisters or an oozing rash covered by crusted yellow scabs. Impetigo is more likely to develop where there is a break in the skin, like around insect bites.
What parents can do:
Clean and cover. Clean the infected area with soap and water. Cover the infected area loosely to help prevent contact that would spread the infection to others or to other parts of the body. Wash your own hands well after treating your child’s sores.
Avoid scratching. Trim your child’s fingernails and discourage scratching. A child can spread the infection to other parts of his or her body by scratching. You can cover the rash loosely with a bandage to discourage your child from touching the rash, but make sure air can flow through so the skin can heal.
Talk with your pediatrician. While mild cases may respond to over-the-counter antibiotics such as bacitracin or bacitracin-polymyxin, impetigo is usually treated with prescription antibiotics—either a skin cream or oral medication. Your pediatrician may order a skin culture (test of your child’s skin) to determine which bacteria are causing the rash.
6. Swimmer’s Itch
Swimmer’s itch (also called clam digger’s itch or cercarial dermatitis) may appear after playing in lakes, oceans, and other bodies of water. The rash is caused by microscopic parasites found in shallow, warmer water near the shoreline where children tend to stay. The parasites burrow into skin, and cause tiny reddish, raised spots on skin not covered by the swimsuit to appear. Welts and blisters may also form.
What parents can do:
Be aware. Don’t swim near or wade in marshy areas where snails are commonly found. Try not to attract birds (by feeding them, for example) where your family swims. Birds may eat the snails and spread the parasites in the water.
Shower or towel dry. Shower or briskly rub the skin with a towel immediately after getting out of the water. The parasites start to burrow when the water on skin begins evaporating. If your skin child’s skin stings with rubbing—and the rash appears under the swimsuit—he or she may instead have Seabather’s Eruption from stinging larvae of sea critters such as jellyfish or sea anemone. Stop rubbing and shower instead.
Don’t scratch. Trim your child’s fingernails and discourage scratching. Home treatments such cool compresses on the affected areas, Epsom salt or oatmeal baths, or baking soda paste may help to relieve the discomfort. If itching is severe, talk with your child’s pediatrician. He or she may suggest prescription-strength lotions or creams to reduce your child’s symptoms.
7. Cutaneous Larva Migrans (Sandworms)
Sandworms may be present in sand contaminated with feces from pets or stray animals. When a child stands or sits in contaminated sand on a beach or in a sandbox, the worms may burrow under the skin, usually around the feet or buttocks. Lines of itchy, reddish rash known as a creeping eruption appear as the worms move under the skin, up to a few centimeters a day. The condition is more common subtropical and tropical areas such as the Caribbean, as well as parts of the southwestern United States.
What parents can do:
Keep shoes on. Don’t let your child play on beaches where people walk their dogs. If your family goes on an outing to a designated pet-friendly beach, make sure your child keeps shoes on and doesn’t sit in the sand without a blanket or towel.
Talk with your pediatrician. Your pediatrician can prescribe anti-parasitic medications such as albendazole or ivermectin to treat the rash. Without treatment, the larvae usually will die off in 5 to 6 weeks. Your pediatrician may suggest a cream to help relieve itching.
8. Folliculitis (Hot Tub Rash)
Folliculitis (hot tub rash) is an itchy, pimply rash that occurs when bacteria in unclean pools and hot tubs gets into hair follicles on the skin. The area where hairs grow from the skin becomes infected and inflamed, sometimes forming small, pus-filled blisters. A similar rash may come from wearing a damp swimsuit that wasn’t washed and dried well after previous use. Hot rub rash typically starts 12-48 hours after being in a hot tub.
What parents can do:
Avoid dirty pools. If you’re unsure whether the acid and chlorine levels are properly controlled in a heated pool, don’t allow your child to go in.
Don’t allow young children in spas or hot tubs. In addition to the risk for drowning and overheating, young children are also at higher risk of bacterial skin infection because they tend to spend more time in the water than teens or adults.
Talk with your pediatrician. Hot tub rash usually clears up without medical treatment. In the meantime, warm compresses and an over-the-counter anti-itch cream recommended by your pediatrician can help your child be more comfortable. If your child’s rash lasts more than a few days, talk with your pediatrician.
9. Molluscum Virus
Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection that causes pearly bumps on the skin on a child’s chest, back, arms or legs. The dome-shaped bumps, also known as “water warts,” may have a dimple in the center. The poxvirus that causes the bumps is more common in hot, humid climates. Some studies suggest the infection may spread in contaminated swimming pools.
What parents can do:
Wait it out. In most cases, molluscum contagiosum does not need treatment. The bumps usually will go away in 6 to 12 months.
Stop the spread. A child with molluscum contagiosum should not share towels, bedding, or clothing with others to avoid spreading the virus. The bumps are contagious as long as they are present.
Avoid scratching. Scratching the bumps can spread the virus and cause a second, bacterial infection where the skin is open.
10. Juvenile Plantar Dermatosis (Sweaty Sock Syndrome)
A smooth, reddened rash on your child’s feet, sometimes with peeling, cracking skin or scaly skin, could be from a condition called Juvenile Plantar Dermatosis (Sweaty Sock Syndrome). It happens when feet get wet and then dry quickly, again and again—like when shoes are taken on and off coming in and out of the house during summer.
What parents can do:
Breathable footwear. Reduce how often the feet go from wet to dry quickly by having your child wear open or more breathable footwear made of materials like mesh or cotton (i.e., water shoes) and/or thicker more absorbent socks.
Apply ointment. Applying moisturizing ointment or an over-the-counter steroid cream to the affected areas of your child’s foot immediately after taking shoes off or getting out of water can help. If the condition does not improve, or if you notice any sign of infection where your child’s skin is cracking, talk to your pediatrician.
11. Tinea (Ringworm)
Despite having “worm” in its misleading name, tinea (ringworm) is an infection caused by a fungus that thrives in warm, damp conditions. It is similar to athlete’s foot and jock itch and can appear on a child’s scalp or other parts of the body. It’s called ringworm because the rash from the infection tends to form round or oval spots that become smooth in the center as they grow while the border remains red and scaly. The fungus can spread quickly among student athletes, especially during sweaty, summertime practices and games, when they share sports equipment and locker rooms.
What parents can do:
Stop the spread. Check and treat any pets that may have the fungus—look for scaling, itchy, hairless areas on their fur. Family members, playmates, or schoolmates who show symptoms also should be treated. Do not allow your child to share combs, brushes, hair clips, barrettes, or hats. Make sure mats used in sports like wrestling and gymnastics are properly disinfected after use.
Talk with your pediatrician. A single ringworm patch on the body can be treated with an over-the-counter cream recommended by your pediatrician. If there are any patches on the scalp or more than one on the body, or if the rash is getting worse while being treated, your pediatrician may prescribe a stronger medication and special shampoo.
Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease
Many parents assume virus season winds down after winter. But some viral illnesses, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease, are more common during summer and early fall. Outbreaks are most common in younger children and can spread in child care centers, preschools, and summer camps. Caused by Enterovirus coxsackie, the illness starts with a fever, sore throat, and runny nose—much like the common cold—but then a rash with tiny blisters may appear on any or all the following places on the body:
In the mouth (inner cheeks, gums, sides of the tongue or back of the mouth)
Fingers or palms of hands
Soles of feet
Symptoms are the worst in the first few days, but they are usually gone within a week. Peeling skin on the fingers, toes, and nails may begin after a week or two, but it is harmless. Parents of children with a history of atopic dermatitis or eczema should be aware that their children may be prone to a more severe outbreak.
What parents can do:
Monitor symptoms. Be sure to call your pediatrician if your child’s fever lasts more than 3 days or if he or she is not drinking fluids. If symptoms are severe, your pediatrician may collect samples from your child’s throat for lab testing.
Ease the pain. For fever and pain, the pediatrician may also recommend acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Liquid mouth-soothing remedies may be useful to alleviate mouth ulcer pain. Do not use regular mouthwashes, because they sting.
Avoid dehydration: Children with hand, foot, and mouth disease need to drink plenty of fluids. Call your pediatrician or go to the ER if you suspect your child is dehydrated. See Signs of Dehydration in Infants & Children for more information.
Inform others. Tell child care providers and playmates’ parents to watch for symptoms of the illness. Children with hand, foot, and mouth disease may spread the virus through the respiratory tract (nose, mouth and lungs) for 1-3 weeks, and in the stool for weeks to months after the infection starts. Once a child’s fever has gone away and he or she is feeling better, there is no need to keep him or her home unless there are still open and oozing blisters. See When to Keep Your Child Home from Child Care for more information.
Protecting your child’s skin is a year-round concern, but it’s especially important in the summer months when so much skin is exposed and vulnerable. Fortunately, many summertime rashes clear up quickly on their own. Be sure to talk with your pediatrician about any rash that you’re unsure about—especially if you don’t know what caused it, if it is making your child feel miserable or doesn’t clear up quickly, or if it shows signs of infection or is accompanied by any shortness of breath.
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Rashes in babies and children
Many things can cause a rash in babies and children, and they’re often nothing to worry about.
As a parent, you may know if your child seems seriously unwell and should trust your own judgement.
Rash with a high temperature
Rash on cheeks with high temperature
A rash on 1 or both cheeks plus a high temperature, runny nose, sore throat and headache may be slapped cheek syndrome. After a few days, a rash may appear on their body.
Slapped cheek syndrome usually gets better on its own within 3 weeks. Children’s paracetamol or ibuprofen can bring down a high temperature.
Blisters on hands and feet plus mouth ulcers
Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common childhood illness that causes blisters on the hands and feet, and ulcers in the mouth. It also causes a high temperature and your child may have a sore throat.
It usually gets better in 7 to 10 days. Children’s paracetamol can bring down a high temperature.
Rash on the face and body
Scarlet fever causes a rash that looks like pinpricks and feels rough, like sandpaper. The rash can be red, but this may be less noticeable on brown and black skin.
Scarlet fever usually starts with a white coating on the tongue, a sore throat, headache and a high temperature.
See a GP immediately if you think your child has scarlet fever. It’s treated with antibiotics.
Measles usually starts with the same symptoms as a cold, plus a high temperature, sore eyes that are sensitive to light and grey spots inside the cheeks.
After a few days, a spotty rash appears on the head or neck and spreads to the rest of the body. The spots can appear red or brown, but they may be less noticeable on brown and black skin.
Call a GP if you think your child has measles.
Rash with itching
Rash caused by heat
Heat and sweat can cause raised spots or patches known as prickly heat or heat rash. The rash can look red, but it may be less noticeable on brown or black skin.
It itches, so you may notice your child scratching.
Heat rash usually gets better on its own after a few days.
Scaly or cracked skin
Skin that’s itchy, dry and cracked may be atopic eczema. It’s common behind the knees, elbows and neck, but it can appear anywhere.
The affected area may change colour. On white skin, the area may look pink or red. On brown and black skin, it may look grey or purple, or darker than surrounding skin.
Speak to a GP if you think your child has eczema.
Raised, itchy spots or patches
Hives causes a raised, itchy rash. It can look red, but this may be less noticeable on brown and black skin.
The rash can be a sign of an allergic reaction to things like a sting, medicine or food.
It usually gets better within a few days.
Speak to a GP if your child keeps getting this type of rash. They may be allergic to something.
Call 999 if there’s swelling around their mouth.
Itchy round rash
An itchy, dry, ring-shaped patch of skin may be ringworm. The patch may look red, pink, silver, or darker than surrounding skin.
Ask a pharmacist for a cream or lotion to treat ringworm.
Speak to a GP if it appears on your child’s scalp, as it may need to be treated with prescription medicine.
Small spots and blisters
Chickenpox starts with small, itchy spots. The spots may look red, pink, the same colour or darker than surrounding skin, depending on your child’s skin tone. At the start, the spots may be harder to see on brown and black skin.
The spots quickly form blisters and then scabs.
Some children have a few spots, while others have them all over their body.
Itchy sores or blisters
Red sores or blisters that burst and leave crusty, golden-brown patches could be impetigo. The redness may be harder to see on brown and black skin.
The sores or blisters can be itchy, get bigger or spread to other parts of the body. They often appear on the face, hands or around the middle of the body.
Speak to a GP if you think your child may have impetigo.
Tiny and very itchy spots
Scabies is caused by tiny mites that burrow into the skin.
Ask a pharmacist for a cream or lotion to treat scabies. Everyone in the household needs to be treated at the same time – even if they do not have symptoms.
You should take your baby to a GP for advice if they are under 2 months old.
Rash without fever or itching
Tiny spots on a baby’s face
Very small spots, called milia, often appear on a baby’s face when they’re a few days old.
Milia may appear white or yellow, depending on your baby’s skin tone.
They usually go away within a few weeks and do not need treatment.
Red, yellow and white spots in babies
Raised red, yellow and white spots (erythema toxicum) can appear on babies when they’re born. They usually appear on the face, body, upper arms and thighs.
The rash can disappear and reappear.
It should get better in a few weeks without treatment.
Pink or skin-coloured spots
Small, firm, raised spots that can appear anywhere on the body are common in children and known as molluscum contagiosum.
The spots can be the same colour as surrounding skin, darker than surrounding skin, or pink.
Treatment is not recommended because the spots get better on their own, although it can take more than a year.
Red patches on a baby’s bottom
With nappy rash your baby’s skin may look sore and feel hot. There may be red patches on your baby’s bottom or around the whole nappy area.
There may be spots or blisters. It can make your child feel uncomfortable or distressed.
You can buy cream from a pharmacy to help.
Pimples on the cheeks, nose and forehead
Baby acne can appear within a month after birth but usually gets better after a few weeks or months.
Washing your baby’s face with water and a mild moisturiser can help.
Do not use acne medicines intended for older children and adults.
Yellow, scaly patches on the scalp
Cradle cap is when a baby gets yellow or white, greasy, scaly patches on their scalp.
It usually gets better without treatment in a few weeks or months.
Gently washing your baby’s hair and scalp with baby shampoo may help prevent more patches.
Page last reviewed: 11 June 2021
Next review due: 11 June 2024
Rash or Redness – Widespread
Is this your child’s symptom?
- Red or pink rash over large parts or most of the body (widespread)
- Sometimes, just on hands, feet and buttocks – but same on both sides of body
- Small spots, large spots or solid red skin
Causes of Widespread Rash or Redness
- Viral Rash. Most rashes are part of a viral illness. Viral rashes usually have small pink spots. They occur on both sides of the chest, stomach and back. Your child may also have a fever with some diarrhea or cold symptoms. They last 2 or 3 days. More common in the summer.
- Roseola. This is the most common viral rash in the first 3 years of life. (See details below).
- Chickenpox. A viral rash with a distinctive pattern. (see that Care Guide)
- Hand-Foot and-Mouth Disease. A viral rash with a distinctive pattern. It starts with tiny red spots and blisters on the palms and soles. (see that Care Guide)
- Scarlet Fever. Scarlet Fever is a speckled, red rash all over. Caused by the Strep bacteria. Starts on upper chest and quickly spreads to lower chest and stomach. No more serious than a Strep throat infection without a rash.
- Drug Rash. Most rashes that start while taking an antibiotic are viral rashes. Only 10% turn out to be allergic drug rashes. (see details below)
- Hives. Raised pink bumps with pale centers. Hives look like mosquito bites. Rashes that are bumpy and itchy are often hives. Most cases of hives are caused by a virus. Hives can also be an allergic reaction. (See that Care Guide for details)
- Heat Rash. A fine pink rash caused by overheating. Mainly involves neck, chest and upper back.
- Insect Bites. Insect bites cause small red bumps. Flying insects can cause many bumps on exposed skin. Non-flying insects are more likely to cause localized bumps.
- Hot Tub Rash. Causes small red bumps that are painful and itchy. Mainly occurs on skin covered by a bathing suit. Rash starts 12-48 hours after being in hot tub. Caused by overgrowth of bacteria in hot tubs.
- Petechiae Rash (Serious). Petechiae are purple or dark red colored tiny dots. They come from bleeding into the skin. Scattered petechiae with a fever are caused by Meningococcemia until proven otherwise. This is a life-threatening bacterial infection of the bloodstream. Peak age is 3 to 6 months old. Unlike most pink rashes, petechiae don’t fade when pressed on.
- Purpura Rash (Serious). Purpura means bleeding into the skin. It looks like purple or dark red larger spots. Widespread purpura is always an emergency. It can be caused by a bacterial bloodstream infection. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is an example.
- Blister Rash (Serious). Widespread blisters on the skin are a serious sign. It can be caused by infections or drugs. Stevens Johnson Syndrome is an example.
- Caution. All widespread rashes with fever need to be seen. They need to be diagnosed. Reason: some serious infections that can cause this type of rash.
Drugs and Rashes
- Prescription medicines sometimes cause widespread rashes. Some are allergic, but most are not.
- Non-prescription (OTC) medicines rarely cause any rashes.
- Most rashes that occur while taking an OTC medicine are viral rashes.
- Fever medicines (acetaminophen and ibuprofen) cause the most needless worry. Reason: most viral rashes start with a fever. Hence, the child is taking a fever medicine when the rash starts.
- Drug rashes can’t be diagnosed over the phone.
Roseola – A Classic Rash
- Most children get Roseola between 6 months and 3 years of age.
- Rash: pink, small, flat spots on the chest and stomach. Then spreads to the face.
- Classic feature: 2 or 3 days of high fever without a rash or other symptoms.
- The rash starts 12 to 24 hours after the fever goes away.
- The rash lasts 1 to 3 days.
- By the time the rash appears, the child feels fine.
- Treatment: the rash is harmless. Creams or medicines are not needed.
Localized Versus Widespread Rash: How to Decide
- Localized means the rash occurs on one small part of the body. Usually, the rash is just on one side of the body. An example is a rash on 1 foot. Exceptions: athlete’s foot can occur on both feet. Insect bites can be scattered.
- Widespread means the rash occurs on larger areas. Examples are both legs or the entire back. Widespread can also mean on most of the body surface. Widespread rashes always occur on matching (both) sides of the body. Many viral rashes are on the chest, stomach and back.
- The cause of a widespread rash usually spreads through the blood stream. Examples are rashes caused by viruses, bacteria, toxins, and food or drug allergies.
- The cause of a localized rash usually is just from contact with the skin. Examples are rashes caused by chemicals, allergens, insect bites, ringworm fungus, bacteria or irritants.
- This is why it’s important to make this distinction.
When to Call for Rash or Redness – Widespread
Call 911 Now
- Purple or blood-colored spots or tiny dots with fever within the last 24 hours
- Trouble breathing or swallowing
- Not moving or too weak to stand
- You think your child has a life-threatening emergency
Call Doctor or Seek Care Now
- Bright red skin that peels off in sheets
- Large blisters on skin
- Bloody crusts on the lips
- Taking a prescription medication within the last 3 days
- Your daughter is having her period and using tampons
- Your child looks or acts very sick
- You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent
Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours
- Widespread rash, but none of the symptoms above. Reason: all widespread rashes need to be checked by a doctor.
Seattle Children’s Urgent Care Locations
If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.
Care Advice for Widespread Rashes
- What You Should Know About Widespread Rashes:
- Most rashes with small pink spots all over are part of a viral illness.
- This is more likely if your child has a fever. Other symptoms (like diarrhea) also point to a viral rash.
- Here is some care advice that should help until you talk with your doctor.
- Non-Itchy Rash Treatment:
- If you suspect a heat rash, give a cool bath.
- Otherwise, no treatment is needed.
- Itchy Rash Treatment:
- Wash the skin once with soap to remove any irritants.
- Steroid Cream. For relief of itching, use 1% hydrocortisone cream (such as Cortaid). Put it on the most itchy areas. No prescription is needed. Do this 3 times per day.
- Cool Bath. For flare-ups of itching, give your child a cool bath. Do not use soap. Do this for 10 minutes. Caution: avoid any chill. Option: Can add 2 ounces (60 mL) of baking soda per tub.
- Scratching. Try to keep your child from scratching. Cut the fingernails short. Reason: prevents a skin infection from bacteria.
- Fever Medicine:
- For fevers above 102° F (39° C), give an acetaminophen product (such as Tylenol).
- Another choice is an ibuprofen product (such as Advil).
- Note: Fevers less than 102° F (39° C) are important for fighting infections.
- For all fevers: Keep your child well hydrated. Give lots of cold fluids.
- Return to School:
- Most viral rashes can be spread to others (especially if a fever is present).
- If your child has a fever, avoid contact with other children. Also, avoid pregnant women until a diagnosis is made.
- For minor rashes, your child can return after the fever is gone.
- For major rashes, your child can return to school after the rash is gone. If your doctor has given medical clearance, your child can return sooner.
- What to Expect:
- Most viral rashes go away within 48 hours.
- Call Your Doctor If:
- You think your child needs to be seen
- Your child becomes worse
And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.
Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.
Last Reviewed: 05/30/2021
Last Revised: 03/11/2021
Copyright 2000-2021. Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.
What’s that rash?: with pictures
Have you ever Googled, ‘what’s that rash?’ You may have been looking for yourself, your child or a ‘friend’.
Chances are you’ve had a rash or two in your lifetime. What is a rash? A rash is a temporary flare-up on the skin. It usually appears as red spots or reddening. It can sometimes be dry, scaly or itchy.
Your skin is actually covered in trillions of bugs, these are called microorganisms and together they make up your skin microbiome. When they are balanced and happy so is your skin. Rash conditions like eczema and dermatitis are caused when your skin microbiome is out of balance. Find out more about your skin microbiome by listening to our podcast: My Amazing Body.
There are many types of rashes, including eczema, hives, and heat rash. Some rashes can be temporary, or they might be a chronic condition. Sometimes rashes can be a sign of a serious illness, like measles, so it’s important you seek medical advice if you are concerned about a rash.
We’ve listed some common rashes, their symptoms and how you can treat them. The rashes we mention usually occur on your face and sometimes other parts of the body. If you’ve got a rash ‘downstairs’ it could be a symptom of an STI and we recommend you talk with your GP or get a sexual health check.
Eczema is a skin condition that affects children and adults. It is more common in children, in fact, 66 percent of eczema sufferers are diagnosed before aged two. They will usually grow out of eczema by adolescence. It can also be called atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis and allergic eczema.
We don’t really know exactly what causes eczema, but we do know that it can sometimes be genetic. One gene linked to eczema is called filaggrin and people who get eczema often have a defect which reduces their skins ability to repair itself after injury. It also allows allergens to enter the deeper layers of the skin. People who have eczema may also have other conditions like hay fever or asthma.
Some triggers that cause and make eczema worse include:
- dry skin
- scratching the affected area
- viral or bacterial infections
- chemicals from swimming pools
- sand, especially from sandpits
- some types of carpet or grass
- animals or house dust mites
- allergens that you can breathe in, such as pollen
- artificial colours and preservatives
- perfumes, soap and chemicals
- woollen or synthetic fabrics
- heat or very hot rooms
Eczema causes very itchy, scaly, red patches of skin, usually on cheeks, in elbow creases and behind the knees.
Your doctor will be able to diagnose you with eczema and advise a suitable treatment plan. The most effect way to relieve symptoms and treat eczema is to keep the skin well moisturised by using a non-perfumed moisturiser on your skin every day. It’s also best to avoid itching the area to reduce breaking the skin which can increase the chance of infection.
The skin has special cells that have an immune function. Eczema causes a breakdown in the skin’s barrier function. Sometimes, children with eczema are more prone to developing allergies. Foreign proteins make their way through the damaged skin and activate the immune cells.
For this reason, it is important not to use creams containing food ingredients. e.g. oats, goats’ milk, almond oil. Using creams containing food ingredients can cause an allergy to that food to be developed.
Contact dermatitis is inflammation of the skin. There are two types of contact dermatitis, which occurs when your skin touches something that makes it red and inflamed. Allergic contact dermatitis is when your skin becomes inflamed after coming into contact with an allergen, like plants. If your skin is exposed to an irritant, like cosmetics, for a long period of time this is called irritant contact dermatitis.
Contact dermatitis can cause the skin to become:
The rash should clear slowly if you avoid the substance that is causing the irritation or reaction. You should see a doctor if your rash is uncomfortable or doesn’t clear up. They will be able to assist you with treatment and help find the allergen or irritant.
Heat rash often occurs during summer and is usually harmless. It’s also known as prickly heat or miliaria. Heat rash is caused by a blockage and inflammation of your sweat ducts.
Symptoms can last 2-3 days and can include, tiny red spots or blisters, an itchy or prickling sensation, redness or mild swelling of the area. It is more common in sweaty areas of the body. The armpits, back, under the breast, chest, groin or crooks of your elbows and knees are all areas that can be affected.
To reduce the risk of heat rash you should stay cool during the hotter months, by drinking water regularly, wearing light clothing and staying out of the heat. Heat rash can sometimes be the first sign of a heat-related conditions, like heat stroke or exhaustion, which require urgent attention.
Heat rash will usually go away by itself. You should see you doctor if the rash gets worse or lasts more than 3 days. If the blisters become infected with yellow or green pus, if you have a fever or are feeling generally unwell you should see your doctor.
Hives, also known as urticaria or nettle rash, is a skin rash that occurs when the body produces histamine. Histamine is a protein your body uses to fight off viruses and bacteria but when you get hives, your body might be reacting to an irritant.
Hives symptoms include a raised bumpy red rash. The bumps can sometimes look more like your normal skin colour and can be quite itchy. The trigger for hives is sometimes unknown but can be caused by an allergic reaction, medication or an infection.
It can sometime take days or weeks for hives to develop but true hives can last just a couple of hours or up to 6 weeks. You should see your doctor is the rash lasts longer that 6 weeks or if you are concerned.
Hives are usually harmless, but sometimes they might be a sign of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis requires urgent medical attention. If you or your child is having difficulty breathing, seems to have a swollen tongue or throat or has collapsed, phone Triple Zero (000) for an ambulance immediately.
Rosacea, or acne rosacea, is a non-contagious, common skin inflammation that only affects the face. It causes redness, flushing and sometime pimples on your face, though it is not the same as acne.
The first signs of rosacea can include frequent flushing or blushing of the skin and it usually appears between the ages of 30 and 50 years old. The cause is unknown and there is no cure, and unfortunately symptoms get worse as you age.
Symptoms of rosacea:
- frequent blushing, flushing or redness on your cheek, nose, chin or forehead
- persistent redness that looks similar to a sunburn that does not go away
- small visible blood vessels on your face
- bumps or pimples on your face that might sting or burn
- red or irritated eyes or swollen eyelids
Some people’s rosacea can also be triggered by exposure to sun, hot weather, spicy foods, exercise or certain medications and skincare products. Talk to your doctor or a skin specialist for recommendations to control the symptoms.
If you are concerned about a rash or it is associated with a severe headache, neck stiffness, fever or vomiting and nausea you should see your doctor or call 13 HEALTH (13 43 25 84) for medical advice.
Eczema Association of Australia
My Amazing Body Podcast – The Skin Microbiome
What are hives, the common skin condition that gives you itchy, red bumps?
Have you ever wondered who buys those huge boxes of antihistamines prominently displayed all year round in your local pharmacy? If antihistamines were just used for hay fever, you’d think sales would be good in spring, but pretty mediocre for the rest of the year.
Many of the antihistamines sold in Australia are actually for hives, or what doctors call urticaria. Hives produces multiple red, raised bumps (or wheals) that are incredibly itchy. Hives occurs all year round.
Common skin rashes and what to do about them
The condition is really common, with a Korean study showing around 22% of people can expect to have it at some time in their life.
Some people also get angioedema, where small blood vessels leak fluid into the tissues, causing spectacular swelling. If the swelling affects your throat and airways you can suffocate.
Fortunately, for the vast majority of people, hives comes and goes in a couple of weeks. While you can feel pretty miserable when you have it, antihistamines work well to control the rash and itch. Suffocation is exceptionally rare.
When hives won’t go away
If you are unlucky enough to still have hives after six weeks, it’s likely to persist six months, six years or even 26 years later.
This is what dermatologists call chronic urticaria, which affects about 1% of the population (around 250,000 Australians). The itch, sleep disturbance, swelling and rash associated with it severely impair people’s quality of life. Of all skin diseases, chronic urticaria seems to worsen your mood and disrupt day-to-day living the most.
One antihistamine tablet is usually enough to control hay fever. But people with chronic urticaria may need two, three or sometimes four tablets a day to control their itch. Even that may not be enough to stop the wheals.
What causes hives?
So what causes hives? If your hives go away within six weeks, you probably had them because of a delayed reaction to a viral infection. Sometimes this acute condition is caused by an allergic reaction to a medication; an antibiotic allergy is a common cause. Occasionally a food allergy causes hives.
What about chronic urticaria, when hives last more than six weeks? Doctors don’t know the exact cause. While patients often suspect a food allergy, doctors rarely find a food trigger.
We don’t know exactly what causes hives, seen here as raised, red bumps or wheals.
But we know autoimmunity is involved, when the body’s immune system targets itself.
Most patients with chronic urticaria have antibodies against their own immune system. In particular, these antibodies target molecules critical to a normal allergic response (immunoglobulin E, or IgE, and its receptor).
Explainer: what are autoimmune diseases?
When antihistamines don’t work
If antihistamines don’t help, there are other options.
Medications that specifically target IgE and get to the root cause of urticaria autoimmunity are now available, provided you meet all the special criteria. Only dermatologists are allowed to prescribe this medicine on the PBS.
To date, omalizumab has been the most effective treatment for chronic urticaria patients who don’t respond to antihistamines. It’s given as an injection under the skin every four weeks. Unfortunately symptoms in fewer than 50% of patients are completely controlled.
A new drug ligelizumab, which is still in clinical trials, is showing promise, according to international research we were involved with published recently in the New England Journal of Medicine. However, this experimental drug, which also targets IgE autoimmunity, is only available in Australia as part of a clinical trial.
Randomised control trials: what makes them the gold standard in medical research?
90,000 Canine pustular dermatitis: Diagnosis and treatment
Pustular dermatitis is a common symptom of various dermatological diseases. The pustule is the main element of the rash – a small pimple raised above the surface of the skin with redness along the periphery and a purulent center. This pimple may or may not be associated with a hair follicle (follicular and non-follicular pustule).
The pustule is fragile and easily destroyed by mechanical action, leaving behind an epidermal collar or crust.
The main task of a veterinarian is to understand what the rash is associated with in each specific case, since the approach to treatment will depend on this.
Causes of pustular dermatitis
Superficial pyoderma is the most common cause of pustular dermatitis in dogs.
Superficial pyoderma is a bacterial skin inflammation most often associated with allergies ( flea allergic dermatitis / food allergy / atopic dermatitis ).Also, superficial pyoderma can occur against the background of endocrine disorders, decreased immunity (immunosuppression), anatomical features (inflammation of the skin folds of the muzzle, tail), excessive bathing or poor conditions of detention. Signs of superficial pyoderma are pruritus, erythema (redness of the skin), papules (small pimples with no content), pustules, epidermal collars, and multiple patches of alopecia (hair loss).
However, it is worth remembering that pustules can be a component of more rare and complex skin diseases, which in most cases can only be diagnosed by a veterinarian dermatologist, for example:
- Canine juvenile cellulite
- pemphigus leaf
- subcorneal pustular dermatitis
Canine juvenile cellulitis is an immune-mediated inflammation of the skin and swollen lymph nodes in young dogs.Most susceptible to dogs are between 3-16 months of age. Common breeds include Dachshund, Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, Setter. With this disease, a pustular (pustular) rash appears on the skin of the muzzle, especially around the eyes, on the ears, on the chin and lips. Often in sick dogs, the lymph nodes in the area of the corners of the lower jaw enlarge, and the body temperature rises. Also, dogs become lethargic, refuse to feed.
Pemphigus foliaceus is an autoimmune (when the immune system attacks the body’s own cells), sterile (without the participation of microorganisms) disease, in which inflammation develops on the proteins of the body’s own, perceived as something foreign.Chow-chow, Akita, Border Collie, Shar Pei, Doberman Pinscher, English Springer Spaniel are considered predisposed to this disease. Age and sex predisposition was not noted. With pemphigus foliaceous around the eyes, on the back of the nose and on the inner surface of the auricles, fragile pustules (pustules) appear, which quickly burst and leave crusts. Without proper treatment, the rash gradually spreads throughout the body, and a secondary bacterial infection causes itching and inflammation of the skin.The general condition of the sick dog does not deteriorate, however, there may be periods of fever and lethargy, the appetite is usually preserved.
Subcorneal pustular dermatitis is an extremely rare sterile (without the participation of microorganisms) inflammation of the skin of dogs with an unexplained cause. Miniature schnauzers and dachshunds are most prone to subcorneal pustular dermatitis. The scalp and trunk are most commonly affected. Rarely, the skin of the paw pads may be involved. A symmetrical pustular (purulent pimples) rash develops on the skin that is not associated with hair follicles.
In addition to the listed diseases, the formation of pustules and alopecia (hair loss) may be accompanied by such diseases as demodicosis and dermatophytosis (lichen).
At demodicosis , active reproduction of mites occurs, normally living in hair follicles. This leads to inflammation of the follicle with the formation of pustules and comedones, and sometimes to its rupture.
With dermatophytosis (lichen), the hair itself is initially damaged and breaks off at the base, but against the background of secondary inflammation, a pustular rash can also appear.
Diagnosis and treatment of pustular dermatitis
To understand the cause of the rash, the veterinarian at the appointment must collect a detailed history (medical history), paying attention to the breed of the dog, age, duration of the onset of the disease and features of its course.
During the examination, the doctor will pay attention to what parts of the body are affected by the rash, what kind of rash, whether there are signs of general depression in the dog.
Necessary additional investigations that may need to be performed during the examination are a smear-print from the skin, scraping and culture.
- Skin smear will inform the doctor about the presence of bacterial inflammation, which is characteristic of pyoderma.
- With the help of scraping, demodicosis will be excluded or confirmed. In this disease, mites are usually easily found in the material.
- Inoculation is necessary to diagnose dermatophytosis (lichen).
If more rare causes of pustular dermatitis are suspected (pemphigus foliaceus, subcorneal pustular dermatitis, etc.)the doctor may need a skin biopsy.
Based on the results of research, examination and history, the doctor will be able to decide which treatment is best for this particular patient.
So, when a diagnosis of “demodicosis” is made, antiparasitic drugs will be prescribed. A prerequisite for removing this diagnosis is two negative scrapings with an interval of a month. With the appearance on the veterinary market of tablets against demodicosis, the treatment of this disease has become much easier.Such drugs include Simparica tablets, for example.
For the treatment of dermatophytosis (lichen) the dog is prescribed antifungal tablets, for the treatment of its habitat, special disinfectants. Re-crops are performed once a month during this treatment. With two consecutive negative cultures, this diagnosis can be withdrawn. Usually, the prognosis for this disease is favorable, although treatment sometimes takes a long time.
For pyoderma, treatment will include frequent flea treatments, bathing in antibacterial shampoos, and / or antibiotics (depending on the severity of the rash).In addition, given that pyoderma is often an itchy symptom of allergies, antipruritic drugs may be prescribed. One of them is Apoquel. Increasingly, doctors prefer this drug when controlling allergies, since about 4 hours after taking Apoquel, itching and skin inflammation are reduced. Apoquel is compatible with antimicrobial agents. It is also well tolerated by dogs and approved for long-term use, which is important in controlling allergies such as atopic dermatitis.
If pustular dermatitis is associated with such rare diseases as pemphigus foliaceus, juvenile cellulitis or subcorneal pustular dermatitis, then treatment will be based on the use of immunosuppressants. The type of drug and the regimen of its administration are selected individually for each dog. During treatment, the doctor should regularly monitor the general condition of the animal. The prognosis for these diseases is always careful, since life-long treatment is possible.
Take care of yourself and your animals!
90,000 Rash on the palms of a child – causes and treatment
A rash on the palms of a child is one of the most common problems faced by parents.Usually, the rash looks like small bumps protruding under the skin, or small red spots. Very often, the rash is accompanied by itching, which intensifies at night. If these symptoms occur, the child must be shown to a dermatologist.
The most common causes of rashes on the palms
Usually an experienced dermatologist can make a diagnosis at a glance. However, in some cases, additional diagnostics are required. In this case, it is important to pay attention to both the appearance of the rash and the circumstances that contribute to its appearance.
If the child is healthy, he does not have fever and other symptoms of pathology, but at the same time there are isolated rashes on the palms of his hands, most likely in this case we are talking about contact allergies. Also, a similar reaction is possible with the use of certain drugs or food.
In the event that the rash occurs against a background of fever or other signs of illness, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive examination of the whole body. If the rash has spread to other parts of the body or mucous membranes besides the palms, then a virus may be the cause of the problem.
Very often, rashes on the body are accompanied by infections such as the Coxsackie virus or enterovirus. To confirm and clarify the diagnosis, you will need to pass a number of tests and, if necessary, visit related specialists.
How to treat a rash on the palms?
Treatment of the rash directly depends on the reasons that provoked this pathology. Possible solutions are as follows:
- Blood test. It is necessary to pass not only a general blood test, but also a more detailed one.This will allow detecting antibodies to enterovirus, Coxsackie or other infectious agents in indicators. You should also examine the blood for antibodies to food and household allergens.
- Cleansing the body from allergens. This procedure is necessary if the allergic nature of the rash has been confirmed. To reduce the severity of the reaction and relieve symptoms, the child may be prescribed antihistamines. In the presence of itching, it is possible to use special ointments and creams.
- Treatment of a viral infection.If the pathology was caused by the intervention of a virus, antiviral drugs are prescribed to eliminate it, as well as drugs that increase interferon. If itching and burning are absent, the viral rash does not require topical treatment. Soothing ointments and creams can be used if itching is present. It is important to ensure that the child does not scratch the redness. Otherwise, the risk of attaching a bacterial infection increases. To quickly destroy the virus in the body, the child needs rest and good nutrition.
Sometimes a rash on the palms occurs during illness. However, it does not extend to other parts of the body. With such a picture, it is very important to accurately determine the cause of its occurrence. It can be either a virus or a drug reaction.
In rare cases, several problems can provoke a rash at the same time. For example, it can be seasonal allergies and respiratory viral infections. An experienced doctor will quickly determine the cause of the pathology and select the appropriate treatment.
In no case should you self-medicate. Do not forget that your mistake can lead to the development of a chronic process, which will be very difficult to get rid of in the future.
90,000 what the symptom says, how dermatologists diagnose the disease, remedies and treatments
The condition of the skin indicates the functioning of internal organs and systems. The appearance of rashes of a different nature indicates the appearance of pathologies, the ingestion of viruses, pathogenic microorganisms, infection.
Skin diseases are accompanied by itching, burning, redness , scaling, peeling and dryness of the skin. If symptoms of the disease appear, you should consult a specialist.
Rash and severe itching on the body in an adult , treatment, photos of formations will help to establish the cause of the appearance of rashes, to prescribe a course of therapy.
Urticaria is a rash in the form of inflamed small blisters .They can affect various parts of the body, form lesions. Depending on the stimuli, several forms of the disease are distinguished:
- Allergic urticaria. It is characterized by a high sensitivity of the body to the effects of a certain pathogen: food, chemicals, dust, pet hair, insect bite.
- Immunocomplex is characterized by the activation of the antigen-antibody production process by the body. May occur as a result of long-term drug treatment.
- Anaphylactoid reaction occurs as a result of the release of accumulated enzymes and proteins from mast cells.
The main causes of the development of illness, rash and itching on the body in an adult are:
- liver dysfunction;
- disorders of the functioning of the immune system;
- long-term drug treatment;
- allergic reaction;
- pathology of the digestive system;
- pathology of the endocrine system;
- connective tissue diseases;
- malignant neoplasms.
90,023 infectious diseases;
Photo symptoms and treatment in adults should be prescribed by a specialist, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient.
Scabies occurs as a result of exposure to the scabies mite on the surface of the skin. After infection, the symptoms of the photo may take a few hours to show the first signs. The incubation period of the disease is 10-12 days . The scabies rash quickly spreads throughout the body.
Typical symptoms of infection are:
- Severe itching of the affected areas, which intensifies in the evening.;
- formation of bubbles filled with liquid, erosion, vesicles, crusts;
- the appearance of red inflamed spots in the abdomen, between the fingers and toes, on the trunk, legs, buttocks, chest, genitals.
90,023 the appearance of scabies on the surface of the skin;
During the period of treatment of rash and from itching on the body in an adult, as well as after undergoing a course of therapy, precautions must be taken.
The body does not develop immunity to the disease; after contact with an infected surface, a rash may appear again.With scabies, it is necessary to systematically change bed linen, clothes, towels.
When washing, it is necessary to disinfect things, observe the rules of personal hygiene, and systematically carry out wet cleaning.
Therapy consists of medication and external treatment.
Lichen is characterized by the formation of nodular eruptions on the skin, they are accompanied by severe itching, burning, inflammation.
Several types of lichen are distinguished depending on the symptomatology and causes of occurrence:
- Shingles is a small watery blister that can be accompanied by painful sensations, itching, fever, inflammation of the lymph nodes.Lichen occurs as a result of exposure to viral bacteria with reduced immunity, a stressful situation, after an infectious disease.
- Pityriasis versicolor is characterized by the appearance of small pink and brown spots on the skin that form lesions. The rash on the body of an adult itches, flakes. The process of sweating is activated.
- Pink lichen is characterized by the formation of large patches of pink color on the skin.Formations can peel off, are distinguished by the presence of a red border, and form lesions.
- Ringworm affects all parts of the body, including the hairy ones. Typical signs are: the appearance of red spots, peeling, itching, the appearance of a specific odor, strong brittle hair.
- Lichen planus is characterized by the formation of red papules with a shiny surface, which form rings. It occurs on the soles of the feet, legs, and can affect the mucous membranes.
- Psoriasis appears as red spots on the folds of the arms, legs, lower back and buttocks. The formations are dry, scaly, can form lesions, are accompanied by itching.
Miliaria in adults
Miliaria occurs in the form of small bubbles in people with excess weight, increased sweating. Rashes appear in places where clothes are tight to the body and there is no free access of air. Also prickly heat can occur at high body temperature, with dirty skin and profuse sweating.
Rashes can occur on the back, abdomen, chest, face, neck, armpits, on the bends of the arms and legs. The disease is not spread by direct contact. With such a rash and itching on the body in an adult , no treatment is required . The appearance of prickly heat may indicate dysfunctions of the endocrine, nervous, cardiovascular systems.
The main causes of prickly heat are:
- increased sweating;
- physical activity;
- tight clothing made of synthetic materials;
- prolonged stay in a hot room;
- prolonged exposure to the open sun;
- decorative cosmetics.
90,023 increase in body temperature with colds;
When the whole body itches, and characteristic rashes appear, measures should be taken to exclude irritants: wear loose clothing made from natural materials, adhere to the rules of personal hygiene.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome is characterized by bullous lesions of the mucous membranes and skin as a result of exposure to allergens . The disease can affect the mouth, eyes, genitourinary system.
The disease can occur as a result of an infectious disease, prolonged use of medications, malignant neoplasms.Viral, fungal, bacterial microorganisms can provoke the development of the disease: herpes, hepatitis, measles, chickenpox, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, trichophytosis, histoplasmosis.
The following signs may indicate that it may be Stevens-Johnson syndrome:
- high body temperature;
- headache, malaise;
- heart rhythm disturbances;
- sore throat, cough;
- Large blisters in the mouth that may burst, crust over;
- purulent inflammation of the eyeball;
- development of eye diseases such as blepharitis, keratitis;
90,023 muscle pain;
90,023 violations of the gastrointestinal tract;
90,023 occurrence of urethritis, vulvitis, vaginitis;
The disease can proceed with complications : bleeding from the bladder, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, colitis, renal failure, loss of vision.
Mycosis develops as a result of the influence of parasitic fungi. The disease can occur on the genitals, nails, hair, mucous membranes, respiratory organs, gastrointestinal tract. You can become infected with a fungus through direct contact of damaged skin with a pathogen, in public places: a sauna, a bath, a swimming pool.
Mycosis can occur in diseases such as: HIV, diabetes mellitus, malignant tumors, trophic ulcer, eczema, erysipelas.
With mycosis, there are symptoms such as:
- severe itching;
- intertrigo, inflammation and irritation of the skin in the folds;
- peeling of the skin;
- specific foot odor;
- damage, deterioration of the structure of the nail plate.
90,023 the appearance of rashes in the form of blisters, spots, ulcers, cracks, pustules;
When the first signs of illness appear, you should consult a specialist. He will tell you how to treat, a photo of the rash will help establish the correct diagnosis.
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A rash on the body of an adult itches: how to treat an itchy rash
Any changes in the condition of the skin are the result of a disease.
The appearance of rashes on the skin may indicate that the body has been damaged by infectious agents or be a manifestation of an allergic reaction provoked by its contact with a potential irritant.
In addition, the onset of a rash is often a specific symptom characteristic of damage to internal organs, in particular, the liver, endocrine glands or intestines.
As you know, skin diseases are often accompanied by peeling, the formation of crusts and areas of redness, and also occur with itching, burning, the development of weeping areas and bleeding surfaces.
If such disorders appear, the patient should immediately consult a specialist, especially if the rash on the body itches and continues to progress over time.
Itchy skin is dangerous by increasing the likelihood of developing large-scale excoriation (scratching) with its further infection and transformation into a widespread purulent process. What to do if a red rash on an adult’s body itches badly, how to treat this condition?
Diseases of an allergic nature
A red rash on the body in an adult is most often a symptom of an allergy. This specific reaction of the body can be triggered by numerous allergens that a person encounters in everyday life almost every day.
Allergic rashes on the skin often occur after the use of certain foods, medicines or contact with household chemicals, animal hair, metals. Allergies can occur throughout the body or at the site of skin contact with an irritant.
It has the appearance of a red rash located on a swollen surface, itches severely and begins to peel off as it develops.
A common form of skin allergy is urticaria. It presents as red blisters of various sizes and with indistinct contours, located on a raised surface of the skin.
Such a rash itches and is prone to generalization of the pathological process, provided that the irritating factor that provoked the condition was not eliminated in time.
Urticaria can occur with or without allergic conjunctivitis.
Fungal infections and lichen
If a rash appears, the cause of this may be infection of the skin with pathogens of fungal diseases and lichens. For these diseases, a certain appearance of the rash is not characteristic.
In most clinical cases, red patches (spots) and itching of the skin appear on the body.
Over time, in places of infection, a similar rash on the body of an adult becomes covered with profuse desquamation, sometimes an unpleasant odor emanates from it.
Fungal infections and lichens are localized mainly in the natural folds of the body, under the mammary glands and on the neck. They spread quickly and, without adequate treatment, can become chronic or generalized.Such diseases are almost never accompanied by an increase in overall body temperature, although there are conflicting cases.
If the rash on the body of a red color in an adult itches and gradually increases in size, as well as burns and becomes covered with purulent crusts, then you should think about the development of a pathological process provoked by bacteria.
Moreover, the appearance of such a rash largely depends on the nature of the pathogen. As a rule, all bacterial skin infections are accompanied by fever, in which the body temperature can reach 40 degrees.
Such pustular eruptions ripen quickly and burst with the release of a thick purulent exudate of yellow color.
Purulent skin rash and itching are characteristic of furunculosis, streptococcal pyoderma and the like. It is sometimes associated with herpes sores or may result from an infection of the skin surface after scratching due to an itchy sensation caused by another epidermal tissue disorder.
Rash in case of intestinal infections
A number of diseases of the intestinal tract manifests itself as a skin rash on the body of an adult, which itches or is not accompanied by itching sensations.For example, with typhoid fever, red dots or spots appear on the body, which are called roseola.
Such rashes are inflammatory in nature and have a mesh surface, they disappear with pressure and reappear after it. Roseola rash is one of the most important symptoms of typhoid, the definition of which is important to confirm the diagnosis.
With other intestinal ailments, skin rashes and itching are not so pronounced. Sometimes in patients suffering from dysbiosis, intestinal infections or chronic colitis, small red dots on the body may appear, which pass on their own without treatment after the manifestations of the underlying ailment have been eliminated.
A common cause of the development of a small rash on the body in an adult, which itches mainly at night, is helminthic invasion.
The fact is that when the intestines are damaged by parasites, these creatures begin to secrete toxins into the lumen of the organ, which are the products of their vital activity.
These substances, entering the bloodstream, trigger a number of chemical reactions, poison the nervous system and cause chronic intoxication, the main manifestations of which are widespread itching, rash, fever and joint pain.
Rash and itching in infectious viral diseases
A rash on the skin in the form of dots in infectious viral diseases appears in most cases in stages and is accompanied by an increase in body temperature, a violation of the general condition, and sore throat. Moreover, each infection has its own differential features that make it possible to distinguish one disease from another.
The disease begins with the appearance of catarrhal manifestations (runny nose, lacrimation, accompanied by severe weakness, sweating).
Then, red spots appear on the back of the nose and behind the auricles, which in a day spread to the surface of the neck, the rest of the face and shoulders. Such red rashes on the body of an adult itch badly.
For three days, red spots cover the entire body, lower and upper limbs, and then begin to subside, leaving behind pigmentation.
This infectious disease can occur with or without a high temperature.
Most often, the disease is manifested by subfebrile condition (37 – 37.9 ° C) and red spots on the skin, which appear first on the face and neck, and then dot the rest of the body.
The red rash persists on the epidermal integument for three days, and then, with an uncomplicated course of the disease, disappears without a trace. At the same time, the person is on the mend.
Chickenpox and herpes
Chickenpox or chickenpox is the most common childhood infectious disease.It is a highly contagious disease that is transmitted by airborne droplets. At the end of the incubation period, and after the temperature jump from human skin rash appears as red dots, which is very itchy.
The first acne is located in the scalp, so it is not always possible to identify them. The lesions are specific papules of small size with clear contours. At the beginning of the disease, they have the form of tubercles, but after two days filled with clear exudate.
After another 2-3 days, the pimples subside and regress, sometimes leaving behind scars.
Herpetic eruptions are bubbles of various sizes filled with clear liquid.
The disease begins with the appearance of a red itchy spot on the skin, on which a specific vesicle appears after a few hours.
The rash persists on the surface of the epithelium for about a week, after which it becomes covered with a rough crust and disappears. A common place of localization of herpes simplex is the border of the lips and the corners of the mouth.
Rashes with this infectious disease appear one day after infection. Areas of typical localization of the rash are the back, natural folds of the body, elbow and knee folds. In places where the rash develops, cyanosis (bluish color of the skin) occurs. The disease proceeds against the background of inflammation of the tonsils, sore throat and dry cough. Typically, the illness lasts for about two weeks.
This viral disease is relatively rarely diagnosed.It is transmitted by the hematogenous route through wound surfaces and skin scratches.
Molluscum contagiosum is manifested by the development of bumps with a shiny surface on the skin surface, in the center of which a crater-like depression is defined.
Sometimes the rash itches is small, but in most clinical cases it is not accompanied by itching, pain or discomfort. The disease does not need correction, since the viral formations go away on their own within 6 months.
A small rash on the skin of an adult can appear not only as a result of infectious diseases or allergies. Among other pathological conditions that provoke the development of rashes on the surface of the skin, there are such as:
- Prickly heat. It occurs in places with increased sweating and is manifested by irritation and a small itchy rash, which over time begins to get wet, cracked and bleed.
- Scabies.It is a highly contagious disease resulting from infection of the skin with a scabies mite. It is manifested by intense nighttime itching, the appearance of traces of the activity of subcutaneous mites in the form of white stripes and acne, where the former are the parasite’s passages, and the latter are the places where females lay eggs.
- Nervous rash. Indicates the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathological process with dysfunction of the skin glands. And, as a result, the risk of developing allergic reactions increases.
- Secondary syphilis. It manifests itself as red spots on the lateral surfaces of the body, which are sometimes mistaken for allergies.
Drug treatment for itchy skin rashes
Treatment of an itchy rash on the skin depends solely on the etiology of the disease that caused its development.
Modern medicine has a huge number of medications that effectively eliminate any skin manifestations, including allergies and infections.
Only a qualified specialist should deal with the choice of the necessary medicine after determining the nature of the pathological condition and conducting the necessary examinations to clarify the final diagnosis.
- Bacterial dermatitis caused by staphylococcal and streptococcal microflora requires broad-spectrum antibiotics. Patients are recommended to take macrolides, in particular Azithromycin at a dose of 0.5 g once a day for three days.Ceftriaxone injections may also be prescribed to a sick person. In most clinical cases, pyoderma is treated by treating the affected areas with fucorcin or brilliant green until the traces of infection completely disappear.
- Allergic skin rashes are treated with antihistamines. They have a pronounced anti-allergic effect, help get rid of itching, local edema and redness of the skin. With hypersensitivity of the body, it is recommended to take tablet forms from this group of drugs, in particular, Diazolin, Suprastin, Claritin, Tavegil according to the instructions.In a severe variant of the course of allergy, the patient is prescribed hormonal ointments. Prednisolone or Hydrocortisone ointment should be rubbed into the rash twice a day for a week.
- Infectious viral diseases, as a rule, do not require specific treatment. Sometimes doctors recommend that patients take immunomodulators, vitamin complexes, which can prevent the development of complications and contribute to a quick recovery. With prickly heat, a person is prescribed a number of measures aimed at normalizing sweating.You should be more careful about personal hygiene of the body, wear clothes made from natural fabrics and use powders. If the rash continues to appear and get wet, then you can use zinc ointment, applying it in a thick layer before bedtime.
- Fungal lesions of the skin and lichens disappear only after the use of antimycotic therapy. Among the most effective modern antifungal drugs, Terbinafine and Exoderil can be distinguished, which are applied to the skin twice a day and after two weeks of use, they can completely get rid of the unpleasant problem.
Adult body rash: treatment with alternative methods
Folk methods of correction of skin rashes of an adult take place only in exceptional cases. With their help, you can fight allergic problems, prickly heat, bacterial infections provoked by opportunistic pathogens.
- With the appearance of a small red rash on the skin, good results in folk treatment can be achieved using herbal decoctions with anti-inflammatory and drying effects.Among such medicinal plants, chamomile and calendula are especially popular, which in the summer are not difficult to find even in your yard. To prepare the broth, you will need a tablespoon of dry herb, which must be poured with a glass of boiling water and kept in a water bath for about 20 minutes. After the finished broth has cooled, the liquid must be filtered and used as a lotion several times a day.
- Often, experts recommend the internal intake of medicinal herbs.To do this, you need to prepare an infusion, pouring a little crushed parts of chamomile pharmacy 200 ml of boiling water. The resulting composition must be covered with a lid and allowed to steam well. Then remove solid particles and use half a glass 3-4 times a day.
- Zinc ointment or products based on it helps to dry skin rashes. You can also use fresh celandine juice or aloe. To obtain it, it is necessary to grind the parts of the plant and crush them in a ceramic container. After that, the resulting gruel must be squeezed out until a liquid is obtained, which should be applied to the affected skin.
Skin itching as a symptom of diseases of internal organs and skin
On the basis of the Clinic of Dermatovenereology and Allergology of the European Medical Center, the Itch Center was created.
Specialists in various fields provide outpatient and inpatient care for patients with acute and chronic itching.
During treatment, the patient is offered a detailed examination according to the AWMF-Leitlinie protocol (Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany) and European protocols for the management of patients with chronic itching.
The experience of highly qualified doctors, combined with a wide range of possibilities and examination methods at EMC, in most cases helps to identify the causes of itching, which, together with a comprehensive, individually selected treatment, allows you to achieve maximum results from therapy.
In the literature, the term “itching” is understood as a sensation that causes a purposeful scratching reflex. In the scientific literature, itching is also denoted by the term “pruritus” (from lat.prūrio – scratch).
Often, this phenomenon is one of the first symptoms of not only skin, but also internal diseases, diseases of the nervous system, hormonal disorders and even tumors.
That is why itching is now regarded as an “interdisciplinary symptom” and in some cases even isolated as a separate disease.
Allocate general (generalized) and local (localized) pruritus. Acute generalized – more often it is a consequence of food, drug allergies, reactions to cold, heat, etc.Generalized pruritus is often a symptom of serious diseases: diabetes mellitus, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, malignant neoplasms, etc.
Localized itching occurs most often in the scalp and anogenital area and is paroxysmal in nature.
The reasons for the development of this phenomenon in the anal region, as a rule, are considered to be chronic inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs, infections, incl.including helminthic invasions, etc.
Long-term sensations are often complicated by the development of a bacterial infection, candidiasis. Localized itching is also observed in the area of rashes in various skin diseases: psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, etc.
The incidence of pruritus in skin and systemic diseases
|Atopic dermatitis||the main symptom, in 100% of cases|
|Herpes zoster / postherpetic neuralgia||58% / 30%|
|Chronic kidney disease / dialysis||22%|
|Primary biliary cirrhosis||80%|
Pruritus persisting for more than 6 weeks is defined as chronic.Its frequency among the adult population is, according to research, 8-9%. Chronic phenomena are observed in various skin diseases (atopic dermatitis / neurodermatitis, eczema, prurigo, psoriasis, etc.) and systemic diseases.
Itching in various skin diseases
|Diseases often accompanied by itching||Diseases rarely accompanied by itching|
|Inflammatory dermatoses: atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, eczema, lichen planus, prurigo, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, mastocytosis, Gibert’s rosacea, urticaria||Inflammatory dermatoses: scleroderma and lichen sclerosus, Deverji’s disease|
|Infectious dermatoses: viral infections, impetigo, head lice, scabies||Genodermatoses: Darier’s disease, Hailey-Hailey’s disease|
|Autoimmune dermatoses: bullous dermatoses, incl.including herpetiform dermatitis Dühring||Tumors: B-cell lymphoma of the skin, basalioma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin|
|Tumors: T-cell lymphoma of the skin||Other conditions: scars|
Mechanism of itching
The mechanisms of pruritus development in chronic kidney disease are not fully understood. The role of metabolic disorders is suggested, as well as the involvement of opioid receptors in the process and increased dryness of the skin.
Itching usually develops after 2-3 months.after the start of hemodialysis, in 25-50% of cases it is generalized, in other cases it is localized.
As a rule, itching is most pronounced in the back and face.
In liver diseases, itching is a very common symptom (observed in 80% of cases of liver cirrhosis, in 15% of all cases of viral hepatitis C). Typically begins in the area of the palms and soles, as well as in the rubbing area of clothing. Its intensification is characteristic at night. Over time, itching becomes generalized, while scratching the skin brings little relief.
In endocrine pathology, for example, diabetes mellitus and hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands, itching may be accompanied by a burning sensation, tingling sensation, “creeping creeps”.
Lack of vitamin D, minerals, iron also in some cases leads to the development of this phenomenon. With iron deficiency, “aquagenic itching” is often observed (on contact with water).
As a rule, the restoration of normal levels of iron and minerals leads to the disappearance of any sensations within 2 weeks from the start of therapy.
Itching can be one of the symptoms of tumors and blood diseases. Possible mechanisms of its occurrence are assumed to be toxic effects, allergic reactions to tumor components, as well as a direct irritant effect on the nerves and the brain (with brain tumors).
Systemic diseases that may be accompanied by pruritus
- Metabolic and endocrinological disorders: chronic renal failure, liver diseases, diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, iron deficiency.
- Infectious diseases: HIV infection, parasitosis and helminthic infestations.
- Blood diseases: polycythemia vera, myelodysplastic syndrome, lymphoma.
- Neurological diseases: multiple sclerosis, neuropathy, brain and spinal cord tumors, postherpetic neuralgia.
- Psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders: depression, eating disorders, bipolar disorders.
What diseases with skin rashes can be accompanied by itching?
Itchy skin rashes can have many causes and can be attributed to various factors.In total, experts distinguish about 10 primary changes in the skin, among which there are:
- Macula (simple spots) – areas of the skin with a non-standard color up to 0.1 cm in diameter;
- Erythema – spots of the same type, but more than 0.1 cm in diameter;
- Papules – small elevations above the skin, nodules, up to 0.1 cm;
- Plaques – papules larger than 0.1 cm or a group of papules;
- Node – formation inside the skin, often elevated, with a diameter of 5-10 mm.A node larger than 20 mm can be considered a tumor;
- Vesicle (vesicle) – formation containing serous exudate;
- Bull (bubble) – education, more than 5 mm in diameter;
- Pustule (pustule) – can occur as a result of infection of the blisters and vesicles, has pus inside;
- Urticaria (blister) is a rapidly disappearing formation that is caused by local edema.
Not all skin rashes are itchy.
But itching is not always accompanied by a mandatory change in the color of the skin.It is known that the general itching of the body can be caused by uremia, jaundice, leukemia, lymphomas, polycythemia. Many medications containing salicylates and barbiturates cause itching.
In addition, itchy conditions without external changes are caused by diabetes, hyperthyroidism, helminthiases (infection with parasites), late stages of pregnancy, hepatic and renal failure, and nervous disorders.
Therefore, if you often experience itching for no reason, then you should consult a doctor and be examined.
Severe itching caused by scabies and drug allergies
Diseases that are accompanied by severe itching are primarily scabies. It is caused by ectoparasite, an itch mite, the females of which are implanted into the stratum corneum and lay eggs. The hatching larvae gather around the hair follicles, causing irritation.
Skin rashes appear as scabies on the hands, elbows, wrists, and feet. Vesicles without inflammation are noted next to the passages.Itching worse in the evening and at night, especially when lying down. Scabies is spread by direct contact with an infected person.
The disease is treated with preparations containing sulfur, benzyl benzoate, ointments containing tar, etc.
Drug allergy causes rashes and itching all over the body. The disease can appear immediately after administration of the drug (usually like urticaria), and after a few hours (crusty manifestations or maculopapular rashes) when using sulfonamide or penicillin preparations.
Acne-like rashes may occur after the use of bromides, iodides, hydantoins. When the body reacts to phenophthalein, tetracycline, sulfonamide, clear purple geometrically correct rashes can appear, which appear every time after taking the drug in the same places.
In the presence of gold, thiazides in the composition of drugs, as well as with the use of antimalarial drugs, papules may form, which then merge into spots with itching and peeling.Treatment of drug allergies is prescribed individually by a doctor, preventive work can be aimed at cleaning the gastrointestinal tract, normalizing the body as a whole.
Unpleasant sensations follow the one who suffers from eczema. For example, the nummular version of it is accompanied by rashes in the form of coins, which are covered with a crust and then itch very much. The etiology of this disease has not yet been identified, but the appearance of the disease is often associated with increased dryness of the skin, which manifests itself in adulthood.
Almost every child goes through it
Inflammation and itching of the skin in almost every child occurs in connection with household allergies. Especially often the cheeks “bloom” in the first six months of life, when the baby’s body “gets acquainted” with various new substances and develops protective reactions to what he does not like.
It is believed that in babies who are breastfed, allergic reactions are less common (if the mother does not abuse chocolate, oranges, etc.) than the “artificial”.
And the point is not so much that the mixture may be of poor quality, but rather that the child, when artificially fed, often eats more than he needs.
This causes a lack of enzymes for digestion, therefore, food retention in the intestines, its decay and absorption of harmful substances into the blood, which give allergic reactions.
Why not overfeeding allergy sufferers?
Therefore, allergic rashes are more common in well-fed than in thin, undernourished children and adults.
Treatment of household allergies consists in adhering to the dietary regime, excluding completely or partially allergenic products (food and household chemicals), observing the temperature regime (the air temperature in the premises of allergy sufferers should not be higher than 20 ° C) and personal and household hygiene measures.
The presence of a person in airtight, dirty clothes in hot weather can cause such a phenomenon as prickly heat (common in infants). In this case, small red spots of a bubbly plan with transparent contents may appear on the neck, shoulders, back, which are slightly itchy, while there is no temperature or any other painful signs.
By itself, prickly heat is not dangerous, but inflamed skin makes it possible for various microbes to enter the body. Therefore, in the heat, you need to take water procedures in a timely manner, use soda compresses (a teaspoon of soda per glass of boiled water) to reduce itching.
A weak (slightly pink) solution of potassium permanganate is suitable for antiseptic treatment of prickly heat elements.
Itching with insect bites
Insect bites, accompanied by this or that type of rash, are very itchy.
This is due to the fact that during the bite of, for example, a mosquito, a micro-dose of liquid is injected, which prevents blood from clotting during the insect’s “lunch”.
This substance contains a protein that is a strong allergen for humans, which is why redness and itching occur. The use of ointments after infrequent bites is not always justified, so you can use traditional medicine.
The simplest remedy is to spread the affected areas with fermented milk products, tea tree oil or fish oil.A solution of baking soda (1 teaspoon per glass of water, applied in the form of a compress) and a solution of ammonia (1 tablespoon per 3 tablespoons of water, applied with a swab) have proven themselves quite well.
Itching and spread of redness during a bee sting in combination with a pale face, convulsions, a drop in blood pressure, loss of consciousness is a sign of anaphylactic shock. In this case, you need to immediately call an ambulance, because shock can develop into edema of all mucous membranes of the body and lead to serious consequences.
The minimum set of actions in this case consists of the following steps: remove the sting so as not to damage the capsule with the poison (preferably with tweezers), rinse the bite site with running water, get wet and lubricate with hydrocortisone ointment or hydrogen peroxide. Cold must be applied to the damaged area so that the bee venom slows down its spread, give the patient an antihistamine.
Chickenpox, measles and scarlet fever
Almost everyone had chickenpox in childhood.This ailment is accompanied by high fever, headaches, sometimes vomiting, diarrhea.
The appearance of red tubercles is observed, which turn into small bubbles in a day.
At the same time, it is a big problem for parents to ensure the absence of scratching of the rashes (so as not to introduce infection) and to prevent contact with water.
Chickenpox is easily transmitted, so children need to be isolated from each other, as well as to limit contacts of adults who have not previously had this disease.Chickenpox disappears within 2-3 weeks, during this period the temperature is normalized, the bubbles dry up and crumble.
Pink spots remain under them, which will completely disappear in a couple of months. If the rash with chickenpox is combed, then streptococci can be brought in, which will cause suppuration, the need to use antibiotics, as well as scars after recovery.
Repeated disease with this disease is extremely rare.
Another “childhood” disease – measles, also gives a sequential rash of the following nature: on the first day, spots appear on the face and neck, on the second – on the trunk and arms, on the third – on the legs.
At this time, the temperature rises (up to 40 ° C), whitish dots are noted on the mucous membrane of the cheeks, lymph nodes increase. The patient is mainly prescribed antipyretics and creates the most comfortable conditions for healing in terms of the regimen.
Rashes can itch both during the course of the illness and during the period of resolution of the rash, when it flakes, and the skin underneath lightens.
With scarlet fever, itching appears simultaneously with rashes by the end of the first day of the disease. In this case, skin reactions are represented by small dots, which are localized on the bends of the limbs, the lower abdomen and the inner surface of the thighs.
A white triangle in the nasolabial region is clearly visible (the rash is not noted here). Red spots can last for up to one week, after which the skin is exfoliated with “plates”. The patient is prescribed antibiotic therapy and bed rest.
Rash and itching with erysipelas, shingles
With erysipelas, the desire to scratch the sore spot occurs at the first stages of the onset of bright red erythema, which is accompanied by fever and signs of intoxication. The skin in the lesion is painful, tense, hot, the lymph nodes are enlarged.
Erysipelas is a serious infectious disease that occurs after streptococcus penetrates the injured skin. It is treated with antibiotics, UFO, UHF (for local exposure), weak electric shocks.
In severe cases, prolonged-release antibiotics are prescribed, which prevent streptococcus from multiplying.
Severe itching with blistering and blistering eruptions accompany a disease such as shingles.It is caused by a herpes virus (but not the one that causes cold sores on the lips). The disease can manifest itself in people who have had chickenpox, but the virus has not been completely deactivated.
It can manifest itself in decades in the form of rashes mainly in the area of the exit of nerve endings. The disease goes away on its own in 2-4 weeks, although in some individuals painful conditions can last for years. In this case, famciclovir, acyclovir (antiviral drugs), pain relievers, and corticosteroids (to relieve itching) may be used.
The reason why the virus goes from dormant to active phase is still not understood.
The cause of the appearance of another type of lichen, accompanied by itching, is not yet fully understood – it is lichen planus. Some of the doctors believe that it is of a viral nature, others believe that it can arise on a nervous basis against the background of a general weakening of the body. Flat red spots appear most often on the elbows, legs, lower back, thighs, abdomen, armpits.
They have a diameter of 1 cm or more and have a rough surface.
Treatment of the disease is carried out by external treatment of itchy surfaces (70% alcohol plus 1% hydrochloride plus subsequent treatment with glucocorticoid ointments), the appointment of radon and hydrogen sulfide baths.
In case of neurotic reactions, preparations of valerian, bromine, certain B vitamins are given. If infectious foci are expressed, then they are sanitized with antibiotics (macrolides, tetracycline) for 1-2 weeks.
Initial itching of boils
In case of furunculosis, itching on the skin appears before the furunculosis units “come out” to the surface, this period of development of the disease takes about 3 days.
This disease is mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, it can develop anywhere on the skin, but boils in the face area (especially in children) are considered the most dangerous.
After several days of maturation, during which the patient may have a fever, the boil is transformed into an abscess, from which necrotic tissue emerges when opened.
Furunculous foci cannot be squeezed out on their own, this is done only by an experienced surgeon, in order to avoid further spread of the infection. Additional means of treatment are the use of Vishnevsky ointment, antibiotic injections, adherence to diet, hygiene procedures. If there are a lot of boils, then it is not recommended to wash, and the treatment of healthy skin should be carried out with a furacilin solution.
Even cold showers can cause hives
You can get rashes and itching on your skin just by taking a hot shower or exercising.This reaction is given by cholinergic urticaria, which manifests itself in the form of a small-point rash with severe itching.
Cold urticaria in people sensitive to cold water is caused by a cold stream. The disease can also be obtained with sensitivity to vibrations, pressure, one or another type of light (sunlight, ultraviolet, etc.).
Treatment in this case consists primarily in eliminating the irritant.
In some cases, itching with urticaria can be a very “small evil”, i.because some of its forms (Quincke’s edema), which appear in the form of giant edema, the size of a chicken egg, can be fatal. Giant urticaria is especially dangerous when it appears in the larynx region, because this could lead to suffocation.
Fungi and nerves are to blame for everything
Skin rashes accompanied by itching may be signs of candidiasis. In this case, itchy exudative spots, bordered by small pustules, often appear under the mammary glands, in the gluteal fold, in the groin, between the fingers and toes.
The disease, known among the population as thrush, is caused by a fungus that is present in every human body, but often, due to weakened immunity, it begins to multiply too much.
Treatment consists in the external treatment of the integument with a 5-10% solution of sodium tetracarbonate, the ingestion of natacimine, fluconazole, miconazole, etc.
Of course, you need to remember the popular wisdom: all diseases are from the nerves. And neurodermatitis in this case is just a confirmation of these words.The disease is a chronic skin disorder in which dry, itchy, scaly plaques with thickened patches persist on the skin.
The disease is triggered by a psychogenic factor and is more common in women between the ages of 20 and 50, American Indians and Asians. The main methods of treatment are psychocorrection. Most often, the back of the head, ankles and hands are combed.
With nervous tension, itching intensifies, can become a habit and give unconscious actions to eliminate itching.
It should be noted that there are serious diseases with rashes, which, however, are not accompanied by pronounced itching.
These include pemphigus, syphilis, lupus, infectious erythema (with it, the first signs of the disease are more often similar to the flu, itching only in the nose, and the rash does not always appear in adult patients), etc.
Therefore, in case of severe long-term skin problems and itching, it is better to consult a specialist for advice.
Source: https: // JLady.ru / my-health / vysypaniya-na-kozhe-s-zudom.html
Rash with itchy bumps – Question to the dermatologist
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Allergic skin rash in infants
Most common types of allergic rash
Skin allergy is the most common type of allergic reaction in children in the first year of life. This is because babies’ skin is very delicate and sensitive. Therefore, any irritant can cause allergic rashes on her.
Allergic rash in children most often manifests as atopic eczema, papular urticaria, heat rash, urticaria or intertrigo.
Thus, atopic eczema is characterized by red itchy rashes, which may consist of tiny red bumps. This allergic rash in child usually develops after 2 months of age and is, in fact, an inflammatory skin condition. Eczema is the most common version of childhood allergy rashes.
However, Infant allergic rash can also be caused by insect bites such as pet fleas, ticks, bedbugs and mosquitoes.
It is called papular urticaria. Most often, this reaction occurs on exposed areas of the body, such as the hands, face and neck. But babies with severe reactions may develop hives all over the body, giving the impression that there are many insect bites, when in fact, there may be only one bite.
Heat rash is another common type of skin reaction in children. It is also called miliary or “sweaty”. It is usually seen on the face, neck, back, armpits, or buttocks. This skin rash appears when the baby is overheating. In most cases, it does not require treatment and goes away on its own.
Allergic reaction such as urticaria can also disappear on its own. True, in some cases it will take several hours, while in others the urticaria may last for several weeks.
Antihistamines for children will help speed up the healing process.
In general, urticaria resembles a nettle sting. It can take on various sizes and shapes and develop anywhere in the body.
But intertrigo appears in the skin folds. Therefore, plump babies are more likely to be affected by this problem. Moreover, the most common place of its appearance is the neck. As allergies develop, skin-to-skin rubbing can cause pain.
Causes of allergy in infants
Allergy is a reaction of the immune system’s hypersensitivity to one or another allergen: food, pollen, dandruff, dust, etc.e. In response to an irritant, the immune system releases inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, which leads to an inflammatory response.
Due to the sensitivity of the skin of infants, allergies and contact dermatitis similar to it can be provoked by various irritants. For example, a child’s buttock allergy is a common consequence of a diaper that has not been changed in time.
Food, soap, detergents and even saliva can also cause breakouts.
For example, intertrigo occurs as a reaction to excessive humidity : saliva and sweat that accumulate in the folds of the baby’s skin. Because these areas of skin are less exposed to air, moisture stays in them longer, making the baby more vulnerable to infection.
But in the development of eczema, an important role is played by the genetic predisposition of to this problem. Synthetic clothing, certain detergents, food allergies, and exposure to irritants such as dust, smoke and sweat can also cause this rash.
Sweaty skin is the main cause of miliary (heat rash). Because babies have small sweat glands, their bodies are unable to regulate their temperature, making them prone to heat rashes. Therefore, tight clothing or even a seat belt in a car seat that is close to the body can cause rashes in warm and humid weather.
Sudden changes in temperature can also cause hives. Although insect bites and certain types of food often lead to it as well. Sometimes urticaria occurs in infectious or viral diseases.
But be careful: a rash on the skin of a small child may be a sign of an infectious or viral disease.
If the rash is accompanied by a high fever, vomiting, lethargy, or other atypical symptoms, consult your doctor about conditions such as chickenpox, measles, meningitis, etc.
At the same time, sometimes a baby rash can be a normal variant.For example, in the first month of life, a baby often develops so-called baby acne. They are the result of hormonal changes and over time – around the third month – go away on their own.
Symptoms of an allergic rash
If a child develops reddish, edematous spots on any part of the body, which have arisen after eating a certain food (most often – cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts or seafood) or after significant changes in temperature, then most likely it is urticaria .
Antihistamines may help in this case . But the best option would be to eliminate exposure to the allergen.
For example, if a food allergy is suspected, an elimination diet is prescribed. If the child is completely breastfed, the mother should follow the diet, temporarily excluding potential allergens from her menu.
Another allergic reaction in a child – eczema or atopic dermatitis , most often manifests itself as a rash on the cheeks, neck, and also in the folds of the skin.However, it can also occur throughout the body. Eczema is characterized by a red and itchy rash. If a child constantly scratches the rash, characteristic pigmentation may develop in these areas. To prevent this condition, wash and moisturize your baby’s skin well with products with neutral odors.
In the case of papular urticaria , the rash may also be very itchy. The very same reaction begins as a small raised tubercle. Over time, this rash may grow larger and turn reddish-brown in color.
In this case, a topical steroid cream is used to relieve itching. An antihistamine can also relieve the condition, but it should be given at night. Antihistamines are prescribed for infants in the form of drops. Such allergy drops for children should be drugs of a new generation, because they have fewer side effects.
But be careful: if a child scratches the skin, it can lead to infection.The doctor may then prescribe an antibiotic cream.
Red or reddish-brown tinge, as in papular urticaria, rash with intertrigo may have. In this case, the affected skin can also itch and sometimes smell unpleasant. Sometimes the skin may crack.
To get rid of such a rash, the skin, especially folds, must be washed well with water and dried. Petroleum jelly or a zinc oxide barrier cream is then applied to it to speed up the healing process.In severe cases, steroids are prescribed.
But the rash with miliary resembles tiny red bumps. This condition can also present with pus-filled blisters that form when sweat ducts are blocked.
Child’s heat rash , if the cause of the overheating is removed, usually goes away on its own after three to four days.
Allergy on the buttocks in a child
An allergy to the buttocks in a child may be a symptom of diaper dermatitis.Other symptoms include swelling of the skin and red patches that usually appear on the rounded part of the buttocks.
Typically, this rash is reduced with frequent diaper changes and the use of baby powder or zinc ointment.
However, sometimes a child’s bottom allergy may actually be a yeast rash caused by a fungus. Its signs are pink blotches that usually appear on the skin folds of the baby. They may be accompanied by small pink dots or pustules along the edge.This condition is treated with an antifungal cream.
To prevent these and other skin manifestations, you should try to avoid situations when the child sweats. The skin must be clean and dry. But don’t use soap too often. It can dry out the skin unnecessarily. Therefore, it is better to wash the baby with plain water, and after bathing, moisturize the skin with baby cream or oil.
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90,000 causes, symptoms, what it looks like and why it itches
We all face skin rashes.Most often this is due to the effect of the external environment on the dermis – allergy to the sun, reaction to touching various plants, allergy to animals, intolerance to ingredients of cosmetics. In addition, acne can be a sign of internal diseases. In some cases, a rash on the skin may indicate the presence of cancer in the patient.
What does a cancer rash look like?
The appearance of urticaria during the development of neoplasms practically does not differ from eczema or psoriasis.These are areas of the skin that are flaky and itchy. That is why patients often ignore it and do not go to the doctor. If the rash on the skin does not go away for several days, it grows in size, changes its color or sores appear, see a doctor immediately. According to the latest study by the British Association of Dermatologists, there are 4 types of rashes that may indicate the development of a tumor in the body.
Small red dots. They are an indirect sign of leukemia of various etiologies that develop in the bone marrow. Over time, they spread through the bloodstream, resulting in tiny red bumps called petechiae.
Focal red rash. At first it expands its range, and then begins to peel off. This may indicate the appearance of tumors in the patient’s lymphatic system. These rashes are called Mycosis fungoides. Lymphomas are a very aggressive form of cancer, as they spread through the blood throughout the body and can provoke tumors in various organs.Outwardly, the foci of the rash resemble eczema, appear in several areas of the skin at the same time.
Red pimples on the back and arms. The rash occurs on the hands, close to the joints and nails. And also on the back, in large areas. Less commonly, a rash appears on the abdomen, legs, face. This dermatomyositis can result from any type of cancer.
Dark rash, firm to the touch. The so-called Acanthosis nigricans, appears in areas of increased skin friction – on the elbows, under the knees, on the neck, groin, armpits.In some cases, the rash becomes dry, scaly, itchy, and uncomfortable. They manifest themselves in various types of cancer.
What to look for
See a dermatologist urgently if you experience the following symptoms:
Any new appearance on the skin.
Changes in the existing features of the skin – an increase in moles, hair growth, peeling, itching.
Change in the color of the skin organocomplex – the appearance of dark spots, change in the color of moles, etc.
A dark rash in the chest area that surrounds a person in combination with other symptoms such as fever, itching, drowsiness, fatigue, most likely indicates lung cancer.
Do not self-diagnose when a rash appears. However, you should not immediately convince yourself of the presence of an oncological process.A specialist will be able to establish a diagnosis after carrying out a set of diagnostic measures.
Causes of rash and itching in cancer
The rash may be accompanied by an itchy sensation on the body. Sometimes they appear without a reaction of the dermis and the patient just has a constant feeling of discomfort in the places where the problem is localized.
The main causes of itching are:
Tumor. Itching is associated with the area in which the cancer has arisen.If it is the liver, then discomfort in the right side, if brain cancer – the face, nostrils, genital cancer – the groin area.
Paraneoplastic processes. Changes in metabolic processes in the body due to neoplasms can lead to acne and itchy pain.
After taking chemotherapeutic agents and biomodulators. The therapy provokes an acceleration of the cell cycle, therefore the skin flakes, exfoliates and causes discomfort.
Irradiation. After the procedure, many patients experience dry dermis and, as a result, itching.
During a surgical operation, the problem goes away, but in the event of an exacerbation of the disease, it can return. If the itching does not go away and the treatment does not help, the oncologist decides to use techniques that alleviate painful sensations and prevent the rash from going into the stage of abscesses.
Treatment of rash in oncology
If urticaria is triggered by cancer, then getting rid of it is not easy.It is worth noting that in itself it is not a dangerous manifestation, but rather causes discomfort to the patient. Getting rid of the rash consists in treating the root cause, namely the tumors that develop in the body. After cancer therapy, urticaria disappears.
Rash in liver oncology
In liver cancer, small spider veins – telangiectasias – appear on the patient’s skin. They have a light blue or purple-red hue.Most often, the rash is located in the abdomen or directly on the right side of the body, where the liver is located. The process is accompanied by spasms in the right side, an increase in temperature. With such signs, you should immediately sign up for a consultation with an oncologist.
Rash in lung oncology
In lung cancer, a rash girdles the patient, its color can vary from light red to black spots. The latter option is most often encountered.It is worth noting that in addition to the rash, the patient has a number of other symptoms that indicate the development of a tumor in the lungs. These are general fatigue, decreased performance and drowsiness. In addition, chest pain and fever are common symptoms. If you observe a combination of such symptoms, immediately contact a thoracic oncologist.
Personal hygiene for cancer
If a patient is diagnosed with a tumor, some hygiene rules must be followed. Namely:
Don’t use regular soap. Choose options for sensitive, delicate skin. After hygiene, do not forget to use an additional moisturizer – milk or lotion.
If the skin is cracked or wounds open, apply a protective bandage.
Wear natural, loose linen or cotton clothing.
When washing clothes, use non-aggressive detergents and hypoallergenic products.After – rinse things thoroughly.
Reduce the use of beauty products.
Water procedures should not be taken in hot water, it should be comfortable, slightly higher than body temperature. Do not go to saunas and baths, do not stay in the bathroom for more than 30 minutes.
Do not use aggressive kitchen and detergents. Cut back on household chemicals.
Maintain comfortable climatic characteristics in the room – sufficient humidity and temperature, make sure that there are no drafts.
Drink water regularly to compensate for fluid loss in the body due to diarrhea, vomiting, and excessive sweating.
For increased itching and mild breakouts, you can use zinc oxide paste or other cream as an external barrier.Never use talcum powder – it can damage the code as it forms a tough crust.
Depending on the origin and dynamics of the development of rashes on the body of a cancer patient, the doctor may prescribe local or systemic drugs. The specialist prescribes the intake of antihistamines, steroids, as well as the treatment of the skin with antihistamine creams and ointments. After irradiation, the reception is stopped.
Antihistamines are highly effective by suppressing histamine in the patient’s blood, the level of which increases with neoplasm. Which provokes rashes and itching. As a therapy, drugs of the 2nd and 3rd generation are used. They do not cause drowsiness, fatigue, and interact less with other medications. Loratidin, Kestin and Thetfast are most commonly prescribed.
If the doctor has diagnosed a bacterial origin of the rash and itching, antibiotics will be used.Most often it is Erythromycin. In case of a stressful reaction of the body, antidepressants and sedatives are used.
A skin rash can be one of the symptoms of cancer. If seasonal allergies are uncharacteristic for you, the rash does not go away, and is accompanied by itching, see your doctor. Timely and competent diagnostics allows detecting cancer in the early stages and providing effective treatment.
Difference between eczema and dermatitis
Eczema against dermatitis
Eczema is also known as dermatitis.It is the same. Sometimes eczema refers to a chronic inflammation of the skin, and dermatitis refers to an acute attack. But then chronic dermatitis would be synonymous with eczema. Therefore, it is important to remember that clinically both are the same and are classified together. This article discusses dermatitis or eczema in detail, highlighting the different types of eczema, their clinical features, symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment.
Dermatitis or eczema of unknown origin. However, research shows both genetic and environmental links.Dermatitis or eczema causes redness, swelling, blistering, oozing, itching, and scaling. There are many causes of eczema, and all types of eczema are still classified haphazardly. The current classification of eczema varies according to location, cause, and appearance. Sometimes eczema and atopic dermatitis mean the same thing. A new classification introduced by the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology resolves this confusion. This classification only includes allergy-related dermatitis.
Common eczema are atopic, contact, xerotic and seborrheic dermatitis. Less common conditions are dyshidrosis, discoid eczema, venous eczema, dermatitis herpetiformis, neurodermatitis, and autoeczematization. Atopic dermatitis is common in children. It is most noticeable behind the joints, head and neck. Contact dermatitis comes in two forms. Irritant contact dermatitis occurs when the skin responds slowly to an irritant. Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by a delayed reaction to non-irritating substances.Xerotic eczema is an increase in dry skin that turns into eczema. The dryness of the skin in xerotics is so strong that it looks like a dried-up river bed. Ictiosis is also associated with xerotic eczema. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in infants. It is also known as the cradle. It is associated with dandruff. It is dry, oily, flaky scalp, eyebrows and face. Dyshidrosis is manifested by small bumps on the palms, soles, sides of the fingers and toes, accompanied by itching. It gets worse in warm weather.Discoid eczema is characterized by patches of weeping or dry rashes with clear boundaries. Often appears on the shins. It gets worse in winter. It is a recurring condition with an unknown cause. Venous eczema occurs when blood circulation is disturbed and venous blood stagnation. More common in older people. The skin darkens, itches, and swells. This leads to ulceration. Dermatitis herpetiformis is a severe itchy rash on the limbs and trunk. It is associated with celiac disease. It worsens at night and goes away with proper dietary control.Neurodermatitis is the thickening of the skin due to regular irritation or scratching. Usually only one site is affected. Autoeczematization occurs due to infections and resolves when the root cause is eliminated.
Diagnosis of eczema or dermatitis is clinical and depends on history, examination and clinical examination. Eczema can be prevented by carefully avoiding allergens. Treatment controls symptoms, but there is no cure for eczema. Corticosteroids are very effective in combating skin irritation, but long-term use can cause skin damage, thinning and degeneration of the skin.Several immunomodulators are available to control symptoms by altering the progression of the disease.
Many doctors indiscriminately use the word “eczema” or “dermatitis”. While these two words cause confusion, it’s important to remember that no matter which word your doctor uses, you have the same thing.
Also read the difference between eczema and psoriasis.