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Jellyfish effects: Wilderness: Jellyfish Sting


Wilderness: Jellyfish Sting

Jellyfish Sting Overview

Jellyfish are free-swimming, bell-shaped, gelatinous creatures with tentacles that may be more than 3 feet in length. Jellyfish that are harmful to humans are distributed throughout the world. They are found near the surface of the water during times of diminished light. Harmful jellyfish have stingers (nematocysts) capable of piercing the skin.

Other creatures with nematocysts include Portuguese man-of-war, sea wasps, anemones, and fire corals. These organs function long after the animal is dead.

Venoms include various substances, some of which trigger allergic reactions. The most toxic nematocystic animals are found along the Indo-Pacific and Australian waters.

Jellyfish Sting Symptoms

  • Symptoms include intense, stinging pain, rash, and wheals (raised welts).
  • The progressive effects of a jellyfish sting may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lymph node swelling, abdominal and back pain, fever, chills, and sweating.
  • Severe reactions can cause difficulty breathing, coma, and death.
  • Persistent redness and irritation after 2-3 days may signal bacterial infection of the wound.

Jellyfish Sting Treatment

  • Rinse with seawater. Avoid fresh water because it will increase pain. Do not rub the wound or apply ice to it.
  • For classic box jellyfish stings, apply topical acetic acid (vinegar) or isopropyl alcohol.
  • Remove tentacles with tweezers.
  • Apply shaving cream or a paste of baking soda or mud to the wound. Shave the area with a razor or knife and then reapply vinegar or alcohol. The shaving cream or paste prevents nematocysts that have not been activated from discharging toxin during removal with the razor.
  • Immobilize the extremity because movement may cause the venom to spread.
  • Hydrocortisone cream may be applied 2-3 times daily to relieve itching. Discontinue immediately if any signs of infection appear.
  • Eye stings should be irrigated with 1 gallon of fresh water.
  • Mouth stings should be treated with 1/4 strength vinegar. Avoid vinegar if oral swelling or difficulty swallowing occurs.
  • For a box jellyfish sting, after treatment with vinegar or alcohol, use the pressure-immobilization technique.
    • The extremity should be wrapped with a bandage in a style similar to wrapping a sprained ankle.
    • Bind the limb firmly but do not stop the circulation. The fingers and toes should remain pink.
    • Leave bandages intact until medical personnel are available for treatment.
  • CPR may be necessary.

When to Seek Medical Care

  • Severe symptoms, such as difficulty breathing and intense pain, require immediate medical treatment.
  • A doctor should be consulted about treatment with available medications.

Synonyms and Keywords

jellyfish sting, nematocysts

Immunological and Toxinological Responses to Jellyfish Stings

Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 Sep 15.

Published in final edited form as:

PMCID: PMC3773479


James Tibballs

1Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, The University of Melbourne, Gratton Street, Parkville, Melbourne, 3010, Australia

Angel A. Yanagihara

2Békésy Laboratory of Neurobiology, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA

Helen C. Turner

3Laboratory of Immunology and Signal Transduction, Chaminade University, 3140 Waialae Ave, Honolulu, HI 96816, USA

Ken Winkel

1Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, The University of Melbourne, Gratton Street, Parkville, Melbourne, 3010, Australia

1Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, The University of Melbourne, Gratton Street, Parkville, Melbourne, 3010, Australia

2Békésy Laboratory of Neurobiology, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA

3Laboratory of Immunology and Signal Transduction, Chaminade University, 3140 Waialae Ave, Honolulu, HI 96816, USA

*Address correspondence to this author at the Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, The University of Melbourne, Gratton Street, Parkville, Melbourne, 3010, Australia; Tel: + 61 3 9345 5221; Fax: +61 3 9345 6239; ua. [email protected] other articles in PMC that cite the published article.


Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp. (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment.

Keywords: Jellyfish, envenomation, sting, allergy, toxin, immunology


The stings of jellyfish and related cnidarians represent a unique therapeutic challenge. Cutaneous deposition of potent bio-active toxin molecules [1] and of foreign stinging cell tubules may activate innate and adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses. The challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of toxins and to target therapeutic modalities for stings and general drug discovery. The exploration of other fascinating aspects of jellyfish biology and chemistry, such as the 2008 Nobel-prize winning story of Green Fluorescent Proteins [2] and the nature of basal metazoan innate immune repertoire, evident through the study of extant cnidarian genomics [3], is beyond the scope of this paper.

It may have been forgotten that the most recognised immune response to foreign material, “anaphylaxis”, originated from experiments with jellyfish extracts in which toxicity was under investigation. Two French biologists, Portier and Richet, having demonstrated that the toxicity of the Atlantic jellyfish Physalia physalis (Portuguese Man-O’-War) in dogs was dose related, sought to demonstrate the same phenomenon by another species (Actinies) from the phylum Cnidaria (Class Anthozoa, Order Actiniaria sea anemones). However, after observing that the toxin from the sea anemone proved to be less potent than that from the jellyfish, they sought to re-use their animals for further experiments with sea anemone toxin but discovered to their astonishment that a second injection of the toxin, even at lesser doses than the first, caused death. They reasoned that this phenomenon be named anaphylaxis [4, 5], a term in Greek signifying that the second dose, in contrast to protection (phylaxis), conveyed not protection but susceptibility. For this discovery they were awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

In subsequent years, numerous clinical observations and experiments have established that the toxins of numerous jellyfish species provoke a variety of immunological responses. From the hundreds of recognised species of jellyfish, this review differentiates the toxic and immunological responses to stings by reference to some prominent species. It also proposes a new synthesis of both issues that suggests new paths for investigation and therapeutic interventions.


The word “jellyfish” refers to the free-floating medusal gelatinous lifecycle stage of members of the phylum Cnidaria (see ). A defining feature of this ancient phylum is the cnidae, a remarkably specialized, explosive organelle elaborated by the Golgi apparatus and comprised of a collagen-walled capsule containing a rapidly eversible penetrant or non-penetrant tubule (see ). Specialised cnidae producing penetrant “stinging cells” termed nematoblasts, each synthesize a singular nematocyst containing a micron-diameter eversible spine-laden tubule of approximately 200 to 800 micron length [6, 7] allowing the deposition of capsular contents or “venom” for the purposes of defence and capture of prey [6, 8]. Classes of animals in the phylum Cnidaria include not only jellyfish but also sea anemones and corals.

Taxonomic overview of medically and toxinologically significant jellyfish, placed in the context of the other major Cnidarian classes. This phylum is one of the oldest living animal groups with major classes extant in Precambrian times. Cnidarians are characterised by the presence of radial symmetry, two cell layers (ecto- and endoderm) with a single body cavity. They are primarily predatory organisms possessing cnidae, an intracellular capsule elaborated by the Golgi apparatus. Specialised cnidae (nematoblasts) elaborate a “stinging cell” (nematocyst) for the purposes of defence and capture of prey. It is these nematocysts that contain diverse and potent venoms.

(A–D) Light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic images of the Hawaiian box jellyfish Carybdea alata tentacles and nematocysts – prototype examples of the venom injection apparatus in the cubozoa. (A) Light micrograph of contracted proximal tentacle of C. alata exhibiting bands of packed nematocysts in the tentacle tissue. (B) Light micrograph of higher magnification of nematocyst band showing the orientation of undischarged nematocysts in rows. Inset shows the predominant nematocyst type (heterotrichous microbasic euryteles) found in the tentacles of adult C. alata. (C) Low-magnification scanning electron micrograph of distal C. alata tentacle. Discharged heterotrichous microbasic eurytele tubules are evident in raised bands on the outer surface of the tentacle (arrow). (D) High-magnification scanning electron micrograph of C. alata tentacle surface exhibiting discharged heterotrichous microbasic euryteles. Bars 1.5 μm (A), 65 μm (B), 15 μm (B, inset), 400 μm (C), 10 μm (D).

In jellyfish, bands or buttons of thousands of densely packed nematocysts line the epithelial surfaces of tentacles and, in some species, the medusal bell of the animal. Upon physical contact, the capsules of the nematocysts (“spring-loaded syringes”) fire a barbed arrow-like tubule within 700 ns of physical contact at high velocity (18.6 m/sec) and acceleration (5.4 × 106 g) creating a pressure of 7.7 GPa at the site of impact [9]. Upon contact with human skin or other surface (e.g., cornea), thousands of tubules transporting toxins are deposited per square centimetre of the epidermis and dermis. The combined physical impalement by barbed tubules and deposition of potent venom toxins quickly immobilize and kill prey. In humans, toxins cause local and systemic injury and may also provoke immunological responses. The length of the penetrant tubules of some species renders possible the direct deposition of venom toxin into pierced capillaries [10] thus explaining the rapid onset of toxicity in humans.

In addition to envenomation, stings embed spine-laden tubules which are composed of ancient mini-collagens, glycoproteins and polysaccharides [9]. We postulate that these substances may separately trigger antigenic, allergenic or innate immune responses. This concept is supported by disparate lines of evidence. Whilst the nematocyst-derived venom of the edible jellyfish Nemopilema (Stomolophus) nomurai causes cardiovascular depression in experimental animals [11] and may cause death in humans [12], the collagen extracted from the exumbrella of this jellyfish enhanced IgM, IgG, interferon and tumour necrosis factor production by human lymphocytes [13, 14]. This source of collagen also enhanced inflammatory cytokine secretion, antibody secretion and population changes in immune cells [15]. Interestingly, these inflammatory effects were no more marked than those stimulated by bovine collagen leading the investigators to conclude that jellyfish collagen, being free of risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, could be used safely as a polymer scaffold [15]. That remains to be determined. Together, these observations suggest that the collagenous structural elements of tubules may indeed be immunogenic, but the similarities and differences between these collagens and those from different parts of a particular jellyfish and those of different species are unknown.

Likewise, jellyfish structural carbohydrates such as chitin may play a role in triggering immune responses to jellyfish stings. Recent work investigating the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and asthma has revealed the importance of this pathway in triggering such reactions, with human genotypes associated with impaired processing of chitin by chitinase-like proteins, having higher rates of such diseases [16]. Studies of immune responses to nematode chitins in mice have also demonstrated a pivotal role for these ubiquitous molecules in the tissue accumulation of IL-4 expressing innate immune cells, unrelated to Toll-like receptor tissue recognition [17]. As chitin is present in cnidarian tubule spines (AY unpublished data), it seems plausible that these molecules together with the genetic heterogeneity of dermal chitinases, will contribute to the outcome of any given cnidarian sting. One would anticipate that, analogous to airway inflammation and parasite responses, those with impaired chitin clearance, such as due to certain polymorphisms in chitinase-related genes [18], may display more severe outcomes after jellyfish stings.


The deposition of the complex mixture of nematocyst constituents, venom, carried by jellyfish tubules probably sets off a complicated system of cellular and cytokine interactions analogous to that described on entry of pathogens or allergens into human skin [19]. Although little is known about the effects of purified venom components in the skin, it is speculated that the immune response to them is like that to any potential allergen or antigen with keratinocytes, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells (DC) and mast cells being the key cellular mediators (see ). Although keratinocytes are the front line protective defence against physical incursion into the skin, they also have another role which is to release thymic stromal lymphopoietin which activates T-cells to produce cytokines, known to be prominent in allergic dermatitis. Dendritic cells, a heterogeneous population of lympho-myeloid origin critical to the initiation of immune responses, capture and present antigens to T-cells or migrate to regional lymph nodes evoking immune or delayed hypersensitivity allergic reactions. Combinations of pathogen pattern recognition receptors such as mannose-binding lectins and DC-expressed Toll-like receptor heterodimers contribute to innate immune response pathways and may also contribute to the immune responses to jellyfish venoms and associated structural molecules. Given the prominent necrosis induced by the sting of multiple cnidarians species, particularly those of chirodropids, the recently identified DC-activating necrosis receptors, such as CLEC9A (also known as Dendritic cell NK lectin Group Receptor-1 (DNGR-1) [20], may also be contribute to the response to tissue injury.

Schematic representation of the immunological and toxic responses to nematocyst penetration of the skin. Thousands of nematocyst tubules (~1 × 250 microns) covered with mineralized chitinous spines perforate and are left embedded in the skin. Rapid/sustained release of venom into skin: Specific venom porin proteins, peptides, lipids and small molecules activate keritinocytes, dermal mast cells and nocioceptors in skin (including TRPV1 receptors). Venom-activated mast cells explosively degranulate to release factors which elicit rapid immune cell recruitment (extravasation) to the dermal site with resultant swelling, pain and redness. Venom porins, secretagogues, and small molecules directly activate various extravasated immunocytes further initiating inflammatory cytokine responses as well as probable effects secondary to toxin-induced cell damage through the dendritic cell activating necrosis receptors. Chitinous spines and tubule collagen induce sustained activation of innate immunological activation of pro-inflammatory cells, Langerhans dendritic cells, macrophages and mast cells.

Mast cells are potent drivers of inflammation, releasing biogenic amines such as histamine and other substances including platelet activating factor, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, proteases and cytokines into their tissue environment when stimulated. Dermal mast cells respond to three types of stimulus that are likely to be relevant in nematocyst envenomation. First, primary envenomation may activate mast cells directly through the introduction of porins, secretagogues (bioactive lipids, amines) in the venom itself [21, 22]. Second components of the nematocyst tubule or venom may activate innate or pattern recognition receptors on mast cells. Third physical changes (hypo-osmolarity, acidification, reactive oxygen species) at the sting site may activate mast cells directly. In the case of repeated stings, classical IgE dependent allergy to toxin or tubule components may play a role in mast cell activation and mediator release in response to specific IgE bound to their surfaces.


The two known species of this jellyfish, Physalia physalis [“Portuguese Man-O’-War” and Physalia utriculus [Blue bottle”], inhabit the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans respectively. These brightly blue-coloured species float on the water surface, sometimes as members of a vast armada. Although the medusal floats are clearly visible, tentacles trail many metres unseen beneath the surface and represent a threat to unwary swimmers, and their nematocysts can still discharge if handled out of water. The stings of these species, which resemble a “string of beads”, cause sharp pain which may extend beyond the site of the immediate lesion (see ). The pain usually subsides quickly and the sting fades within hours to days. Occasionally however, the wound may blister and a systemic illness consisting of headache, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea is provoked. The few deaths following stings in Atlantic waters [23, 24] have been attributed to cardiovascular toxicity. The toxins appear to be able to form pores in the plasma membranes of cells [25] leading to influx of calcium, osmotic swelling and subsequent cellular lysis.

(A, B) Examples of the acute and delayed effects of jellyfish stings on skin. (A) This photographs shows the more delayed effects of a severe chirodropid sting to a child in Thailand. It was taken nine days after the sting and show multiple areas of skin necrosis as well as delayed erythematous urticarial reactions. (B) This photograph shows the acute effects (minutes) of a Blue bottle, Physalia utriculus, sting on a young adult in Australia (Courtesy of Stephen Leahy). Photograph courtesy of Andrew Jones.

Some evidence exists that stings by this jellyfish may provoke immediate and delayed hypersensitivity responses. A case of rapid collapse (unconsciousness, pulselessness and unreactive dilated pupils) after a sting by P. utriculus has been considered circumstantially an allergic phenomenon [26]. In another case, features of immediate hypersensitivity (urticaria, oedma and bronchospasm) responded quickly to treatment with epinephrine, volume expansion and steroids but one week later a pruritic vesicular eruption occurred on skin initially stung [27]. In a series of 66 patients who had exhibited cutaneous, extracutaneous or anaphylactoid reactions to stings by either Physalia physalis or Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Sea nettle), the majority had developed IgG antibodies, some had developed IgE antibodies to the toxins of the two jellyfish and some patients developed cross-reacting antibodies to toxins of both jellyfish [28]. Perhaps the last phenomenon occurred because toxins or embedded tubule antigens of both species are similar, resembling the cross-reactivity observed between bee and some wasp toxins, or because the structural elements of their embedded tubules are similar. The phenomena of recurrent cutaneous eruptions with evidence of humoural and cellular immunological responses may follow single envenomations by jellyfish including Physalia and Chrysaora species [29] possibly reflecting the long lived presence of glycosylated tubule proteins with the ability to trigger innate immune responses in the skin. No specific therapy exists for Physalia stings and even first-aid is controversial. A randomised trial of immersion in hot water versus application of cold packs favoured hot water treatment [30, 31] but the mechanism and clinical significance is debatable.



This pruritic papulopustular dermatosis has occurred among bathers in waters in the Bahamas, the Western Caribbean or off southern Florida. The affliction is often confined to areas of skin which had been covered by clothing. The agent responsible is any of the three free-swimming or larval stages (ephyrae, medusae, planulae) of the minute “thimble jellyfish” Linuche unguiculata [32] which are easily trapped in or beneath clothing causing nematocyst discharge. Contact with the creature is not painful but a prickling or stinging sensation may be experienced while the victim is in the water followed later by severe itching. This toxic component of the illness is followed by an immunological component consisting of an urticarial eruption and a distressing dermatitis which may last many days to several weeks. In victims, sera contained high titers of IgG antibody against antigens of the jellyfish [32–34] and against other jellyfish P. physalia and C. quinquecirrha [33]. Histopathological examination of lesions reveals superficial and deep perivascular and interstitial infiltrate of lymphocytes, neutrophils and eisinophils [33]. There is no specific treatment for seabather’s eruption. Local antipruritic agents and analgesic agents afford relief but opinions differ concerning the efficacy of topical and systemic steroids [32, 33] and antihistamines are opined not useful [32]. Interestingly, a similar if not the same jellyfish, Linuche aquila, inhabits the Indo-Pacific region but no reports of a similar illness from this region exist.


The class Cubozoa, or “box jellyfish”, is comprised of two orders (Carybdeidae and Chirodropidae – see ) [35]. The most notorious of the later is the relatively massive, kilogram sized, multi-tentacled Chironex fleckeri which often bears over 48, 2 meter long 5 mm wide ribbon like tentacles and inhabits waters of northern Australia and south-east Asia. Stings are extremely painful and have caused numerous deaths [23] probably by rapid cardiovascular collapse [36, 37] sometimes within minutes of a sting (see ). The toxic components of venoms act directly on muscle and nerve tissue [38–40]. For over 40 years scientists have attempted to identify the toxins but only recently has a measure of success been achieved. Two toxin proteins of molecular weight 43 and 45 kDa have been sequenced [41, 42] and share considerable homology with three other known lethal haemolytic proteins from other Chirodropidae Chironex yamaguchii, (reported as Chiropsalmus quadrigatus), as well as the Carybdeidae, Carybdea arborifera (reported as Carybdea rastoni) and Alatina moseri (reported as Carybdea alata). Additional larger cytolytic proteins are present in the venom [43] and phospholipase A2 activity is present in tentacles [44]. Some identified protein toxins are antigenic [41, 43]. The venom may act by creating pores in myocytic membranes [45] as has been shown for toxins of Physalia [25]. Reports of human envenomations thus far have not suggested an immunological component although delayed cutaneous eruptions are suspicious [46] (see ).

An ovine-derived antivenom is available for use but the rapidity of onset of envenomation in severe cases may render it useless. This antivenom does not appear to be useful against carydbeid venoms [47, 48]. Calcium channel blockade has been proposed as treatment for Chironex fleckeri stings but this is not prudent. Although calcium entry into cardiac myocytes cells has been observed after experimental application of C. fleckeri venom, the use of calcium channel blockade does not prevent calcium influx [38, 45] and did not prevent acute cardiovascular collapse [36, 37]. Moreover, since calcium channel blockers cause hypotension and are not used for this reason in treatment of cardiac dysrhythmias in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, their use is likely to ensure death of a stung victim in the circumstance of acute cardiovascular collapse. If pore formation is indeed the action of toxins in this species as has been observed [45], calcium channel blockade would not only be harmful but also futile. We speculate that use of extracorporeal life support combined with good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation may offer the only realistic hope of recovery of an envenomated victim in cardiac arrest.


A distinct jellyfish envenomation syndrome, called the Irukandji syndrome, characterised by sweating, anxiety, muscle spasm, severe hypertension and potentially late hypotension and cardiac failure, has been attributed to certain species of smaller, four-tentacled box jellyfish [49–52]. This includes, but is not limited to, the carybdeid species Carukia barnesi [53–56] The deaths in 2002 of two tourists in Far North Queensland, Australia, highlighted the potential risk and severity of this syndrome [57, 58]. It is now appreciated to occur elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and the Caribbean [59–61].

Typically, and unlike larger multi-tentacled box jellyfish stings, the Irukandji sting site usually has minimal local reaction and the systemic effects take 20–30 minutes to become evident with the syndrome evolving over hours-days. Current understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is limited. Amongst suspected Irukandji species, only the venom of Carukia barnesi and Alatina mordens, has been studied to any extent [48, 62, 63]. Clinically, some features of Irukandji syndrome resemble that of catecholamine excess, such as that seen in phaeochromocytoma [48]. Accordingly, elevated serum adrenaline and noradrenaline levels have been found in experimentally envenomated animals [48, 62]. It is notable that some scorpion envenomations may also exhibit cardiovascular features similar to this syndrome [64, 65], with catecholamine excess and initial hypertension followed by late hypotension. Animal experiments and human clinical studies have implicated both cytokines (IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL8, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF and TNF alpha) as well as nitric oxide release as an underlying mechanism [64, 65].

The most effective therapy for Irukandji syndrome seems to be an intravenous infusion of magnesium (MgSO4 or MgCl2) [66, 67]. The rationale for the use of magnesium therapy is based on the in vivo evidence of catecholamine excess, sympathetic and parasympathetic involvement [68]. Anecdotal evidence suggests that magnesium is highly successful in reducing both hypertension and pain in Irukandji syndrome [66, 67].

The pharmacological mechanism underlying the severe pain of Irukandji syndrome remains to be determined. Theories include ischaemia due to vasoconstriction of arterioles as a result of excess catecholamines, or sodium channel-dependent activation of afferent pain pathways [66]. Relevant to this may be the observations that some Cnidarian venoms (Chironex fleckeri, Aiptasia pulchella, Cyanea capillata and Physalia physalis) appear to activate TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel expressed in nociceptive neurones [40]. This mechanism is comparable to that of capsaicin and may explain the immediate burning pain victims of these species experience [40]. Whether TRPV1 channels are implicated in Irukandji syndrome is uncertain. Indeed, although Irukandji stings may cause local pain, the characteristic severe muscular pain of delayed onset cannot be explained by the involvement of local nociceptive effects alone. Indeed, compared to the pronounced local, and immediate pain associated with those jellyfish venoms tested [40], Irukandji syndrome pain is very different. Hence a distinct mechanism would be predicted.


This pelagic jellyfish known as the “Little Mauve Stinger” inhabits all oceans. Its sting is painful and appears as irregular shaped wheals. Pruritus and wheezing have been reported [23]. No deaths have been reported but a convincing case of anaphylaxis after a jellyfish sting, surmised to be P. noctiluca, attests that allergic reactions are possible. In that case [69], the victim’s basophils (blood stage mast cells) immediately released histamine in response to exposure to a crude extract of venom derived from tentacles of another jellyfish Chrysaora quinquecirrha, suggesting the presence of mast cell secretagogues in the venom, or the development of a classical FcεRI/IgE-mediated allergic response to a venom-derived antigen. The latter seems likely given that serum transferred sensitivity. Interestingly, the victim may have been previously exposed and developed IgEs to a Pelagia antigen that is conserved in Chrysaora from either tubule or venom. Even if the offending species was not P. noctiluca, this phenomenon illustrates the propensity for immunological reactions or cross reactions to jellyfish venoms or to their tubular elements, or both. Recurrent cutaneous eruptions without re-envenomation attributed to P. noctiluca also suggest an immunological process [70] again, possibly reflecting long term residency of antigenic or innately immuno-active tubule components in the victim’s skin.


A multitude of diverse illnesses and effects distant to the cutaneous lesions have been reported after jellyfish stings [24]. The features of some illnesses or their responses to treatment suggest immunological involvement. Moreover, either the location of the illness or the duration separating the sting and manifestation of illness or both are also more suggestive of an immunological process than a toxin-related process. For examples, allergic dermatitis has been reported after contact with Carybdea arborifera (reported as Carybdea rastoni) [71], persistent cutaneous hypersensitivity after contact with Atatina moseri (reported as Carybdea alata) [72] and delayed vesicular eruptions occur after contact with Rhopilema nomadica [73] while persistent dermatitis responded to topical applications of tacrolimus [74] and of pimecrolimus [75] which inhibit activation of T-cells by blocking transcription of cytokines. Guillain-Barré syndrome has occurred after sting by Pelagis noctiluca [76].


Little is known about the mechanistic basis of inflammatory responses to jellyfish envenomation. When deposited in the skin of sting victims, these complex venoms some components of which are cytolytic proteins, cause local pain, skin lesions and distal effects in many human organ systems although rarely fatal. Only a few venom proteins such as those of the Box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) have been characterised and sequenced. Some venom components are also antigenic and may trigger an acute hypersensitivity immune response from which acute toxic responses are difficult to differentiate. Delayed hypersensitivity responses may also be promoted and these manifested in the skin as persistent, recurrent, vesicular or pruritic dermatitis for which newer agents such as the topical immunomodulator pimecrolimus may be beneficial. The numerous other illnesses following jellyfish stings may be either toxin or immune-based, or both. Jellyfish stings also deposit in the skin foreign structural biopolymers including chitin and mini-collagens that we speculate may contribute to the resultant host immune response.

In conclusion, it would seem fitting to quote Thomas Henry Huxley, famous as Darwin’s ‘Bulldog’, but less well known as the man who named the Phylum Nematophora [Huxley], now Cnidaria, and who undertook pioneering studies of jellyfish anatomy and systematics. These words were written near the end of his Voyage on the HMS Rattlesnake regarding his approach to the study of jellyfish –

“… I paid comparatively little attention to the collection of new species, caring rather to come to some clear and definite idea as to the structure of those which had been indeed long known, but very little understood. Unfortunately for science, but fortunately for me, this method appears to have been somewhat novel with observers of these animals, and consequently everywhere new and remarkable facts were to be had for the picking up” [77].

Applied to the study of jellyfish and their venoms, Huxley’s observations remain just as true today.


Dr. Ken Winkel is supported by funding from the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, and Snowy Nominees.

Drs. Angel Yanagihara and Helen Turner are funded by the Hawaii Community Foundation, Victoria and Bradley Geist Foundation for projects entitled “Potent Inflammatory Effector Molecules in Hawaiian Box Jellyfish Envenomation” and NIH/NIDA (1 R21 DA024444-01) “Novel TRPV Pharmacophores from Cnidarian Venom”.


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Jellyfish Sting – an overview

Toxicology: Clinical Manifestations

The severity of jellyfish stings in humans depends on the type of nematocysts, their penetrating power, the area of the victim’s skin exposed, and the sensitivity of the victim to the venom. Injurious effects resulting from an encounter with coelenterate nematocysts range from mild dermatitis to rapid death.13 Severe stings can occur with the man-of-war and blue bottle jellyfish; only the former has resulted in fatalities. The sting of a Portuguese man-of-war is far more severe than that of the common jellyfish and produces intense local pain extending up the extremity. Generalized symptoms such as headache, urticaria, muscle cramps, nausea, and vomiting may occur. Two confirmed deaths due to Physalia have been reported.14,15

Stings by Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus quadrigatus are potentially dangerous. The effects usually consist of extremely painful localized areas of wheal, edema, and vesiculation, which later result in necrosis involving the full thickness of the skin. The initial lesions, caused by the structural pattern of the tentacles, are multiple linear wheals with transverse barring. The purple or brown tentacle marks form a whip-like skin lesion. Painful muscle spasms, shock, and pulmonary edema can occur rapidly. Death may occur in the water or shortly after leaving it. The prognosis for victims who arrive alive at the hospital is good.

Carukia barnesi is probably not the only species that causes the Irukandji syndrome; similar presentations have occurred in Western Australia and Hawaii, where C. barnesi has not been identified. The syndrome typically begins with minor pain at the sting site, low back pain, generalized muscle cramps, sweating, nausea, vomiting, headache, and anxiety.1 A reversible cardiomyopathy and acute pulmonary edema has been reported. Two deaths have occurred following C. barnesi stings.

Stings from anemone contact typically produce a burning pain. The skin blanches and wheals form, with surrounding edema and erythema. Vesicle formation, ulceration, and necrosis may occur.

Coral stings produce initial pain, followed by weeping of the lesion, wheal formation, and itching. If coral cuts or stings are left untreated, a superficial scratch may within a few days become an ulcer, with a septic sloughing base surrounded by a painful zone of erythema. Cellulitis, lymphangitis, enlargement of the local lymph glands, fever, and malaise may ensue. The ulcer may be quite disabling, and the pain is usually out of proportion to the physical signs. If the ulcer occurs in a lower extremity, the patient may be unable to walk for weeks or months after the injury. Relapses, which occur without warning, are common.

Stings from the crown-of-thorns starfish cause severe pain and the wounds become inflamed and may bleed excessively. The affected limb may become swollen, and infection is common. Sea urchin stings are extremely painful, and the spines often become embedded in the patient. The sea urchin spines of Diadema setosum contain purplish dye, which may temporarily stain the skin and give the false impression of a retained foreign body.16 Multiple stings by the black sea urchin D. setosum has been followed by a delayed severe bulbar polyneuritis.16

Envenomation by the blue-ringed octopus is described as painless, but the patient rapidly succumbs, becoming weak and unconscious, and develops respiratory arrest, often within 15 minutes. Cardiac arrest and death follow. Because the toxin has a short duration of action, patients may survive with prompt resuscitation.17,18 Pain following cone shell envenomation is variable, and the skin blanches or has a bluish discoloration. This is followed by numbness and swelling. In severe poisoning nausea, pruritus and muscle weakness occur; vision and hearing may be affected. Death results from respiratory paralysis.1

Catfish stings are common, painful, and often become secondarily infected. A patient often has a painful, swollen, and infected wound days after the initial result. A puncture wound by a weever fish produces instantaneous, often crippling pain. Local ischemia, secondary infection at the wound site, and systemic involvement may occur.10 Intense pain results from stings by stonefish. Systemic symptoms, including headache, seizures, paralysis, abdominal pain, and hypotension, generally result only from envenomation by fish of the Synanceiidae family (stonefishes).1,3

The stingray spine has a sharp, arrow-like tip and backward-pointing serrations along the sides so that after penetration the barb is difficult to remove and lacerates the tissues as it is withdrawn. The venom apparatus consists of a spine, integumentary sheath, and associated venom glands. When this is torn, the venom is released. Parts of the spine are typically left behind in the wound. Most stings occur on the ankle or foot. The stingray spine is very sharp, and by virtue of the mechanism of injury, it is common for a patient to receive a laceration rather than a puncture wound. Patients who present to the emergency department may describe walking in the ocean and feeling a fluttering under their foot and then a sudden stabbing pain. The usual presenting symptom is severe shooting pain that increases in intensity during the first hour. Systemic symptoms, such as chest pain, syncope, and other neurologic sequelae, have been described. Death has been reported but is uncommon and is usually related to chest or abdominal injuries. One highly unusual fatality occurred in a 12-year-old boy who was riding in a boat when a manta ray leaped out of the water and impaled him in the chest.8

Sea snake bites are often painless. The fangs are often small, frequently only 2 to 3 mm in length; thus, bites are often difficult to detect.2,8 One third to one half of bites do not result in envenomation.1 Symptoms occur within 3.5 hours of the bite. The first symptoms are usually muscle pain; this may be preceded by headache and vomiting. After some hours, a flaccid paralysis may develop and can progress to respiratory paralysis.8,19 Rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and subsequent renal failure may occur.

Jellyfish – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Jellyfish and Anemones

Jellyfish and anemones belong to the Cnidaria phylum, so named because of their venomous organelles called cnidae. The cnidae found in jellyfish and anemones (called nematocysts and spirocysts, respectively) are located on exposed tentacles. On tactile stimulation, the tentacles send forth a tethered projectile to deliver venom through the dermis. As the victim’s surrounding musculature contracts, the venom is disseminated. Hemolysins, DNAase, and histamine releasers have been identified in some venoms. A number of peptide toxins of sea anemones mostly function by binding to sodium channel receptor site 3 to delay the inactivation phase of the channel. Other peptide toxins from anemones target the Kv3 potassium channel.

Stings by jellyfish and anemones typically produce immediate pain at the site of envenomation, followed by erythematous and urticarial lesions. Anaphylaxis is not common unless the patient has previously been sensitized. Depending on the severity of the sting, wheals and whiplike patterns may appear at the sites of envenomation within a few minutes or be delayed by several hours, followed in some cases by dermal necrosis. Eruptions sometimes recur days after the envenomation. Systemic reactions may include muscle spasms and cramps, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, diaphoresis, and, in rare cases, cardiorespiratory failure.

Unfired nematocysts on tentacles adhering to the skin may be neutralized by vinegar or baking soda, depending on the species of jellyfish. Vinegar appears to be most useful for Australian blue bottle (Physalia utriculus) stings, whereas baking soda appears more efficacious for sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) stings.

The box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) found in Australian waters is perhaps the most venomous jellyfish; it produces very severe stings that may cause death from hypotension, muscular and respiratory paralysis, and ultimately, cardiac arrest. Treatment of box jellyfish stings may require respiratory support and administration of antivenom.

The Portuguese man of war (Physalia physalis) is not a true jellyfish, and its venom differs from true jellyfish. It stings through nematocysts that cause intense pain and, occasionally, an allergic reaction. Flushing with salt water (sea water) followed by application of heat may ease the pain.

Jellyfish (for Kids) – Nemours KidsHealth

What Are Jellyfish?

Jellyfish live in the ocean and usually don’t bother anyone. They just float around and look weird, sometimes washing up on the beach.

A jellyfish jiggles like gelatin, and some just look like small, clear blobs. But others are bigger and more colorful with a bunch of tentacles that hang down underneath them, kind of like an octopus.

Beware those tentacles! Jellyfish sting so that they can catch and eat other sea creatures. But that sting can be turned on people. Jellyfish can sting if they brush against you when you’re swimming in the ocean. You also can get stung if you step on a jellyfish, even a dead one.

Usually, jellyfish stings will hurt, but are not emergencies. Most cause pain, red marks, itching, numbness, or tingling. But a few types of jellyfish (mainly found in Australia, the Philippines, the Indian Ocean, and central Pacific Ocean) are very dangerous, and can make people very sick quickly.

One Jellyfish Sting = Thousands of Tiny Stingers

Jellyfish stings aren’t like bee stings when it comes to the stinger. A bee sting leaves behind a single stinger that you can usually see and pull out.

When a jellyfish stings a person, it leaves thousands of very tiny stingers called nematocysts in the skin. These stingers can continue to release jellyfish venom (poison) into the person’s body.

What If You Get Stung By a Jellyfish?

If you get stung, take these two steps right away:

  1. Get out of the water.
  2. Tell an adult.

See the lifeguard next, if there’s one at your beach. He or she may be able to help and also can warn other swimmers.

It’s best to rinse a sting with vinegar. Tentacles left on the skin can be plucked off with a pair of tweezers. Why does vinegar work sometimes? Vinegar is a weak acid. For some kinds of jellyfish stings (especially from dangerous types like box jellyfish), it might keep the stingers from firing.

Here’s what a parent or other adult can do to help you feel better if a jellyfish stings you:

  • Rinse the area with vinegar. (Not cool fresh water or seawater, which could make it worse.)
  • Avoid rubbing the area, which also can make things worse.
  • Use tweezers to pull off any tentacles still on your skin. Do not scrape a sting with a plastic card or anything else.
  • Do not put ice or ice packs on a sting. A hot (but not too hot) shower or soak may help with the pain.
  • Check with your doctor. Using certain creams or pain relievers may help you feel better.

Someone needs to call for an ambulance right away if a person who’s been stung:

  • has trouble breathing or swallowing
  • has a swollen tongue or lips, or a change in voice
  • has bad pain or feels generally unwell
  • feels nauseated or is vomiting
  • is dizzy or has a headache
  • has muscle spasms
  • has stings over a large part of the body
  • was stung in the eye or mouth
  • may have been stung by a very dangerous type of jellyfish

Avoiding Jellyfish Stings

Swim only at guarded beaches, where you’re more likely to get a warning about jellyfish from lifeguards. They might post a sign or fly a warning flag. Some beaches fly a purple warning flag whenever there’s “dangerous marine life” in the water.

Also, remind your mom or dad to keep a small container of vinegar and a pair of tweezers in their beach bag.

Jellyfish Stings (for Parents) – Nemours KidsHealth

Playing in the ocean is a summertime tradition, but a jellyfish sting can spoil the fun. Here’s how to handle it if someone in your family gets zapped by one of these mysterious sea creatures.

What Are Jellyfish Stings?

Jellyfish have been around for millions of years and live in oceans all over the world. There are many different types of jellyfish. Some just look like small, clear blobs, while others are bigger and more colorful with tentacles hanging beneath them.

It’s the tentacles that sting. Jellyfish sting their prey with them, releasing a venom that paralyzes their targets. Jellyfish don’t go after humans, but someone who swims up against or touches one — or even steps on a dead one — can be stung all the same.

While jellyfish stings are painful, most are not emergencies. Expect pain, red marks, itching, numbness, or tingling with a typical sting.

But stings from some types of jellyfish — such as the box jellyfish (also called sea wasp) — are very dangerous, and can even be deadly. These jellyfish are most often found in Australia, the Philippines, the Indian Ocean, and central Pacific Ocean.

How Are Jellyfish Stings Treated?

Jellyfish stings leave thousands of very tiny stingers called nematocysts in the skin. These stingers can continue to release (or “fire”) jellyfish venom (poison) into the body.

It’s best to rinse a sting with vinegar. Vinegar is a weak acid that might keep the stingers from firing for some kinds of stings (especially from dangerous types like box jellyfish). Rinsing with cool fresh water can make more stingers fire. Also, rinsing a sting with seawater had been thought to prevent them from releasing more venom. But now, some experts say that can actually make a sting worse.

Also, do not scrape off any stingers still in the skin. This also used to be recommended, but now is thought to make stings worse.

To deal with a sting:

  • Remove your child from the water.
  • Rinse the area with vinegar. (Keep a small plastic bottle of vinegar in your beach bag, just in case.)
  • Don’t rub the area, which can make things worse.
  • Use tweezers to pluck away any tentacles still on the skin. Do not scrape the area with a credit card or other stiff card.
  • Do not apply ice or ice packs to a sting. A hot (but not scalding) shower or soak may help lessen pain.
  • Check in with your health care professional to see if pain relievers might help your child feel better.

Call an ambulance immediately if someone has been stung and:

  • is having trouble breathing or swallowing
  • has a swollen tongue or lips, or a change in voice
  • has bad pain or feels generally unwell
  • is nauseated or vomiting
  • is dizzy or has a headache
  • has muscle spasms
  • has stings over a large part of the body
  • the sting is in the eye or mouth
  • may have been stung by a very dangerous jellyfish

Can Jellyfish Stings Be Prevented?

Guarded beaches are more likely to warn visitors about jellyfish. Look for a sign or warning flag (some beaches fly a purple warning flag when there’s “dangerous marine life” in the water). Double check to make sure that you’ve got a small container of vinegar and a pair of tweezers in your beach bag.

Jellyfish almost killed this scientist. Now, she wants to save others from their fatal venom | Science

TALAO-TALAO, THE PHILIPPINES—On 17 June, several families were celebrating Father’s Day here at Dalahican Beach, a popular bathing spot near Lucena, a city on Luzon island. A steady breeze blew across sand that looked like fine brown sugar. Children splashed in the dark green water. Suddenly, people started to scream as a toddler was lifted unconscious from the water, his lips pale. A witness recalled that dark lashes crawled across the toddler’s thighs—the telltale marks of a jellyfish sting. The boy’s family simply held him and cried. Shortly after, Prince Gabriel Mabborang, 18 months old, was dead—one of at least three children killed in the Philippines this summer by the stings of box jellyfish.

On a midmorning 3 weeks later, Angel Yanagihara, who studies jellyfish venom at the University of Hawaii (UH) in Honolulu, arrived at Dalahican Beach. After slipping into a full-body wetsuit, she slung a box over her shoulder, put on gloves, and walked into the sea. No reminders of the recent tragedy were present; children were playing in the shallows, clapping their hands to Filipino songs. “Hello! What’s your name?” they giggled as Yanagihara, 58, walked by. Yanagihara spent almost 3 hours wading in waist-deep waters, hoping to catch box jellyfish for her studies of their venom. One of the nearly transparent animals swam to the surface, almost within reach, but then escaped as she approached. She emerged empty-handed, but villagers had brought her two specimens earlier that day.

Among the world’s public health problems, jellyfish stings may seem trivial, affecting millions of people each year but known to kill only a few dozen. But many deaths may go unrecorded, and in some places, jellyfish stings take a real toll. Prince Gabriel was the second child killed on the same beach in the past year, and many people in the area bear the scars of nonfatal attacks. After news of the boy’s death spread rapidly on social media, Lucena health officials invited Yanagihara to talk about jellyfish venom and how to save sting victims, a service she provided for free. She spoke at a basketball court by the beach, and as she flipped to her slide on first aid, cellphones rose in a wave, snapping photos.

Her message was clear—and controversial. Yanagihara has staked out one corner in a debate over how the venom of box jellyfish kills, stopping the heart in as little as 5 minutes. What she calls her unified field theory holds that the venom contains proteins that puncture red blood cells and release potassium, disrupting the electrical rhythms that keep the heart beating. Her conclusions, and the treatments she has based on them, emerged from 20 years of science that colleagues praise as thorough and imaginative. Yanagihara “has done a great favor to the field in doing systematic comparisons” of methods to collect and study the venom, says Kenneth Winkel, a former director of The University of Melbourne’s Australian Venom Research Unit who is now at the university’s Melbourne School of Population and Global Health.

But nobody has independently replicated Yanagihara’s methods and findings or tested her treatments. Some jellyfish researchers say other compounds in the venom are the real killers and that different remedies—or none at all—are more likely to work. “Jellyfish venom is a graveyard for simplistic causation and therapy,” Winkel says.

Research that would resolve the debates is scarce. Worldwide, only about five research groups study jellyfish venom. Funders prefer to focus on bigger public health problems—although Yanagihara thinks the stings exact a much higher death toll than most people assume. So she and her few colleagues and competitors struggle on with small budgets to study the threat, develop remedies, and educate communities at risk.

Most of the 4000 species of jellyfish cause only pain and discomfort when they sting humans. Only Cubozoans, or box jellyfish, of which some 50 species inhabit tropical and temperate seas around the globe, are fatal. They take their name from their cubic body, which has between four and 15 tentacles up to 3 meters long growing from each of the four corners. The tentacles are carpeted with hundreds of thousands of specialized cells, each harboring a capsule called a nematocyst that can fire a microscopic harpoon at speeds of more than 60 kilometers per hour. The harpoon carries a spiny hollow tube that injects venom after it strikes a victim.

Yanagihara, born in Alaska, hadn’t planned to study jellyfish. But in 1997, the year she obtained her Ph.D. at UH for research on cellular ion channels, the jellyfish found her. One day that year, Yanagihara swam out to sea before dawn—”My father taught me to swim before I walked,” she says—when she encountered a swarm of box jellyfish some 500 meters offshore. She felt needles burning into her neck and arms and her lungs collapsing; her arms began to fail. She switched to a breathing technique she had learned for childbirth and clawed back to shore in agony, “like an automaton.” The pain kept her in bed for 3 days. After she recovered, she wanted to know what almost killed her.

In some cases, box jellyfish venom causes Irukandji syndrome, in which an overload of stress hormones and inflammation proteins produces pain and nausea for days, as well as high blood pressure that can lead to brain hemorrhage and death. Most sting casualties, however, die within minutes from cardiac arrest. The prevailing hypothesis 20 years ago was that the culprits are ion channel blockers, molecules that disrupt movement of ions in and out of cells. The blockage shuts down nerve and muscle cells, including those that keep the heart pumping.

To test the idea, Yanagihara followed a standard procedure for studying jellyfish venom: She dissolved the tentacles in water to release the nematocysts and broke them with a mortar and pestle or glass beads to release the venom. Then she exposed immature frog egg cells—a common model in cell physiology—to the venom and measured ion movement using electrophysiological techniques. But the experiments kept failing. After scrutinizing every part of her experimental setup, she began to wonder whether her venom preparation was too impure to reveal its secrets. She realized that crushing the nematocysts produced a crude mix of venom and cellular debris—akin to putting “a rattlesnake in a blender” to get its venom, she says.

Taking a cue from a 1970s study, she developed a new method that uses citrate, an acidic compound, to dislodge the nematocysts without breaking them. She then puts them in a French press, in which a piston forcibly ruptures all the nematocysts at once. A minuscule harvest of venom squeezes out through a tiny outlet that filters larger cellular components.

The yield is excruciatingly low: some 10 milliliters of venom from 1000 box jellyfish. (Yanagihara collects a species named Alatina alata, often called the sea wasp, en masse in Hawaii.) But the result, she says, is a much purer venom. In it she found not only ion channel blockers, but also many porins, proteins that puncture cells, allowing their contents to leak out. She suspected hemolysis—the destruction of red blood cells by porins—might be the fatal mechanism.


Studies supported that hunch. In a 2012 paper in PLOS ONE, Yanagihara and a colleague reported that venom of Chironex fleckeri, one of the deadliest jellyfish species, rapidly punctures red blood cells, causing them to leak a huge amount of potassium ions. A high level of potassium in the blood, or hyperkalemia, causes cardiac arrest, and when Yanagihara injected mice with high doses of venom, their hearts quickly stopped. The same happened when she injected only the porins from the venom.

In human jellyfish sting victims, however, autopsies show no signs of hemolysis, says Jamie Seymour, a prominent toxinologist at James Cook University in Cairns, Australia. He is skeptical that porins are the killers. In venom from C. fleckeri, his team instead found two distinct protein groups that specifically attack and kill human heart cells; those proteins are “the bit that will kill you,” he says.

Seymour says he has unpublished evidence that Yanagihara’s technique for collecting venom deactivates the heart toxins along with other components. Winkel, too, is skeptical. He doesn’t contest that porins puncture red blood cells, but agrees with Seymour that hemolysis is not usually seen in sting victims. Porins should be tested on heart cells and tissues, he says, to find out whether they directly affect the heart.

Yanagihara acknowledges that jellyfish venom contains other toxins, including molecules that break down lipids and proteins, but her studies convinced her that porins are the main and fastest killer. Recently, she and U.S. military researchers began to study how the venom affects piglets, which are physiologically much closer to humans than mice are. At a 2017 meeting in Florida, the group presented results showing they could reproduce both rapid death and Irukandji syndrome, depending on the dose of venom injected; the as-yet-unpublished findings also supported Yanagihara’s porin hypothesis.

That hypothesis pointed to a remedy. In the PLOS ONE paper, Yanagihara showed that zinc gluconate inhibits porins and prolongs survival when injected into mice that had received a lethal dose of porins. Later, she found that copper gluconate works even better.

On the basis of those findings—and heeding instructions from the U.S. Department of Defense, which had funded her work—Yanagihara developed two patented products under the brand name Sting No More to counter jellyfish envenoming. A spray helps remove tentacles clinging to the skin; it contains urea, which is thought to make tentacles less sticky, and vinegar, which older studies and Yanagihara’s own work had shown can deactivate unfired nematocysts. A cream containing copper gluconate is then applied to inhibit the injected venom. The products are used by U.S. military divers and sold on her website; dive shops in Hawaii carry them as well. She says she has yet to recoup her startup costs, in part because she gives the products away in developing countries.

Yanagihara has also developed simpler ways to test how well her products and other interventions inhibit porins, including a bioassay consisting of human blood suspended in agar (a gelatin derived from seaweed) overlaid with a membrane from pig intestine. A live tentacle placed on the membrane immediately pierces it and injects venom into the agar; blood cells destroyed by porins show up as white patches against the vibrant red. Winkel calls the test “the closest we have to human skin and blood, short of getting an experiment on human volunteers,” and Yanagihara says it confirms her treatment’s effectiveness.

“I was really impressed by the scientific rigor” in Yanagihara’s methods, says jellyfish ecologist Thomas Doyle at University College Cork in Ireland. In 2016, he worked with Yanagihara to test treatments for several species in Irish waters, including the lion’s mane (Cyanea capillata) and the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis), which resembles a jellyfish but belongs to a different class. Doyle and Yanagihara showed that treating stings with seawater and ice, as recommended in Irish guidelines that Doyle helped draft in 2008, actually worsens sting injury. He is now pushing to revise those guidelines.

Chironex fleckeri, one of the deadliest box jellyfish species, has left its mark on a patient’s leg in North Queensland in Australia.


Here in Talao-talao, the day before her talk, Yanagihara’s hotel room smelled of vinegar. Neat rows of empty spray bottles stood beside a big plastic box on the floor. Her Filipino collaborator poured 23 liters of vinegar into the box, followed by a base solution—made separately by mixing water with a blue powder—and voilà, the Sting No More spray was ready. They pumped the solution into the bottles with a long siphon, ready to be handed out.

Her talk offered an unexpected chance for a real-world test. As she started to speak, a young man who had heard about her quest for box jellyfish walked in with a live one the size of a baseball cap. Wearing only boxers—he had just come from the beach—he held the relatively harmless cubic top in his hand, at arm’s length, the tentacles dangling to his knees. The audience froze in tension, while Yanagihara grabbed her spray. The man thrust the jellyfish into a bag and then jumped back when a tentacle grazed his hand. It hurt so badly that he wanted to scratch his hand off, he said. Yanagihara quickly applied her spray and cream. Three minutes later, the man said the pain had eased. He sat through the 90-minute talk.

So far, Yanagihara has only such anecdotal evidence—along with hundreds of testimonials, she says—that her products work. Together with a clinician and two nurses in Hawaii, she has started a clinical trial in which 48 volunteers will be stung on both arms with centimeter-long pieces of tentacle from A. alata—small enough to cause only minor damage at the sting site. One arm will then be treated with vinegar and a hot pack, the other with either Yanagihara’s products or a combination of vinegar and a cold pack. (Yanagihara says she will take no part in the data collection and analysis.)

Seymour questions whether Yanagihara’s antiporin cream can save lives, and he argues that her vinegar-based spray may even harm sting victims. In a 2014 paper in the journal Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, he and his colleagues reported that vinegar causes nematocysts that have already fired to release more venom. He now recommends no treatment at all for sting victims suffering cardiac arrest, except cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which can help keep blood pumping to the brain until the heart starts to beat again. “I don’t care if they are screaming in pain 20 minutes later,” Seymour says, “as long as they are alive.”

In a letter in the same journal, Yanagihara, along with a statistician, criticized Seymour’s vinegar study for flaws in the design and statistics; a group of Australian physicians published a critical letter as well. Yanagihara has also blasted “wildly extrapolative” reports of the study by Australian media, which claimed vinegar might kill.

Angel Yanagihara gives a presentation about box jellyfish biology and stings at a rural health unit in Tagalag, a town on Samar island in the Philippines. Education and first aid can help reduce injuries and deaths, she says.


Settling the debate will require more research on venom pathology and treatment—plus funding, which might be easier to win if researchers could point to hard numbers on the toll of stings. Studies and media reports often cite an estimate of 150 million stings each year worldwide and 20 to 40 deaths in the Philippines annually. Those figures surfaced in a 2008 report from the U.S. National Science Foundation, but what they are based on is unclear. In a 1998 review, clinicians estimated that jellyfish kill up to 50 people in the Philippines every year, “based on personal experience,” without further explanation. More recent studies tallied at least two dozen fatal and severe jellyfish stings in Malaysia and Thailand combined since 2000, almost all in tourists from abroad.

Most researchers believe the real number is much higher. The Philippines has a long, populated coastline dotted with estuaries where box jellyfish like to breed. In almost every coastal community Yanagihara has visited, locals lifted their shirts, sleeves, or pants to show scars from stings and recalled the deaths of friends and family from jellyfish. Many such cases don’t make it into official statistics. Seymour says he had the same experience in the Southeast Asian nation of Timor-Leste 20 years ago: Villagers “said they get stung all the time but didn’t bring the victims to the hospital,” he recalls. “They pointed to a tree and said they just buried them there.”

Yanagihara and her collaborators are examining health surveillance records and surveying villagers and health workers in the Philippines. “We can triangulate these results to get a better idea of the burden,” says Catherine Pirkle, a UH public health epidemiologist on the project. Getting the study underway wasn’t easy. The National Institutes of Health twice rejected a grant application, Yanagihara says, and local institutes and health units initially were lukewarm as well. Part of the problem may be that many communities accept the danger as part of life. “Although our fishermen and children are often stung by box jellyfish, we don’t think it’s a serious problem,” says Reil Briones, Talaotalao’s village chief, who was stung by a jellyfish at age 11 and carries a scar on his arm.

Yanagihara says the sentiment is now changing. On her latest trip, she spoke to full rooms of policymakers, health workers, and researchers, and many asked to collaborate with her team. Photos of Prince Gabriel circulating on social media may have played a role. “It’s a big issue if people are dying from jellyfish,” says Janet Gendrano, who leads the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office in Lucena. She says the tragedy was a wake-up call and wants to join the survey project; once the data are in, her office might propose an ordinance requiring beach resort operators to take first-aid training for stings and to put up warning signs.

Yanagihara hopes the study will get jellyfish the attention they deserve. “If you are a pony on this racetrack of human suffering,” as many believe jellyfish stings to be, “you want to stand down,” she says. “But I have nothing but evidence to the contrary.”

90,000 Sverdlovsk residents were frightened by space jellyfish in the sky. Video

Sverdlovsk residents witnessed the flight of the rocket
Photo: official website of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

Residents of the Sverdlovsk region were frightened by luminous objects that were noticed on the night of August 22 – the so-called space jellyfish. This is an astronomical phenomenon that arose after the launch of the Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket from the Baikonur cosmodrome. Some have suggested that UFOs and meteorites flew over the region.Sverdlovsk residents shared their photos and impressions on social networks.

“Something incomprehensible last night flew slowly in the sky (definitely not an airplane), very similar to a meteorite, flared up, flew a little more and went out,” wrote a resident of Asbestos Ksenia Borisova in the “PRO ASBEST” public on the VKontakte social network and added a photo to the message. Users immediately began to speculate about aliens: “They have long been among us. It’s just that the main team is arriving right now, “commentator Mikhail Repnikov suggested.

The cosmic phenomenon scared eyewitnesses

Photo: PRO ASBESTOS / former TA

Amateur astronomer from Irbit Ilya Yankovsky explained to URA.RU that the Sverdlovsk residents took the launch of the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle for a UFO. It was produced on the night of August 22 from Baikonur. Yankovsky filmed the launch of the rocket, the fall and combustion of its second stage on video.

“Above the Urals one could observe the so-called ‘jellyfish’ – the exhaust of a rocket illuminated by the Sun or the Moon, as well as the fall and combustion of the second stage and other fragments of the carrier.This happens when a rocket is launched along a northern trajectory, in general it does not happen often. Now it’s just the case when OneWeb satellites are launched, and they require launching into a circumpolar orbit, ”the astronomer explained.

He added that the bulk of the fragments from the rocket burns up in the atmosphere, but some of them reach the Earth. In the northeast of the Sverdlovsk region, on the border with the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, there is a special area where debris falls.

Subscribe to URA.RU in Google News, Yandex.News and our channel in Yandex.Zen. Operational news of your region – in the telegram-channel “Yekaterinburg” and in the viber-channel “Yekaterinburg”, the selection of the main news of the day – in our mailing list with delivery to your mail.

Residents of the Sverdlovsk region were frightened by the luminous objects that were seen on the night of August 22 – the so-called space jellyfish. This is an astronomical phenomenon that arose after the launch of the Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket from the Baikonur cosmodrome. Some have suggested that UFOs and meteorites flew over the region.Sverdlovsk residents shared their photos and impressions on social networks. “Something incomprehensible last night slowly flew in the sky (definitely not an airplane), very similar to a meteorite, flared up, flew a little more and went out,” wrote a resident of Asbestos Ksenia Borisova in the “PRO ASBEST” public on the social network “VKontakte” and reinforced to the photo post. Users immediately began to speculate about aliens: “They have long been among us. It’s just that the main team is arriving right now, “commentator Mikhail Repnikov suggested.Ilya Yankovsky, an amateur astronomer from Irbit, explained to URA.RU that the people of Sverdlovsk mistook the launch of the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle for a UFO. It was produced on the night of August 22 from Baikonur. Yankovsky filmed the launch of the rocket, the fall and combustion of its second stage on video. “Over the Urals one could observe the so-called ‘jellyfish’ – the rocket exhaust illuminated by the Sun or the Moon, as well as the fall and combustion of the second stage and other fragments of the carrier. This happens when a rocket is launched along a northern trajectory, in general it does not happen often.Now it’s just the case when OneWeb satellites are launched, and they require launching into a circumpolar orbit, ”the astronomer explained. He added that the bulk of the fragments from the rocket burns up in the atmosphere, but some of them reach the Earth. In the northeast of the Sverdlovsk region, on the border with the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, there is a special area where debris falls.

Medusa Effect. Goddesses in every woman [New psychology of women. Archetypes of Goddesses]

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Medusa – Dota 2 Wiki





Old abilities

Known bugs


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Level 0 1 15 25 30
Health 1500
+0.25 +1.95 +4.05 +6.75 +7.7
+0 +1.15 +3.95 +6.55 +7.65
Armor -1 2.67 19.07
Res. of magic 25%
Res. effects
Damage 26‒32 48‒54 146‒152 166‒172
Attack / s 0.59 / s 0.72 / s 1.01 / s 1.3 / s 1.41 / s
Attack range 600 (800)
Attack speed (1.7 s.BVA)
Attack animation 0.5 + 0.6
Projectile speed
Travel speed
Swing speed. 0.6
Collision size 24
View range (H) 1800 • 800
Feet 0
Type of lumps Regular
Improvements to sp. No Scepter Upgrades
No Shard Upgrades

Medusa is a ranged hero whose main attribute is agility. The first ability, Split Shot, splits Medusa’s shot into multiple arrows. These arrows deal less damage compared to her basic attack. Additional targets are not affected by attack effects (such as critical damage) or unique attack modifiers.With her second ability, Mystic Snake, Medusa throws a snake that leaps from target to target dealing damage and stealing mana. After she reaches the last target, she will return back to Medusa, replenishing her mana. The snake deals more damage and steals more mana with each jump. The third ability, Mana Shield, creates a shield that absorbs damage taken using Medusa’s mana. The ultimate ability, Stone Gaze, slows the attack and movement speed of any enemy unit that looks at Medusa.If the enemy stares at Medusa for more than 2 seconds while Stone Gaze is on, it will turn to stone. Fossilized creatures are stunned and take additional physical damage. When purchasing Aghanim’s Scepter, Stone Gaze will apply to all units hit by Mystic Snake.

Biography []

Medusa, Gorgon

“Beauty is a terrible force.” The youngest and most charming gorgon from early childhood consoled herself with this thought, for she, the only one of the three beautiful daughters of the sea goddess, did not have a chance to be born immortal.Everything changed on that fateful day when unknown persons in masks broke into the abode of the Gorgons and kidnapped her sisters, dispassionate to their beauty and tears. Grabbing Medusa immediately threw her away with disgust: “It stinks from her, like from a mortal! We don’t need such people. ” Medusa, burning with humiliation and rage, hurried to her mother’s temple, fell before the goddess and prayed: “Since I am not awarded immortality, please give me strength so that I can free my sisters and devote the rest of my life to revenge for this injustice.” The goddess pondered for a long time, and finally gave Medusa what she had asked for.In exchange for her glorified beauty, Medusa received a frightening face and even more terrifying power. Not for a moment did she regret her choice, because she knew: the only beauty worth possessing is strength, for only strength will change the world.

Abilities []


The hero magically splits his arrows, attacking multiple targets, but causing less damage.
Additional targets are not affected by attack effects such as critical damage.

Cast Animation: 0 + 0

Add. range of split arrows: 150

Additional targets: 4

Damage dealt: 50% / 60% / 70% / 80%

Does not disable damage reduction. Disables additional arrows. Illusions created with Split Shot active retain their ability status.


modifier_medusa_split_shot: Undispellable. Remains after death.

Anyone who encounters the cursed gorgon will experience her wrath.


  • When the ability is toggled On , Medusa’s main and bonus damage is reduced.
    • Other sources of damage added to the main attack are not reduced (for example, Bash).
    • The reduction shown in the HUD is incorrect as it only takes into account the main damage, not the main and additional.
  • Split Shot remains after Medusa dies.If Split Shot was active at the time of death, the hero will respawn with an active ability.
  • Allows Medusa to make instant attacks against 4 nearby enemies when launching an attack projectile.
    • This means that all shells are fired together with the main attack. It doesn’t matter if the initial attack missed or not, additional arrows will still be fired.
    • Split Shot instant attacks do not trigger attack modifiers or attack trigger effects, unless a talent has been selected that allows modifiers to trigger.
    • Additional arrows travel at the same speed as the original.
    • This means that the speed of arrows can be increased using bonuses to increase the speed of the projectile.
    • Arrows are also affected by the type of armor and are blocked by damage block just like normal attacks.
  • Search radius depends on Medusa’s attack range + 150; as a result, the radius is 750 units, taking into account the standard attack range of the hero.

Enemies / Self

Unleashes an energy snake that leaps from target to target and deals damage.Upon reaching the final goal, the snake will return to its owner and restore his mana. With each jump, the snake deals more damage. Recovers 11% / 14% / 17% / 20% of the victims’ total mana.


  • The snake moves at a speed of 800.
  • The ability first deals damage, then applies the slow and Stone Gaze debuff.
  • The snake always bounces off the current target to the nearest suitable one. Cannot hit the same target more than 1 time per use.
    • The snake can bounce on units in the fog of war, but not on invisible, invulnerable, or hidden units.
    • If the snake’s current target dies or becomes invulnerable, hidden or invisible, the rebound will not be counted and will not increase the damage.
    • In this case, the snake will continue to bounce at the nearest suitable targets.
  • Medusa gains mana when the snake returns. Recovery is based on the maximum mana of all enemies hit.
  • Mystic Snake needs to hit creatures with a total mana pool of 1273/1072/942/851 (305/307/308/310) to replenish the spell’s mana cost.
  • Each successful hit on an enemy increases the damage of the next bounce by 35% of the base damage of the ability.
    • That is, the damage does not grow exponentially, but is static; each next bounce deals 28/42/56/70 more damage.
  • This is how much damage Mystic Snake () deals and how long the petrification lasts) per bounce if all bounces hit successfully (before reductions):
    • Level 1: 80/108/136 damage, 324 total damage (1.3 / 1.5 / 1.7 seconds petrified)
    • Level 2: 120/162/204/246 damage, 732 total damage (1.3 / 1.5 / 1.7 / 1.9 seconds petrified)
    • Level 3: 160/216/272/328/384 damage, 1360 total damage (1.3 / 1.5 / 1.7 / 1.9 / 2.1 seconds petrified)
    • Level 4: 200/270/340/410/480/550 damage, 2250 total damage (1.3 / 1.5 / 1.7 / 1.9 / 2.1 / 2.3 seconds petrified)

Acts on

Creates a shield that absorbs 100/150/200/250 damage taken, using the hero’s mana.Also grants a permanent bonus to mana.

Cast Animation: 0 + 0

Add. mana: 100/150/200/250

Damage Absorption: 70%

Damage per Mana: 1.3 / 1.7 / 2.1 / 2.5

0 While Spell Immunity , Mana Shield will not react to magic damage.


modifier_medusa_mana_shield: Undispellable. Remains after death.

Despite the fact that the gorgon was not awarded immortality at birth, the curse endowed her with excellent protective abilities.


  • On Toggle On / Off Mana Shield does not interrupt channeling Medusa spells.
  • Mana Shield remains after Medusa dies. If the shield was active at the time of death, then the hero will be revived with an active ability.
  • Absorbs damage before any damage reduction, including damage block or spell reduction (such as Aphotic Shield).
    • It also affects anything that interacts directly with the damage done by after reductions (eg Orchid Malevolence).
  • When activated On increases Medusa’s effective health by 233.33%, given that the hero has enough mana.


Whenever the hero is targeted by a spell, he unleashes a snake at the attacker from the Mystic Snake ability, which only affects the offender.Cooldown: 12 seconds.


  • Same notes as for Mystic Snake and Aghanim’s Scepter apply.
    • If the snake’s current target dies or becomes invulnerable, hidden or invisible, the rebound will not be counted and will not increase the damage.
    • This means the snake will jump at the nearest suitable target.
  • The snake will release at the hero even if he is invulnerable or hidden.
  • Has no range limit.

Enemies / Self

Reduces the movement and attack speed of any enemy that looks at the owner of the ability. If the victim stares at him for more than 2 seconds, he will turn into stone. Stuns petrified creatures and increases physical damage to them.

Cast Animation: 0.4 + 0.5

Radius: 1200

Viewing angle for fossilization: 85 °

Additionalcaster movement speed: 50%

Slowing movement speed: 35%

Slowing attack speed: 35

Slowing turn speed: 35%

Add. Physical Damage: 40% / 45% / 50%

Ability Duration: 5 / 5.5 / 6 (7 / 7.5 / 8)

Petrification Duration: 3

90 100


This beauty is truly legendary.


  • The enemy team must have vision of Medusa (when using Stone Gaze) for at least 1 server tick before starting to affect any enemies.
    • Stone Gaze will not work until the condition is met.
    • Once done, enemies that lose sight of Medusa can still be affected by Stone Gaze, even in the Fog of War.
  • Each enemy creature facing Medusa within 85 ° degrees in a 1200 radius around the caster will receive debuffs: one tracks how long the creature has been looking towards Medusa, the other gives a slowdown.
  • The creature’s position tracking debuff counts how long it has been looking at Medusa. If the total is 2 seconds, then it makes the creature petrified.
    • Debuff lasts the same as Stone Gaze (that is, it ends with the ultimate) or until the end of petrification.
    • The 2-second counter does not reset if the creature looks away.
    • Looking at Medusa while invulnerable or hidden continues to count.
    • This means that petrification can be avoided by becoming invulnerable at the moment the petrification ability is attempted.
  • Slow debuff only affects affected enemies looking at Medusa. Creatures that are not looking at the caster do not slow, but retain the debuff.
    • The slow debuff lasts the same as Stone Gaze (that is, it ends with the ultimate) or until the end of petrification.
  • Only when the petrification debuff ends, the creature can be petrified again by Stone Gaze, hitting the ability until its duration expires and while the creature is looking at Medusa.
  • Petrification is a normal stun that additionally freezes animations and increases damage from physical attacks.
    • Does not amplify magical or pure attacks or physical damage spells.
  • Stone Gaze ends when Medusa dies, but fossilized enemies remain in this state for the entire duration.

Talents []


  • The evasion talent stacks multiplicatively with other sources of evasion.
  • This talent adds attack damage to direct attack damage.
    • Not given to illusions, nor is it affected by most effects that increase or decrease damage by a percentage.

Recent changes []



  • Mystic Snake jump radius decreased from 475 to 450.
  • Mana Shield damage per mana reduced from 1.6 / 1.9 / 2.2 / 2.5 to 1.3 / 1.7 / 2.1 / 2.5.

Featured Items []

Gameplay []

Roles: Kerry Control Stamina
Difficulty: ★ ☆☆
Play style: The youngest Gorgon was also the most beautiful, but looks alone could not rescue her kidnapped sisters. Therefore, Medusa traded her beauty for terrible new powers, and has never regretted it since.Each arrow she fires divides into multiple Split Shots , striking several targets at once. Foes bitten by Mystic Snake are sapped of energy, a resource that returns to Medusa for her defensive use. Encased in a Mana Shield , she survives against even the most unfavorable odds. Heroes who lay eyes on her may find it hard to turn away. Petrified, none could hope to approach Medusa before the Gorgon’s legendary Stone Gaze turns their bodies to statues.

Audio []


History []

Equipment []

Facts []

  • In an early version of the myth, Medusa was rejected at birth by the sea deities Forky and Keto, who were chthonic monsters from the archaic world.
  • The myth in which Medusa was described as the ideal of beauty was created later by the Roman poet Ovid, and in this version she did not sacrifice her beauty for the sake of unlimited power. Instead, after the attack of Poseidon in the temple of Athena, the goddess in a rage mutilated the appearance of Medusa to such an extent that anyone who looked into her face would immediately turn to stone.
  • The response to the killed Gyrocopter “Snakes on a plane” is a reference to the movie “Snake Flight”.

Gallery []

  • Alpha version of the model based on concept art

Fleeing marine animals | RuDIVE Group

An extensive type of cnidarians, or cnidarians, includes:

  • jellyfish;
  • siphonophore;
  • solitary anemone polyps;
  • colonial hydroids;
  • corals.

All of them have the ability to cause burns of varying severity, which are accompanied not only by pain, but also by damage to vital organs and systems of the human body.

The ability of cnidarians to sting is associated with the presence in their bodies of nematocysts – a kind of stinging cells that other animals do not have. They are usually found in the tentacles and less often on the rest of the body. The stinging cell looks like a dense capsule filled with a poisonous liquid.Inside the capsule, a long hollow thread is twisted into a spiral, and a small sensitive hair sticks out. If you accidentally hit it, a long thread shoots out of the capsule, turning inside out, and pierces the skin, and poison is injected into the victim’s body along the thread, like through a capillary. In most creepers, especially jellyfish, nerve poison is often very toxic. It also causes pain, skin damage and dysfunctions of internal organs in the victim. It is its effect, along with general skin irritation due to injections and cuts caused by threads, that we feel after colliding with a jellyfish or touching a fire coral – millepore.

Photo by Ilya Trukhanov. Red Sea, Egypt

The severity of the burn depends on the toxicity of the poison and on the ability of stinging threads to pierce the skin of various thicknesses, that is, on their penetrating power, weapons and length. The softer the skin, the more types of cnidaria cause pain, and the worse the burns are. Children are more vulnerable than adults, and women are more vulnerable than men. The most severe injuries occur in the face, armpits, the back of the arms and legs, and other areas with sensitive and delicate skin.
Creepers are considered lower multicellular animals: their body, at first glance, lush, bright and complex, consists of only two cellular layers, between which there is a layer of jelly-like structureless substance – mesoglea. In some creepers, it makes up three-quarters of the total body volume, while in others it is represented by a narrow, weakly expressed plate between the inner and outer layers of cells. Many have noticed that the jellyfish thrown ashore gradually flattened and shrank until they “dry out” to a thin mucous membrane.This “imprint” is nothing more than two layers of cells, separated by proteinaceous remnants of the mesoglea, all the water from which has evaporated. Unfortunately, some children and even their parents throw jellyfish on the sand, and then gleefully watch as the unfortunate beautiful jellyfish turn into a pitiful slime in the sun. They do this, of course, in a fit of indignation and with the consciousness of their righteousness: after all, slippery creatures are so disgusting!

Inside the body of the cnidarians there is a simple distribution system, consisting of a central cavity – the stomach and branched intestinal canals extending from it.This structure of the digestive system gave the creepers another well-established name – coelenterates (Coelenterata).
According to the way of life, cnidarians are divided into two large groups: floating and attached . The latter are dangerous for divers only in those cases when people themselves behave clumsily or aggressively, collecting innocent creatures in their pockets or touching them out of curiosity. The first category of creepers, which includes jellyfish and siphonophores, is much more dangerous.


It is difficult to imagine a picture more majestic than a huge jellyfish with a transparent dome, silvery in the rays of refracted light, which has unfurled a living openwork train of delicate silk tentacles, soaring smoothly and solemnly in the green water column.But you shouldn’t approach them. Long, thin tentacles, spread out by the jellyfish far around its own umbrella, are easy to overlook and get unexpected burns. Moreover, in some jellyfish, they easily break off and travel through the sea until they stick to some solid object – algae, an animal, or, for example, an unsuspecting diver. Stinging cells remain in a “charged and combat-ready” state for a very long time, therefore, the touch of such a wandering tentacle to an open area of ​​the skin causes intoxication with all the ensuing consequences.When the jellyfish is damaged or as a result of a sharp change in temperature, nematocysts themselves are thrown into the water – suspended in the water column and indistinguishable by the naked eye, they nevertheless retain their “lethal force” and “discharge” into a passing person. This is all the more dangerous because psychologically a person is not ready for a sudden burn – after all, there are no jellyfish nearby. In such cases, they usually complain of scalding water.

There is a misconception that all jellyfish are related species from the same taxonomic group.In fact, jellyfish is a kind of life form of animals belonging to different classes and orders. This is the reason for the amazing morphological diversity of jellyfish, the sizes of which vary from microscopically small, invisible to the naked eye, to giant jellyfish, the length of the tentacles of which reaches tens of meters. Those that are currently known to science are representatives of two large classes:

  • hydroid;
  • scyphoid.

Hydroid Jellyfish

Photo by Olga Kamenskaya.Alaska

Hydroids are distinguished by a peculiar life cycle. Comparing their appearance, it is difficult to believe that this is actually one organism in two faces: an attached polyp sitting on a bottom substrate, and a floating umbrella jellyfish with tentacles extending from it. Jellyfish are dioecious: in males sperm are formed, and in females – eggs. The genital products are attached to the oral proboscis or radial canals. When the sperm mature, the epithelium breaks through and they enter the water, find “females” and fertilize their eggs.When the eggs ripen, many tiny larvae, completely covered with cilia, the so-called planules, are thrown into the water. They sink to the bottom, attach themselves to a solid surface and – oh, a miracle! – turn into polyps. The latter remain solitary or, budding, form large colonies consisting of a great variety of identical zooid polyps. After some time, the latter bud off jellyfish, which break away from the mother’s stalk and are carried away by the current into the water column. The juvenile jellyfish grows in the water column and matures until the next stage of sexual reproduction.
Hydroid jellyfish, or hydromedusa, are small transparent creatures: some are difficult to distinguish with the naked eye. They look like an umbrella or a bell, from the lower concave side of which a long proboscis with a mouth opening at the end extends. Tentacles are located along the edges of the umbrella; some jellyfish have many, up to a hundred, while others have only three, two, or even one.
A circular muscle called the sail runs along the lower edge of the bell. It contracts rhythmically, and at moments of powerful contraction, water is forcefully thrown out of the bell, which creates a reactive impulse that pushes the jellyfish forward.The characteristic rhythmic pulsation looks especially beautiful in luminous deep-sea hydroid jellyfish.
Of the hydro-jellyfish, two species of crosses (Gonionemus vertens and G. oshoro), living in thickets of sea grass on the Far Eastern and Japanese coasts of the Sea of ​​Japan, are dangerous to humans. These are tiny jellyfish the size of a marigold – up to 25 mm in diameter, in which the dark genitals (gonads) are located under the dome in the form of a clearly distinguishable regular cross. An outbreak in the number of crosspipes is observed off the coast of Vladivostok during the rainy season: apparently, they prefer not very salty water.At this time, it is categorically not recommended to swim in shallow water in the thickets of zostera: if a shark can be seen from afar, then it is almost impossible to see a cross in the water.

Stung by a cross feels a sharp pain, and after 10-15 minutes a rash appears on the burned area, followed by excruciating pain in the lower back and limbs, weakness; short-term blindness, deafness, confusion, delirium, impaired activity of the respiratory muscles and heart may also occur.Sometimes the affected person is haunted by hallucinations and nightmares. The poison of the spider affects the central nervous system, and if the outcome of the first acquaintance with him is usually limited to a short bed rest, then the second meeting can have more serious consequences.
There are three forms of lesion:

  • painful (37% of cases): severe pain in muscles, joints, chest and groin; internal organs are working normally;
  • respiratory (44%): allergic catarrh symptoms occur in the respiratory tract.They are accompanied by reddening of the skin, severe tearing, sore throat, coughing and nausea. Lasts from two hours to two days;
  • joint pain and breathing with all accompanying symptoms is observed in 19% of patients. Some of them remain tachycardia or high blood pressure.

Jellyfish of other species of the same genus are common off the coast of California and in the Mediterranean Sea. They are safe for humans.
Hydromedusae of the genus Olindias (Olindias) have a flat dome 10-20 cm in diameter with 380 tentacles of two types: primary – short red-brown and secondary – thin yellow or crimson up to half a meter in length.The touch of the tentacles to unprotected skin causes pain – moderate, sharp, aching, throbbing, sometimes so severe that it leads to a state of shock. The characteristic red zigzag streaks of burns appear on the skin, the scars from which disappear after a week or a month. Violations in the internal organs, however, do not occur.
Olindias jellyfish live in the subtropical Atlantic, in the waters of Southeast Asia, northern Australia and the Indian Ocean. They reach the greatest concentration in shallow waters near the coast and therefore are especially dangerous for bathing children.According to official data, in only one place in Monte Hermoso (Argentina) for each winter holiday season, these jellyfish infect 500-1000 people.

Scyphoid jellyfish (class Scyphozoa)

It is them that humanity, in fact, knows “by sight”, since they are usually large and visible under water. The dome with well-developed mesoglea loses the transparency characteristic of hydromedusae and acquires a dull milky color, in many species tinted with pink, red, black or purple genitals – gonads.
In terms of structure, scyphoid jellyfish do not fundamentally differ from hydroid ones: the same bell, tentacles and mouth proboscis, which grows into lush mouth lobes, capturing prey and forming wide folds on the sides with an openwork pattern along the edges. The mouth of many jellyfish is a network of small pores through which food enters the stomach – small planktonic crustaceans. Often, mouth lobes, for example, aurelia, are mistaken for tentacles, when in fact the latter are evenly distributed along the edge of the dome.They are short, purple in color, and some of them are transformed into senses.

The gonads of scyphoid jellyfish are usually located on the walls of four gastric pockets and look like dark horseshoes from the outside. From there, the eggs, as they mature, are thrown through the mouth into the water, and as a result of fertilization, tiny cilia-covered larvae are formed. Aurelia shows some “care” about the offspring: fertilization and development of eggs occurs in special pockets of the mouth lobes, from where the already formed larvae emerge.They sink to the bottom, attach themselves to rocks or empty mussel shells and turn into tiny colonial polyps – scyphists. Scyphistomas feed by grabbing prey with their tentacles and store energy during the winter. In spring, the tentacles are shortened, and the body of the polyp is divided by transverse constrictions, forming something like a stack of plates. After a while, the “plates”, one after the other, detach from the “stack” and float away, turning into teenage jellyfish. Small flat creatures with eight outgrowths, the so-called ethers, are carried away by currents and gradually develop into jellyfish.Such an alternation of two dissimilar forms in one life cycle is also characteristic of other scyphoid ones.

Some jellyfish, such as aurelia and edible ropilema, are eaten in China and Japan, where they are even called “crystal meat”. It is strange, because almost 97% of the weight of jellyfish is water, and their gelatinous body can only induce an appetite in a hungry person. For the same reason, jellyfish have few enemies in the sea: what kind of predator will get enough of a piece of liquid jelly? Some fish, however, feed on jellyfish, but only as a last resort.So jellyfish swim in the vast expanses of the ocean, relaxed in their own impunity and confident in their strength.
The variety of scypho jellyfish lies not only in the variety of sizes, colors and shapes of their domes, the number and location of the tentacles, but also in the toxicity of their venom. According to the totality of many characters, scyphoid jellyfish are divided into several taxonomic orders, the main of which we will consider below.

Scyphomedusa reach a gigantic size, and along with their size, the “firepower” of batteries of stinging cells strung on long tentacles increases.In addition, along with the size of the dome, the size of the capsules of stinging cells, and, consequently, the dose of intracapsular poison, as a rule, grow. The strength of its effect on the human body, however, depends not so much on the dose as on the toxicity. Therefore, a large jellyfish is not necessarily dangerous, while a burn from a tiny one can be fatal. The poison of some jellyfish causes only pain and irritation, while others – it affects the central nervous system, making a person disabled.


They are distinguished by a disc-shaped flattened umbrella, from the lower edge of which numerous tentacles extend.The oral lobes of discomedusas grow into lush long or short formations, painted in delicate colors. In some jellyfish, the dome is covered with a bizarre and variegated pattern.
Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Chrysaora quinquecirrha), known under the unambiguous name of sea nettle, lives in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters of both hemispheres and has a dome from 2 to 20 cm in diameter. Long flat mouth lobes together with 16 tentacles up to 250 cm long in an openwork train pull behind the jellyfish.Sea nettle causes acute pain immediately after injury, and in more severe cases, dermatitis, skin necrosis, depression and muscle cramps. Cases of damage to vision and the occurrence of cardiovascular failure are known. No less dangerous Mediterranean nettle (C. hysoscella), which is similar to C. quinquecirrha both morphologically and symptoms of damage.

Pelagia (Pelagia noctiluca and P. flaveola) has powerful green tentacles, long openwork mouth lobes and bright pink gonads hanging from a small transparent mushroom dome up to 10 cm in diameter.The stinging action of pelagia is classified as mild: it does not cause dysfunctions of vital systems and organs, limiting itself to pain and numbness of the affected area of ​​the skin. However, multiple burns can be fatal. Both types of pelagia are ubiquitous in warm and temperate waters; their giant clusters are found in the Mediterranean, Adriatic and North Seas.

Cyanea (Cyanea capillata) is one of the few poisonous creatures that live not only in the tropics, but also in the temperate and polar seas of both hemispheres.Cyanea is considered the largest jellyfish in the world, its diameter reaches 2.5 meters, and the length of the tentacles is more than 36 meters. The dome is painted with gonads in an orange-pink color, and the lush brick-red mouth lobes form, together with long numerous tentacles, a giant train. The touch of the sticky tentacles causes burning pain, temporary skin death and localized edema, blistering, difficulty breathing, and even loss of consciousness. The degree of damage depends on the size of the specimen and the number of burns.For example, in the White and Barents Seas, it is easy to find small cyanides. Acquaintance with them threatens with pain and numbness of the damaged area, but nothing more. Cyaneans often swim in clusters, and then the tentacles of many individuals mix, forming a huge trapping net, through which it is almost impossible to wade.
Widespread in all seas and oceans Aurelia aurita , which frightens bathers on the Black Sea beaches, is completely harmless. The poison of her stinging cells is so weak that we do not even notice its action.

Corner jellyfish

In corneous jellyfish, the tentacles are reduced, and the mouth lobes are fused and crowned with tapered outgrowths, which gave the name to the detachment. The dome is powerful, spherical, very dense and firm to the touch. In some it is transparent, in others it is dull white. Its diameter varies from a few centimeters to two meters. The toxicity of the venom of their nematocysts for humans is also very diverse – from zero to fatal.
Black Sea Corner (Rhizostoma pulmo) is widely known in Russia, because the Black Sea abounds in these jellyfish.There are especially many of them in places with an excess of organic matter, say, near Yalta or Evpatoria. Cornerotes feed on organic suspension and the smallest crustaceans, filtering them through a strainer formed at the place of fusion of the mouth blades.
Cornerots love warm water and in calm weather swim close to the shore, poisoning vacationers with a cloudless holiday. In a collision, the cornerot inflicts burns, which are very painful when the poison gets into the eyes and on the delicate parts of the body. Cornerot nematocysts are scattered throughout the body of the jellyfish, but there are especially many of them on the oral lobes.Stinging cells are easily separated from the body along with superficial mucus, and therefore, if you hold the jellyfish in your hands and then rub your eyes, you can get a serious burn. Recently, scientists obtained purified cornerot poison and named it rhizostomin. In experimental animals, it caused respiratory paralysis, and then death.

People often wonder why jellyfish “bite” selectively, and not every time we encounter them. The fact is that the stinging threads of cornerots, like, indeed, of many other jellyfish, are capable of piercing only the skin of a certain thickness, not exceeding the length of the stinging thread.For example, you can safely take kornerotov in your hands – your worn out calloused palms are invulnerable to stinging cells. Children have a hard time: their thin skin does not protect from the poison of cornerot, and any contact with it ends in tears. More often, however, on the beach you can hear heart-rending screams and screams of their mothers and grandmothers who bumped into a jellyfish 🙂
Jellyfish of the genus ropilema (Rhopilema), living in the Mediterranean Sea, in the Indian Ocean and the waters of Southeast Asia, outwardly very similar on the corners.Their dome, 25-35 cm in diameter, is blue, white or dark red. A distinctive feature is the numerous filaments extending from the lower part of the oral lobes. Rope burns can be painful, but do not cause any serious consequences, except that local necrotic wounds disappear after a month.
Cassiopea xamachana is the only jellyfish that spends most of its life with its dome down and with its mouth up. Swimming at the very bottom in such a strange position, Cassiopeia expose their mouth lobes to the sun’s rays, in which symbiotic algae live.Cassiopeia is a large jellyfish: the diameter of its dome reaches 30 cm. Contact with it threatens a person with the formation of blisters on the damaged area, nausea and prolonged pain in the joints. Some of the affected had allergic reactions in the form of a red rash on the face. Cassiopeiae are common in the tropical waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, but clinical cases of lesions by them are described only in the Caribbean. Hundreds of these beautiful jellyfish reclining in the shallow water with their mouthpieces upwards is a stunning sight.

Perhaps even more spectacular is the Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata, whose mouth blades bear many picturesque appendages of various shapes. Despite its beautiful appearance, with a closer acquaintance, this jellyfish hurts.

Catostylus (Catostylus mosaicus) is a bubble jellyfish, widespread in the Indian and Pacific oceans, outwardly similar to the Black Sea kornerot. Due to symbiotic algae, the dome of 25-35 cm in diameter is colored blue, yellow or brown.Eight long, powerful mouth lobes, densely covered with nematocysts, extend from it. Stinging activity depends on the season: for most of the year, jellyfish are harmless and cause only mild nettle itching, but during the reproductive period, touching them ends with severe burns and acute pain.
Stomolophus (Stomolophus nomurai) lives in the temperate waters of Japan, Korea and China. This is the most dangerous jellyfish in the Chinese region. Often large accumulations of stomolophus are carried by winds and currents in shallow water, and then it is better to stay away from the water.Stomolofus is easily recognizable by its numerous sand spots on a huge dome up to a meter in diameter. Some outstanding specimens weigh more than 100 kg (!), And their tentacles exceed a meter in length. Jellyfish usually infect the arms and legs of bathers and fishermen, leaving deep wounds with blisters and vesicles on them. Acute pain is accompanied by nausea, fever, blue discoloration, profuse sweating, and respiratory failure. Fatalities due to cardiac dysfunction have been known.
Corner jellyfish Lynchorhiza lucerna (Lynchorhiza lucerna), which lives in the tropical Pacific Ocean, causes moderate burns without disrupting the physiological activity of the body.


Their distinguishing feature is the constriction channel, which forms a kind of crown at the top of the dome.
Medusa lining (Linuche unguiculata) is called a “button” for its flattened cylindrical shape, brown body color and a small dome – 1-10 cm in diameter. The crown at the top of the dome is also flat and not even immediately visible. It dwells linearly in the tropical zone of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, from time to time forming giant clusters in the Caribbean Sea, where it terrorizes vacationers, fishermen, divers – everyone who is somehow connected with the sea.
Escaping tentacles leave deep wounds on the skin with blisters, vesicles and numerous eruptions that can last for more than a year. Other symptoms: sore throat and abdomen, cough, diarrhea, nausea and weakness.


The high umbrella of the box jellyfish has a characteristic four-sided shape, by which it is easy to recognize them. Four tentacles, simple or richly branched, extend from the transparent dome. Among the box jellyfish, there are many deadly ones.
Chironex (Chironex fleckeri), or sea wasp , is one of the most terrible sea creatures for humans: in 30 seconds it kills with a light touch of the tentacles. In terms of the length of the list of human victims, it can only be compared with the great white shark. The sea wasp has an angular dome, typical for box jellyfish, reaching a height of 22 cm – about the size of a human head! The whip-like tentacles are grouped into four symmetrical groups of 15 each, reaching a length of several meters and have a ring-like structure that allows them to contract and stretch up to 3 meters.The medium-sized tentacles contain 4 billion stinging cells charged with a highly toxic venom. The sea wasp is the fastest jellyfish in the world: with powerful, frequent pulsations of the bell, it can reach speeds of up to 10 km / h. Therefore, it is much more dangerous than other jellyfish, passively carried by water currents and streaming only by those who collided with them through their own negligence.
Sea wasps inhabit the tropical waters of the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans, reaching a particular abundance off the northern coast of Australia.They appear in shallow waters on calm summer days, when a light sea breeze blows, and masses of shrimps and small fish feed on the coast. Wasps prefer sheltered sandy coves in which they hunt, spreading their deadly tentacles in all directions. According to statistics, most of the victims (almost 80%) were stung when they stood knee-deep in water or when they just entered it. Therefore, the lower part of the body, especially the legs, is most often affected. A quick run or jump into the water – and the swimmer is instantly entangled in the tentacles, from which a large number of nematocysts are fired.The smaller the human body, and, consequently, the blood volume, the higher the concentration of the injected poison and the stronger its poisonous effect; in addition, the contact with the tentacles is denser on hairless skin than on covered with hair. For these reasons, the sea wasp is significantly more dangerous for women and children than for adult men.
Poisoning with sea wasp venom is unusually rapid, so they did not try to treat the affected people before, considering it useless. It has now been proven that even with multiple burns, correct cardiopulmonary resuscitation, combined with competent medical care, can save the victim’s life.Unfortunately, the ignorance of both local residents and visitors to the Indo-Pacific coconut islands, where most accidents occur, leads to the fact that people continue to die from year to year.
A person who has been stung by a sea wasp feels a sharp pain that causes the characteristic recoil reflex. The affected person reflexively grabs the sore spot, which causes burns on the hands. Often, the tentacles of the jellyfish stick to the skin, anchored in it by thousands of stinging threads. But even more nematocysts remain intact.They are ready to fire at any moment, dramatically increasing the poisonous effect. The tentacles leave terrible scars on the skin, followed by necrosis. By their number and length, one can at first glance determine the degree of damage and the severity of intoxication: for example, bloody traces of contact with 2-4-meter tentacles are usually associated with death. Causes of death – spasms of skeletal and smooth muscles, respiratory and cardiac disorders.
Antivenom for sea wasp, prepared from the serum of immunized sheep and rabbits, is now available in ampoules and has been successfully used in Australia.
Chiropsalmus quadrigatus, from the warm coastal waters of Australia and Indonesia, similar to a wasp but smaller in size; causes severe pain, dermatitis, tissue necrosis and respiratory distress. Fatalities are rare. Burn scars, however, remain for a long time.
Formidable jellyfish genus charybdis (Carybdea rastonii, C. marsupialis, C. alata and many others) are nondescript creatures with an umbrella 9-23 cm high and 5-15 cm wide and four simple thin tentacles.The zone of their habitat and “terror” covers the entire tropical belt, the West African coast and the Mediterranean Sea. Charybdis cause such acute pain that they are nicknamed “fiery jelly”. After a day, the traces of burning tentacles disappear, but in severe cases, deep scars remain on the skin, reminiscent of a romantic date with a jellyfish for a whole year.
The smallest charybdis of C. sivickisi, whose orange umbrella is only 10-12 mm in diameter, causes severe pain and blistering of the skin.The most interesting thing is that this tiny jellyfish is usually found by divers who make night dives. Apparently, she is attracted to them by the bright light of the lanterns.
Several species of box jellyfish, morphologically, ecologically and toxicologically similar to charybdis, cause the same symptoms in humans. The best known are two genera – tamoya (Tamoya haplonema, T. gargantua) and carukia (Carukia barnesi).
Small transparent undefined box jellyfish (presumably some charybdis and karukia) pierce the thin wetsuit and cause Irukandji syndrome.At first, the pain is felt weakly – as from a horsefly bite, but after 5-6 minutes it sharply intensifies, spreading in waves throughout the body, capturing the joints, back, hips, abdomen and head. Irukandji’s symptoms also include nausea, fast intermittent pulse, increased sweating, coughing, and difficulty breathing. In many cases, people were paralyzed underwater and survived only thanks to the timely rescue of fellow divers. Recovery occurs in 1-2 days, no special treatment is required.The strange name of the disease came from the name of a local tribe of aborigines who lived on the coast of Australia, where cases of defeat by unknown box jellyfish were first recorded.
Irukandji syndrome usually affects divers at depth, while other jellyfish attack surface bathers.

90,000 Scientists have figured out how to read the minds of jellyfish – Gazeta.Ru

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Despite the fact that jellyfish do not have a brain, scientists have figured out a way to read their visualized “thoughts”.Researchers from the United States and France genetically modified the tiny transparent jellyfish species Clytia hemisphaerica so that their neurons glow when activated, and using this light indication, they observed the joint work of cells during complex autonomous movements of jellyfish, such as grabbing and eating prey. An article about this was published in the journal Cell .

Jellyfish C. hemisphaerica is considered an ideal model for studying this behavior.They are so small – only about 1 cm in diameter – that their entire nervous system fits easily into a microscope objective. The transparent body contains only about 10 thousand neurons, which makes it easy to track all neural connections. The genome of these jellyfish is also pretty simple.

The nervous system of jellyfish was formed over 500 million years ago and has remained practically unchanged since then. Compared to the brains of modern animals, the neurons in these “living fossils” are arranged in a much simpler way. There is no centralized system coordinating all the movements of this creature, there is only an umbrella network that repeats the outlines of the body, and its individual fragments are able to work out the necessary functions.Each tentacle at the edge of the jellyfish’s bell-shaped body is connected to one of these fragments. When the tentacles of the jellyfish detect and capture prey, such as a shrimp, one can observe the sequence in which neurons are activated. First, neurons at the edge of the body send messages to neurons at the center, where the jaws of the jellyfish are. Then the edge of the body is tucked inward, towards the mouth, dragging the tentacle along with it. And the mouth, in turn, “points” to the incoming food. In the video, you can observe this behavior during the movement.

To find out which neurons specifically trigger the domino effect, the scientists removed a specific type of neuron, designated RFa +, that sits at the edge of the bell. When this was done, the asymmetric folding of the bell of the jellyfish inward and the transfer of the shrimp from the tentacles to the mouth did not occur. Thus, it turned out that it is the RFa + neurons that are responsible for the chemically induced folding of the edges of the jellyfish body. On the contrary, the movement of jellyfish proceeded in the same way as before, which means that other types of nerve cells are responsible for these functions.

90,000 the chief toxicologist of the Primorsky Territory spoke about the necessary measures for snake bites and jellyfish chirping – Vladivostok News on VL.ru

With the onset of a real summer heat, residents of Primorsky Krai and neighboring regions rushed to rest – some to the forest, some to the seas. In both cases, with insufficient care, it is possible to meet with the unpleasant representatives of the wild nature of the region. Cross jellyfish appeared in large numbers in the sea, and in summer cottages and in dense grass, snakes-snakes lurked.What to do if a jellyfish “stroked”, and is it possible to suck snake venom, said the chief toxicologist of the Primorsky Territory.

There are two summer troubles in the Primorsky Territory – jellyfish and snakes. With all the variety of poisonous species among them – one at a time. But both of them are well known. This is a cross jellyfish, a scientific gonionema, as well as an Ussuri shtomordnik. Other dangerous reptiles are not so widespread and are rare.

Gonionema, or cross jellyfish , is our endemic – a specific species.This is a small jellyfish, about 4 centimeters in diameter, in which a specific pattern in the form of a cross is visible inside the transparent body.

Head of the Department of Acute Poisoning at the Vladivostok Clinical Hospital No. 2, Chief Freelance Toxicologist of the Primorsky Territory Kirill Korostylev explains that jellyfish do not bite. Their interaction with other creatures is called “stinging”. And the substance that they secrete is not poison, therefore, directly due to the secretion of the jellyfish, there can be no lethal outcome.

“This is not poisoning, but the ingestion of a stinging jellyfish secret into a person and its further spread with a definite clinical picture. There are three main forms of reaction to jellyfish stinging: painful, cough and mixed. There is also a fourth – a local allergic reaction. This is when the jellyfish is weakened and its touch causes maximum local redness. The clinic is developing rather quickly. Within 40-50 minutes after contact with the jellyfish, aches begin all over the body, and it is very strong.In this case, a strong suffocating cough may immediately occur. It happens that one form stands out, but in 90% of cases, a person’s reaction is expressed in a mixed form, “says Kirill Korostylev.

Crops are found in well-warmed places, mainly in shallow water, where seagrass grows. These are the areas of De-Vries, the inner part of the Russian Island, Voevoda Bay and others. In the open sea, where there is a current and there is no grass, jellyfish are less common, but the doctor says: last year there were cases when patients came from boats that were quite far from the coast, but vacationers, while swimming, still encountered these marine inhabitants.

Home first-aid kits will not help with gonionema stinging, although antihistamines and antitussive drugs can slightly relieve symptoms. However, specialized blockers of jellyfish secretion, which are guaranteed to weaken the reaction, are only available in hospitals. These drugs suppress the mechanisms of the central cough reflex. In any case, with a strong reaction, you need to go to a medical facility – there toxicologists will either prescribe treatment or be hospitalized.

Fans of active water recreation say that a special nylon swimsuit called a stinger suit, or a simple neoprene wetsuit, can save from contact with a jellyfish.

There are no deaths from jellyfish chirping. Theoretically, death is possible with concomitant diseases – for example, immediately after a heart attack – but such cases have not been reported.

“In the presence of a very strong will and the greatest pain threshold, you can endure these states at home,” says Kirill Korostylev. – And there are such people: I stung, everything is clear, I went to endure. You can never say whether you were the first at the jellyfish today or the tenth. Alcohol strongly contributes to the spread of jellyfish secretions throughout the body.The propagation speed increases almost several times. <…> We are now in a period when activity is growing. At first there was no sun for a long time, now it appeared, warmed up the water and air. So now there are snakes and jellyfish. ”

Vacationers on land today can really lie in wait for such a danger as snakes. However, of all poisonous species in the wild nature of Primorye, only Ussuri shtomordnik is widespread – the smallest representative of this genus.All other snakes in our region are non-venomous, and there have been no deaths from their bites. However, no lethal outcomes have been recorded from the bite of the shitomordnik for more than 20 years.

Shitomordnik is about 65 centimeters long. He has a gray-brown body color, a large head with a rounded muzzle and a “frowning” look due to the peculiar arrangement of the supraorbital scales. It can shake its tail before attacking. But in general, these are pretty calm snakes that you can just get around.

However, if the shitomordnik still bit, then the first and only first aid is to immobilize the bitten limb.

“No suction and cauterization, no overtightening with a tourniquet, because otherwise all the poison accumulated in the tourniquet can cause tissue necrosis, suppuration will go. Therefore, the main rule when biting a snake is not to move the limb. The snake venom, the more you move, the faster it spreads. The limb must be fixed so that it moves as little as possible. The only problem is if you suddenly develop anaphylactic shock as a reaction to the protein of snake venom. In this case, resuscitation actions are already needed.But according to medical experience, people who are prone to anaphylaxis already keep adrenaline and hormones in their first-aid kits, ”says Kirill Korostylev.

If no sharp reactions happened, you need to go to the hospital. Hospitalization with a bite of the Ussuri shtomordnik is mandatory, because the poison moves through the body for 72 hours, destroying small blood vessels. The less movement, the slower it moves through the body. Poisons from other local snakes do not have such a strong effect – from their bite there may be a slight swelling and pain.

“In the Primorsky Territory there is no serum from the venom of a viper or, for example, gyurza – they will not help with the bites of the snake snake, and other poisonous snakes are found only in private terrariums. Serum from the poison of the shitomordnik does not exist, and there never was. There were complex serums from different types of poison, but since they caused serious complications, they refused to release and use them, ”the doctor explains.

When going to rest, it is better to put antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, in your medicine cabinet.They will help to delay the spread of the poison and reduce the possible reaction of the body.

In the hospital after being bitten by the mucosa, you will have to spend quite a lot of time: the arm is treated for two weeks, the leg – for up to a month.

“A huge request to citizens – do not run after snakes, do not take revenge on them. I have had patients who were bitten by a snake three times, because after the first bite they began to catch it. As a result, a bite in the arm, leg and face. We then treated half of the body in intensive care. Those edemas that occur are associated with the destruction of internal blood vessels.It is very painful, the joints stop working, the limb swells three times. If it is too late to apply, then here it is already necessary to look at the patient’s condition – surgeons will examine him. This has not happened in our practice yet, ”explains the toxicologist.

If a snake has bitten, then the sooner the victim gets to the doctors, the better. But the poison of the muzzle does not act instantly, and the victim has several hours in reserve – for example, to get to the hospital nearest to the resting place – is still there.

Given the current workload of ambulances, doctors recommend getting to the hospital on your own. The toxicology department of VKB No. 2 is now operating normally, despite the coronavirus pandemic. Today, several people have applied for chirping jellyfish, including a ten-year-old girl. But now there are no victims of snake bites – three patients received treatment and were discharged last week.

90,000 jellyfish can become a useful human ally – InoTV

Scientists are confident that jellyfish, which become a problem for both fishermen and tourists in European seas, are capable of becoming a human ally.As reported by Euronews, jellyfish will be able to help not only in water purification, they can be used as fertilizer, and also be eaten.

There are a huge number of jellyfish in European seas, which becomes a problem for both fishermen and tourists. Scientists from Slovenia believe that jellyfish can become a human ally and help purify water. How exactly? We’re looking for answers at sea.

The Slovenian part of the Adriatic coast is experiencing a real invasion of jellyfish – much to the disappointment of beach lovers.Experts say that such a revitalization of marine life is changing the ecosystem of the sea. They associate the invasion of jellyfish with global warming and fishing for fish that feed on jellyfish larvae. A word to the expert.

KATYA CLUN, Researcher: You see, she secretes mucus, a clear sign of stress. She wants to protect herself.

In collaboration with Israeli researchers, this laboratory is developing a prototype filter for a wastewater treatment plant.Jellyfish mucus is used as a filtering agent. Researchers are interested in the ability of a viscous liquid to retain plastic microparticles.

KATYA CLUNE: See how the takeover goes? The plastic particles are coated with mucus. We have to understand how sustainable this technology is. More research is needed, learning to be independent of seasonal fluctuations in jellyfish numbers, and possibly starting to breed them.

So, which is better: catching jellyfish or, perhaps, breeding them? Participants of the European research project GoJelly are looking for an answer to this question.Experts from different countries came to Slovenia to exchange best practices and discuss a further strategy. Today, jellyfish are dying, clogging up fishing nets, they are pulled out, then thrown into the sea.

JAMILEH JAVIDPUR, biologist: The world is looking for new resources, especially marine resources, we are talking about the so-called blue growth. The GoJelly project demonstrates the possibilities of using biomass in the context of a circular economy.

Researchers are considering using jellyfish as fertilizer.These marine inhabitants accumulate valuable trace elements from the water: phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium. How do I use them?

TORSTEN REISCH, fertilizer specialist: To begin with, jellyfish cannot be stored for a long time.