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Knee damage symptoms: Knee pain – Symptoms and causes


Restored Knee Function Transforms a Life, Inspires Family to Give Back

The Reibels have relied on Mayo Clinic for their care for 25 years. That experience has inspired them to donate to Mayo Clinic’s Center for Regenerative Medicine.

Even in retirement, Dr. and Mrs. Reibel — or Jay and Barbara as their friends at Mayo Clinic have come to know them — are always on the go. They travel the world and have been actively engaged in a host of civic and community organizations.

But chronic pain in both knees threatened Jay’s ability to continue his active lifestyle. Over time, it became almost debilitating. He had trouble climbing stairs or even sitting for long periods. He couldn’t make it through an opera — a favorite activity — without rubbing his knees in pain. It was a constant distraction and presented a serious challenge.

Doctors in New York City, close to the Reibels’ home in Greenwich, Connecticut, were unable to find an answer or relieve the pain. Jay knew he needed to go to Mayo Clinic.

Transformative relief

The Reibels have a 25-year patient history with Mayo Clinic that began with Robert Frye, M.D., a Mayo Clinic cardiologist who led what was then the Division of Cardiovascular Diseases from 1974 to 1984, as well as the Department of Medicine from 1987 to 1999. Their Mayo experiences have been overwhelmingly positive — so much so that they eagerly anticipate their appointments even in challenging circumstances.

“We love Mayo Clinic because from the very beginning of our experience, it’s been so welcoming,” Barbara says. “We actually look forward to our visits. People usually don’t look forward to going to hospitals or clinics.”

Jay had heard about regenerative medicine techniques, including the use of a patient’s own stem cells, to restore knee function and alleviate pain. Shane Shapiro, M.D., medical director of the Regenerative Medicine Therapeutics Suites at Mayo Clinic in Florida, was the first researcher in the emerging field to lead a study on the safety and efficacy of the technique. Jay inquired about the procedure and was referred for treatment.

“We love Mayo Clinic because from the very beginning of our experience, it’s been so welcoming.”

Barbara Reibel

The results were almost beyond Jay’s belief. “It was — and I don’t misuse the word or use it hyperbolically — transformative,” Jay says. “Within a week, I had significant pain relief. And it continues now.”

The effect of the procedure was immediately apparent to Jay’s family and close friends. “It would be really difficult watching him while he was in pain,” Jay’s daughter, Kate, says. “Now he’s able to do the things he loves to do again.”

A unique perspective

As a result of their numerous outstanding interactions with Mayo, the couple decided to express their gratitude by becoming benefactors. Supporting Mayo Clinic’s Center for Regenerative Medicine seemed like a natural fit. Before the Reibels committed to their philanthropic gift, however, they wanted to learn more.

Jay has a unique perspective based on his personal experience in medicine and business. Trained as a psychiatrist, Jay, early in his medical career, held several prominent positions on national and medical governing and advisory bodies, including the board of directors of Blue Cross-Blue Shield of Greater New York, the New York County Medical Society, and the American Psychiatric Association, as well as a presidential appointment to the advisory body for Medicare and Medicaid. Jay has applied his talent and experience to establish a system of high-quality private psychiatric hospitals. He also founded a publicly traded company that was the first managed care organization. His company grew to serve millions of people across the country.

Barbara also brought her unique perspective to studying the opportunity. During her career, she worked as a public health adviser for the former Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

“The focus on getting the discoveries from the laboratory to application to the patient is wonderful. I’m an example of that.”

Jay Reibel, M.D.

At Jay’s request, the Reibels spent two days at Mayo Clinic in Florida studying the Center for Regenerative Medicine from a clinical, organizational and business standpoint. They met with the clinic’s leaders, including Gianrico Farrugia, M.D., Mayo Clinic’s president and CEO — who was CEO of Mayo Clinic in Florida at the time — and Andre Terzic, M.D., Ph.D., the Michael S. and Mary Sue Shannon Family Director for the Center for Regenerative Medicine.

The Reibels spent time with researchers, visited laboratories and learned about the science behind new and emerging techniques that harness the body’s natural ability to heal. It was an introduction to what Mayo Clinic calls translational medicine — developments in the laboratory that are quickly translated to patient care improvements.

Something magical

“We were beyond impressed,” Jay says. “The research that we saw being done was explained to us in a clear manner that we could understand. The teams of researchers with whom we met all evidenced their commitment to the ethos of Mayo Clinic and its profound commitment to excellence.”

Perhaps most important of all, the Reibels saw the immense impact regenerative medicine will have in the future, spanning medical specialties to improve the lives of patients, as well as reducing the economic burden that many patients and society as a whole faces today.

“I appreciate the importance of what is happening in regenerative medicine, not only to the lives of people, but to the cost savings to the economy of the country,” Jay says. “The focus on getting the discoveries from the laboratory to application to the patient is wonderful. I’m an example of that.”

Through their experience becoming Mayo Clinic benefactors, the Reibels have forged new friendships with leaders and researchers they have met. “We value the personal relationships that we’ve developed,” Jay says. “They’re stimulating, meaningful and very enjoyable.

These relationships add a unique dimension to the Reibels’ experiences at Mayo Clinic, and they reflect Mayo’s commitment to values such as integrity, compassion and healing. It is apparent in every interaction, and it is what sets Mayo Clinic apart.

“There’s something magical about Mayo Clinic,” Barbara says. “It’s the staff, whether it be the top physicians, the nurses and physical therapists, or the clerks at the desk. Everyone we’ve encountered in all of our experiences has been so sweet and lovely and helpful. We can’t tell people enough how different Mayo Clinic is from any other medical institution with which we are familiar.”

A version of this story previously was published in
Mayo Clinic Magazine.


Tags: Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dr. Andre Terzic, Dr. Gianrico Farrugia, Dr. Robert Frye, Dr. Shane Shapiro, Research

Top 7 Most Common Symptoms and Causes of Knee Pain: Pennsylvania Orthopedic Associates: Orthopedic Surgeons

Knee pain is one of the most common pain conditions affecting adults, with nearly 40% of Americans surveyed saying they had disabling knee pain. The most common sources of knee pain are repetitive stress, injury, and age-related degeneration. At Pennsylvania Orthopedic Associates, we specialize in helping patients of all ages overcome knee pain from any cause.

Top 7 causes of knee pain

This list isn’t in a specific order because the top cause of knee pain varies with each patient’s age and activity level. For those who frequently engage in sports, ACL injuries are near the top of the list. In our older patients, degenerative changes are more likely to cause knee pain.

1. Fractures and dislocations

Fractures and dislocations are most often caused by high-energy trauma, such as a fall, contact sports, or a car accident. Knee fractures typically affect the kneecap, where they may occur due to an acute injury or develop gradually as a stress fracture.


Your knee can become dislocated when one or more of the ligaments are torn. Most knee dislocations develop when the anterior cruciate and posterior cruciate ligaments are damaged.

2. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

About 200,000 ACL injuries occur every year in the U.S. In nearly half of all cases, the ligament is completely torn, which requires immediate medical care. Additionally, in half of patients treated for an ACL injury, other parts of the knee are also damaged, like the meniscus, cartilage, or other ligaments.

The ACL is usually injured when you make certain movements during high-demand sports. For example, quickly changing your direction, suddenly stopping, pivoting, sidestepping, and landing a jump incorrectly often damage the ACL.

3. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury

PCL injuries are often caused by a blow to the front of your knee while it’s bent. This type of injury usually occurs during contact sports and car accidents.

4. Collateral ligament injury

You have two collateral ligaments, with one on each side of your knee, which control sideways movement. They’re damaged when you take a blow to the outside or inside of your knee. Injuries to the collateral ligaments tend to occur during contact sports like football and soccer.

5. Meniscus tears

The meniscus consists of two C-shaped pieces of cartilage on top of your shinbone. In addition to ensuring smooth movement between bones, this cartilage helps to stabilize your knee and absorb shock.

Twisting movements are most likely to tear the meniscus, but it’s also frequently injured during the same movements that lead to an ACL injury.

As you get older, degenerative changes may weaken the meniscus. You can easily tear a weak meniscus from normal, everyday movements.

6. Tendon tears

The patellar tendon covers your kneecap, travels up your thigh, and connects to the quadriceps muscle. It takes a strong force to tear this tendon, such as a fall or an awkward landing from a jump. Chronic inflammation and certain health conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, can weaken the tendons and make them susceptible to tearing from minor stress.

7. Osteoarthritis

Knee pain is caused by several types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout. However, osteoarthritis is the most common type of knee arthritis, as well as the most common knee disease.

Osteoarthritis occurs as years of repetitive knee movement, combined with the stress of carrying your body weight, lead to cartilage degeneration. When cartilage wears away, bone rubs against bone in the joint, causing pain, stiffness, and inflammation.

If you suffer a knee injury, you’re more likely to develop osteoarthritis. It’s estimated that 12% of all cases of knee osteoarthritis develop when cartilage is damaged during an injury.

Top 7 symptoms other than knee pain

Whether you suffer an injury or develop degenerative disease, you’ll experience pain. Your pain may be sharp and sudden, more like an aching or burning feeling, come-and-go, or bother you constantly.

Beyond pain, however, knee conditions cause other symptoms. Here are the seven most common symptoms other than pain:

  • Swelling, redness, or warm to the touch
  • Stiffness or restricted movement
  • Popping or clicking sounds and sensations
  • Locking of the knee joint
  • Inability to straighten your knee
  • Difficulty walking or an inability to bear weight on the knee
  • Knee instability or feeling like it’s moving from side to side

Many knee problems worsen and lead to chronic instability when you wait too long to get treatment. Some knee conditions won’t heal on their own. For these reasons, it’s important to call Pennsylvania Orthopedic Associates to schedule an exam when knee symptoms develop.

Knee Pain | Cedars-Sinai

Not what you’re looking for?

What is knee pain?

Your kneecap (patella) is a thick,
round bone that covers and protects the front (anterior) part of your knee joint.
moves along a groove in your thighbone (femur) as part of the patellofemoral joint.
layer of cartilage surrounds the underside of your kneecap. This layer protects it
grinding against your femur.

When this cartilage softens and
breaks down, it can cause knee pain. This is partly due to repetitive stress. The
irritates the lining of the joint. This causes pain in the underlying bone.

Knee pain is very common. It’s even
more likely to occur in highly active people who put a lot of pressure on their knees,
such runners. It affects women more often than men. You may also hear this type of
pain called patellofemoral pain, anterior knee pain, runner’s knee, or jumper’s

What causes knee pain?

Several different overlapping
causes help lead to knee pain. Some of these include:

  • Overuse of the knee joint
  • Misalignment of the patella and
    surrounding structures
  • Damage to small nerves in the
  • Damage to a ligament-like structure
    (retinaculum) that holds the patella in place
  • Degeneration of the bone under the
  • Inflammation in the soft tissues
    around the patella
  • Injury

Who is at risk for knee pain?

You might be at greater risk of
knee pain if you:

  • Exercise heavily, or have recently
    increased the intensity of your workouts
  • Have a body mass index greater than
  • Have poor alignment of your
  • Walk with your feet turned overly out
    or in
  • Have weakness in nearby muscle groups
    (such as weak inner quad or hip adductor muscles)
  • Have too much tightness in nearby
    muscle groups (such as tight hamstrings or iliotibial band)
  • Have a recent history of injury to the
  • Are female

You can’t change many of these risk
factors. Losing weight and correcting excess muscle tightness or muscle weakness may
help reduce your risk.

What are the symptoms of knee pain?

This type of knee pain is marked by
a dull, aching pain in the front of the knee in the area under and around the kneecap.
This pain may start quickly or slowly. Your pain might be worse when you squat, run,
sit for a long time. You might also sometimes feel like your knee is giving out. You
might have symptoms in one or both of your knees.

How is knee pain diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will begin
with a health history and ask about your other health problems as well as your current
symptoms. Describe any activities that make your knee pain worse.

You’ll have a thorough knee exam.
This will include tests of your range of motion, strength, and areas of soreness of
knee. Your provider will also assess your knee alignment. Your provider will need
rule out other possible causes of your knee pain, such as arthritis or instability.

Often, you won’t need any more
tests. If your diagnosis is unclear, you might need additional imaging tests to rule
other possible causes. These tests may include an X-ray or MRI.

How is knee pain treated?

Your healthcare provider might
suggest several different treatment strategies to help ease your symptoms. These might

  • Not doing activities that make your
    pain worse for a while, returning to activity only gradually.
  • Icing the outside of your knee when it
    causes you pain.
  • Taking over-the-counter pain
  • Wearing a knee brace or taping your
    knee to support it.
  • Wearing special shoe inserts to help
    keep your feet in the correct alignment.
  • Practicing special exercises to
    stretch and strengthen the muscles around your hip and your knee. Your provider or
    physical therapist can show you how.

These steps help most people manage
knee pain. Your healthcare provider might advise surgery if you still have significant
symptoms after 6 months of trying these other therapies. Depending on the underlying
cause of your knee pain, your provider might suggest one of several surgical options,
such as surgically realigning your kneecap. You can discuss all of your surgical options
with your orthopedic surgeon.

How can I prevent knee pain?

In some cases, you can prevent knee
pain. To help prevent a flare-up of knee pain, do the following:

  • Regularly so all the exercises your
    healthcare provider or physical therapist advises
  • Support your knee as advised by your
    provider or physical therapist
  • Ease up on your training when needed
    and increase your training slowly
  • Have an expert check your running
    stance or your stance for your sporting activity
  • Learn how to correctly stretch before
    and after exercise
  • Replace your running shoes

When should I call my healthcare provider?

If your symptoms don’t start to get
better after several weeks of treatment, see your healthcare provider. You may have
different kind of problem with your knee.

Key points about knee pain

  • Knee pain is a common health
    condition. Irritation to the tissue around the kneecap causes the condition. Too much
    repetitive stress makes knee pain much more likely to occur.
  • Your healthcare provider will likely
    be able to diagnose you with a simple health history and physical exam.
  • Most people respond to treatment such
    as pain medicines, ice, stretching and strengthening exercises, and not doing certain
    activities for a while.
  • In rare cases, some people need
    surgery to treat their condition.
  • Taking simple steps, such as doing
    your physical therapy exercises, may help prevent your symptoms from coming

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from
a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and
    what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down
    questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask
    questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a
    new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new
    instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment
    is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated
    in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is
    recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take
    the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment,
    write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider
    if you have questions.

Medical Reviewer: Thomas N Joseph MD

Medical Reviewer: Raymond Turley Jr PA-C

Medical Reviewer: Stacey Wojcik MBA BSN RN

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

Not what you’re looking for?

5 Knee Symptoms You Should Not Ignore

By: Drew Heideman PT/ATC and our Board Certified Orthopedic Physicians

Most people will experience knee pain at some point. Knee pain can certainly get in the way of working out, climbing stairs, and doing daily activities. So how can you know when it’s time to see a doctor about your knee pain? If caught soon enough, knee pain can be treated conservatively to reduce the risk of further injury. The Jacksonville Orthopaedic Institute has identified 5 knee symptoms you should not ignore. If you experience any of the following symptoms in your knee, you should consult an orthopedic physician.  If you would like to learn more about the Knee Ligaments, go to: https://www.joionline.net/library/show/knee_ligaments/

5 Knee Symptoms You Should Not Ignore 

5 Knee Symptoms You Should Not Ignore

  1. Clicking, locking, or popping in the knee joint.
  2. Swelling.
  3. Knee pain when sitting, driving, walking, sleeping, or exercising.
  4. Instability or a feeling of the knee giving way.
  5. Pain or stiffness which causes a decreased ability to bend or straighten the knee.

Anatomy of the Knee Joint

To learn more about the anatomy of the knee, go to this knee anatomy video.  The picture below features the muscles, tendons and ligaments of the knee joint. 

Knee Anatomy

Treatment for Knee Pain

The key to the treatment of knee injuries is early intervention. Oftentimes, patients wait too long to get evaluated for their condition and their injury progresses quickly. You should always take action if you have one of these 5 knee symptoms you should not ignore. If caught early enough, knee pain may be treated with physical therapy, pain management, medications, and exercise. 

Our JOI Orthopedic Knee Surgeons

The Board Certified experts at the Jacksonville Orthopaedic Institute (JOI) specialize in all types of knee conditions and can help you get on the road to recovery.  We have orthopedic physicians who specialize in the knee and treatment at all five of our clinical locations. Our orthopedic surgeons have years of experience and the latest diagnostic technology to diagnose the condition causing your knee pain. Once the condition is identified, your physician will develop a treatment plan tailored to your needs. Treatments can include physical or occupational therapy, home exercise programs, gait training, injections, pain management, medications, laser treatment, acupuncture, and surgical intervention. 

JOI specializes in all types of knee conditions. Our team is made up of physicians, physical therapists, and massage therapists, working together to provide you with the best comprehensive care. Our orthopedic knee physicians are board certified by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. 

Knee Orthopedic Surgeons

The JOI team believes in a full continuum of care for the treatment of the knee joint. This involves preparing our patients for a full return to their prior level of activities. For our athletes, our trained professionals will use protocols for a safe return to their sport. Our clinicians also use the Dartfish video analysis program to correct any bio-mechanical errors which might have contributed to the original injury. For our other patients, our clinicians will develop a program to gradually return them to normal activities.

Our orthopedic physicians specializing in the knee utilize the latest technologies and techniques from diagnosis to treatment. After the condition is identified, your physician will construct a treatment plan catered to your needs. JOI has knee-specific treatment protocols for knee conditions to provide the best outcomes. 

The 5 knee symptoms you should not ignore can indicate various knee pathologies or other serious medical conditions, including:

  1. Tendinitis.
  2. Osteoarthritis.
  3. Knee Ligament Sprains (ACL, MCL, PCL, LCL).
  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis.
  5. Jumper’s Knee.
  6. Cartilage or Meniscus Tears.
  7. Patellofemoral Injuries.
  8. Dislocation/Subluxation.
  9. IT Band Syndrome.
  10. Muscle Strains and Tendon Ruptures.

If you want to learn more about knee pain, go to: https://www.joionline.net/trending/content/knee-pain  

Physical Therapy for Knee Pain

The therapists and clinicians at JOI Rehab offer a unique type of orthopedic physical therapy for your knee pain.  Our clinicians work together with your JOI MD to provide a knee program specific to your injury.  If you have had surgery, we have tailor made post-operative protocols which we developed with your MD.  JOI Rehab has the most experience group of orthopedic based clinicians to help you achieve your rehab goals.  Your overall outcome is important to us! 

JOI Physicians and JOI Rehab are now offering Telemedicine or Virtual Visit Appointments and you can also schedule online.

  Our website medical library has several articles on all of the injuries listed below.  Please go to JOI Library or JOI Trending.

To schedule an appointment for physical therapy at one of the 12 JOI Rehab Centers, please call 904-858-7045.

If you are experiencing any of the 5 knee symptoms you should not ignore, early medical intervention can make a big difference in your recovery. The Jacksonville Orthopaedic Institute will provide the highest level of care to help you return to your normal, active lifestyle. To schedule an appointment with a orthopaedic knee specialist, call 904-JOI-2000, schedule online or click on the banner below.  

Lateral Knee Pain (Outside Of The Knee)

Chronic knee pain develops gradually over time through overuse, or following an acute injury which has not healed properly.

Iliotibial band syndrome

One of the most common causes of pain on the outside of the knee is Iliotibial band syndrome. It is also known as ITBFS or runners knee and is common in runners, cyclists and soldiers. Symptoms consist of:

  • Pain and inflammation on the outside of your knee.
  • Symptoms develop gradually, often occuring at roughly the same time into a run.
  • The pain usually eases with rest, only to return again when training resumes.

Lateral cartilage meniscus injury

A lateral meniscus tear is an injury to the cartilage meniscus. These are semi circular discs found in the joint. A torn meniscus can be a sudden onset, acute knee injury, or it can develop gradually from wear and tear. Symptoms include:

  • Pain on the outside of your knee, along the joint line.
  • Pain may be worse when squatting, especially deep squats.
  • More often than not your knee will be swollen and may also lock or give way.

Lateral ligament sprain

A lateral ligament sprain is a knee injury involving a tear to the ligament on the outside of the knee. Symptoms include:

  • Pain on the outside of the knee.
  • Swelling over the outside of the joint.
  • Symptoms can vary from being very mild to a complete rupture.

Patellofemoral pain

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is better known for causing pain at the front of your knee and around your patella (kneecap). It occurs when the patella is out of alignment and rubs on the femur bone underneath. Symptoms include:

  • An aching pain in the knee.
  • Tenderness and swelling which is mostly at the front of your knee around the patella.
  • Symptoms can also occur over the outside of your knee.
  • Pain is often worse when walking up and down hills, or when sitting for long periods.


Osteoarthritis is wear and tear of the knee joint. This results in degeneration of cartilage which lines and protects the ends of your bones. Eventually the bone will begin to wear away. Symptoms include:

  • A deep aching pain is felt, usually on the inside of the knee but can also affect the outside of the knee.
  • Symptoms are worse after exercise.
  • Joint swelling and/or joint stiffness is common.

Biceps femoris tendinopathy/tendinitis

Biceps femoris tendonitis is inflammation or degeneration of the hamstring tendon at the point where it inserts into the back of the knee. Symptoms include:

  • Tenderness and swelling at the back of the knee where the tendon attaches.
  • The back of the knee may feel still first thing in the morning, or after sitting for a long periods of time.


Synovitis is inflammation of the synovial membrane in the knee joint. The synovial membrane contains the synovial fluid which helps lubricate the knee. Symptoms include:

Referred knee pain

Pain on the outside of the knee may result from injuries and problems elsewhere in the body, particularly sciatic pain from the lower back and hip.

Knee Instability Symptoms & Treatment

Knee instability is the sensation of the knee twisting or moving from side to side when doing basic activities. It can result from a range of causes – most often a ligament injury.

Our orthopedic specialists can usually treat an unstable knee with nonsurgical solutions like physical therapy and medication. If knee surgery does become necessary, we offer the most advanced, minimally invasive surgical options available today.

Treatments for knee instability

What makes our approach to knee instability stand out from the rest? Our commitment to excellence at every stage of care. At Aurora, our orthopedic specialists offer:

  • Emphasis on prevention: If you have ongoing knee pain, an Aurora doctor will show you ways to avoid further injury. You can often prevent knee instability altogether with simple stretches and moderate exercise.
  • Seamless chain of care: We provide everything you need in a single, integrated health system. Our orthopedic specialists work closely with primary care doctors, integrative (holistic) medicine providers and physical therapists to offer personalized treatment options and a comprehensive approach to care.
  • Top-tier specialists: Our expert team includes over 70 orthopedic surgeons, many of whom are specially trained in specific areas of the body. For example, if your knee instability is serious, we have knee specialists who are experienced in the latest surgical techniques. Learn more about knee replacement surgery.

When should you see a doctor for knee instability?

If you experience any of these symptoms, see an Aurora orthopedist for a complete evaluation:

  • Mechanical symptoms such as locking, catching or clicking as you move or bend your knee
  • Twisting movements with a popping sensation
  • Frequent pain and an inability to straighten the knee

Is your hip and knee pain cause for concern?

Hip and knee pain doesn’t have to interfere with your life. Our hip and knee pain quiz evaluates your knees and hips, gauges the severity of any issues and gives you an idea what to do next based on your results.

Take the hip and knee pain quiz

What causes knee instability?

Injuries and other conditions affecting the knee can cause instability. Some common causes include:

Injuries to ligaments in the knee

  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, which can happen while playing sports
  • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury, also called a dashboard injury because it often occurs in car accidents
  • Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury

Knee osteoarthrosis

In knee osteoarthrosis, knee cartilage gradually wears down, causing pain, swelling and reduced mobility. This cause of knee instability is more common in older people.

Patellar instability

Patellar instability can lead to kneecap dislocation.

What to expect at your doctor’s appointment

Our orthopedists may suspect knee instability if your knee joint or the ligaments supporting it feel loose. The next step is to determine whether an injury or another knee condition is causing the shakiness.

During your visit, your Aurora doctor may:

  • Perform a physical exam to evaluate your knee movement and check for popping or other sounds
  • Discuss your medical history with you, including past injuries
  • Order X-rays or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan if they suspect a fracture or ligament or cartilage injury

Treatments for knee instability

Your treatment options depend on how severe the knee instability is. If you have a partial ligament tear, we can usually treat it without surgery. Nonsurgical treatments include:

  • Rest, ice and elevation to reduce pain and swelling
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which can also reduce pain and swelling
  • A knee brace to support the knee as it heals
  • Physical therapy to improve strength and mobility

If the ligament injury is more severe, you may need surgery. Learn more about knee surgery such as ACL surgery.

Other causes of knee instability

Our specialists offer a range of treatments for knee instability that’s caused by other conditions. Some of these conditions include:

  • Knee osteoarthritis: Knee osteoarthritis can often be treated with pain management options.
  • Patellar instability: Patellar instability can be treated by applying pressure to maneuver the kneecap back into position. This is often done with a knee brace and/or physical therapy.

Who is at risk for knee instability?

Knee instability often affects active people who use their knees strenuously, including:

  • Dancers
  • Athletes
  • Manual laborers

Knee Strain or Sprain | Orthopedic & Knee


While they both affect the knee joint, knee sprains and strains are separate conditions. A knee sprain causes damage to the knee’s ligaments, while a strain causes damage to the muscles or tendons.

Symptoms will vary depending on the type and severity of the injury, but may include swelling, tenderness and pain in the affected joint.

Many strains and sprains do not need medical attention and can be treated at home with rest, ice and over-the-counter pain-relievers. If you have extreme knee pain that is preventing you from walking or bending the knee, however, you should see a doctor immediately. 

Knee strain or sprain causes

Knee strains occur when a tendon or muscle in the knee is damaged, often from overuse or a sudden, dramatic increase of use of the knees.

Common causes of knee sprains include:

  • A fall, collision or other hit to the body, such as during a contact sport
  • Placing sudden, excessive weight on the knee joint
  • An abrupt twist of the knee joint

Knee strain or sprain risk factors

You may be at an increased risk of experiencing a knee sprain or strain if you:

  • Play contact or non-contact sports
  • Have impaired balance or coordination
  • Have muscle weaknesses or inflexibilities in the leg

Knee strain or sprain symptoms

Knee strains and sprains can range from moderate to severe, and symptoms will vary accordingly.

General symptoms of a knee strain or sprain include:

  • Swelling, pain and tenderness in and around the knee
  • Buckling of the knee
  • Trouble bending the leg

Symptoms of a knee sprain will further depend upon which ligament, or ligaments, have been torn.

Knee strain or sprain prevention

While some knee injuries result from accidents that are hard to prevent, you can reduce your risk of knee sprains or strains by:

  • Wearing proper, supportive footwear when exercising
  • Always warming up before exercising
  • Stretching and strengthening the leg muscles
  • Making changes to your exercise or training regimen incrementally, not suddenly

Knee strain or sprain diagnosis

When diagnosing a possible knee sprain or strain, your doctor will ask about how the pain started, including whether the pain started immediately following in injury, or developed gradually over time.

Your doctor will also examine the affected knee, looking for:

  • Swelling
  • Altered knee shape
  • Tenderness
  • Discoloration
  • Fluid in the joint

Your doctor may recommend the following imaging procedures as well:

  • X-ray
  • MRI scan
  • Arthroscopy

Knee strain or sprain treatment

After consulting a doctor, you can generally treat mild knee sprains and strains at home, by:

  • Resting, icing, compressing and elevating the joint
  • Taking over-the-counter anti-inflammatories, as needed
  • Following a physical therapy routine, provided by your doctor

Severe sprains may require additional measures such as surgery to repair the damaged tissues.  

When to seek care

Call your doctor if you are unable to walk due to knee pain, if you are unable to move the knee, or if you have extreme pain or swelling in the area.

Next Steps

Your doctor will assess your symptoms and provide a diagnosis and treatment plan accordingly.

Traumatology: Traumatic injuries of the menisci – diagnosis and treatment in St. Petersburg, price

Meniscus is a cartilaginous pad that acts as a shock absorber in the joint and also stabilizes the knee joint. With movements in the knee joint, the menisci are compressed, their shape changes. Meniscus tears are the most common knee injury, accounting for up to 75% of all closed injuries.

There are two types of knee menisci

  • external (lateral) is more mobile than internal, so its traumatic injuries occur less frequently.
  • internal (medial) is less mobile and is associated with the internal lateral ligament of the knee joint, which often causes its joint lesion with the ligament.

In front of the joint, they are connected by a transverse ligament. Menisci are easily damaged by minor lateral leg injuries, which are more common in men. Meniscus injury is one of the most common types of sports injuries.

Most often, surgical intervention is used to treat meniscus diseases.

On the side of the joint, the menisci are spliced ​​with the capsule of the joint and have a blood supply from the arteries of the capsule. The internal parts are deep in the joint and do not have their own blood supply, and their tissues are nourished due to the circulation of intra-articular fluid. Therefore, the damage to the menisci near the joint capsule grows together well, and the ruptures of the inner part deep in the knee joint do not grow together at all. Damage to the menisci occurs with sudden movements of the lower leg with a turn in the knee joint, but with a fixed foot.Less commonly, meniscus tears occur while squatting, jumping, and often the injury that caused the meniscus to rupture may be minor. In traumatology, the separation of the menisci from the place of attachment to the joint capsule and the rupture of the meniscus body are distinguished. When the meniscus is torn, the torn part retains its connection with the body of the meniscus. This is called a “watering can handle” meniscus tear. Meniscus tears and combined injuries are more common.

Traumatic injuries of menisci

They can also be combined with other injuries to the structures of the knee joint: lateral and cruciate ligaments, joint capsules.The torn off part of the meniscus associated with the body of the meniscus can move in the joint cavity and is infringed between the articular surfaces of the femur and tibia. Joint blockage occurs, manifested by sudden sharp pain and restriction of movement in the joint. Especially often, such a blockade occurs when the internal meniscus ruptures like a “watering can handle”.

Symptoms of damage to menisci

The patient complains of severe pain, impaired movement in the knee joint. Sometimes a meniscus rupture is accompanied by bleeding into the knee joint (hemarthrosis), but more often there is a reactive inflammation of the inner lining of the joint – synovitis . The patient keeps the leg bent because the pain increases with extension, especially if the joint has been blocked. When palpating, pain is found in the projection of the damaged meniscus, sometimes an elastic roller is palpated, which rolls over the outer surface of the joint space when the joint is extended.This symptom is called a click or roll symptom. With traumatic injuries of the menisci, joint blockade often occurs, while the patient is constantly disturbed by pain in the joint, which occurs on the opposite side of the injury, and difficulty in walking.


To exclude damage to bone structures, X-rays are taken. Meniscus tears are not visible in the images, since menisci are transparent to X-rays. More modern methods, which is magnetic resonance imaging, help to fully establish the diagnosis.

Treatment of meniscus injuries

Currently, the “gold standard” for meniscus injury is the performance of arthroscopy – examination of the joint cavity using a special optical system), during which, if possible, the damaged meniscus is sutured. If it is impossible to suture, as well as if damage is localized in the extravascular part, partial or complete removal of the meniscus (resection) is performed.

Among the internal injuries of the knee joint, injuries of the meniscus occupy the first place.Of these: 75% of patients with injuries of the internal meniscus, 21% with injuries of the external meniscus and 4% with injuries of both menisci.

Traumatic injuries of the menisci – clinic In good hands

Menisci are formations of the cartilaginous structure that are involved in the formation of the knee joint. They are located on the tibial condyles.

Menisci perform the following functions:

  • shock absorption of the knee joint;

  • load sharing;

  • Distribution of sensory functions providing a sensation of the position of the knee joint in space and stabilizing it together with ligaments, muscles and tendons.

Causes of damage

Damage to the meniscus, its rupture occurs as a result of various mechanisms. The main one is twisting the hip inward or outward in relation to the fixed lower leg. With movements in the knee joint, the menisci are compressed, their shape changes. Due to the fact that the menisci are represented by cartilaginous tissue, the blood supply in them is weak, mainly along the edges of the menisci. This leads to the fact that the healing of menisci with their injury, for example, rupture, occurs extremely slowly.

There are two menisci of the knee joint: the outer (lateral) one is more mobile than the inner one, so its traumatic injuries occur less frequently; the internal (medial) one is less mobile and is associated with the internal lateral ligament of the knee joint, which often causes its joint lesion with the ligament. In front of the joint, they are connected by a transverse ligament.

Menisci can tear in different directions: along or across. In addition, the meniscus may delaminate. If the tear is small and mechanically stable (when the torn part does not move in the joint), there is a sensation of pain and constant swelling of the knee joint.

Easily damaged by minor lateral leg injuries. Meniscus tears are the most common knee injury, accounting for up to 75% of all closed injuries. This injury is more common in men.


The patient complains of severe pain, impaired movement in the knee joint. Sometimes a meniscus rupture is accompanied by bleeding into the knee joint (hemarthrosis), but more often there is a reactive inflammation of the inner lining of the joint – synovitis. The patient keeps the leg bent because the pain increases with extension, especially if the joint has been blocked.When palpating, pain is found in the projection of the damaged meniscus, sometimes an elastic roller is palpated, which rolls over the outer surface of the joint space when the joint is extended. This is called a click or roll symptom.

To exclude damage to bone structures, X-rays are taken. Meniscus tears are not visible on them, since menisci are transparent to X-rays. X-rays with contrasting of the joint help to fully establish the diagnosis, but more modern methods are magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound of the knee joint or arthroscopy (examination of the inner surface of the joint with an arthroscope).As a first aid, anesthesia is performed, a splint is applied, and the patient is transported to a trauma hospital.

Symptoms of damage to the inner meniscus of the knee joint:

  • pain on the inner side of the knee joint;

  • point sensitivity over the place of attachment of the ligament to the meniscus;

  • painful lumbago under tension;

  • Knee blockade;

  • pain along the tibial collateral ligament with hyperextension and turning the lower leg outward with the leg bent at the knee;

  • pain with excessive flexion of the leg;

  • synovitis;

  • Weakness of the muscles of the front of the thigh.

Symptoms of damage to the outer meniscus of the knee joint:

  • pain with tension along the peroneal collateral ligament, radiating to the outer part of the knee joint;

  • Knee blockade;

  • pain along the peroneal collateral ligament with hyperextension and excessive flexion and rotation of the lower leg inward;

  • Weakness of the muscles of the front of the thigh.


Treatment of traumatic injuries of the menisci in the medical center “In Safe Hands” is carried out according to the following scheme: a puncture of the joint is performed with the introduction of anesthetic and anti-inflammatory drugs, then the restrained meniscus is adjusted with special techniques in the patient’s position lying on the orthopedic table (with the surgeon the traumatologist makes movements that are opposite to the movements that led to the injury).When the meniscus falls into place, movement in the joint is restored. After the meniscus has been repositioned, a plaster cast is applied to the injured leg with the knee joint bent at a certain angle.

The immobilization period is 3 weeks, after which physiotherapy and physiotherapy exercises are prescribed. If the patient has recurrent joint blockages, the condition is called chronic meniscus injury. In this case, inflammation of the inner lining of the joint usually occurs – synovitis, there is constant pain in the joint, aggravated by walking, especially when going down the stairs.Sometimes a “articular mouse” appears.

“Articular mouse” is a free body in the joint cavity, which is formed as a result of the detachment of a piece of articular cartilage, a part of the meniscus, marginal osteophyte (bone growth). This condition leads to frequent blockage of the joint, therefore, the “articular mouse” must be removed surgically.

In case of traumatic injuries of the menisci, if it is not possible to remove the blockade of the joint (or blockade of the joint occurs frequently), the patient is constantly worried about pain in the joint, difficulty in walking, surgical treatment is required.To date, the best solution is arthroscopic surgery . With the help of endoscopic technique, the inner surface of the joint is first examined and the question of the scope of the operation is decided. Then the damaged meniscus is removed. After the operation, a tight bandage or plaster cast is applied to the leg. Important conditions for recovery are early therapeutic exercises and physiotherapy .

Knee injury – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Injury of the knee joint – damage to the soft tissues and bone structures that form the knee joint.Refers to the category of common injuries. It can vary significantly in severity – from mild bruises to intra-articular fragmented and multi-splinter fractures. Most often occurs when falling or hitting the knee. It is accompanied by swelling, pain, and limitation of movement. Hemarthrosis is usually observed. For diagnostics, X-ray, ultrasound of the joint, arthroscopy, CT, MRI and other studies are used. Therapeutic tactics depend on the type of damage.


Knee injury is one of the most common injuries due to the high stress on this segment and its anatomical features.Most injuries are minor, occur in everyday life (for example, when falling on the street) and are subject to outpatient treatment in a trauma center. In addition, the knee joint is often affected by various sports, and the severity and nature of the injury can vary greatly.

Less common in traumatology are knee injuries as a result of falls from a height, road traffic and industrial injuries. In such cases, the percentage of intra-articular fractures with a violation of the integrity of the joint structures increases.Treatment is usually carried out in a trauma department. Combinations with other injuries are possible: craniocerebral trauma, fractures of the bones of the trunk and limbs, as well as ruptures of hollow and parenchymal organs.

Injury of the knee joint

Injury of the knee joint

Injury of the knee joint is a soft tissue injury in which there are no signs of a violation of the integrity of any anatomical structures. However, at the microscopic level, with bruises, not only the skin and subcutaneous tissue suffer, but also the intra-articular elements, which causes the phenomena of reactive inflammation, the formation of hemarthrosis or synovitis.Signs of injury are nonspecific and can be detected with other injuries, therefore, the diagnosis is made after excluding other injuries.

The victim complains of pain. The joint is slightly or moderately swollen, and bruising is often detected on the skin. The support is usually preserved, there may be limited movement and slight lameness. When palpating, pain is determined in the area of ​​injury. Palpation of ligaments and bone elements is painless, there are no signs of pathological mobility. Often, fluid accumulates in the joint (in the first days – blood, from 2-3 weeks – effusion).

To exclude other injuries of the knee joint, the victim is referred for radiography. Sometimes an MRI, ultrasound, CT scan of the knee, or arthroscopy is done. Treatment is carried out in a trauma center. With hemarthrosis and synovitis, joint puncture is performed. For light bruises, rest is recommended, for severe bruises, plaster is applied for 2-3 weeks. On the first day, it is advised to apply cold to the knee; from the third day, patients are sent to UHF. Regular examinations are prescribed, according to indications, repeated punctures are performed.The period of incapacity for work ranges from 2 to 4 weeks.

Ligament damage

Ligament damage can be complete or partial. The medial ligament suffers when the lower leg is tucked outward, the lateral ligament when it is tucked inward. Injuries to the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL) are formed during direct impacts and complex multicomponent effects, for example, hyperextension or turn of the thigh with a fixed lower leg. Similar injuries of the knee joint are often detected in athletes (wrestlers, hockey players, athletes).Other reasons include accidents at home, road accidents and falls from a height.

At the moment of injury, the victim feels intense pain. The rupture of the PCL is often accompanied by a click; when the PCL breaks, the click is usually absent. The patient complains of joint instability, a feeling of displacement of the lower leg during movement. The examination reveals swelling and hemarthrosis. When the PCS ruptures, hemarthrosis may be absent, since with such injuries, the posterior part of the joint capsule sometimes breaks at the same time, blood pours out into the popliteal fossa, and then spreads through the interfascial spaces.

Feeling accompanied by sharp pain. With injuries of the medial and lateral ligaments, lateral pathological mobility of the lower leg is determined, with ruptures of the cruciate ligaments, symptoms of the anterior and posterior drawer are revealed. In the acute period, studies are carried out after local anesthesia; with an old injury, preliminary anesthesia is not required. After the acute symptoms subside, signs of joint instability persist. To avoid constant “twisting”, patients are forced to fix the leg with an elastic bandage.Over time, muscle atrophy develops, signs of post-traumatic arthrosis appear.

On radiographs of the knee joint, unevenness of the joint space is revealed. On an MRI of the knee joint, a violation of the integrity of the ligament is determined. The most informative diagnostic method is arthroscopic examination, which allows you to visually assess the condition of the ligament, and in some cases, to restore its integrity. Treatment for tears is usually conservative. A joint puncture is performed, a plaster cast is applied for 3-4 weeks., if possible, deviating the leg towards the injured ligament. Subsequently, exercise therapy and massage are prescribed. In case of ruptures, surgical treatment is usually required – stitching or plastic ligament. After restoring the integrity of the ligament, physiotherapeutic procedures are prescribed, and rehabilitation measures are carried out.

Rupture of the tendon of the quadriceps muscle and the patella’s own ligament occurs as a result of a blow or sharp flexion of the lower leg with tense thigh muscles. Intense pain and gait disturbance appear, the patient’s leg bends when walking.The patient cannot lift a straightened leg. Hemarthrosis is absent. Palpation of the injured area is painful, there are no signs of pathological mobility, and the feeling of bone structures is painless.

Knee injury is diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs, if necessary, the patient is referred for MRI. In case of tears, immobilization is carried out for 3-4 weeks, then physiotherapy, massage, exercise therapy and water procedures are prescribed. In case of ruptures, surgical intervention is indicated – a suture of a tendon or ligament.After surgery, analgesics, antibiotics, and physical therapy are prescribed. Be sure to carry out exercise therapy to prevent the development of contracture of the knee joint, maintain muscle tone and strength.

Meniscus injury

Meniscus injury is another common knee injury that often occurs in athletes (skaters, hockey players, skiers, track and field athletes). It is often detected in dancers, ballet dancers and people engaged in hard physical labor. Without a previous traumatic effect, it is sometimes formed with gonarthrosis.The severity of a knee injury can vary greatly, with both small tears and complete meniscus tears or crush injuries. In some cases, there is a combination with damage to other structures of the joint.

In the acute period, the symptoms are nonspecific: there is pain, swelling, limited movement. Fluid is found in the joint. After 2-3 weeks, the symptoms of acute inflammation subside, and the signs of damage to the meniscus become more vivid. At the level of the joint space, palpation reveals a painful ridge.Re-blockade of the joint is noted, recurrent synovitis is possible. A number of characteristic symptoms are determined: Perelman’s symptom (pain when going downstairs), Steiman’s symptom (pain during rotational movements of the bent lower leg), Landau’s symptom (pain when sitting in a Turkish position), etc.

Radiography for this injury knee joint is uninformative and is performed to exclude other injuries. For diagnostics, MRI and arthroscopy of the knee joint are used, less often – ultrasound of the knee joint.Therapeutic tactics are determined by the type and extent of damage. With small tears, conservative therapy is performed. For extensive ruptures with repeated blockages, synovitis and pain, surgical intervention is indicated. The operations of choice are suturing and resection of the meniscus. Complete removal of the meniscus is carried out only in extreme cases (with crush injury, multiple and / or severe ruptures), since after such an operation the likelihood of developing arthrosis increases.

Knee fractures

A patellar fracture occurs when a person falls on the anterior surface of the knee.It is accompanied by intense pain, swelling, hemarthrosis and the inability to keep a raised straight leg. Support is difficult or impossible. On palpation of the patella, a “gap” can be determined – diastasis between the fragments, which is formed due to contraction of the quadriceps muscle. The diagnosis is confirmed by X-ray of the knee. Treatment of fractures without displacement is conservative – immobilization for 6-8 weeks. For fractures with displacement, surgery is indicated, during which the fragments are pulled together and connected with a special wire.Then physiotherapy, massage, exercise therapy and pain relievers are prescribed. The recovery period ranges from two to three months.

Fractures of the lower leg and femur condyles are among the most severe injuries of the knee joint. Formed as a result of high-energy impact. Usually accompanied by damage to other structures (ligaments, menisci). They are often observed as part of a concomitant injury. Manifested by acute pain, significant swelling, hemarthrosis and knee deformity. Movement is impossible.On palpation, crepitus is sometimes determined. Treatment is usually conservative: skeletal traction or plaster cast. With a pronounced displacement, osteosynthesis of fragments is performed with screws, a plate or tie bolts. Patients are prescribed exercise therapy and physiotherapy procedures, during the recovery period, rehabilitation measures are carried out.

Treatment of the knee joint

Injury of the knee joint – damage to the soft tissues and bone structures that form the knee joint.Refers to the category of common injuries. It can vary significantly in severity – from mild bruises to intra-articular fragmented and multi-splinter fractures. Most often occurs when falling or hitting the knee. It is accompanied by swelling, pain, and limitation of movement. Hemarthrosis is usually observed.

For diagnostics, X-ray, ultrasound of the joint, arthroscopy, CT, MRI and other studies are used. Therapeutic tactics depend on the type of damage.

As first aid in case of a knee joint injury, it is necessary to give the patient pain relievers and immobilize the knee joint with a splint and take the victim to a specialized medical institution for further examination and provision of highly qualified medical care.

Injury of the knee joint occurs most often among injuries of the musculoskeletal system in humans in general and in athletes in particular. Injuries to the capsular-ligamentous apparatus of the knee joint in athletes account for approximately 60-68% of all injuries. This occurs due to the fact that the knee joint is the largest human joint; it is a supporting joint, and also has a rather complex configuration and movements in it occur in three mutually perpendicular planes.

Injury to the knee joint is most common in young people of active age, involved in physical culture and sports. Persons who do not play sports professionally, as a rule, suffer injuries of the knee joint due to simultaneous acute injury.

In athletes, injuries of the knee joint occur after a significant simultaneous load on the joint or after constant overload – microtraumatization.

Stability of the knee is provided by dynamic and static stabilizers .

The first are muscles and tendons;

to the second – the capsule of the joint, ligaments, menisci and bones.

Internal articular structures play the most important role in ensuring the stability of the joint:

menisci (medial, lateral) and

ligaments: (anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate).

In a normally functioning joint, these structures interact with each other to provide a balance between freedom of movement and stability – the stability of the joint.

If at least one of the links that ensure the stability of the joint is damaged, an imbalance occurs in their interaction, which leads to instability of the joint. This, in turn, leads to changes in the functioning of the joint – the occurrence of pain, impaired movement and stability of the joint, overload of certain parts of the joint.

Late diagnosis and inadequate methods of treatment of patients (especially athletes) with damage to the intra-articular structures of the knee joint leads to the occurrence and progression of degenerative-dystrophic changes in the joint, which, in turn, lead to partial or complete disability and, in some cases , disability of patients.

Injuries of the knee joint can occur when a force is applied forward on the posterior surface of the knee joint with the lower leg flexed or rotated (inward or outward) fixed.

In this case, not isolated intra-articular damage (such as damage to the meniscus or ligament) is more common, but their combined damage, for example: “unfortunate triad” (rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament, rupture of the internal (collateral tibial) lateral ligament and rupture of the external (lateral ) meniscus.

In this case, these injuries can be accompanied by avulsion fractures of the bone plates at the points of attachment of the ligaments or a fracture of the intercondylar eminence, which greatly complicates subsequent treatment. It is worth noting that most often cruciate ligament ruptures occur in athletes during the game of football , as well as during the skiing .

In case of injury to the knee joint, severe pain occurs. Bleeding occurs in the joint (hemarthrosis).The joint increases in size. The symptom of “ballot” of the patella is revealed. Later, there is a feeling of instability, laxity in the knee joint, or a feeling of blockage in the joint.

The main method for diagnosing damage to the intra-articular structures of the knee joint ( menisci, anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, etc. ) is MRI examination The reliability of this type of research is about 98,051 98%.

It is worth noting the fact that MRI of the knee joint should be performed on MRI machines with a power of more than 1 Tesla, while less powerful MRI machines do not provide the necessary reliability of the study, which can lead to setting the wrong diagnosis .

It is necessary to warn patients that ultrasound examination allows diagnosing only damage to the menisci, as well as the lateral ligaments of the knee joint and not informative when diagnosing injuries of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments !!!

The main clinical symptoms of damage to the intra-articular structures of the knee joint, which every doctor who deals with this problem should be able to check, are the symptoms of “Landa”, “Turner”, “Perelman”, “McMurray”, “Bragard”, “Stedman”, ” Lachman test, “front and rear drawer symptom”, and “Pivot Shift”.It is worth noting that in the acute period, all these symptoms can be negative or false-positive due to a sharp pain syndrome.

Knee injury.

These simple principles can help you relieve pain, swelling and reduce the likelihood of future complications.

  1. Rest. Complete unloading, walking on crutches and no more than 100 steps per day without crutches. It is necessary to reduce the load on the sore knee as much as possible. Protection of the injured knee with a cut, knee pad or splint.Full stop, you need to take a break from any activity associated with stress, which may cause pain. In bed, you should place a small orthopedic pillow under the knee.
  2. Ice will reduce pain and swelling. The use of ice or cold compresses is indicated immediately, at the first time after the injury, but not later than 12 hours, in order to prevent or minimize swelling. Apply ice or cold compress for 20 to 30 minutes, 3 or more times a day.
  3. During the first 48 hours after an injury, avoid activities that could increase the swelling, such as hot showers or baths, hot compresses, or alcoholic beverages.
  4. Creates light, even compression. You can use an elastic knee pad, compression hosiery, or bandaging an injured knee with an elastic bandage, creating a disposable, compression bandage, is also considered advisable. This will help reduce swelling by using gentle compression. Do not bandage too tightly, as this can lead to more swelling below the affected area. In case of increasing swelling, the bandage should be loosened, also if it becomes too tight for you.Signs that the dressing is too tight include tingling, increasing pain, and swelling in the area below the dressing.
  5. If the knee is locked, do not try to unlock it yourself.
  6. While lying or sitting in bed, create an elevated position for the injured knee on an orthopedic or regular pillow.

Try to keep the knee area at or above the level of the heart to minimize the likelihood of edema.After that, the patient should seek help from a specialized center for consultation.

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Injury of the knee joint

Injury of the knee joint

Injury of the knee joint – damage to the soft tissues and bone structures that form the knee joint.

Common. Occurs when falling or hitting the knee joint.The knee joint is often affected by various sports, and the severity and nature of the injury can vary greatly.

Accompanied by severe swelling, intense pain and significant limitation of movement. Hemarthrosis is often observed.

Diagnosis of damage to the knee joint:

  1. Radiography
  2. Ultrasound
  3. Computed tomography
  4. MRI examination
  5. Arthroscopy

Knee contusion:

Injury of the knee joint is a soft tissue injury in which there are no signs of a violation of the integrity of the anatomical structures.However, with bruises, not only the skin and subcutaneous tissue suffer, but also the intra-articular elements, which causes the phenomena of reactive inflammation, the formation of hemarthrosis or synovitis.

Symptoms of a bruised knee joint:

  1. Pain
  2. Edema
  3. Skin bruising
  4. Slight movement restriction present

Treatment of contusion of the knee joint:

  1. Resting the leg
  2. Physiotherapy
  3. Manual therapy, osteopathy
  4. Acupuncture
  5. Hirudotherapy
  6. Puncture of the knee joint (in the presence of hemarthrosis)

Injury to the ligaments of the knee joint:

Ligament damage can be complete or partial.

The medial ligament suffers when the tibia is tucked outward, the lateral ligament when tucked inward. Injuries to the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL) are formed during direct impacts and complex multicomponent effects, for example, hyperextension or turn of the thigh with a fixed lower leg.

Similar injuries of the knee joint often occur in athletes (wrestlers, hockey players, athletes).

Symptoms of damage to the ligaments of the knee joint:

  1. Intense and sharp pain
  2. Feeling of instability of the knee joint
  3. Knee swelling and hemarthrosis (common but not always)

Diagnosis of damage to the ligaments of the knee joint:

  1. Inspection by a specialist
  2. MRI examination
  3. Arthroscopy

Treatment of knee ligament injuries:

  1. Resting the leg
  2. Fixation of the knee joint with an elastic bandage
  3. Physiotherapy
  4. Manual therapy and osteopathy
  5. Acupuncture
  6. Remedial gymnastics under the supervision of a specialist
  7. Surgical intervention for rupture of ligaments with subsequent rehabilitation of the above methods of treatment and recovery
  8. Puncture of the knee joint in the presence of hemarthrosis

Meniscus damage:

Meniscus injury is another common knee injury that often occurs in athletes (figure skaters, hockey players, skiers, track and field athletes).It is often detected in dancers, ballet dancers and people engaged in hard physical labor. The severity of meniscus injury can vary, with both small tears and complete meniscus tears or crush injuries. In some cases, there is a combination with damage to other structures of the joint.

Symptoms of damage to menisci:

  1. Severe knee pain
  2. Swelling of the knee
  3. Severe limitation of movement in the knee joint
  4. Fluid detected in the joint
  5. Palpation of the knee joint after some time reveals a painful ridge
  6. Severe pain when descending stairs and when sitting “in Turkish”

Diagnosis of damage to menisci:

  1. MRI examination
  2. Arthroscopy
  3. Ultrasound

Treatment of meniscus damage:

  1. Surgical intervention for complete meniscus tears or, if necessary, to replace them; further – rehabilitation with the following methods of treatment and recovery
  2. Resting the leg
  3. Fixation of the knee joint with an elastic bandage
  4. Physiotherapy
  5. Manual therapy and osteopathy
  6. Acupuncture
  7. Remedial gymnastics under the supervision of a specialist

Knee fractures:

Fracture of the patella is formed by a fall on the anterior surface of the knee.

Symptoms of a fracture in the knee joint:

  1. Intense pain
  2. Swelling
  3. Hemarthrosis
  4. Inability to raise the leg in a straightened position

Diagnosis of fractures in the knee joint:

  1. Inspection by a specialist
  2. Radiography

Treatment of fractures in the knee joint:

  1. Long-term immobilization of the leg (from 6 weeks)
  2. Surgical intervention in cases of displaced fractures
  3. Mandatory rehabilitation:

    – physiotherapy

    – manual therapy, osteopathy

    – Remedial gymnastics

    – acupuncture

Meniscus injury | Rupture of the meniscus | Meniscus injury treatment

Damage to the meniscus is difficult to diagnose, as its symptoms are similar to those of other knee diseases – sprains, severe bruises, arthrosis.

Only an examination by a traumatologist in Kaluga will help to make an accurate diagnosis.

Types of meniscus damage.

The following types of meniscus damage are distinguished:

  • detachment of cartilage from the site of attachment;
  • Excessive mobility of cartilage;
  • chronic trauma and degeneration;
  • cystic degeneration of cartilage, usually the external meniscus of the knee suffers;
  • rupture of the inner part of the cartilage body, posterior and anterior horns.

In our center, knee meniscus surgeries are performed. In order to find out about prices, as well as details of the operations or make an appointment, contact us in any way convenient for you.

In meniscus disease, two periods are distinguished – acute and chronic.

Symptoms of meniscus injury in the acute period:

  • knee pain;
  • limited movement: a person cannot bend and straighten the knee;
  • if the damage has affected the blood vessels, hemarthrosis occurs – the accumulation of blood in the joint;
  • symptoms of a meniscus rupture are manifested by severe pain – a person cannot step on his foot.

In 2-3 weeks after damage to the meniscus, the chronic period of the disease begins.

During it, the following symptoms appear:

  • severe knee pain;
  • painful cushion at the level of the joint space;
  • effusion – fluid that is released from small blood vessels during inflammation of the knee meniscus;
  • immobility of the knee joint;
  • muscle atrophy of the leg and thigh;
  • people with difficulty climb and descend the stairs;
  • the knee joint increases in volume;
  • when bending the knee, a click is heard;
  • in the area of ​​the joint the temperature is increased;
  • decreases in muscle tissue nutrition;
  • sports cause pain.

90,000 Meniscus (knee) rupture: symptoms, treatment

Deep squats, forced flexion and extension of the knee joint, jogging with a sharp turn and many other reasons can damage the knee joint.

About such a serious injury as a meniscus rupture, we talked with the traumatologist-orthopedist of the “Expert Clinic” Irkutsk Ivan Viktorovich Kalashnikov.

– Ivan Viktorovich, what are menisci and where are they located?

– Menisci are C-shaped (crescent-shaped) cartilage elements of the knee joint.There are two of them: external and internal. Menisci are, so to speak, the spacer between the femur and the tibia.

– What is the role of menisci in the joint?

– They have a cushioning and stabilizing role. Menisci supplement the articular surfaces, increase the congruence of the joint (that is, the mutual correspondence of the articular surfaces), soften the sharp jolts.

Thanks to the menisci, the contact area of ​​the articular surfaces increases, which contributes to a more even distribution of the load.This way the joint wears out less.

– Ruptured meniscus of the knee joint – what does this mean?

– This is a violation of the integrity of the meniscus tissue. When the joint moves, the meniscus resists this movement. It stands still, and the articular part of the bone slides over it. The meniscus itself does not have nerve endings, but if the integrity of the meniscus is violated during movement, the torn off part is displaced, which leads to tension of the joint capsule at the place of insertion of the meniscus and causes pain.

– What could be causing the damage?

– The reasons for the meniscus rupture are most often unprepared forced actions: sharp bends and extensions, squats more than 90 degrees, running with a sharp turn, squatting, etc. If the muscle frame does not have time to prepare for stabilizing the knee joint, then in addition to compression ( compression), a sliding twisting movement, and a displacement of the meniscus tissue is also obtained. And here, of course, a break occurs.Injuries can also be caused by falls, blows to the knee, and degenerative disorders of the meniscus tissue.

– What are the symptoms of a ruptured meniscus?

– Basic – pain and limitation of movement in the joint. Edema may appear, synovitis may develop. This can be seen visually, and patients usually feel that fluid has accumulated in the joint.

– How to identify a ruptured knee meniscus?

– Methods for diagnosing meniscus ruptures, in addition to symptoms and anamnestic data, include X-ray, ultrasound, MSCT and MRI.

X-ray examination does not show cartilaginous tissue, evaluating only bones, but we carry it out in order to exclude pathology similar in manifestations. MSCT is also used when in doubt when there is suspicion of bone damage. Ultrasound diagnostics is used when more accurate methods are not available. It allows you to see far from all structures.

Magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to visualize in sufficient detail the soft tissue components (ligaments, menisci, cartilage, etc.)etc.). What we see in the future during operations almost completely coincides with the data obtained using MRI. The “gold standard” is X-ray plus MRI. Such an examination is carried out only after the examination by a doctor.

– What are the treatments for a meniscus tear?

– Methods of treatment, as in all medicine, are divided into two groups: conservative and operational. The answer to the question of whether treatment is possible without surgery depends on the type of meniscus tear.If there is a restriction of movement in the joint due to a mechanical block, then using special techniques, manual reduction is performed, eliminating this block. After that, the limb is immobilized (immobilized) in a straight position either with a plaster splint or with a rigid splint (orthosis) for four weeks. This is possible only with certain types of rupture, which can heal themselves.

Knee arthroscopy

But most often the meniscus itself does not grow together.And then surgical intervention is necessary, aimed either at restoring the meniscus tissue (meniscus suture), or at removing the torn off part of the meniscus (with a non-removable rupture). Today, in this case, such a high-tech minimally invasive method as arthroscopy is used. A video camera is inserted through the accesses in the form of punctures of approximately 5 mm, and the necessary instruments are inserted through another port, and the operation is performed. This significantly reduces the time of postoperative recovery.

– Can damage to the meniscus be avoided? What preventive measures are there?

– You should try as much as possible to avoid twisted movements, deep squats under heavy load, sudden movements without preparation, as this is very dangerous for the meniscus.If we go in for sports, then we should warm up well before training and start doing the exercises after the warm-up.

The risk of getting a tear increases with excess weight, as the load on the menisci increases.

It is necessary to strengthen the muscle corset. If you do not touch upon force majeure, then with a stable knee joint, menisci rarely suffer.