Lemon bioflavonoids: Benefits, Uses, Side Effects, Dosage & Interactions
Benefits, Uses, Side Effects, Dosage & Interactions
Bear WL, Teel RW. Effects of citrus flavonoids on the mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines and on cytochrome P450 1A2 activity. Anticancer Res 2000;20:3609-14. View abstract.
Bear WL, Teel RW. Effects of citrus phytochemicals on liver and lung cytochrome P450 activity and on the in vitro metabolism of the tobacco specific nitrosamine NNK. Anticancer Res 2000;20:3323-30. View abstract.
Bernhard RA. Occurrence of coumarin analogues in lemon juice. Nature 1958;4643:1171. View abstract.
Ceccarelli I, Lariviere WR, Fiorenzani P, et al. Effects of long-term exposure of lemon essential oil odor on behavioral, hormonal and neuronal parameters in male and female rats. Brain Res 2004;1001:78-86. View abstract.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Miyake Y, Murakami A, Sugiyama Y, et al. Identification of coumarins from lemon fruit (Citrus limon) as inhibitors of in vitro tumor promotion and superoxide and nitric oxide generation. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:3151-7. View abstract.
Miyake Y, Yamamoto K, Tsujihara N, Osawa T. Protective effects of lemon flavonoids on oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Lipids 1998;33:689-95. View abstract.
Moufida S, Marzouk B. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Phytochemistry 2003;62:1283-9. View abstract.
Naganuma M, Hirose S, Nakayama Y, et al. A study of the phototoxicity of lemon oil. Arch Dermatol Res 1985;278:31-6. . View abstract.
Odvina CV. Comparative value of orange juice versus lemonade in reducing stone-forming risk. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;1:1269-74.
Ranganna S, Govindarajan VS, Ramana KV. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutr 1983;19:313-86. View abstract.
Ranganna S, Govindarajan VS, Ramana KV. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutr 1983;19:1-98. View abstract.
Seltzer MA, Low RK, McDonald M, et al. Dietary manipulation with lemonade to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1996;156:907-9. View abstract.
Vitetta L, Thomsen M, Sali A. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med J Aust 2003;178:411-2.. View abstract.
Williams HL Jr. Eriodictyol glycoside in meniere’s disease. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1964;68:45-59. View abstract.
Williams HL, Maher FT, Corbin KB, et al. Eriodictyol glycoside in the treatment of meni’ere’s disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1963;72:1082-101. View abstract.
Health Benefits of Citrus Bioflavonoids Supplements
Ingredient Type: Extract, Constituent, Concentrate, Metabolite
Also Known As: Bioflavonoid complex, Bioflavones
Bioflavonoids are biologically active members of the group of plant-derived compounds known as flavonoids. They were first discovered in 1936 by Nobel-prize winning scientist, Albert Szent-Gyorgi, who originally named them “Vitamin P.” Since then, over 4,000 flavonoids have been identified and classified according to chemical structure (5). Bioflavonoids have antioxidant properties thought to be particularly beneficial for capillary strength. Bioflavonoids from citrus fruits are believed to work with vitamin C to promote immune system health (1).
Bioflavonoid supplements are available as individual flavonoids, such as quercetin (derived from onions), and as multiple bioflavonoid complexes (e.g. derived from citrus fruits) that are often combined with vitamin C. Compounds commonly featured in citrus bioflavonoid supplements include hesperidin, rutin, naringin, and quercetin. These phytonutrients are thought to be vital for proper absorption of Vitamin C (2).
Hesperidin is found most abundantly in the peel and membranous parts of lemons and oranges. Hesperidin is often used for the treatment of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. A deficiency of hesperidin in the diet has been linked with abnormal capillary function, extremity pain and leg cramps (3).
Rutin and quercetin are the strongest bioflavonoid anti-oxidants. As such, these 2 bioflavonoids have very powerful anti-inflammatory benefits. They seem to have their greatest effects on the bloodstream and capillary beds, and have also been shown to be highly effective at preventing and treating varicose veins. Rutin and quercetin are found in large quantities in the fruits and rinds of lemons, limes, grapefruits, & oranges (4).
Citrus Bioflavonoids are typically used in health supplements to support the immune system (6).
Bioflavonoids are used as an aid to enhance the action of vitamin C, to support blood circulation, as antioxidants, and to treat allergies, viruses, or arthritis and other inflammatory conditions (7).
WHAT DOES SCIENCE TELL US?
A 1955 study by Dr. Biskind looked at 69 cases of acute respiratory infections that were treated with a whole water soluble citrus bioflavonoid complex. The disorders included the common cold, acute follicular tonsillitis, & influenza. Within 8 to 48 hours all but 3 cases saw a significant decline in infection. Dr. Biskind credited this rapid recovery to improved capillary permeability and the enhanced vitamin C bioavailability (8).
In 1962, Dr. Robert Cragin used lemon-orange derived bioflavonoids on different groups of athletes in a double-blind study. It was found that the athletes taking bioflavonoids experienced less muscle and joint injuries than the control group. These athletes also recovered quicker from similar injuries than the group of athletes not taking the bioflavonoids. The addition of vitamin C to the bioflavonoids (as seen in citrus fruits) appeared to enhance these effects (9).
Studies have shown benefits of the citrus bioflavonoids on capillary permeability and blood flow. This is likely due to the powerful anti-inflammatory effects of these phytonutrients. This is especially important for oxygenating tissues and maintaining normal blood pressure. They also reduce swelling, venous backup, and edema. This process frequently improves respiration in the lungs (10).
Citrus bioflavonoids appear to have very low toxicity and to be safe at the typical dosage range (250-500mg/day) (11).
There are no known restrictions on food, beverages, or activities while someone is taking bioflavonoids unless otherwise directed by their healthcare provider (11).
Research indicates that some flavonoids found in grapefruit juice may interfere with an enzyme that breaks down certain drugs, increasing the drugs’ activity (11).
- Antioxidant Capacity, Anticancer Ability and Flavonoids Composition of 35 Citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Varieties. Wang Y, Qian J, Cao J, Wang D, Liu C, Yang R, Li X, Sun C. Molecules. 2017 Jul 5;22(7). pii: E1114. doi: 10.3390/molecules22071114.
- Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Constituents from the Peels of Citrus grandis. Kuo PC, Liao YR, Hung HY, Chuang CW, Hwang TL, Huang SC, Shiao YJ, Kuo DH, Wu TS. Molecules. 2017 Jun 9;22(6). pii: E967. doi: 10.3390/molecules22060967.
- Investigation of the interaction for three Citrus flavonoids and α-amylase by surface plasmon resonance. Liu X, Luo F, Li P, She Y, Gao W. Food Res Int. 2017 Jul;97:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.03.023. Epub 2017 Mar 12.
- Nutraceutical Value of Citrus Flavanones and Their Implications in Cardiovascular Disease. Testai L, Calderone V. Nutrients. 2017 May 16;9(5). pii: E502. doi: 10.3390/nu9050502. Review.
- Neuroprotective Effects of Citrus Fruit-Derived Flavonoids, Nobiletin and Tangeretin in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. Braidy N, Behzad S, Habtemariam S, Ahmed T, Daglia M, Nabavi SM, Sobarzo-Sanchez E, Nabavi SF. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2017;16(4):387-397. doi: 10.2174/1871527316666170328113309.
- Bioavailable Citrus sinensis Extract: Polyphenolic Composition and Biological Activity. Pepe G, Pagano F, Adesso S, Sommella E, Ostacolo C, Manfra M, Chieppa M, Sala M, Russo M, Marzocco S, Campiglia P. Molecules. 2017 Apr 15;22(4). pii: E623. doi: 10.3390/molecules22040623.
- C-Glycosyltransferases catalyzing the formation of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids in citrus plants. Ito T, Fujimoto S, Suito F, Shimosaka M, Taguchi G. Plant J. 2017 Jul;91(2):187-198. doi: 10.1111/tpj.13555. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
- The Citrus Flavanone Naringenin Produces Cardioprotective Effects in Hearts from 1 Year Old Rat, through Activation of mitoBK Channels. Testai L, Da Pozzo E, Piano I, Pistelli L, Gargini C, Breschi MC, Braca A, Martini C, Martelli A, Calderone V. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Feb 27;8:71. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00071. eCollection 2017.
- The effects of flavanone-rich citrus juice on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow: an acute, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy, young adults. Lamport DJ, Pal D, Macready AL, Barbosa-Boucas S, Fletcher JM, Williams CM, Spencer JP, Butler LT. Br J Nutr. 2016 Dec;116(12):2160-2168. doi: 10.1017/S000711451600430X. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
- Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Bonanome A, Coval SM, Binkoski AE, Hilpert KF, Griel AE, Etherton TD. Am J Med. 2002 Dec 30;113 Suppl 9B:71S-88S. Review.
- Overviews of Biological Importance of Quercetin: A Bioactive Flavonoid. Anand David AV, Arulmoli R, Parasuraman S. Pharmacogn Rev. 2016 Jul-Dec;10(20):84-89. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.194044. Review.
- Protective effect of flavonoids against red blood cell hemolysis by free radicals. Asgary S, Naderi G, Askari N. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2005 Summer;10(2):88-90.
- Health effects of quercetin: from antioxidant to nutraceutical. Boots AW, Haenen GR, Bast A. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 May 13;585(2-3):325-37. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.03.008. Epub 2008 Mar 18. Review.
- Cardiovascular Disease: A Target for the Pharmacological Effects of Quercetin. Gormaz JG, Quintremil S, Rodrigo R. Curr Top Med Chem. 2015;15(17):1735-42. Review.
See the Examine.com entry for bioflavonoids, the Drug.com entry for bioflavonoids, the Michigan Medicine Health Library entry for flavonoids, or this Rose Medical Center article on citrus bioflavonoids for more information.
Sourcing citrus bioflavonoids for dietary supplements, functional foods and beverages
From sourcing to research, development and cutting-edge extraction science, the team at Ingredients by Nature leverages its core expertise to create highly purified ingredients, extracts and concentrates. The company uses its extensive understanding of research to provide unique value-added solutions for customer-specific formula applications. Dr Kevin Robinson spoke to Rob Brewster, President, to find out more
Industry acclaimed Brewster Nutrition, along with long-time strategic partner, Syntech International, formed Ingredients by Nature in response to the industry’s need for superior quality ingredients and contract services.
Together, the companies have more than 80 years of combined ingredient manufacturing experience and service to the health food and related industries. “Our quest,” says Rob, “is to preserve, promote and expand the core principles of the natural foods industry while embracing the need for new scientific breakthroughs for nutrient application and absorption.”
Ingredients by Nature provides a range of high quality, customisable, natural specialty food ingredients for the manufacturing chemist, including — amongst others — citrus bioflavonoids.
NBR: What are citrus bioflavonoids?
RB: Bioflavonoids are polyphenolic compounds made from plants and are typically found in certain fruits and vegetables. Some foods, such as chocolate and wine, contain bioflavonoids as well. They are important natural compounds with diverse biologic activities. They are an important part of proper nutrition because they act as potent antioxidants.
Although there are thousands of different kinds of bioflavonoids, this article focuses on citrus bioflavonoids. Citrus bioflavonoids constitute an important series of flavonoids. They are derived naturally from citrus fruits, and they have been shown to act synergistically with vitamin C to neutralise free radicals. The major bioflavonoids found in citrus fruits are diosmin, diosmetin, hesperidin, naringin, naringenin, narirutin, neohesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, quercetin, rutin, eriodictyol and eriocitrin.
NBR: What nutrition and health benefits do bioflavonoids provide?
RB: Citrus bioflavonoids have been shown in numerous studies to be potent antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of flavonoids have been recognised for more than 40 years and, by 2016, nearly 23,000 publications have appeared (according to research in the Scopus database).
Increasing our intake of bioflavonoids helps to prevent free radicals from causing harm in the body. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits of citrus bioflavonoids have been shown to support metabolic, circulatory, cognitive and joint health. Citrus bioflavonoids support balanced immune cell activity for better immune response, and support for respiratory health.
Citrus bioflavonoids have a synergistic function with vitamin C for enhanced immune support, and have also been shown to increase the absorption of vitamin C. They provide metabolic support and help to maintain healthy cholesterol levels.
NBR: What are the best applications for citrus bioflavonoids?
RB: The versatility of citrus bioflavonoids makes them an ideal addition in food, beverage and dietary supplement applications. They can be suspended in liquids and may be used in a variety of beverages. They provide bitter and sour taste notes for specialty beverages, including beer. They also serve as natural preservatives, providing another benefit for food and beverage products.
Citrus bioflavonoids are ideal for applications targeting support for the immune system, respiratory health, cognitive health, vascular integrity, metabolism, cholesterol, joint health and systemic antioxidant support.
NBR: What tests and quality standards should manufacturers look for in citrus bioflavonoids?
RB: Brewster Brand Citrus Bioflavonoids are formulated to a total bioflavonoid content by HPLC as well as ORACFN value, measuring specific antioxidant activity against the most influential free radicals that are naturally found in the human body: hydroxyl, peroxyl, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and superoxide anion.
They are also examined for NF-kB values. NF-kB plays a key role in regulating and balancing the immune response.
NBR: What research is available regarding citrus bioflavonoids?
RB: A recent study published in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition demonstrated favourable outcomes for the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitising properties of the bioflavonoid hesperidin.1
Another study published in Advances in Nutrition looked at the biologic activities of citrus bioflavonoids, particularly on lipid metabolism in obesity, oxidative stress and inflammation in the context of metabolic syndrome. In particular, it showed that the citrus bioflavonoid aringin displayed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.2
A study in Mediators of Inflammation suggests that the bioflavonoid hesperidin may have therapeutic effect on allergic asthma. It demonstrated profound inhibitory effects on airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma.3
NBR: What differentiates the Brewster brand from others?
RB: Beginning in 1950, Brewster pioneered the bioflavonoids category. Brewster Brand Citrus Bioflavonoids have been perfected and offer the broadest spectrum bioflavonoid profile on the market.
Many available bioflavonoids are sourced solely from oranges, but there are many other options. Drawing from a larger selection of citrus provides more opportunity for customisation.
Bioflavonoids sourced from orange, lemon, lime, tangerine and grapefruit provide the broadest bioflavonoid profiles. Each one offers its own unique profile, creating better opportunities for customised formulations.
Another consideration is standardisation. Decades ago, Brewster Nutrition pioneered citrus extract standardisation.
Standardised bioflavonoid ingredients ensure consistency in every batch. Manufactured and distributed by Ingredients by Nature (IBN), Brewster Brand Citrus Bioflavonoids have overcome most formulation hurdles.
IBN manufactures customer-specific formulations, made possible with its wide variety of citrus complexes and purified extracts. Furthermore, IBN helps customers through each step, and can assist with the best applications and forms for finished product delivery systems, such as high-mesh milling for drink applications as well as citrus bioflavonoid granulations for density adjustment.
1. J.M. Assini, et al., “Citrus Flavonoids and Lipid Metabolism,” Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 24(1), 34–40 (2013).
2. A. Chanet, et al., “Citrus Flavanones: What is Their Role in Cardiovascular Protection?” J. Agric. Food Chem. 60(36), 8809–8822 (2012).
3. S.H. Kim, B.K. Kim and Y.C. Lee, “Antiasthmatic Effects of Hesperidin, a Potential Th3 Cytokine Antagonist in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma,” Mediators Inflamm. (4 May 2011): doi: 10.1155/2011/485402.
What Are Citrus Bioflavonoids? | Swanson Health Hub
The first thing that comes to mind when you think of citrus nutrition is probably vitamin C, but citrus fruits are brimming with other nutrients too, including many vitamins and minerals that you’ve heard of, like potassium, folate, thiamin, and vitamin A, plus others that aren’t so commonly mentioned.1,2 Citrus bioflavonoids are among those lesser-known nutrients in citrus fruits, and they are definitely worth knowing about for their health-promoting benefits.
Bioflavonoids were first discovered in 1936 by Nobel-prize winning scientist and vitamin C research pioneer Albert Szent-Gyorgi, who originally named the group of compounds “vitamin P.” 3 Since then, thousands of flavonoids have been identified and classified according to chemical structure.
Like vitamin C, citrus bioflavonoids have strong antioxidant properties. There are many different types of bioflavonoids from various sources, each one having unique benefits to offer.
What Exactly are Bioflavonoids?
Bioflavonoid is a term used to describe biologically active members of a group of plant-derived polyphenolic compounds known as flavonoids.4 Scientists are aware of between 4,000 and 8,000 of them, found in fruits, vegetables and other foods like dark chocolate and wine.4,5 Some of them are even used in pharmaceuticals.4
Researchers are primarily interested in bioflavonoids because of their antioxidant power. And if you think you’ve heard that before, you’re right! Antioxidants are a key focus of numerous studies because they help protect your cells from free radical damage, and you need a lot of different types of antioxidants in your diet because each one works differently.4,6 Certain kinds of antioxidants have an affinity for particular areas of the body (like lutein and zeaxanthin for eye health) and others offer broader-reaching benefits.
Antioxidants like citrus bioflavonoids are so important because they help protect your cells from free radicals and oxidation.6 The trillions of cells in your body face threats every day that can contribute to oxidative damage—from environmental exposures to toxins and UV rays, lifestyle factors like diet, exercise and habits, and even from your body’s typical day to day functions, which generate free radicals as a byproduct of natural processes like digestion and respiration.6
Antioxidants can help stop free radicals before they develop, or even break them down.6 And since various antioxidants help specific areas of the body, it’s best to get a variety of them in your diet. That’s one of the many reasons you’ve always heard you should eat a diverse range of whole foods. Natural foods offer unique nutrients that help your body and its cells in different ways, and citrus bioflavonoids are among those nutrients that promote wellbeing.
Most of the health benefits attributed to bioflavonoids relate to their antioxidant activity, which has been demonstrated in numerous studies.5 Citrus bioflavonoids are derived from fruits high in vitamin C, and they appear to act synergistically with the vitamin to neutralize free radicals. The antioxidant properties of citrus bioflavonoids are thought to be particularly beneficial for capillary strength, possibly by helping protect collagen, and they may also promote healthy circulation, as well as immune, cognitive and joint health.7,8
Citrus Bioflavonoid Benefits
- Antioxidant protection
Citrus bioflavonoids are potent antioxidants that help combat free radicals and work synergistically with vitamin C.4,7
- Capillary strength
Studies have shown that certain citrus bioflavonoids may strengthen capillaries, and researchers believe that may be related to its ability to protect collagen.7
- Circulatory health
Citrus bioflavonoids may also provide benefits to overall circulatory health.7
- Immune support
Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of citrus bioflavonoids to help support a healthy immune system and immune response.7,8
Many citrus bioflavonoids are conveniently available in either individual citrus bioflavonoid supplements, citrus bioflavonoid complex supplements, or in combination formulas with vitamin C. Compounds commonly featured in citrus bioflavonoid supplements include hesperidin, rutin, naringin, and quercetin. Here are some citrus bioflavonoid supplements available from Swanson Health.
Swanson Premium Rutin
Fight free radicals with Swanson Rutin! This powerful antioxidant bioflavonoid works synergistically with vitamin C to protect your cells from free-radicals. Each serving delivers 250 mg of rutin.
Swanson Ultra Vitamin C with Bioflavonoids
Swanson PureWay-C 500 mg with Bioflavonoids is different than all previous forms of vitamin C because it employs lipid metabolites, from vegetable waxes, to enhance the uptake, distribution and release kinetics of ascorbic acid. PureWay-C uses lipid metabolism to alter the lipid absorption potential of generally water-soluble ascorbic acid, thereby enhancing the vitamin’s bioavailability unlike any other formulation.
Swanson Premium Hesperidin
Give your cardiovascular system a nutritional tune-up with the free-radical fighting power of Swanson Hesperidin. An antioxidant flavonoid found in citrus fruits like lemons, oranges and tangelos, Hesperidin helps protect against free radicals and helps support cardiovascular wellness.
Swanson Superior Herbs Naringin
Swanson Naringin is a beneficial glycoside flavonoid concentrated from grapefruit peel. Naringin gives grapefruit its characteristic bitter flavor and works synergistically with vitamin C to pump up cellular defenses. Each of our capsules offers more naringin than you would drink in one 16 oz. glass of fresh grapefruit juice—and with no bitter flavor!
Swanson Premium Full Spectrum Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex
There’s more to citrus than just vitamin C! Citrus fruits contain natural compounds known as bioflavonoids, which aid the absorption of vitamin C and complement its antioxidant potency. Our special formula features citrus bioflavonoids from bitter orange. It’s the perfect companion for your daily vitamin C supplement, or great all by itself!
Always follow the bioflavonoid dosage directions on your product label unless your doctor has specified otherwise. Although the optimum daily citrus bioflavonoid intake has not been determined, some supplement advocates recommend 2,000 to 6,000 mg of citrus bioflavonoids for adults each day.9
Bioflavonoids appear to have very low toxicity, and side effects are typically rare.9 Research indicates that some flavonoids found in grapefruit juice may interfere with an enzyme that breaks down certain drugs, increasing the drugs’ activity. 9 For this reason, people taking prescription medications should consult a doctor or pharmacist before taking bioflavonoid supplements.
Do You Need Citrus Bioflavonoid Supplements?
Bioflavonoids are a healthy component of a natural food diet rich in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. If you’re like many Americans though, you probably don’t eat enough fruits and veggies every day. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), just 1 in 10 adults meet the federal recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption.10
Nutritional supplements can help meet your body’s demand for nutrients that you aren’t getting regularly from our food choices, and citrus bioflavonoids are no exception. Citrus bioflavonoid supplements are a convenient way to help your body get the antioxidants it needs to stay healthy.
For more citrus benefits, check out 9 Health Benefits of Limes and Lime Water and Amazing Alphabet Vitamins: The Six Vitamins You Need to Know.
About Lindsey Toth, MS, RD
Registered Dietitian, Swanson Health Products
Lindsey is a nationally-recognized registered dietitian and nutritionist with a soft spot for pie. She empowers people to take charge of their health by finding the balance between the pleasure and nourishment in food. Her philosophy is that you should take care of your body because it’s the only permanent home you have. It’s what inspired her to pursue a career in nutrition and, ultimately, led her to Swanson Health.
Lindsey is a nationally recognized registered dietitian and nutritionist with a soft spot for ice cream. She empowers people to take charge of their health by finding the balance between the pleasure and nourishment in food.
Her philosophy is that you should take care of your body because it’s the only permanent home you have. It’s what inspired her to pursue a career in nutrition and, ultimately, led her to Swanson Health.
1 Lemons, Raw, Without Peel. United States Department of Agriculture Nutritional Database. https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/09203 (Accessed 05/21/2018)
2 Oranges, Raw, Florida. United States Department of Agriculture Nutritional Database. https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/09150 (Accessed 05/21/2018)
3 Herbs and Natural Supplements, Volume 2: An Evidence-Based Guide, Volume 2. By Lesley Braun, Marc Cohen. https://books.google.com/books?id=Y951BwAAQBAJ (Accessed 05/21/2018)
4 What You Should Know About Bioflavonoids. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/bioflavonoids (Accessed 05/23/2018)
5 Flavonoid. ScienceDirect. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/flavonoid (Accessed 05/23/2018)
6 All About Antioxidants. WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/ss/slideshow-all-about-antioxidants (Accessed 05/23/2018)
7 Flavonoids. University of Michigan Health. https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hn-2844004 (Accessed 05/23/2018)
8 Citrus Bioflavonoids: Synergy with Vitamin C & Beyond. Nutraceuticals World. https://www.nutraceuticalsworld.com/issues/2018-03-01/view_features/citrus-bioflavonoids-synergy-with-vitamin-c-beyond/991 (Accessed 05/23/2018)
9 Bioflavonoids. NDhealthFACTS Wiki. Naturopathic Medicine Profession. http://www.ndhealthfacts.org/wiki/Bioflavonoids (Accessed 05/23/2018)
10 Only 1 in 10 Adults Get Enough Fruits or Vegetables. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2017/p1116-fruit-vegetable-consumption.html (Accessed 05/23/2018)
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Lipoflavonoid and Tinnitus | Arches Tinnitus Formula
By Barry Keate
Barry Keate, has lived with tinnitus over 40 years and has published 150+ research articles on numerous aspects of tinnitus. He is an expert on the condition and a well-known advocate for those with tinnitus.
Lipoflavonoid® is a proprietary over-the-counter nutritional product created in 1961 by DSE Healthcare Solutions for the treatment of Meniere’s disease. Meniere’s disease is characterized by ear fullness, vertigo, nausea and a low-pitched roaring tinnitus. Lipoflavonoid is manufactured and marketed by Numark Laboratories of Edison, NJ, a subsidiary of DSE Healthcare. Much of the marketing effort for Lipoflavonoid is directed toward those people who experience tinnitus.
There are many products, especially on the internet, that are advertised to help people with tinnitus. Some of these products are outright scams, promising to cure tinnitus overnight. There is no magic-bullet cure for tinnitus and the wise person will avoid products that sound too good to be true. Lipoflavonoid is not one of these phony products. It is a reputable product from a good manufacturer. But how effective is it? Does it work for tinnitus? If so, for which types of tinnitus is it effective? These questions are the subject of this discussion.
Lipoflavonoid contains the following ingredients and amounts per serving:
- Lemon bioflavonoid complex 300 mg
- Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) 300 mg
- Choline bitartrate 334 mg
- Inositol 334 mg
- Thiamine (Vitamin B-1) 1 mg
- Niacinamide (Vitamin B-3) 10 mg
- Pyridoxine (Vitamin B-6) 1 mg
- Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) 5 mcg
- Pantothenate 5 mg
- Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2) 1 mg
With the exception of lemon bioflavonoid complex and ascorbic acid, all the ingredients are part of the vitamin B family and are readily available inmost B-Complex vitamin products. Lemon bioflavonoid complex is the active ingredient for reducing symptoms of Meniere’s disease.
In 1963, a research paper was published in Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 1 in which this product was tested on 197 patients who had hearing loss, most with symptoms of Meniere’s. The paper includes an in-depth discussion of eriodictyol glycoside, which is a flavanone component of citrus bioflavonoids. Eriodictyol glycoside is the active ingredient in lemon bioflavonoid complex and is found in citrus fruits and juices, specifically orange, grapefruit and lemon.
While the mechanism of action of eriodictyol glycoside is not well understood, it is thought that it may act on histamine, which appears to play a role in the control of microcirculation in the inner ear. It is known that inducing histamine will reproduce the symptoms and pathology of Meniere’s disease. So, lemon bioflavonoid complex and eriodictyol glycoside may act as an antihistamine for people with this disease.
Of the 197 patients in the study, 122 had hearing loss due to Meniere’s disease and 75 had hearing loss due to other causes, including sensorineural hearing loss. Of the Meniere’s patients, 24 (19.6%) experienced no effect from eriodictyol glycoside, 45 (36.9%) had no change in hearing but relief of vertigo and 50 patients (41%) had improved hearing and relief of vertigo.
In the 75 patients with hearing loss due to other causes, 52 patients had sensorineural hearing loss. Of these, 41 (78.8%) had no improvement in hearing and 11 (21.2%) had hearing improvement.
In summary, the authors concluded that eriodictyol glycoside has a beneficial effect on certain individuals with hearing loss, usually those associated with vertigo and other symptoms of Meniere’s disease.
During the 1960s, many Ear, Nose & Throat physicians and clinics began to prescribe Lipoflavonoid for various forms of hearing loss other than Meniere’s disease. In response, a double-blind, placebo controlled study was undertaken at the Audiology Center of Walter Reed Hospital in 1966 to evaluate the effects of lemon bioflavonoid complex on three types of hearing loss, excluding Meniere’s disease.2 The three types of hearing loss studied were:
- Noise-induced hearing loss
- Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss)
- Hearing loss of indeterminate cause (excluding Meniere’s)
Seventy five patients were included in the study. Twenty of these had noise-induced hearing loss, 20 had presbycusis and 35 were in the undetermined group. Thirty five patients were in the test group using lemon bioflavonoid complex and 40 were in the control group given a placebo. The test group was given a lemon bioflavonoid complex dosage equal to 4 times the recommended dose of Lipoflavonoid.
The results of the study showed that only one person in the group of 75 patients showed a hearing improvement. This patient was part of the presbycusis group who had been given a placebo! In none of the three groups given lemon bioflavonoid complex was there any improvement in hearing or decrease in tinnitus over that brought about by placebo. The researchers concluded that further prescription of Lipoflavonoid in these types of sensori-neural hearing loss appears to be without justification.
Most knowledgeable ENTs and hearing professionals are aware of this fact. In the words of Levi Reiter, PhD, Professor of Audiology at Hofstra University, “There are no research papers that I am aware of that demonstrate the effectiveness of Lipoflavonoid or lemon bioflavonoid complex for tinnitus. However, there are references to its use for Meniere’s disease as it seems to act as an antihistamine.” 3
I believe Lipoflavonoid has a place in the treatment arsenal for some types of tinnitus. It may be helpful for those who have Meniere’s disease due to its antihistamine effect. It may also help those who suffer allergies or other inflammatory conditions that contribute to their tinnitus. It does not apprear to be effective for noise-induced tinnitus, age-related hearing loss, tinnitus caused by ototoxicity, or varying illnesses that can affect tinnitus.
Arches Tinnitus Stress Formula® also contains citrus bioflavonoids, the source of eriodictyol glycoside plus includes 100 mg of the major B vitamins, all components of the B vitamin family. There is considerable clinical experience with this vitamin family by tinnitus health care practitioners which show the many positive effects of B vitamin supplementation.Our Information Center has an article on the importance of B vitamins for tinnitus.
Meanwhile, an extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves was first developed by the Dr. Willmar Schwabe Company of Germany in 1965. The product became available under the trademark name, Tebonin. A concentrated, more highly purified extract was then developed and offered under the trademark Tanakan in 1974. Since then, Ginkgo Biloba Extract (EGb) has become the most studied herb in the world. In the 1970s, 80s and 90s there were numerous world-wide studies conducted with this herb on it’s effectiveness for tinnitus, the great majority of which were very favorable.4 It was also found to reduce symptoms of Meniere’s disease.5 Additionally, zinc has been found to be helpful in reducing tinnitus.6
Arches Tinnitus Relief Formula® includes pharmaceutical-grade Ginkgo biloba, chealted zinc and deodorized garlic. You can read an in-depth discussion of the science behind Arches Tinnitus Formula in our Tinnitus Information Center. You can also view a head-to-head comparison in our article Compare Arches Tinnitus Formula and Lipo-Flavonoid.
1 – Williams HL, Maher FT, Corbin KB, et al. Eriodictyol glycoside in the treatment of Meniere’s disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1963 Dec;72:1082-101.
2 – Creston JE, Gillespie MR, Larson AL. Bioflavonoid therapy in sensori-neural hearing loss. A double-blind study. Trans AM Acad Opthalmol Otolaryngol. 1966 Sep-Oct;70(5):825-40.
3 – On-line forum, http://en.allexperts.com/q/Audiology-Otolaryngology-963/tinnitus-1.htm
4 – Holstein N. Ginkgo special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of tinnitus: a survey of the results obtained in clinical trials. Fortschr. Med. 118 (2000), p.157-164.
5 – Hagaenauer JP, Cantenot F, Koskas H, Pierart H. Treatment of equilibrium disorders with Ginkgo biloba extract. a multicenter double-blind drug vs. placebo study. Presse Med 1986 Sep 25; 15(31):1569-72.
6 – Arda HN, Tuncel U, Akdogin O, Ozluoglu L. The role of zinc in the treatment of tinnitus. Otol Neurotol 2003 Jan;24(1)86-89.
Bioflavonoids – MORRE-TEC Industries
We offer bioflavonoid complexes in powdered form derived from a variety of citrus fruits. Each citrus bioflavonoid complex is available in a range of concentrations .
Grapefruit Bioflavonoid Complex. Extract from grapefruit containing naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin and poncirin. Available in 20%, 50% and 80% concentrations.
Lemon Bioflavonoid Complex. Extract from lemon containing hesperidin in addition to glycosides and aglycones of eriocitrin diosmin. Available in 20%, 50% and 80% concentrations.
Bitter Orange Bioflavonoid Complex. Extract from orange containing hesperidin in addition to glycosides and aglycones of eriocitrin diosmin. Available in 20%, 50% and 80% concentrations.
Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex. Contains a blend of bioflavonoid extracts from the pulp and peel of at least two fruits: lemons, sweet oranges, grapefruit or bitter oranges. The major bioflavonoid component is Hesperidin with various quantities of polyphenolic glycosides and aglycones of bioflavinoids. Available in 15%, 30% and 50% concentrations.
Hesperidin, is a flavanone glycoside (flavonoid) found abundantly in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin. It acts as an antioxidant. In human nutrition, it contributes to the integrity of the blood vessels.
Hesperidin >95% Purity. White to pale yellow powder. Purity determined by HPLC analysis.
Hesperidin 85%, 90% or 92%. White to pale yellow powder. Purity determined by HPLC analysis.
Hesperidin Complex 40% – 70% Concentrations. Obtained predominately from orange pulp and peel.
Rutin, is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat, the leaves and petioles of Rheum species, and asparagus. Rutin is also found in the fruit of the Fava D’anta tree, fruits and fruit rinds (especially citrus fruits orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime) and berries such as mulberry and cranberries.
Rutin NF >95% Purity. Our product is a greenish-yellow powder consisting of masses of needle-shaped microscopic crystals. Available in different concentrations using a variety of carriers.
Quercetin is a flavanol found free or as a glycoside in a large number of species of plants.
Quercetin Dihydrate >95%. Our product is a yellow to orange-yellow, odourless and tasteless crystalline powder.
Quercetin >95% is the anhydrous form of the dihydrate.
Naringin is a major flavonoid in grapefruit and gives the grapefruit juice its bitter taste. It is metabolized to the flavanone naringenin in humans., Naringin exerts a variety of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant activity, blood lipid lowering, anticancer activity, and inhibition of selected drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes.
Naringin >95- 98% Purity is a light beige powder from grapefruit pulp and peel. Naringin is also available at lower concentrations from 40 – 90% with various carriers.
Naringenin >80% Purity. Beige to tan powder.
Citrus Bioflavonoids | Health Benefits
Bioflavonoids in Citrus Fruits
What Are Bioflavonoids?
Flavonoids are a set of polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables that gives them their colors. First discovered in 1936 by Albert Szent-Gyorgyi and originally named “Vitamin P,” bioflavonoids have been under research ever since. Scientists have since then identified at least 5000 different flavonoids, and more are expected to be discovered soon.
The most common method of flavonoid consumption for humans is through dietary intake because they are naturally present in the skins and peels of several fruits and vegetables. They are also increasingly being made available through dietary supplements because of their wide-ranging benefits to human health.
Flavonoids and Bioflavonoids
Many people use flavonoids and bioflavonoids alternatively. While it can be said that Bioflavonoids are a kind of subset of flavonoids; research has suggested no major differences in their characteristics and benefits, except in their chemical bonds. Bioflavonoids are simply biologically active members of the group of plant-derived compounds known as flavonoids.
By far, the most abundant source of bioflavonoids is citrus fruits. Citrus fruits like oranges, mandarins, and grapefruits are rich in vitamin C and multiple bioflavonoid complexes. Common bioflavonoids present in citrus fruits include hesperidin, quercetin, and rutin, among others. Citrus bioflavonoids are rich in pharmaceutical properties and are said to have various skin and health benefits, which are discussed in much detail below.
Health Benefits Bioflavonoids
Bioflavonoids, like quercetin, commonly found in grapefruits and grapes, are said to protect the skin from harmful UVA and UVB rays. This prevents the breakdown of collagen in the skin, which is the primary cause of premature signs of aging in men and women. Hesperidin, another bioflavonoid, fights hyperpigmentation on the skin and helps maintain an even-toned complexion.
Allergic Reactions and Diseases
Bioflavonoids also have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, which make them prime ingredients to treat mild to severe acne, eczema, and allergic reactions in the skin.
The anti-inflammatory properties also prevent asthma and other allergic diseases by stabilizing free radicals.
Bioflavonoids are antioxidants and have shown to be excellent for eye health. Along with vitamin C, regular intake of bioflavonoids has been shown to decrease the risks of developing cataracts.
Assists Vitamin C
Bioflavonoids from citrus fruits are usually complemented with vitamin C supplements. This is because they are believed to work together to strengthen the immune system. An abundance of vitamin C and bioflavonoids helps build the body’s resistance to pathogens.
Bioflavonoids in Supplements
In recent years, since dietary supplements have become popular, bioflavonoids have been a common ingredient in most of them. Sometimes, bioflavonoids supplements are available as individual flavonoids – like quercetin – and often as a complement to vitamin C supplements, as they aid and enhance the effects of vitamin C.
WhollyPharm by Lenovie is a vitamin C supplement formulated with additional citrus bioflavonoids to ensure maximum health benefits for consumers. Regular intake of vitamin C and bioflavonoids through dietary supplements will result in healthy, glowing skin and a strong immune system. Get yours now and incorporate it in your daily routine.
90,000 Bioflavonoids, Quercetin, Dihydroquercetin. Bioflavonoid DHA
Flavonoids are responsible for the color of plants, fruits and vegetables. But the most important thing is that they perform the protective and restorative function of plants – they “treat” them from the negative effects of insects, free radicals, UV radiation (they absorb radiation in the ultraviolet range). They also inhibit viruses, fungi, bacteria – high antiviral activity is provided in the process of inhibiting protease and transcriptase.
Also flavonoids activate cellular respiration, transport the growth hormone auxin and regulate plant growth.
History of bioflavonoids
Flavonoids have been known as plant pigments for over a century. The first scientific work on the biological role of flavonoids in humans was published in 1936 by the Nobel Prize winner in medicine and physiology Albert Szent-Gyorgyi. He wrote that a flavonoid isolated from lemon peel helps to strengthen the walls of blood vessels and capillaries, and normalizes their permeability.He suggested that this compound belongs to vitamins, and suggested for it the name “Vitamin P” (from the English Permeability – permeability).
Flavonoids belonging to the vitamin P group have been called since 1950 “bioflavonoids” .
A new wave of interest in flavonoids (bioflavonoids) began in the 1990s. At this time, new properties of bioflavonoids were discovered – antioxidant properties and their ability to neutralize free radicals.
Bioflavonoids include antioxidants such as quercetin , rutin, hesperidin, cyanidin and the most powerful representative – dihydroquercetin.
Flavonoids are closely related to the processes of synergy (strengthening of each other’s action) with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contained in citrus peel, they do not allow this vitamin to be oxidized and destroyed. For this reason, doctors strongly recommend to take Vitamin C with bioflavonoids.
Influence of bioflavonoids on the human body
Capillaroprotective and antioxidant properties of flavonoids are the main factor of their positive effect on the human body.These useful substances are able to bind free radicals and promote their utilization, improve peripheral blood circulation (through small arteries, arterioles, capillaries, anastomoses, venules and small veins), restoring capillary permeability and permeability of all vessels. Also, normalize the lipid composition of the blood and the functionality of the liver, inhibit viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and increase the absorption of ascorbic acid from the small intestine.
The beneficial properties of flavonoids have been known for a long time, traditional medicine has been using their potential for thousands of years, because their analgesic and decongestant effect can hardly be overestimated.For example, flavonoids help bruises and bruises to dissolve faster by normalizing capillary permeability.
Flavonoids are absolutely safe, they are completely excreted in sweat and urine. They have not overdosed since their discovery and excretion from lemon peel in 1936.
Bioflavonoids of the vitamin P group
The structural structure of flavonoids is characterized by the presence of a benzene ring and OH-radicals, which gives the compounds increased antioxidant activity.Depending on the concentration of hydroxyl radicals in the molecule, the ability of flavonoids to inactivate free radicals increases – this is the leading pharmacological property of flavonoids.
Due to their structure, bioflavonoids still have a powerful capillary-protective effect, protect the body from viral, bacteriological attacks, the influence of fungal organisms.
The variety of flavonoids lies in the variants of the arrangement of the substituents of the aromatic and heterocyclic parts of the molecules, and flavan is invariably the base.
Recently, interest in natural, natural preparations (nutraceuticals, parapharmaceuticals) has grown significantly, since they are safer and more physiological for the human body than the usual preparations of synthetic and chemical origin. Herbal preparations are most often represented by components of compounds such as terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, bioflavonoids.
Bioflavonoids have the following effect on our body:
• reduce capillary fragility and normalize their permeability;
• protect vitamin C from oxidation;
• participate in redox processes;
• regulate blood sugar levels;
• lower blood cholesterol levels;
• prevent the occurrence of cataracts;
• protect the cell from damage by free radicals, improve tissue respiration;
• are used to treat heart, vascular, nervous and pulmonary diseases;
• Reduce fatigue and increase stress resistance.
DHA “G” and DHA “P” – dihydroquercetin in liquid form, bioflavonoid with
P-vitamin activity and the most powerful antioxidant
The main properties of diguerocetin
000 A strong antioxidant
binds and removes free radicals from the body, protecting the cell from damage
Strengthens the walls of capillaries
normalizes their permeability,
increases the resistance of the capillary walls to damage
Strengthens the protective functions of the body
protects the body from viruses, fungi, bacteria, parasites
Improves the lipid profile
lowers the level of “bad” cholesterol, preventing the formation of plaques on the walls of blood vessels 90,000 what are these substances and what are their benefits?
Bioflavonoids are sometimes called vitamin C2 because of their close relationship and synergy with ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
This is a very diverse group of substances: to date, about 5,000 species have already been described. Bioflavonoids promote the absorption of vitamin C from the intestinal lumen, prevent the destruction of this unstable vitamin by oxidants.
In general, bioflavonoids have a beneficial effect on many links: they strengthen the walls of capillaries, prevent spontaneous bleeding, improve circulation in the heart, lower blood pressure, relax not only blood vessels, but also the ducts of the digestive glands, are good prophylactic agents against atherosclerosis, various kind of allergies.In addition to all of the above, bioflavonoids have anticarcinogenic properties.
Flavonoids can only be produced by plants. There are no flavonoids in animal products.
It is also unique that bioflavonoids are completely safe substances. They are excreted in sweat and urine, and their overabundance has never been recorded (and the history of bioflavonoids goes back more than 80 years, after rutin was isolated from lemon peel in 1936).
Naturally, these substances have found their niche in sports and medicine.
The most famous and well-studied bioflavonoids are quercetin, rutin, catechin and hisperidin. It is known that rutin slows down the metabolism of cancer cells and protects the body from cardiovascular diseases. Also, an obvious deficiency of this bioflavonoid exists in people who are prone to hemorrhage, the formation of hematomas and bruises, they do not stop bleeding for a long time, even from a small wound.
In addition, scientists have found that this substance reduces the risk of colon cancer, diabetes, allergic diseases, and slows down the development of cataracts.
Foods rich in routine: citrus fruits, buckwheat, apple skins.
Hesperidin inhibits the release of histamine from basophils, thus affecting the key moment in the development of the body’s allergic response. For asthmatics, this bioflavonoid is also very valuable due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
Foods rich in hesperidin: mainly cirrus fruits.
Quercetin, similar to hesperidin, has an antihistamine effect, preventing asthma symptoms, moderately thinning the blood, reducing inflammation, and gently stimulating the immune system. The high content of this bioflavonoid in food significantly reduces the risk of heart attack and stroke. In its ability to lower cholesterol, quercetin surpasses even vitamin E, with which it is in many ways similar.
Products containing quercetin: onions, green tea, red wine, dark grapes, St. John’s wort.
Catechin, like all other bioflavonoids, is an antioxidant. In addition, it protects and restores the liver after high doses of alcohol and drugs, neutralizes intestinal toxins that are formed during constipation, fermentation and putrefaction in the intestines. Its ability to stabilize cell membranes is also a manifestation of antiallergic action.
Products containing catechins: white and green tea, grapes, apples, berries.
As you may have noticed, all bioflavonoids have approximately the same effect on the entire body. Therefore, scientists have taken the liberty of combining all this vast group of substances under one name: “vitamin P”. “P” is an abbreviation of the English word “permeability”, translated as “strength”, indicating the bright ability of bioflavonoids to strengthen the walls of capillaries.
Black currants, grapefruit, cherries, gingko, tomatoes, oranges are especially saturated with these substances.
Naturally, the need for flavonoids increases significantly with ARVI. In these cases, the administration of rutin preparations is usually indicated (the well-known ascorutin is often attributed to acute inflammation).
The daily requirement of a healthy adult is 25-50 mg.
What are the signs of vitamin P deficiency (all bioflavonoids in general)?
The manifestations of such a deficiency include a tendency to spontaneous bleeding, hemorrhages in the retina, pain in the legs when walking, fatigue, bluish skin tone, acne, hair loss; bleeding gums when brushing teeth and eating.
With insufficient intake of vitamin P, the capillaries become very fragile and permeable, as a result of which hemorrhages appear in the skin and mucous membranes, especially in places subject to pressure. Such hemorrhages are usually small, punctate and called petechiae. The fact is that vitamin P blocks an enzyme that destroys hyaluronic acid, which strengthens the capillary wall. But these properties of vitamin P are especially pronounced in the presence of vitamin C.
In medicine, vitamin P is used for hemorrhagic diathesis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, hypertension, atherosclerosis, rheumatism, with most inflammations, and other pathological conditions.
No studies have shown the toxic effects of bioflavonoids. The only thing that was found was that huge doses of bioflavonoids caused diarrhea. Also, do not overuse foods rich in bioflavonoids (primarily teas, black bitter chocolate and citrus fruits) for pregnant women.
Many popular medicines have been created on the basis of bioflavonoids.
Did you know that:
-rutin is the main component of drugs such as askorutin, venoruton, troxerutin, wobenzym, phlogenzym.They are indicated for high fragility of capillaries, trauma, edema. It is used both locally in the form of ointments and inside.
-diosmin is a slightly modified hesperidin. Popular drugs: Detralex, Phlebodia. They are prescribed for venous insufficiency of the lower extremities, various injuries.
-quercetin-known corvitin. Quercetin is often used in fitness and is included in sports nutrition. A recent study showed that quercetin increased energy expenditure in mice and increased exercise tolerance.This may indicate that it can be used in fat burning complexes, as well as to increase endurance.
Versatility of lemon bioflavonoids for use in various products
Look for lemon bioflavonoids . on Alibaba.com and browse a wide selection of fantastic suppliers. Save money by stocking up on an ingredient to use in several different foods.The most lemon bioflavonoids . comes in the form of a powder that dissolves well and mixes easily with other ingredients. Use as a delicious decaf substitute or for some medicinal herbs. Food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies can benefit from the use of this all-natural ingredient.
All Lemon Bioflavonoids . characterized by a very high degree of purity, which protects the final product from potential contaminants.White powders retain their neutral appearance when ingredients are mixed and do not affect color. There are also darker extracts available that can add extra hue to the final product. If swallowed, the inulin powder contained in the product may have probiotic effects that improve the health of the digestive system over time.
Lemon Bioflavonoids , sold on Alibaba.com, meets food grade and medical grade standards to ensure customer safety.Suppliers often vacuum-pack food to maintain freshness and quality. Especially large batches are usually stored in barrels, which are easy to transport. Most extracts add extra sweetness and flavor to the recipe.
Preview Lemon Bioflavonoids . on Alibaba.com and enjoy the low cost of an important key ingredient used in a variety of pharmaceuticals and health drinks. Whether the consumer wants to improve their digestive health or create decaffeinated coffee-flavored beverages, there are many options.Take a closer look at the products and find the best suppliers who can deliver in whatever quantity you need.
What are bioflavonoids
Fresh vegetables and fruits contain not only vitamins and fiber, but also phytonutrients, which are responsible for the bright color of the product. These substances are called bioflavonoids, and they also have a beneficial effect on the body.
Let’s see how they help us fight disease and stay healthy.
Bioflavonoids – “vitamin P”
Bioflavonoids are considered semi-essential nutrients for the human body. Many doctors and researchers call them “vitamin P” because they have the characteristics of a true vitamin.
Bioflavonoids fall into the category of phytonutrients, or plant-derived nutrients. These phytonutrients are not considered essential as vitamins and minerals, for example.But they contribute a lot to overall health.
Where do bioflavonoids come from?
They are found in fruits and vegetables, which are (should be) a large part of the human diet. It is these substances that color vegetables and fruits in bright colors. The brighter, the more bioflavonoids. Scientists have so far identified 8,000 unique bioflavonoids, most of which are found in the most common and common foods.
How our body uses bioflavonoids
The concentration of bioflavonoids in the blood is less than the concentration of vitamins or minerals.However, they are very important. Together with the nutrients and fiber from vegetables and fruits, bioflavonoids have a healing effect.
These health benefits include: improving vision, strengthening the immune system, improving cardiovascular health, strengthening capillary walls, and supporting connective tissue.
The medicinal benefit is that bioflavonoids help the body overcome or eliminate the symptoms of conditions such as allergies, inflammation, coronary heart disease, etc.
Bioflavonoids are also excellent antioxidants as they scavenge free radicals that cause aging and internal damage over time. Their antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects, as well as their positive effect on the circulatory system, are also well studied.
Bioflavonoids and Vitamin C
Bioflavonoids are excellent antioxidants. They, in particular, protect the vitamin C molecules from oxidation in the body.Researchers have found that vitamin C is actually beneficial thanks in large part to its flavonoids.
The vitamin C molecule in the body can change into an unstable form, practically losing its beneficial properties. Flavonoids help prevent this, thereby allowing the body to make the most of vitamin C.
Types of bioflavonoids
There are four main categories. And each acts in the body in a slightly different way.
Food Sources: Apples, cocoa, cranberries, blueberries, and peanuts. But there are especially many proanthocyanidins in red grapes, in the skin and seeds, and in wine. Proanthocyanidins – powerful antioxidants, strengthen the cardiovascular system, and also act as anticarcinogens and anti-allergens.
Food Sources: Apples, onions, cocoa powder, berries, black and green tea, raw or lightly steamed, cabbage and broccoli.
Of the flavonoids, quercetin is the best studied. It does not work effectively on its own, but in combination with other citrus bioflavonoids.
Useful properties of quercetin: anti-allergic, antihypertensive (normalization of blood pressure), anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic (prevention of cardiovascular diseases). Quercetin helps to strengthen blood vessels when taken with a routine such as black and green tea.
Found in citrus fruits: oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruits, tangerines. These include rutin, hesperidin, quercetrin, and naringin.
Citrus bioflavonoids are antioxidants that are good for the heart, help protect brain function, maintain connective tissue and improve blood circulation.
Green tea polyphenols
The richest source is the steamed fresh leaves of the tea plant Camellia Sinensis.
These include catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, and proanthocyanides.
Green tea polyphenols work as anticarcinogens, help maintain heart health, and may protect against atherosclerosis.
How to get your daily dose of bioflavonoids
Include enough fresh vegetables and fruits in your daily diet. They can be steamed as well, but do not hold for long.Make sure that the color of the product does not become dull.
Remember that bioflavonoids work best when combined with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and other nutrients. They do not act on their own, but enhance the effectiveness of other nutrients. Our bodies usually convert bioflavonoids into other forms, which are then used.
Bioflavonoids are best absorbed and work best in supplements.
Blog post Nature’s Sunshine
What effect does vitamin P have on the body and what does the deficiency and overdose of this vitamin lead to? August 15, 2019
Vitamin P (the second name is bioflavonoids) is a component that combines a number of biologically active substances, namely hesperidin, rutin and quercetin . In total, this group contains more than a hundred active ingredients. Scientists discovered this element in the process of studying vascular permeability with a lack of ascorbic acid in the body.Studies have shown that taking vitamin P alone does not guarantee the expected result, but with the addition of lemon juice, bleeding was reduced, and greater vascular strength was achieved. Subsequent experiments made it possible to isolate a group of components with a P-vitamin effect. Catechins were found in the tea leaf, and quercetin and rutin were found in buckwheat flowers. Vitamins of group P refer to elements that are not produced by the body . For this reason, the task of each person is to properly organize the diet in order to eliminate even the slightest deficiency of bioflavonoids.After entering the stomach, useful elements dissolve in the liquid and enter the bloodstream. What is vitamin P for? Highlight:
- Antioxidant effect. Elements such as quercetin and rutin reliably protect the body from oxidized substances, provide youth, strengthen the immune system, and prevent the appearance of various diseases.
- Benefits for blood vessels and skin. Vitamin C and vitamin P regulate the formation of collagen – the main element that helps to strengthen blood vessels and improve the condition of the skin.Also, the action of flavonoids is aimed at reducing puffiness, normalizing pressure, vasodilation. All of these factors contribute to a decrease in the risk of varicose veins.
- Protection against atherosclerosis. Quercetin is an element that positively affects the metabolism of fats in the body. Its action is aimed at protecting against the accumulation of cholesterol.
- Strengthening the immune system. The content of a sufficient amount of vitamin P and ascorbic acid guarantees powerful protection against infectious diseases and colds.This is due to its powerful antibacterial effect.
- Protection against the appearance of malignant tumors. The element suppresses the risk of the emergence and development of cancer cells. It is especially effective in the fight against cancer of the blood or breast.
- Elimination of eye pressure. Rutin is a powerful component that guarantees a reduction in intraocular pressure to a safe level. All it takes is a 60mg supplement over the course of a month.
- Aids in digestion.Knowing which foods contain vitamin P, it is possible to normalize nutrition and solve problems with the gastrointestinal tract. Quercetin is a powerful ingredient that guarantees the expected effect even with duodenal ulcers and stomach ulcers.
- Normalization of blood pressure. By controlling vascular permeability, bioflavonoids dilate blood vessels and normalize blood pressure.
- Elimination of allergy problems. It has been proven that the vitamin has a powerful anti-allergenic effect. The main active ingredients are serotonin and histamine, the intake of which reduces the risks of food allergies, hay fever and bronchial asthma.
- Action on the musculoskeletal system. Research has shown that flavonoids strengthen the joints and ensure the required “lubrication” is produced. In their absence, there is excessive wear and tear of the joints and their destruction.
Bioflavonoids are elements that are found in abundance in various foods, primarily in citrus fruits. It is worth knowing that vitamin P is not preserved after freezing. In addition, it is destroyed by the action of: open air, tobacco smoke, light, water, prolonged heat treatment.
Where is Vitamin P found?
All products with it are conditionally divided into two categories :
- Vegetable sources : vegetables (tomatoes, cabbage, green salad), fruits (apricots, grapes), berries (cherries, blueberries, currants, raspberries), herbs (dill, parsley, cilantro), citrus fruits (grapefruit, orange, lemon), drinks (wine, live beer, coffee and tea), chocolate, black (bitter)
- Animal sources .Considering which foods contain rutin, one cannot but mention an interesting thing. There are no bioflavonoids at all in animal products. That is why people who do not have enough berries, fruits and vegetables in their diet are simply obliged to include special supplements in their diet.
Record holders in terms of element content: chokeberry – 4 g; cherry – 2.5 g; honeysuckle – 1.2 g; rosehip – 1 g; sorrel – 0.5 g; orange and lemon – 0.5 g; grapes – 0.4 g.
All foods containing rutin are best taken fresh and preferably not cooked.In this case, you can count on real benefits for the body. Special attention should be paid to green tea, which contains a large amount of catechins. They are distinguished by a neutralizing effect, which is provided due to the binding of metabolic products that can damage the cells of organs and tissues. To exclude a deficiency of a useful element, it is worth knowing its consumption rates. Children should receive 25-30 mg of vitamin . The dosage depends on the child’s diet and the intake of foods rich in bioflavonoids. Adolescents and men require a rate equal to 40-50 mg . With sufficient consumption of greens, vegetables and fruits, the dosage (when prescribing special complexes) should be reduced. Women – 30-45 mg per day . This amount of routine is enough to cover the body’s needs.
If you do not know where vitamin P is contained and do not follow the dosage recommendations, the following consequences are possible:
- In case of deficiency: general lethargy and weakness; pain in the arms and legs; severe bleeding of the gums; increased fatigue; bleeding in the brain; diseases of the heart and lungs.
- An overdose of routine is not harmful to the body. Excess substances are not retained and are excreted through the kidneys in the urine.
Knowing why the body needs vitamin P and including it in the diet, it is possible to avoid a number of problems with: heart, metabolic processes, eye pressure, allergies, weakness of the immune system. Bioflavonoids are perfectly absorbed by the body and do not interact with other elements, which makes them especially valuable. Moreover, the intake of the element contributes to the economical consumption of ascorbic acid, which eliminates the risk of complications in the process of taking anticoagulants.
On the use of flavonoids as phlebotropic agents
UDC 547.972 + 615.225
Flavonoids are found in many fruits, vegetables, grains and medicinal plants. Flavonoid preparations are prescribed for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and varicose veins. In the past, flavonoid preparations (rutin and its derivatives, hesperidin, escin, quercetin, catechins, vitamin P) were used in connection with their ability, especially in combination with ascorbic acid, to reduce capillary permeability and fragility (Mashkovsky M.D., 1978), although the effectiveness has been questioned. Since the 1970s, the venotonic effect of some flavonoids has been increasingly discussed (Guillaume M., Padioleau F., 1994). Currently, micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MFF), consisting of 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin, is widely used for venous diseases. Diosmin is synthesized from hesperidin, which, in turn, is extracted from unripe oranges of certain varieties (Katsenis K., 2005). Flavonoids are used as phlebotropic agents in the CIS countries.Such drugs are registered in the United States as dietary supplements, and in a number of European countries – as medicines, which, however, does not necessarily mean widespread use. For example, in Scandinavian countries, these drugs are rarely prescribed for venous diseases (Danielsson G. et al., 2002). In Spain, the duration of taking some flavonoids (diosmin, hydrosmin, escin, some rutosides, etc.) with unstable CVI is limited to a period of up to 2-3 months (Martinez-Zapata M.J. et al., 2016).
Venotonic, decongestant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects of flavonoids are discussed.The mechanisms of their action remain poorly understood (Kharkevich D.A., 2004; Katsenis K., 2005; Martinez-Zapata M.J. et al., 2016). The venotonic effect means an increase in the tone of the veins. If tone is understood as the tension of the walls of the vessel, then its measure can be the value of blood pressure. The concept of tone can also include the volume of blood contained in a vessel (Orlov V.V., 1961). According to experiments in vitro , smooth muscles of large and medium veins have practically no tone and do not relax under the action of vasodilators (Bevan J.A., 1979). The lumen of the collapsed large veins is slit-like, the circular layer of smooth muscles is thin, their bundles are interspersed with connective tissue. With varicose veins and post-thrombophlebitis syndrome, when flavonoids are recommended, the veins are dilated and hardened in places, and smooth muscles undergo atrophy. All this testifies against the significant venotonic effect of flavonoids, in particular its duration is questionable. This also applies to the putative potentiation of the vasopressor effect of norepinephrine under the action of flavonoids (Juteau N.et al. 1995; Yablokov E.G. et al., 1996; Katsenis K., 2005; Perrin M., Ramelet A.A., 2011). The vasoconstrictor effect of norepinephrine is short-lived, its concentration in the blood is subject to fluctuations, while flavonoids are proposed to be used for the treatment of chronic diseases. At the same time, it was reported about the weakening of vasoconstriction induced by norepinephrine under the action of quercetin (Duarte J. et al., 1993). Any significant venotonic effect is difficult to imagine without a simultaneous effect on the smooth muscles of the arteries (Kharkevich D.A., 2004). If phlebotropic flavonoids actually potentiate the action of norepinephrine, then taking them may increase blood pressure. Arterial hypertension is among the side effects of MFF (Scallon C. et al., 2013), at the same time, the antihypertensive effect of a number of flavonoids is discussed (Clark J.L. et al., 2015). Thus, the effect of various flavonoids on blood pressure requires further study.
There are objective methods for assessing pharmacological effects on the vascular bed, for example, using isolated veins (Aellig W.H., 1994). So, dihydroquercetin did not affect the tone of isolated rats’ veins (Ivanov I.S. et al., 2013). Based on experiments with isolated veins, the sensitizing effect of diosmin in relation to the pressor effects of calcium was reported (research sponsored by the manufacturer) (Savineau J.P., Marthan R., 1994). On the contrary, hesperidin or its analogue hesperetin had a vasodilating effect in hypertensive rats. A vasodilating effect has also been demonstrated for eriodictyol, a flavonoid found in lemon (Testai L., Calderone V., 2017). Studies of the highest quality level did not reveal a positive effect from the intake of flavonoids in the treatment of trophic ulcers in patients with CVI (Scallon C. et al., 2013). Obviously, further research is needed on the phlebotonic effect of the various flavonoids, if any. Among the noted effects, subjective ones prevailed: an improvement in the quality of life, a decrease in the severity of pain, a feeling of heaviness and seizures (Cheatle T.R. et al., 1991; Katsenis K., 2005; Perrin M., Ramelet A.A., 2011; Aziz Z. et al., 2015), which can be explained by the placebo effect. It must be recognized, however, that the improvement of venous hemodynamics under the influence of MFF was confirmed by tensometric plethysmography and measurements of the tibia circumference above the ankles in patients with CVI (Duchene Marullaz P. et al., 1988; Geroulakos G., Nicolaides AN, 1994; Allaert FA, 2012 ). Volumetric data of the lower extremities were inconclusive (Danielsson G. et al., 2002), including in a recent study by E.Rabe et al (2015). In general, the quality of research on this topic is considered insufficient, and there is a conflict of interest that causes overestimation and predominant publication of positive results (Kharkevich D.A., 2004; Scallon C. et al., 2013).
The mechanisms of the alleged anti-inflammatory and anti-edema action of flavonoids remain poorly understood. It is unclear why flavonoids should be used instead of drugs with proven anti-inflammatory or diuretic effects.Diuretics for venous insufficiency are usually not recommended (Cheatle T.R. et al., 1991; Pokrovsky A.V., 2004). The antioxidant effect of flavonoids is also discussed. However, taking antioxidants is not always beneficial (Papas A.M., 1999; Kaludercic N. et al., 2014; Giorgio M., 2015; Conti V. et al., 2016). As a rule, it is not possible to prove the positive effect of taking antioxidants with food (Gordon M.H., 2012). Under the heading “antioxidants”, a variety of substances are discussed, such as vitamins, sometimes with complex mechanisms of action.Some antioxidants in high doses act as prooxidants (Papas A.M., 1999). The redox balance is maintained in dynamic equilibrium under the influence of many factors. It is far from always clear whether the use of antioxidants is shown, which drugs and in what quantity should be taken (Denisov E.V., Afanas’ev I.B., 2005; Edeas M., 2009; Giorgio M., 2015).
Flavonoids can have side effects, inhibit various enzymes, cause mutations, etc.(Uminsky A.A. et al., 2007; Lorent K. et al., 2015). Flavonoids and similar substances of tricyclic structure (furanocoumarins in grapefruit) can interact with drugs, affecting their effectiveness (Cermak R., Wolffram S., 2006; Bailey D.J., Yargin S.V., 2017), some flavonoids ( phytoestrogens) have estrogenic activity (Yargin S.V., 2012). It was also noted that a high concentration of flavonoids in drugs and dietary supplements can cause colonic dysbiosis (Duda-Chodak A., 2012). Among the side effects of flavonoids, eczema, diarrhea and arterial hypertension were noted (Scallon C. et al., 2013; Martinez-Zapata M.J. et al., 2016).
Without going into the details of the biology of flavonoids, let us note their role as repellents that prevent animals from eating plants. Animals are known to be reluctant to eat citrus fruits. Some flavonoids are toxins for insects and other organisms (Abu Raihan S.M., 2014). It is assumed that flavonoids, acting as weak toxins, can stimulate endogenous defense mechanisms (Goszcz K.et al., 2015). However, in old age and in conditions close to decompensation, even weak damaging factors can have an undesirable effect (Jargin S.V., 2016).
Despite the above argumentation, it is impossible not to note the large number of publications that testify to the effectiveness of phlebotropic drugs. If certain beneficial properties of flavonoids of citrus origin are reliably confirmed, an answer will be required to the question of the possibility of replacing pharmaceuticals with increased consumption of citrus fruits, which are one of the main food sources of flavonoids (Gattuso G.et al., 2007), as well as an important source of vitamins and minerals. In oranges and grapefruits, the concentration of flavonoids is especially high in the membranes, the white layer of the rind (albedo) and the core (Jourdan P.S. et al., 1985; Testai L., Calderone V., 2017). Considering the maximum content of flavonoids in grapefruit juice – 84 mg / 100 ml and more (Jourdan PS et al., 1985), the average concentration in packaged juices is 65 mg / 100 ml (Gattuso G. et al., 2007) and their higher concentration in whole fruits, consumption of 1-2 grapefruit fruits means intake of about 500 mg of flavonoids (naringin, narirutin, hesperidin, etc.)). A relatively high concentration of hesperidin (a component of MOFF) was found in orange and tangerine juices (25–40 mg / 100 ml), and the highest concentration was found in C. clementina juice (about 40 mg / 100 ml). The concentration of diosmin (another component of MOFF) is quite high in packaged juice from sweet orange varieties – 3.46 mg / 100 ml. Lemon is also a source of hesperidin and diosmin. Detailed information on the content of flavonoids in various juices can be found in the review by G. Gattuso et al. (2007). It is important to note that many packaged juices contain more flavonoids than freshly squeezed juices, which may be due to greater pressing force, as well as the use of fruit pulp.Of course, this does not apply to all juices sold, some of which are diluted. Citrus peels (zest) can be added to a variety of foods and drinks. In this regard, it is important to emphasize the need to thoroughly wash the fruit, and to advise producers to refrain from using chemicals in order to give the fruit an attractive appearance.
In conclusion, we note that the data in favor of the phlebotropic effect of flavonoids are contradictory, and the clinically significant effects are poorly understood theoretically.The effectiveness of flavonoids needs to be verified using large-scale studies protected from conflicts of interest (Jargin S.V., 2018). The pharmacokinetics of flavonoids and the possibility of increasing their generally low bioavailability also require further study (D’Archivio M. et al., 2010; Gordon M.H., 2012; Thilakarathna S.H., Rupasinghe H.P., 2013). Among the objective methods for assessing venous outflow, one should mention water volumetry, measurement of the perimeter of the lower extremities at different levels, as well as modern optoelectronic methods for assessing blood volume.
List of used literature
- Bailey D.J., Yargin S.V. (2017) Interaction of grapefruit with drugs. Ukr. honey. chasopis (http://www.umj.com.ua/article/105072).
- Ivanov I.S., Sidekhmenova A.V., Nosarev A.V. et al. (2013) Effect of dihydroquercetin on isolated vein tone in rats. Bul. experimental biol. med., 155 (1): 71–72.
- Mashkovsky M.D. (1978) Medicines. 8th ed. Medicine, Moscow, 560 p.
- Orlov V.V. (1961) Plethysmography. Publishing house Acad. Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, 254 p.
- Pokrovsky A.V. (ed.) (2004) Clinical Angiology: Pract. guide in 2 volumes. Medicine, Moscow.
- Uminsky A.A., Havsten B.Kh., Bakaneva V.F. (2007) Biochemistry of flavonoids and their importance in medicine: Monogr. Grew up. acad. Sciences, Ros. acad. honey. Sciences, Pushchin. scientific. Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biol. Instrument Engineering RAS., Foton-Vek, 262 p.
- Kharkevich D.A. (2004) Principles of action and application of phlebotropic agents. Wedge. medicine, 11: 4-10.
- Yablokov E.G., Bogachev V.Yu., Domaradskaya A.I. (1996) Drug therapy for chronic venous insufficiency. Ter. archive, 68 (10): 80–81.
- S.V. Yargin (2012) On replacement therapy during menopause: estrogens and phytoestrogens. Ukr. honey. chasopis (http://www.umj.com.ua/article/43348).
- Abu Raihan S.M. (2014) Effect of plant flavonoids on mosquito larvae.Nat. Univ. J. Sci. 1: 27-30.
- Aellig W.H. (1994) Clinical pharmacology, physiology and pathophysiology of superficial veins – 2. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 38: 289-305.
- Allaert F.A. (2012) Meta-analysis of the impact of the principal venoactive drugs agents on malleolar venous edema. Int. Angiol., 31 (4): 310-315.
- Aziz Z., Tang W.L., Chong N.J., Tho L.Y. (2015) A systematic review of the efficacy and tolerability of hydroxyethylrutosides for improvement of the signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency.J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 40 (2): 177-185.
- Bevan J.A. (1979) Some bases of differences in vascular response to sympathetic activity. Circ. Res. 45: 161-171.
- Cermak R., Wolffram S. (2006) The potential of flavonoids to influence drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics by local gastrointestinal mechanisms. Curr. Drug Metab. 7: 729-744.
- Cheatle T.R., Scurr J.H., Smith P.D. (1991) Drug treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulceration: a review.J. R. Soc. Med. 84 (6): 354-358.
- Clark J.L., Zahradka P., Taylor C.G. (2015) Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure. Nutr. Rev. 73 (12): 799-822.
- Conti V., Izzo V., Corbi G. et al. (2016) Antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of aging-associated diseases. Front. Pharmacol. 7: 24.
- Danielsson G., Jungbeck C., Peterson K., Norgren L. (2002) A randomized controlled trial of micronised purified flavonoid fraction vs placebo in patients with chronic venous disease.Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg., 23: 73–76.
- D’Archivio M., Filesi C., Varì R, et al. (2010) Bioavailability of the polyphenols: status and controversies. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 11 (4): 1321-1342.
- Denisov E.V., Afanas’ev I.B. (2005) Oxidation and Antioxidants in Organic Chemistry and Biology. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Florida.
- Duarte J., Peérez-Vizcaiíno F., Zarzuelo A. et al. (1993) Vasodilator effects of quercetin in isolated rat vascular smooth muscle.Eur. J. Pharmacol., 239 (1-3): 1-7.
- Duchene Marullaz P., Amiel M., Barbe R. (1988) Evaluation of the clinical pharmacological activity of a phlebotonic agent. Application to the study of Daflon 500 mg. Int. Angiol., 7 (2 Suppl.): 25–32.
- Duda-Chodak A. (2012) The inhibitory effect of polyphenols on human gut microbiota. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 63 (5): 497-503.
- Edeas M. (2009) Anti-oxidants, controversies and perspectives: how can the failure of clinical studies using anti-oxidants be explained? J.Soc. Biol. 203: 271-280.
- Gattuso G., Barreca D., Gargiulli C. et al. (2007) Flavonoid composition of Citrus juices. Molecules, 12 (8): 1641-1673.
- Geroulakos G., Nicolaides A.N. (1994) Controlled studies of Daflon 500 mg in chronic venous insufficiency. Angiology 45 (6 Pt. 2): 549-553.
- Giorgio M. (2015) Oxidative stress and the unfulfilled promises of antioxivant agents. Ecancermedicalscience, 9: 556.
- Gordon M.H. (2012) Significance of dietary antioxidants for health. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13 (1): 173-179.
- Goszcz K., Deakin S.J., Duthie G.G. et al. (2015) Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Therapy: Panacea or False Hope? Front. Cardiovasc. Med., 2: 29.
- Guillaume M., Padioleau F. (1994) Veinotonic effect, vascular protection, antiinflammatory and free radical scavenging properties of horse chestnut extract. Arzneimittelforschung, 44 (1): 25–35.
- Jargin S.V. (2016) Hormetic use of stress in gerontological interventions requires a cautious approach. Biogerontology, 17: 417-420.
- Jargin S.V. (2018) The potential use of flavonoids as venoactive drugs and the role of citrus fruits. J. Complement. Med. Res., 7 (1): 97-100.
- Jourdan P.S., McIntosh C.A., Mansell R.L. (1985) Naringin levels in citrus tissues: II. Quantitative distribution of naringin in citrus paradisi MacFad. Plant Physiol. 77: 903-908.
- Juteau N., Bakri F., Pomies J.P. et al. (1995) The human saphenous vein in pharmacology: effect of a new micronized flavonoidic fraction (Daflon 500 mg) on norepinephrine induced contraction. Int. Angiol., 14 (3 Suppl. 1): 8-13.
- Kaludercic N., Deshwal S., Di Lisa F. (2014) Reactive oxygen species and redox compartmentalization. Front. Physiol. 5: 285.
- Katsenis K. (2005) Micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF): a review of its pharmacological effects, therapeutic efficacy and benefits in the management of chronic venous insufficiency.Curr. Vasc. Pharmacol., 3 (1): 1-9.
- Lorent K., Gong W., Koo K.A. et al. (2015) Identification of a plant isoflavonoid that causes biliary atresia. Sci. Transl. Med., 7 (286): 286ra67.
- Martinez-Zapata M.J., Vernooij R.W., Uriona Tuma S.M. et al. (2016) Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 4: CD003229.
- Papas A.M. (1999) Antioxidant status, diet, nutrition, and health. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, p.480.
- Perrin M., Ramelet A.A. (2011) Pharmacological treatment of primary chronic venous disease: rationale, results and unanswered questions. Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg., 41 (1): 117-125.
- Rabe E., Agus G.B., Roztocil K. (2015) Analysis of the effects of micronized purified flavonoid fraction versus placebo on symptoms and quality of life in patients suffering from chronic venous disease: from a prospective randomized trial. Int. Angiol. 34: 428-436.
- Savineau J.P., Marthan R. (1994) Diosmin-induced increase in sensitivity to Ca 2+ of the smooth muscle contractile apparatus in the rat isolated femoral vein. Br. J. Pharmacol. 111: 978-980.
- Scallon C., Bell-Syer S.E., Aziz Z. (2013) Flavonoids for treating venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 5: CD006477.
- Testai L., Calderone V. (2017) Nutraceutical value of citrus flavanones and their implications in cardiovascular disease.Nutrients, 9: 10.3390 / nu
- Thilakarathna S.H., Rupasinghe H.P. (2013) Flavonoid bioavailability and attempts for bioavailability enhancement. Nutrients 5 (9): 3367-3387.
Yargin Sergey Vadimovich
115184, Moscow, per. Klimentovskiy, 6, office 82
E-mail: [email protected]
VITAMIN C | BioSteel – sports nutrition
A unique fast absorbing and antioxidant rich formula!
- This Vitamin C formula is a new, highly effective blend of immunodeficient nutrients that provide powerful antioxidants and help maintain good health.
- Vitamin C helps maintain normal immune system function.
- Factor for maintaining good health.
- Helps in the development and maintenance of bones, cartilage, teeth and gums.
- Helps in the formation of connective tissue.
BioSteel Sports ™ is the only solution
for non-doping athletes
and looking for nutritional supplements of the highest
Pre-workout composition BioSteel –
this is a new composition with ingredients,
obtained from natural sources,
applied in precise doses,
BioSteel Vitamin C Chewable Tablets are dairy-free, vegetarian-free, gluten-free, soy-free, and contain no artificial colors, flavors or sweeteners.The formula contains a unique herbal blend of Rutin, Hesperidin, Lemon Bioflavonoids, Acerola Cherry and Rosehips to enhance vitamin C absorption and therapeutic benefits.
For 1 chewable tablet
Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate) 500 mg
Maintenance Botanical Blend 7 mg
Grown from Rutin (Dimorphandra mollis, pod), Hesperidin (Citrus sinensis, fruit), Lemon Bioflavonoids (Lemon Citrus, Peel), Acerola Cherry Extract (4: 1) (Malpighia glabra, fruit), Rose Hips (Rosa canina, fruit)
L Dextrose, Natural Orange Flavor, Vegetable Stearic Acid, Beatrema (Coconut Oil, Maltodextrin, Sodium Caseinate, Monoglycerides, Dipotassium Phosphate, Silicon Dioxide), Stevia, Vegetable Magnesium Stearate, Cellulose.