Lymphoma stories symptoms: Raymond’s Story – Hodgkin’s Lymphoma – Cancer Care
Raymond’s Story – Hodgkin’s Lymphoma – Cancer Care
Raymond Board undergoes
chemotherapy as he fights
Hodgkin’s disease. Because his cancer was caught early, he has an excellent prognosis. The importance of early detection is a message he is eager to share with others.
Sitting in a recliner as the
chemotherapy medicine slowly drips into his veins, Raymond Board wears a grey Adidas T-shirt that reads in large black and neon green letters, “You Ain’t Me.” If there were
room to spare, the 40-year-old Dayton resident and Hodgkin’s lymphoma patient would add the warning: “But you could be me at any moment.”
That’s the message Raymond wants to share with everyone: Cancer can strike anyone at any time, and the key to beating it is early detection.
It’s a message he especially wants to share with his friends and neighbors in the African American community, many of whom view doctors and health care with a suspicious eye, he says.
“My message is, ‘Go see a doctor. Trust the doctor,’” says Raymond, sitting for the third hour of his biweekly chemotherapy treatment. “Don’t be afraid to save your own life.”
He may have missed his own diagnosis had it not been for a blood pressure device at a local grocery store and his girlfriend Danette Marshall’s insistence that he see a doctor.
“My blood pressure was 155 over 112. She told me that was pretty high, and that I needed to see a doctor,” recalls Raymond, a father of two who worked as a plastic mold-maker before he was laid off.
It took some convincing and prodding by Danette (“I know high blood pressure is a silent killer,” she says), but Raymond went the same day to the emergency department at Miami Valley Hospital’s main campus. A battery of tests and a
biopsy followed, revealing Stage 2 Hodgkin’s lymphoma, also known as Hodgkin’s disease.
What Is Hodgkin’s Disease?
Hodgkin’s disease—a cancer of the immune system—strikes an estimated 9,060 Americans a year, killing 1,190, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI). It’s not clear what causes the disease. Hodgkin’s isn’t
linked to a specific genetic or lifestyle factor, says Raymond’s oncologist, Tarek Sabagh, MD, of Miami Valley Infection Specialists, who is treating Raymond with colleague Mark A. Marinella, MD, of Dayton Physician Network.
Even so, Raymond felt some lifestyle changes were in order. Healthy living became a priority. He stopped smoking, “cold turkey.” He also cut back on fast food and focused more on home cooking that included plenty of fruits and vegetables.
“My life changed 100 percent,” says Raymond.
Raymond has classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the most common form of the disease. Symptoms include painless enlargement of lymph nodes, spleen, or other immune tissue; fever; fatigue; a weight loss of 10 percent or
more within six months; and night sweats.
Of the four subtypes of the disease, Raymond has the “nodular sclerosis” subtype, which Dr. Marinella calls “the most common and most favorable subtype” in terms of treatment.
Doctors know that most Hodgkin’s lymphoma occurs when an infection-fighting cell called a B cell develops a mutation in its DNA. The mutation causes a large number of oversized, abnormal B cells to accumulate in the lymphatic system, where they
crowd out healthy cells, and cause the signs and symptoms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
According to the NCI, one in 436 men and women born in the U.S. today will be diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma during their lifetime. Slightly more men than women get the disease.
Dr. Sabagh says the typical treatment is chemotherapy with or without
radiation, depending on the stage of the disease. He says Raymond’s prognosis is excellent, given it was caught early. “As a rule, patients are cured from Hodgkin’s disease,
but we stress the need for long-term follow-up care,” says Dr. Sabagh.
Adds Dr. Marinella, “This disease has among the highest cure rates of any adult cancer—which can approach 90 to 95 percent, depending on the subtype and stage and the patient’s age. However, untreated, classical Hodgkin’s disease
Exhausted But Encouraged
Raymond credits his girlfriend with saving his life by urging him to get medical attention. Although he is encouraged by his prognosis, he says the disease “hasn’t been a cakewalk.”
In the early days of his diagnosis, he says he was haunted with questions of fate and self-doubt. “Am I going to die? What did I do to deserve this?”
Friends, clinging to myth and folklore, urged him to avoid surgery and treatment. “Once they cut on you, the cancer spreads,” they told him. Cancer, they believed, meant death.
Then there’s the physical and emotional stress of treatment. Chemotherapy—even with drugs to combat its side effects—often leaves him feeling sick and exhausted for days at a time.
A good day, Raymond says, is “when I can stand up.” But like many cancer patients, Raymond has discovered the disease has its gifts, too. He learned quickly, for instance, that he has a broad network of friends and supporters, special people
who have held two fundraisers to help with mounting medical bills.
The disease has brought Raymond closer to Danette and to his family, too. It’s also given him a new appreciation for life, as well as a resolve to share his cancer story with anyone who will listen. “I just want to live,” he says. “I’ve
got goals to accomplish, and if I can beat this, I know I can help others beat it, too.”
Donna, Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivor – Lymphoma Research Foundation
In 2007, I was smack dab in the middle of a mid-life crisis. At 45-years-old, I had
the strong feeling that time was ticking and I needed to get moving if I was going to have any chance of fulfilling my long-held desire to do something significant with my life. Being a stay at home wife and mom of two sons, ages nine and twelve, was rewarding but something was missing. I thought that if I went back to practicing law – picking up the life I put on hold while raising children – I would have the chance to continue of my life path toward something big. But for months I was chronically ill with a severe cough, itchiness, night sweats, and afternoon fevers, and frankly, it left me withered.
The cough was so annoying that I decided to visit a doctor so she could give me something to hush it. For six months, the first doctor diagnosed my condition as either bronchitis or a super virus. The second doctor felt the lumps growing at the base of my neck and on my clavicle and said they were not cancerous tumors. Meanwhile, the symptoms were worsening. At the insistence of my husband, I consulted with a third doctor who recognized the symptoms of lymphoma right away. A CT scan and PET scan confirmed his suspicions and I was referred into one of my local cancer centers in Houston, Texas. More testing at the cancer center confirmed it was Hodgkin lymphoma, Stage IIB.
“By the time I was given the news, I was somewhat relieved. I finally knew why I was ill.”
People often ask me how I felt when I was told after the PET scan that I had cancer. I wasn’t shocked or horrified. I didn’t think “Why me?” Before my diagnosis, I had done a lot of self-diagnosis via the internet and figured something was very wrong. So, by the time I was given the news, I was somewhat relieved– I finally knew why I was ill. I called my husband and a dear friend who had just battled breast cancer and in a matter of hours laid out a plan to tackle my lymphoma. I visited the Lymphoma Research Foundation (LRF) website and got every bit of information I could sent to me. Knowledge is power and to beat this I knew I’d need to gather all the power I could.
But I waited a day to tell my family. I wanted to have a game plan before calling them. They would be terribly worried and I wanted to put their minds at ease. The hardest part was telling my two sons. My boys knew that I rarely made a promise I couldn’t keep. So, when I gently told them I was ill but that I would take my medicine, be brave and get better, my older one asked “Promise?” I hesitated. Who really knew if that was a promise I could keep? Yet I did. I promised.
I then worked hard to keep my promise. Because of my age and other indicators that were not working in my favor, my husband and I decided that the best option for me would be twelve infusions of ABVD chemotherapy, the highest dose, every other week for 24 weeks, followed by five and a half weeks of radiation. I didn’t tolerate the treatment well and was hospitalized twice. As horrible as I felt when I was being rushed into the emergency room, I was even more emotionally devastated because it meant leaving my boys home bewildered, afraid and even more out of their normal routines. But, as promised, I worked hard to beat the cancer and I did—and I’ve been in remission ever since.
“After my diagnosis and treatment, I formulated a new life path toward achieving something of significance.”
Recently, I received a call from a friend who had just found out that her mom was diagnosed with cancer. I told her what I tell most anyone who is newly diagnosed. “I’m so sorry you have to go through this. Take a deep breath. Accept where you are. Get through this one day at a time. Don’t look too far ahead. Stay positive. Cancer treatment is not a sprint to the finish. It’s a lengthy marathon with highs and lows. We can only hope to crawl over the finish line weak and weary but victorious. ” I highly recommend new patients write down their concerns and how they can be addressed. Put the concerns into categories based on which are addressed by their doctors, their employer, their friends and their family. When they write it all down, they won’t feel as overwhelmed and can formulate a plan that will work for everyone.
The Lymphoma Research Foundation’s (LRF) mission is to eradicate lymphoma and serve those touched by this disease. I urge anyone who is coping with a diagnosis to let LRF serve them. Visit the website to find information about their specific lymphoma, listen to the webcasts, attend a local Ask the Doctor program or other educational program in their area. Call or write the Lymphoma Research Foundation Helpline for information on clinical trials or financial assistance. I’m grateful LRF was there for my family at the time of my diagnosis because it offered reliable information that we used to formulate my treatment plan together with my medical team.
I never did get back to my life path of practicing law. Instead, after my diagnosis and treatment, I formulated a new life path toward achieving something of significance. I decided to assist LRF in serving others with lymphoma by volunteering in the Houston area and I’m so happy I did.
It is a remarkable organization. The people involved, including the staff, the volunteers and the medical community who partner with LRF, are truly caring, intelligent and dedicated to serving those with lymphoma. During my time volunteering, I met many wonderful people, patients and medical professionals alike, who I would never have known had I not been involved with LRF. Moreover, helping LRF has positively touched the lives of others– and as I’ve now learned and I tell my sons, there is no more significant thing one can do with one’s life than to be a positive influence on the life of others.
Thought I had lymphoma – I don’t!
I recently got very worried that I had lymphoma and spent a lot of time stressing out and reading this forum and others on the web. I told myself that once I was sure I was OK I would post a message on these forums to try and help people in the same position I was in, and because so many people who are worried about having lymphoma never post again once they’re all clear. So here is my little story!
At the start of September 2017 I got a nasty cold which turned into laryngitis and a chest infection. Had a week of antibiotics and got ‘better’ but it took me well over a month to stop feeling exhausted and the niggling cough never went away. At the end of November I got another virus, just a sore throat and hoarseness for a few days but again it utterly wiped me out and for much of the next month I had days where I felt really terrible and struggled with energy levels. And all the time there was this irritating little cough.
I started to panic when I noticed a lump in my neck on the left side kind of above my collarbone around the time I had the sore throat. I’d noticed ‘puffiness’ in this area since September but just thought it was fat! Now I started to wonder. .. I visited my Dr who thought maybe I had glandular fever or something else was going on and he was great and sent me for a chest XRay and blood tests. All came back clear except very slightly raised inflammatory markers.
I was still worried though – since visiting him I’d noticed two more larger lumps in the same sort of area of my neck. My anxiety was extra as my sister had had Hodgkin’s Lymphoma years ago which was discovered by a neck lump and I knew this could raise my chances of having it. He understood my concerns and arranged an ultrasound. Christmas was coming however and it would be at least a month before I could have the scan.
The lumps didn’t go away, I didn’t feel any better, and prodding the lumps and googling my symptoms started to become a bit of an obsession. Added to this I started to have mild night sweats a couple of times a week. Great! My partner became equally worried and we started actually putting plans on hold in case I was diagnosed and had to have chemo. So we decided to pay for a private scan to put our minds at rest. The private hospital wouldn’t do a CT scan for just my neck (we wanted this as I’d read it was more reliable than ultrasound) so we went ahead with an ultrasound which I managed to get a couple of weeks quicker than the NHS one. For info for people who are wondering this cost about £285 and we claimed 75% of the cost back on our private health insurance, so it wasn’t too much to pay in the end for some peace of mind.
At the scan I saw the very senior radiologist looking at the screen and taking screengrabs and wondered what he was seeing. At the end of the scan I asked him and he said “You’re absolutely fine. There are several reactive nodes but nothing that shows any signs of Hodgkin’s or any other malignancy and as you’ve got a thin neck they’re easier to feel. You’ve got nothing to worry about.”
It felt like a weight off, I was so relieved. However, that night I had the worst night sweat yet and my partner and I woke feeling very deflated. I also couldn’t stop wondering ‘what exactly are these nodes reacting to?’. So I spoke to my Dr again, who was a little surprised I had gone private, but talked it all through with me. Essentially he told me to stop worrying, there was nothing of any concern. If it would put my mind at rest he would arrange some more blood tests to double check the inflammatory markers and everything else.
So here I am a week or so later – the blood test is tomorrow and I don’t even feel like there is much point going! Since the private ultrasound I have tried to make some changes to improve my health. I’m a fairly healthy person but was obviously struggling to fight off those viruses in autumn/winter so decided my immune system must need a boost.
I’ve started taking multivitamins and echinacea, exercising more, eating better and drinking less alcohol. Crucially, I’ve also started taking antihistamines as one of the other things that popped up in my endless Google searches was allergies. I didn’t think that could be it but it seems that perhaps it was a factor as my lumps have finally started to get smaller and the never ending cough has cleared up.
To do a little summary for anyone in my position, the things that I think have helped me to feel better are:
1. Distraction – the Christmas break spending time with friends and family stopped me focusing on my health so much. The brain is SO significant in all this and I don’t think my anxiety was doing me any good at all.
2. The ultrasound – despite the fear the morning after the bad night sweat, overall the ultrasound really helped to settle my mind and I would certainly consider paying privately again in the same situation.
3. Antihistamines – obviously I’m not a medical professional but I would suggest that anyone struggling with raised nodes and an irritating cough or nose/throat symptoms should give this a whirl – the positive effects on my symptoms have been obvious within a week and I wish I had thought to try it sooner, if my mind hadn’t been so clouded by thoughts of lymphoma!!
I’m not sure about the night sweats but they could be anxiety, hormones or even the temperature of my bedroom – either way I’m no longer worried that they are a ‘b symptom’ of lymphoma!
I hope this helps and good luck to everyone going through what I went through, I hope you get some peace of mind soon.
Zach’s story | Hodgkins Lymphoma
Zach and Rachel were married a year before his diagnosis.
Zach G was in the prime of his life when he received the shocking diagnosis of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. At age 22, he had the year previously graduated from college and married the love of his life. They relocated to a new area, away from family, to begin exciting careers and a life together. They were settling into this storybook tale with their puppy, Rocket, when their journey took a very unexpected turn. Here is how the story unfolded in Zach’s words:
I first thought something was wrong while on a cross-country road trip in May. We had stopped in Las Vegas and were at a hockey game, and a fly landed on my neck. As I swatted it away, I felt an odd bump.
When I got home three or four days later, I contacted my primary care physician. He saw me immediately and had no idea what was wrong. He ordered a blood test, which looked normal, so he sent me on to a local ENT in case something was wrong. The ENT ordered an MRI, where we discovered I had three enlarged lymph nodes in my neck. We scheduled a surgery for July 7th to get some tissue samples.
The surgery was a little tougher than anticipated, but they were able to remove the two smaller lymph nodes. Up to this point, cancer had been mentioned as a worst-case scenario, but not a likely scenario. Three days after my surgery, we went back to the ENT office and he delivered the news: they found atypical cells consistent with lymphoma. He was sending the tissue samples on to Emory for a closer look, but more than likely I had cancer. I asked for a trashcan to throw up into.
I had to wait a couple of weeks before an oncologist was able to see me. My wife and mom both came to the appointment with me, where they gave us the results from Emory: classic Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. That Thursday I had surgery to put a port in, and over the next two weeks went through a bone marrow biopsy, full body PET scans, and other baseline-providing tests. On August 13th, I was told I was only in stage IIA, the best-case scenario based on what we knew walking in. I started chemo immediately.
Zach remains optimistic and looks forward to many happy and healthy years ahead!
My whole life, I’ve heard stories about people with similar experiences — family, friends, church members, parents at school – but all were over the ages of 40 or 50. I was only 22 years old when that fly landed on my neck. I mean, my wife would love it if I ate some more vegetables, but I spent my entire high school athletic career running cross country and track. In college I played basketball and lifted weights everyday. I’ve never smoked anything before! I’ve done a really good job of taking care of my body, yet right after my 23rd birthday, I got diagnosed with lymphoma.
The scariest thing to me is the only symptom I had was the enlarged lymph nodes. If that fly hadn’t landed on my neck, I might not have noticed for another month. I felt completely normal, right until I started chemotherapy. Cancer can happen to anyone, at any time. Listen to your body. If something seems wrong, go get checked out.
Here is what you need to know about Leukemia and Lymphoma. Both are cancers. (Related: What is cancer?) Leukemia is a cancer of the blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow and the lymphatic system. A person with leukemia makes abnormal white blood cells. The leukemia cells don’t die when they should and may crowd out healthy blood cells. Leukemia is the most common cancer in children younger than 15 years. However, childhood leukemia is a rare disease. There are many types of leukemia, but the most common in children is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which affects lymphoid cells and grows quickly.
Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymph or immune system. You’ve probably heard of the two types: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lymphoma is the most common cancer for people under 30. An estimated 8,500 people (4,840 men and 3,660 women) in the United States will be diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma each year. About 74,680 people (41,730 males and 32,950 females) will be diagnosed with NHL.
Both leukemia and lymphoma can occur in adults and children. The symptoms are often mistaken for other things.
Symptoms – Leukemia
- Fever or chills
- Persistent fatigue, weakness
- Frequent or severe infections
- Losing weight without trying
- Swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen
- Easy bleeding or bruising
- Recurrent nosebleeds
- Tiny red spots in your skin (petechiae)
- Excessive sweating, especially at night
- Bone pain or tenderness
Symptoms – Lymphoma
- Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpit, or groin
- Unexplained weight loss that occurs swiftly without dieting
- Heavy sweating, especially at night
- More about lymphoma.
Treatments for any cancer vary depending on the stage and type of cancer, your age, and your overall health. However, treatments for these two cancers may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, antibody therapy, biological therapy, and/or stem cell transplants.
People with no family history and no risk factors may get lymphoma or leukemia. However, you are at higher risk if these factors affect you:
- Previous cancer treatment
- Genetic disorders
- Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene
- Family history
- Autoimmune diseases or a weakened immune system
- Previous infection of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)/mononucleosis
Our team at Generations Family Practice wants to keep you and your family healthy. If you or your child have the symptoms listed above, contact your doctor immediately. The sooner we discover any health issues, the easier it is to treat them.
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patient Story | Bud L.
For more than 20 years, I had a small lump on my back. I had it biopsied during that time, but the results always came back benign. In March of 2009 when I was 58 years old, my wife, Connie, noticed that the lump had changed in size and color. She was concerned.
I went to see a dermatologist near our home outside Columbus, Ohio, who did a punch biopsy of the area. The results indicated that I likely had skin lymphoma. The doctor recommended that I have additional tests performed at a nearby cancer center, which was a highly regarded facility.
At the cancer facility, I had a CT scan, blood tests and a bone marrow biopsy. The results revealed that the lymphoma was not cutaneous, or skin-based, as the dermatologist had believed. Rather, the disease was systemic, meaning it was in my bone marrow, with about 30 percent to 40 percent bone marrow involvement. Some lymph nodes in my abdominal area were enlarged, and my spleen was slightly enlarged. The diagnosis was low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
When I received the diagnosis, the doctor told me I was at stage where no treatment was needed until I experienced symptoms, such as night sweats, anemia or raised lymph nodes.
Hearing this recommendation, my wife, Connie, and I were a bit shocked. I had blood cancer. They told Connie and I not to worry about it, but how would that even be possible?
When we came home from the hospital, we decided to look for another facility to get a second opinion. Late one night, I found Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA) during a search online. I had a “live” chat with a representative, who was able to verify that my insurance would be accepted. Soon, I had an appointment scheduled.
From the start of my three-day consultation, I could see how CTCA® was different. The way we were greeted and the overall atmosphere were so welcoming. We received a schedule for the visit, found out about activities we could join while we were there and had virtually everything taken care of.
My primary oncologist at CTCA agreed with the previous recommendation that no treatment was needed at that point. The difference was he explained why no treatment was needed, and what would happen if treatment became necessary at some point.
I also met with a naturopathic oncology provider and a dietitian while at CTCA, both of whom suggested ways to keep my immune system strong. I have been following these approaches for several years now.
No longer watch and wait
In August 2015, I started having chest and arm pains after a walk. Throughout the “watch and wait” period, my red blood cell count and hemoglobin numbers were continuously decreasing. A bone marrow biopsy was scheduled and showed that 90 percent of my bone marrow was now involved. At this time, I chose to begin treatment.
At CTCA, I had four rounds of chemotherapy, combined with an antibody treatment for four months. The side effects from the treatment were very minor, and I continued to meet with my naturopathic oncology provider to discuss ways I could keep my immune system strong. In December 2015, Connie and I received a wonderful Christmas present: I was in remission and no further treatment was needed.
Living my life
Today, I am living my life to the fullest alongside my bride. Connie is my soul mate. We have been married for 45 years, and we plan on many more years together. We love spending time together with our children and our grandchildren. I am so thankful I am in good health after almost two years with no evidence of cancer.
Becoming part of the CTCA family has been wonderful. Connie and I joined the Cancer Fighters® Care Net together. And I participated in a Celebrate Life® event five years after my diagnosis in 2014. We enjoy our trips back to CTCA for my check-ups.
The beginning of Bud’s journey with cancer was frightening. Skin lymphoma is simple to treat compared to other types of cancer, so we did not do much research of our own after the initial diagnosis.
After Bud had the biopsy, we waited about five weeks for the results. Upon our return for the results, he had additional blood tests and I knew that Bud didn’t have skin lymphoma. I was sure that the cancer was in his whole system. I’m not a quiet person, but the diagnosis left me speechless. I was numb and had a hard time absorbing any information. When the doctor told us that no intervention was needed, I was very concerned.
Bud and I read more about non-Hodgkin lymphoma and came to understand that the disease can be slow to progress, but that it could become life-threatening in time. So, we wanted to explore other options.
I had mixed feelings about CTCA at first. As with any new experience, you don’t know what you’re going to encounter. However, from the start of his consultation, I was totally pleased. The reception was welcoming, we took classes, participated in the laughter club—it was fun and inspiring. The care was professional and also compassionate. The naturopathic oncology provider and dietitian told us what Bud could do in terms of diet and lifestyle changes that might help stop the disease or slow its progression. We were willing to try any intervention that might help, and I was grateful for the experts who were able to guide us in that direction.
Bud’s care team at CTCA always included me in the process. They gave me space to ask questions. No one was ever in a hurry. If there were aspects of his disease that I didn’t understand, they would patiently explain the details over and over. When we were meeting with clinicians, we felt that we were their number one and only priority for that moment. CTCA is an environment of caring.
As a caregiver, I have learned the importance of just being there—to be willing to listen, hold a hand, give a hug, whatever is needed. Support comes in many forms, but mostly it’s just about being there. When Bud was working, I was always making his meals and following his dietitian’s advice about what fruits and vegetables to add and what vitamins to take. I try to provide the support he needs at any time. Through it all, we have remained strong together, united by our faith and our wish to have many more years together and with our family.
The clinicians at CTCA have empowered Bud by being forthcoming with information and sharing it in the most positive light possible. They provide reassurance that if the cancer does progress, they are there to treat it.
I have taken the positivity we feel at CTCA and translated that into our life together. We seldom sit around on the couch watching TV. Instead, we get up and do things, keep active. Bud didn’t retire so he could come home and wait to get sick. We have our lives to live, and we are going to live our lives.
Paula | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
My Cancer Story/Journey so far:
I was diagnosed 21 years ago at age 44 with low grade indolent B cell follicular lymphoma.
I went for a routine colonoscopy and they found a very small swollen lymph node in my ileum. I had absolutely no symptoms at all. After two colonoscopies in two weeks and four medical consultations I went through CHOP chemotherapy. Today they would have just done “wait and watch.” At the end of my treatment even my oncologist said if I had come to him without other recommendations he would have done nothing. Anyway that is history.
Sometime in 2000, I had fluids in the pleural lining of my lungs, which made my breathing more labored. Although all the oncologists that I went to for second or third options were recommending Rituxan and a chemo drug, I opted for Rituxan alone (8 infusions once per week), which was acceptable to the oncologist I had chosen to treat me. I also had radiation to shrink the lymph node in my stomach that was blocking the normal flow of fluids that was backing up into my lungs as well as 30 thoracenteses to drain the fluids from my lungs. Got through that experience and two years later had fluid in my lungs again and got Rituxan (8 infusions once per week) and a pleural catheter inserted for a month and got better.
After that we decided to go on a maintenance regime of Rituxan once a month for two years. It is now four years plus after the maintenance treatment and I feel fine. Since I have no symptoms and my blood work is good my oncologist has not ordered a PET scan. I see him every three to four months.
Low grade lymphoma at this time is not curable so I have come to accept that I will most likely go through some disease again. Fortunately I respond well to Rituxan and since it is only a monoclonal antibody there are not the horrid side effects of chemo and it does not destroy the good cells. I turned 65 years old in September and believe me, I’m grateful for every day of health. It sucks to have cancer and although low grade lymphoma is not curable it is treatable and many new less toxin drugs are on the horizon thanks to research.
Living with my type of cancer is like living with a chronic disease. Fortunately we get remissions and go on with our lives. And of course we hope that our cancer does not turn into a more aggressive form of cancer. My theory on getting treatment is to try the least toxic treatment first and if that doesn’t work then explore chemo options. Believe me not all doctors would agree with that, but so far I have managed my disease well and it is 21 years later and I am still on this earth living a full life.
Sophie | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
I was diagnosed with stage 3B Hodgkin lymphoma in February 2013. I was having unusual things going on with my body such as itching, weight gain, swollen lymph nodes and heavy breathing. As these symptoms continued, it led me to go see my general practitioner, who misdiagnosed me with scabies (a form of bed bugs). After another week of being miserable, and no change in my symptoms, I decided to go see my dermatologist. When I went in he knew right away something wasn’t right and sent me to get blood work done immediately. The next day he called and told me he was referring me to an “oncologist.” (At this point in my life I had no idea what an oncologist was). The oncologist immediately had me see an ear, nose and throat doctor to schedule a lymph node biopsy, performed a bone marrow biopsy and sent me to have a PET scan all within a matter of days.
On February 19, 2013, my world as I knew it forever changed. By now, Aaron (now my husband) and our families knew it could be a serious infection or even possibly cancer, and my lymph node was sent to a pathologist to find out what was going on. When the lymph node was removed during surgery, my airway collapsed (later to find out it was because of my football-size mass). Within the next four days, as I waited for a room in the intensive care unit, I had a tracheotomy and was put into a medically induced coma. After being life-flighted to the medical center, my team of doctors/nurses at Methodist didn’t waste any time. Within the first 48 hours, I had a stint put in my airway and emergency chemotherapy began on February 22, 2013. I spent six weeks in a medically induced coma. When I woke up in late March, I seriously thought I was in the recovery room after my lymph node biopsy, and was shocked to find out it was six weeks later and I had already had four rounds of chemo. From March to the end of October I fought to save my life. I managed to recover through several infections, a hospital bug, learning to eat, walk, write and talk again, having to shave my hair off, 12 rounds of ABVD chemotherapy, and countless hours of physical therapy.
I completed my 12th chemo on August 14, 2013. The happiest day of my life came two weeks later when I was officially declared CANCER FREE by the BEST oncologist and the man who saved my life.
90,000 causes of occurrence, symptoms of the disease, diagnosis and treatment methods
The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For a diagnosis and correct treatment, you should contact your doctor.
Lymphomas: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
Lymphomas are a group of malignant neoplastic diseases of the lymphatic tissue, which under normal conditions is responsible for immunity. One of the first clinical symptoms of lymphomas is an enlargement of the lymph nodes of different locations.
Lymphomas, like other malignant tumors, have a tendency to metastasize, that is, the migration of tumor cells through the blood and lymph, as well as by contact into intact (healthy) tissues with subsequent multiplication in them.
Almost all types of lymphogranulomatosis, or Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and about 65% of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are manifested by painless enlargement of lymph nodes – 2 cm or more. However, the diagnosis of a particular type of lymphoma is established solely on the basis of a morphological examination of a biopsy material taken from a tumor.
The incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in Russia is about 2 cases per 100 thousand of the population per year, and of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas – 5-7 cases per 100 thousand.
Causes of lymphoma
There are several possible causes of lymphoma development. It is important to understand that the development of any malignant disease, including lymphomas, is based on a dysfunction of cells.
The ability for uncontrolled tumor growth occurs when the natural process of cell division is disrupted: normally the cell divides a limited number of times, matures, performs a certain function, and then ends its life.
Malignant cells are characterized by a violation of the processes of maturation and differentiation (the process during which a cell acquires specific characteristics and the ability to perform certain functions). The cells acquire new functions – they begin to produce proteins and toxins, the ability to “escape from immune supervision” arises, as a result of which the process of natural cell death (apoptosis) changes.
Some viruses can directly affect the DNA of lymphocytes and promote their transformation into malignant cells.
For example, infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important risk factor for developing lymphomas.
Lymphocytes are divided into two subtypes: T and B cells (T and B lymphocytes). Infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) increases a patient’s risk for certain types of T-cell lymphoma. The virus is transmitted sexually and through blood, and from mother to child through breast milk.
Viruses that weaken immunological surveillance are indirectly responsible for the development of some types of lymphomas.
Thus, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reduces the population of lymphocytes, while the control over mutant cells and viruses of herpes simplex type 8 and Epstein-Barr with the formation of lymphomas decreases.
Certain infections can cause lymphoma due to constant activation of the immune system. Chronic infections produce large numbers of lymphocytes, which increases the likelihood of mutations during cell division and puts you at risk for lymphoma.Such infections include Helicobacter pylori (often found in chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer), Chlamydophila psittaci (risk of developing lymphoma in the tissues of the eye), hepatitis B and C viruses with prolonged infection.
Non-infectious risk factors for the development of lymphomas include:
- Exposure to chemicals. Numerous studies have shown that the effects of herbicides, insecticides, benzene are associated with an increased risk of developing lymphomas.
- The presence of autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc.) is a significant risk factor for the development of lymphomas.
- Radiation exposure has a great impact on the rate of occurrence of cell mutations and their malignancy.
- Genetic factors. Having a close relative with lymphoma significantly increases your risk.
- Congenital immunity deficiency in certain diseases.
- Age. Some types of lymphomas develop in children and adolescents, while others, in contrast, develop in people over 60.
- Breast implants in rare cases contribute to the development of one type of large cell lymphoma of the mammary glands.
Classification of lymphomas
There are two main types of lymphomas: Hodgkin’s lymphoma, or lymphogranulomatosis, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas.
Hodgkin’s lymphoma is characterized by the presence of specific Reed-Berezovsky-Sternberg cells in the affected lymph nodes, spleen, liver or bone marrow.
Enlarged cervical lymph nodes in a patient with Hodgkin’s lymphoma
The group of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas includes:
- follicular lymphoma;
- marginal zone lymphoma;
- Diffuse large B cell lymphoma;
- mantle cell lymphoma;
- Burkitt’s lymphoma
- primary lymphoma of the central nervous system;
- nodal T cell lymphomas;
- primary cutaneous lymphomas;
- non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in HIV-infected patients;
- Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in patients infected with hepatitis B and C viruses.
Symptoms of lymphoma
The earliest symptom is swollen lymph nodes with complete well-being. Enlarged lymph nodes are painless.
Various clinical manifestations depend on the localization of the tumor: if the tumor grows in the lymph nodes of the chest, airway compression and hoarseness of the voice, impaired swallowing, difficulty breathing, obsessive cough are possible.
When lymphoma is located in the mediastinum, a syndrome of compression of the superior vena cava appears: headaches, edema and varicose veins of the face and neck occur.
In some cases, only general symptoms are present: loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, night sweats, weakness, sometimes itching and pain in enlarged lymph nodes.
Against the background of a decrease in immunity, infectious diseases can join – the chickenpox virus is often activated, manifested by herpes zoster.
Cases of damage to the abdominal organs are described (manifested by an increase in the volume of the abdomen due to the growth of a tumor and accumulation of fluid, the appearance of pain, jaundice, nausea and vomiting) and bone marrow (pain in the bones, back, frequent fractures, pallor, increased bleeding).
Diagnosis of lymphomas
The diagnosis of a particular type of lymphoma is established solely on the basis of a morphological study of a biopsy material (a piece or a whole lymph node obtained during a small operation) taken from a tumor (histological, cytogenetic and molecular genetic research methods). The doctor will prescribe additional studies to diagnose the stage of the disease and its complications. The list of studies depends on the presumptive location of the tumor and can be changed.
- Clinical blood test.
PET CT for lymphoma | Medicine & Nuclear Technology
Lymphoma types – what does your doctor suspect?
More than 100 types of tumors from lymphoid tissue – lymphomas are known. They affect the lymph nodes, internal organs, and bone marrow. Main types:
Hodgkin’s (more than 60% of all lymphomas)
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas :
B-cell – up to 85% (mainly in adults):
- from immature B cells,
- from mature B cells,
- tumor potential not determined.
T-cell (mainly in children)
- from immature T-cells,
- from mature T-cells:
– primary common,
– with skin lesions,
– with lesions internal organs,
– with damage to the lymph nodes
It is important to know the histological type and stage, because each has its own prognosis. Hodgkin’s lymphomas are considered more favorable, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are more aggressive.However, they both respond well to treatment in the early stages. And to do PET CT is necessary to determine the stage and the most informative area for biopsy.
F act: At the first stage of Hodgkin’s disease, 90% of patients can be completely cured, with non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas – in 70%. At stage IV, remission can be achieved, respectively, in 50% and 30%.
What should be alert – symptoms of lymphomas
It is difficult to immediately suspect lymphoma only by general symptoms – the disease can develop in any organ where there is lymphoid tissue.Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, small intestine, bone marrow, brain and back, internal organs, and even skin can be affected. With a single enlarged lymph node, or a headache, no one goes to do PET CT.
Symptoms of intoxication come to the fore – for no apparent reason arise:
- weight loss – loss of more than 10% of weight in 6 months,
- evening temperature rises above 38 about ,
- severe night sweats.
Lymphomas are also characterized by swollen lymph nodes that are not associated with infection or do not decrease after recovery.
Fact: New cases of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in Russia are registered about 3000 per year, more than half of them are young working age – from 15 to 39 years. The peak of the disease is 25-29 years. The death rate is about 1000 cases per year. The diagnostic accuracy of PET CT directly affects the prognosis.
Who should have PET CT for lymphoma and why?
The study, thanks to its almost 100% accuracy, is recognized as the “gold standard” of diagnostics and helps :
- those who have discovered alarming symptoms – find out the diagnosis,
- those who already know it – determine the stage and find out how aggressive the process is ,
- for those whose doctor plans to perform a biopsy and histological diagnosis – take it from the “correct” area,
- for those undergoing treatment – evaluate the intermediate result and adjust the course,
- for those who completed treatment – confirm remission and recognize in time relapse.
Fact: Compared to CT, PET CT reduces the burden on the patient, as the study is performed in the “whole body” mode.
Make PET CT for lymphomas it is necessary to determine:
- With the activity of the process and the degree of malignancy. The more active the process, the more accurate the result.
- With the stage of the disease. Accuracy reaches 100%. This is one of the main research objectives when planning treatment.
- With affected areas – detects malignant cells in lymph nodes, bone marrow, internal organs.
- With areas for puncture biopsy to obtain a reliable histological result and develop a treatment strategy.
- With lymphoma responding to treatment – after courses of chemotherapy and radiation, confirm remission, or prescribe a new, more aggressive course.
- With the diagnosis of relapse – it will be detected in time and treated with the help of chemotherapy and / or radiation therapy.
Fact: Lymph nodes of normal size, which are found, for example, on CT, can be affected by a malignant process. It can be detected in time only with the help of PET CT diagnostics.
What is the benefit to the patient?
- Accurate diagnosis without wasting time – stage of the process and activity to plan and start treatment as soon as possible, and therefore to achieve a response.
- Other treatment tactics – more effective lymphoma chemotherapy protocols, radiation therapy.
- Better treatment result – due to the exact definition of the type of tumor and the degree of its malignancy. The metabolic response and remission is achieved faster.
- Less aggressive radiation therapy and more precise planning, which means fewer complications and risks.
- Less dose of chemotherapy drugs, which means better patient well-being, fewer side effects.
- Better survival – Clinical studies have shown a positive effect of PET CT on long-term prognosis.
Fact: the higher the activity of the process, the more effective the examination: with non-Hodgkin follicular lymphomas, as well as large B-cell lymphomas, the information content of the study reaches 100%.
PET CT: from initial diagnosis to remission. These are:
- accuracy in detecting lesions , which are not available for diagnosis by other methods, including CT and MRI.
- comfort and safety – without pain and risk, in one examination the doctor and the patient receive the most detailed information about lymphoma, stage, activity.
- time saving – the technique detects a neoplasm with sizes of 4 mm, which allows for more gentle treatment
- more precisely, the treatment tactics of lymphoma, and the prognosis is if the patient responds to treatment – reduce the risks, if not respond – prescribe higher doses drugs or radiation therapy.
- early diagnosis of relapse – before clinical symptoms appear, and increased chances of remission.
Fact: undergo PET CT scan and identify the malignant process and its details easier.CT and MRI, even with an active process, often give negative results.
Medicine and Nuclear Technologies Center is ready to:
- Perform PET CT examination at the expert level – due to narrow specialization, many years of practical experience and adherence to world standards. If there is a neoplasm in the body, we will find it.
- Quality assurance – And radiopharmaceuticals, and the study itself, and the description of the results.Every detail is worked out to the smallest detail, we carry out every research with the utmost care.
- Answer all questions that the attending physician and his patient have. Determine the localization of the process, stage, degree of activity with high reliability of the results. We also provide a “second opinion” to resolve all doubts about the diagnosis.
- Save time and money – we produce radiopharmaceuticals in our own laboratory, which simplifies the diagnostic process and reduces waiting times.In addition, patients have a chance to undergo PET CT scan free of charge, under the compulsory medical insurance policy.
- Prepare a detailed description of the identified changes. Our reports and images meet all international requirements, and the results are accepted in Russian and foreign clinics if the patient decides to be treated abroad.
- Reduce patient stress. We understand how important this is. Therefore, we will do everything so that the study goes as planned and the patient does not experience additional stress.
Fact: We have conducted several tens of thousands of studies since our discovery. 3-4 out of every 10 patients had to choose a different treatment plan. We continue to help patients and their doctors fight lymphoma.
We are on the same side against the disease. Don’t waste your time.
Lymphoma: symptoms, causes, treatment
Lymphoma is a malignant disease that affects the lymphatic system. More precisely, we are talking about a group of diseases, because there are several of them – and they differ in different features.
The lymphatic system itself is a complex system, the vessels of which cover all internal organs. It also includes lymph nodes that form lymphocytes, which are very important for our immunity. This system has several key functions. The barrier clears the lymph and traps particles unwanted for the body (for example, dead cells). The transport function delivers nutrients to the organs, and the immune function helps fight viruses, bacteria, any harmful cells.
If lymphoma develops, lymphatic cells begin to divide uncontrollably, tumors appear, which, without timely treatment, threaten the patient, including death.
The exact causes of lymphoma have not yet been established – however, this is the case with many malignant tumors. But we can say that there are factors contributing to the development of the disease.
These factors include past viral diseases, bacterial infections, taking immunosuppressants, the effect of certain chemicals, as well as a certain age and gender.
People over the age of 55 are at risk, since the immunity of such patients is weakened due to natural causes, accumulated diseases. But lymphomas are quite common, therefore, they are also found in younger groups – up to 35 years old, in childhood. Sex dependence is noted in the case of Hodgkin’s lymphoma – it is more common in men.
Dangerous viruses that can subsequently lead to such a disease include the Epstein-Barr virus, mononucleosis, hepatitis, HIV, certain types of herpes, etc.etc.
When we talk about a chemical factor, we mean regular contact with aggressive chemicals that have a toxic effect. Here at risk are people who regularly come into contact with various solvents, pesticides and similar hazardous components.
With regard to immunosuppressants, we are usually talking about situations where a person is diagnosed with an autoimmune disease. In this case, it is necessary to suppress the body’s reaction to its own cells – as a result, the lymphatic system may also suffer.It occurs in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
Most often, the patient or his loved ones notice the problem when three common symptoms occur: severe sweating, active weight loss and fever. The temperature with lymphoma usually rises to 38 degrees, but in the later stages of the disease it can exceed 39 degrees.
Weight loss often occurs against the background of nausea, vomiting, and feeling unwell.That is, the patient does not want to eat food, which is why he loses weight.
There are other common signs of lymphoma:
- enlarged lymph nodes – in one or more areas;
- drowsiness, weakness;
- pains of different localization – head, back, chest, abdomen may hurt;
- Itching sensation in the affected area and elsewhere on the body.
It is interesting that enlarged lymph nodes in such diseases usually do not hurt, including on palpation.Painful sensations may occur if the person has drunk, for example, alcohol. Moreover, such nodes do not respond to antibacterial drugs – this can also be considered a sign of lymphoma.
Another symptom of lymphoma is itchy skin. Most often it occurs in Hodgkin’s forms of the disease (it is noted by about a third of patients). Itching captures either individual parts of the body, or its entire surface. Sometimes it happens that this symptom is felt even during remission. Patients experience this symptom most strongly at night.Often it goes away on its own, and can also pass, then return regardless of the stage of the disease.
Specific symptoms of lymphoma also include:
- Cough (if the disease is localized in the chest). Depending on the stage of the disease, chest pain and shortness of breath may occur.
- Swelling. As a rule, the localization of edema depends on the location of the affected lymph nodes.
- Problems with the gastrointestinal tract: diarrhea, constipation, nausea, etc.d.
At the first stages, the disease does not express itself so clearly, therefore, the patient should be alerted to enlarged lymph nodes and a state of weakness – this is already enough to seek help from doctors for examination.
Types of lymphomas by aggressiveness
Since there are many diseases that belong to this group, it is customary to divide them into groups according to different criteria. One of them is the aggressiveness of the current.
The so-called flaccid lymphomas (they are also indolent) develop slowly and do not threaten the patient’s life for several years.With timely treatment, the chances of a long and lasting remission are high. This group includes lymphocytic as well as follicular lymphoma.
Aggressive forms, which include diffuse (mixed and large-cell) forms, can kill the body within months, and highly aggressive forms even within weeks. The latter, for example, include T-cell leukemia, Burkitt’s lymphoma. In the treatment of any disease and in maintaining an adequate condition of the patient, the timeliness of professional assistance plays an important role.
If we compare the symptoms of lymphoma in adults and children, it turns out that aggressive forms are more common in a younger organism. Such diseases among young patients are quite common – they account for up to 10% of all types of cancer that they encounter. They are usually diagnosed at the age of five to ten years, in other groups much less often.
The situation is complicated by the fact that young children cannot describe their condition to doctors in detail, so you have to determine the disease by typical signs.If a child sweats a lot, gets tired quickly and becomes irritable (or apathetic), this is a serious reason to consult a specialist.
Typically, a diagnosis of lymphoma includes:
Depending on the situation, the diagnosis of lymphoma can be supplemented with specific studies at the discretion of the doctor.
The two main treatments for lymphoma are radiation therapy and chemotherapy.Transplantation of the patient’s own stem cells or transplantation from a donor is also used. There are a lot of treatment regimens – they depend on the stage, characteristics of the disease, as well as on how a person’s immunity responds to certain actions, whether he reacts to previous therapy.
If you want to consult on the treatment of lymphoma, there are oncologists working at Medicina JSC in Moscow who are ready to receive you and understand the problem in detail.
Questions & Answers
What is the prognosis for lymphoma?
It depends on the degree of aggressiveness of the tumor, as well as on the stage at which the problem is detected and on the characteristics of the organism.As a rule, even doctors cannot give accurate predictions – but the earlier the problem is found, the higher the chances of living a long and comfortable life.
Is there lymphoma prevention?
As with other malignant diseases, there is no specific prophylaxis in this case. All that can be done is to lead a healthy lifestyle in order to reduce the risks of various troubles for the body.
Is it possible to use folk remedies for lymphoma?
In no case.Such diseases are treated exclusively by traditional medicine – and only in the most modern ways. By relying on alternative solutions, the patient greatly risks his life and significantly reduces its duration.
Treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma at the Oncology Center of the EMC clinic in Moscow
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is a group of malignant tumors of the lymphatic system. There are over 30 types of NHL. Some species progress very slowly; treatment may not be required for several months or even years, or not at all.Other varieties are aggressive and should be treated immediately after diagnosis.
How does non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma develop?
Like other cancers, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a disease of the body’s cells. In non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lymphocytes, blood cells, begin to divide uncontrollably. Over time, the number of lymphoma cells increases and they form a tumor. This most often occurs in the lymph nodes. But NHL can form in almost any part of the body, including the stomach, small intestine, skin, tonsils, thyroid, and other organs.Lymphoma that forms outside the lymph nodes is called extranodal (extra-nodular). As lymphocytes travel through the body, NHL can metastasize. The tumor can spread through the lymphatic system. Lymphoma cells can also travel with the bloodstream to the bone marrow, liver, or lungs.
By the type of formation, lymphomas are divided into B-cell and T-cell. B-lymphocytic lymphomas are more common. About 9 out of 10 people diagnosed with NHL have B-lymphocytic lymphoma.
Most common types of B-lymphocytic lymphomas:
diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL),
follicular lymphoma (FL).
Other less common types:
MALT lymphoma (extranodal B-cell lymphoma of the marginal zone)
Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia)
mantle cell lymphoma
primary mediastinal (thymic) B-cell large cell lymphoma
small cell lymphoma
nodal lymphoma of the marginal zone
T-cell lymphomas are much less common.There are many different types including:
peripheral T-cell lymphoma
cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (fungal mycosis, Sesari’s syndrome)
anaplastic large cell lymphoma
Lymphomas are also subdivided into indolent lymphomas (poorly differentiated) and aggressive lymphomas (highly differentiated).Indolent lymphomas grow very slowly and need minimal treatment for many months or even years. In some cases, only observation is carried out. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common type of painless non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Aggressive lymphomas grow rapidly. They are usually severely symptomatic and require urgent treatment. The most common type of aggressive lymphoma is diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
Symptoms of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
The most common early symptom of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is painless inflammation of the lymph nodes, usually in the neck, armpit, or groin.In some cases, other symptoms appear, depending on the location of the tumor.
Symptoms may include:
cough, trouble swallowing or shortness of breath (if the lymphoma is located in the chest area),
indigestion, abdominal pain, or weight loss (if the lymphoma is located in the stomach or intestines).
If the bone marrow is affected by a tumor, the number of blood cells decreases, which can cause symptoms such as:
fatigue (decrease in the number of red blood cells),
low resistance to infections (decrease in the number of leukocytes),
bruising or bleeding (decreased platelet count).
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can also cause general symptoms, including:
heavy sweating, especially at night,
temperature rise, which rises and falls for no apparent reason,
unexplained weight loss,
persistent itching of the skin.
Certain diseases and conditions increase the risk of developing non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma:
- Weakened immune system (including due to HIV infection, taking immunosuppressive drugs after organ transplantation).
Autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Sjogren’s syndrome)
Previous treatment of cancer (radiation or chemotherapy)
Infections (Epstein-Barr virus, helicobacter pylori)
Cases of the disease in the next of kin.
Diagnosis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
The main method for diagnosing NHL is biopsy – taking a tissue sample from the affected area, most often from an enlarged lymph node.
Lymph node removal is often performed at the same time as the biopsy. The procedure is performed under local or general anesthesia.
If NHL is diagnosed, additional studies are carried out to stage the disease, assess the prevalence of the process in the body:
Blood tests and CT diagnostics,
PET / CT (for some types of NHL),
Bone marrow biopsy,
Treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Chemotherapy is the main treatment for NHL. Chemotherapy is given intravenously or with pills. In most cases, treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis. The chemotherapy course includes several treatment cycles and is carried out over several months. In the course of treatment, the patient undergoes control examinations at the clinic.
Chemotherapy drugs for NHL
The following drugs are most commonly used:
CHOP – a combination of chemotherapy drugs cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, administered intravenously, and the steroid drug prednisolone in tablet form.
CVP – a combination of the chemotherapy drugs cyclophosphamide and vincristine administered intravenously and prednisolone tablets.
Bendamustin * is a chemotherapy drug administered intravenously.
Leukepan (Chlorambucil) is a chemotherapy drug in tablet form.
Fludapabine is a chemotherapy drug, usually prescribed in combination therapy, in the form of injections or tablets.
Chemoimmunotherapy – chemotherapy in combination with monoclonal antibodies. This type of therapy is used for various NHL. The most commonly used monoclonal antibody drug is Rituximab. Monoclonal antibodies have the ability to “recognize” specific proteins on the surface of cancer cells and integrate into the protein structure. Further, the body’s immune system is launched, which begins to attack cancer cells, and sometimes can cause their self-destruction.
Rituximab is used to treat various types of B-cell lymphoma. It “locks in” the CD20 protein, which is found on the surface of one of the main types of normal white blood cells (B-cell lymphocytes). This same protein is present on the surface of most abnormal B lymphocytes that appear in some types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Chemotherapy to treat or prevent lymphoma from spreading to the brain
With some types of aggressive NHL or localization in certain organs, there is an increased risk of lymphoma cells entering the brain.With this lymphoma, additional preventive treatment is prescribed.
This may involve the administration of chemotherapy drugs directly into the cerebrospinal fluid. This is what is called intrathecal chemotherapy. The most commonly used chemotherapy drug is Methotrexate.
Intrathecal chemotherapy can also be used to treat lymphoma that has already spread to the brain. Most patients receive intrathecal therapy on an outpatient basis.High-dose methotrexate can also be given intravenously to treat or prevent lymphoma in the brain. In this situation, intrathecal chemotherapy may not be required.
High-dose chemotherapy NHL with stem cell transplant support
Stem cells are the early precursors of blood cells. Some patients with NHL may require stem cell transplantation. Stem cells help the body form new blood cells after chemotherapy.
In most cases, stem cell transplantation is not required. It is used only for the treatment of those types of NHL that do not respond to standard chemotherapy, as well as for the treatment of recurrent NHL.
The patient is initially receiving chemotherapy. Stem cells are then injected into the bloodstream, either their own or from a donor. Stem cells enter the bone marrow, where after a few days they will begin to form new blood cells. Until the number of blood cells is restored, the patient is at risk of infection, so he needs to stay in the hospital.
When is radiation therapy used?
Some patients with indolent NHL localized to only one group of lymph nodes may require only radiation therapy. Sometimes radiation therapy is used after chemotherapy to treat indolent or aggressive NHL.
If indolent NHL reappears in only one area of the body, radiation therapy may be used instead of chemotherapy. The duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of the lymphoma, but it usually does not exceed three weeks.
The frequency and scope of observation after treatment depend on the initial localization of the tumor and its spread and are determined by the attending physician.
The advantages of treatment at EMC are a personalized approach to patients, adherence to international treatment recommendations, and the use of high-quality chemotherapy drugs.
90,000 Lymphoma – no reason to give up
Every day thousands of new cases of serious diseases are diagnosed in the world, and a fairly large percentage of them are lymphomas.
What is lymphoma?
Lymphoma is a neoplasm that belongs to malignant tumors of the lymphatic system.
Lymphomas can develop from B-lymphocytes or T-lymphocytes. The main symptom of the disease is an increase in axillary, cervical, axillary and other groups of lymph nodes. In the case of lymphoma, lymphocytes accumulate uncontrollably in the internal organs, which provoke disruptions in their functioning.
Also, lymphoma can be localized in the spleen, liver, bone marrow.If a tumor arises outside the lymphatic system, then it is called extranodal.
Classification of lymphomas
Lymphomas are divided into groups according to morphological structure and immunological lesion. There are 2 main types – Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Small cell, diffuse, large cell lymphomas are also isolated.
Malignant forms of lymphomas:
- highly aggressive
According to the cellular composition and structure, the following types of lymphomas are distinguished
According to the degree of development of neoplasms in the body, 4 stages of the disease are distinguished:
First (I) stage – the neoplasm is localized in the area of one lymph node.Often affects the groin and neck, does not penetrate into the tissues of neighboring organs. There are no metastases.
Second (II) stage – atypical cells reach the cells of the nearest lymph node. Clear signs of lymphoma begin to appear in the body. The hematological composition is changing.
Third (III) stage – affected lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm. Pronounced metastases appear in the body.
Fourth (IV) stage – secondary foci develop massively, many organs in the body are affected, metastases affect more and more organs.Treatment is ineffective.
Severe symptoms of lymphoma are not observed, however, most patients have the following symptoms:
- More than 10% weight loss without an obvious cause in 6 months
- Profuse perspiration, especially at night,
- Persistent fever or flu-like symptoms;
- Severe muscle weakness;
- Itchy skin rash
- Signs of SARS;
- Digestive disorders;
- Enlargement of lymph nodes and their enlargement.
By localization, the tumor is different: lymphoma of the kidney, mammary glands, heart, etc. The development of the disease depends on the organ.
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The main causes of lymphoma are unknown, but the following factors can provoke this pathology:
- Autoimmune diseases
- some genetic diseases
- taking drugs that reduce immunity
- work with harmful effects, radio emissions, chemical impurities, etc.d.
- Bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori also increase the risk of lymphoma
The main factors in the onset of lymphoma are divided according to their classification.
Aspects of development of Hodgkin’s lymphoma:
- post-infectious aspect – the disease is provoked by previous infections
- genetic – pathology develops against the background of abnormalities in cell genotypes
- Spontaneous blast transformations of lymphocytes – lymphocytes are transformed into a blasto-like form under the influence of various stimulants
Aspects of the development of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma:
- hereditary factors
- against the background of infectious diseases
- organ transplantation – heart, kidney, liver
- due to immunosuppressive therapy
Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and their symptoms:
The disease itself and its treatment can lead to serious side effects:
- ulcers on mucous membranes;
- hair loss;
- decreased immunity;
- renal or hepatic failure
- severe weakness;
- obstruction of the respiratory system
- lymphomatous meningitis;
- obstruction of the bladder;
- intestinal obstruction;
90,039 external and internal bleeding;
90,039 relapses of the disease;
90,039 pathological fractures.
Potential weakening of the muscles in the arms and legs, leading to disadvantage.
Lymphoma diagnosis and treatment:
Lymphoma, like every serious disease, requires careful diagnosis.
First of all, it is worth contacting a medical institution for a referral to a list of diagnostics that everyone who wants to check for lymphoma should go through.
Types of diagnostics for lymphoma:
- biopsy of a lymph node, bone marrow
- CT scan of the abdominal, chest cavity;
- MRI (for staging)
- PET (Positron Emission Tomography)
- complete blood count, biochemistry, diagnosis of viral infections;
- molecular genetic research.
Effective and correct prevention of lymphoma does not yet exist, because the etiology of the disease is still being studied. To reduce the risk of the disease, the oncologist – surgeon of the Medicover Medical Center, Pristash Yuri Yaroslavovich, recommends leading a healthy lifestyle, taking care of your body and regularly undergoing medical examinations.
Lymphoma is treatable if neoplasms are diagnosed in advance. The goal of lymphoma treatment is to achieve sustained remission.
Unfortunately, the disease can turn, but relapses are also amenable to therapy. After the onset of remission, the patient is under medical supervision. At first, reviews take place often – once every 3 months, gradually the intervals between them increase to once a year.
Do not neglect your health. The guarantee of a restful sleep for everyone is timely examinations by specialists.
We invite everyone to undergo a lymphoma diagnosis at the Medicover Medical Center with our oncologists.
To register, please call by phone 0 800 305 911 or fill out the application online.
Medicover is a guarantee of good health!
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplastic diseases that originate from cells of the lymphatic (immune) system. Traditionally, in our country, to define this pathology, the term “lymphosarcoma” proposed by R. Virkhov in the middle of the 19th century was used. The main points that determine the clinical features of the disease and the prognosis are the stage of differentiation of the cells that make up the tumor, and the nature of tumor growth inside the lymph node involved in the process.
Advances in immunology, cytogenetics, and molecular biology make it possible to distinguish specific subtypes of lymphomas that differ in clinical course, response to therapy, and prognosis. So, depending on the subtype of lymphoma, the prognosis can vary from favorable (survival rate 10-20 years) to extremely unfavorable (survival rate less than 1 year).
The cause of lymphoma remains unknown. Among the risk factors, such factors common to all neoplastic diseases as ionizing radiation, chemical carcinogens, and unfavorable environmental conditions are traditionally considered.In some cases of the development of lymphomas, there is a relationship between the effect of the virus and tumor growth.
Thus, it has been demonstrated that in children with endemic African lymphoma Burkitt , 95% of cases are infected with the Epstein-Barr virus. Often with lymphomas, various abnormalities of the chromosomal apparatus of the cell (genetic material) are detected. Most often, a tumor develops with a combination of several causative factors. Currently, the number of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in AIDS patients is increasing.
Often, tumor cells suppress the development of similar normal cells and cause an immunodeficiency state. Patients with lymphoma are often more prone to infections of various kinds. The defeat of the bone marrow with lymphoma (leukemization) entails the development of insufficiency of bone marrow hematopoiesis with the development of a decrease in all indicators of peripheral blood, the so-called cytopenia.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas have many subspecies, which differ in histological presentation, clinical manifestations and approaches to their treatment.Some types of lymphomas have a slow and favorable course, sometimes they do not require special treatment for a long time. Such lymphomas are called indolent .
A number of other lymphomas, in contrast, are characterized by rapid progression, a large number of symptoms, and require immediate treatment. Such lymphomas are called aggressive . There are lymphomas with intermediate characteristics. Lymphomas in which organs and tissues are affected without affecting the lymph nodes are called extranodal .
For a long time in many countries there were different classifications, including different names and terms for the same type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which created great difficulties for both doctors and patients. In 2001, the international community developed common approaches to the classification of lymphomas, and a single, so-called classification of the World Health Organization (WHO), which is used today in most countries of the world, was adopted.
The diagnosis of lymphoma is based on an examination of the morphological substrate obtained from a biopsy of the tumor.Typically symptoms of lymphoma are significant enlargement of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin. At the same time, unlike infectious diseases, enlarged lymph nodes are painless, their size does not decrease with time and with antibiotic treatment. Sometimes, due to pressure from the enlarged liver, spleen and lymph nodes, there is a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, difficulty breathing, bursting pain in the lower back, a feeling of pressure in the face or neck.
Other symptoms of lymphoma are weakness, fever, sweating, weight loss, and digestive problems. Sometimes lymphoma presents with localized or widespread skin lesions. An enlarged lymph node for no apparent reason to a size of more than 1 cm and the existence of such an enlarged node for more than 1 month is the basis for performing a biopsy of the lymph node. The stage of the disease is determined by the prevalence of the affected lymph nodes.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are subdivided into stages:
|I||Damage to one group of lymph nodes or localized damage to one extra-lymphatic organ or tissue|
|II||Affection of two or more groups of lymph nodes under one side of the diaphragm|
|III||lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm|
|III 1||The defeat of individual lymphatic structures in the upper abdominal cavity (spleen, lymph nodes of the liver gates, celiac nodes)|
|III 2||Lymph node involvement half of the abdominal cavity (paraaortic, iliac and mesenteric nodes)|
|IV||Diffuse lesion of various internal organs|
|All stages are subdivided into:|
|A||Asymptomatic course, no signs of intoxication and|
|B||Unexplained weight loss by 10%, causeless fever over 38 degrees, night sweats|
Modern diagnosis of lymphomas is a complex process that combines several research methods at once, including histological, immunohistochemical and a complex of clinical methods survey.Only this approach can provide accurate verification of the diagnosis, which is the basis for choosing the most effective treatment for a patient.
Depending on the nosological diagnosis and stage of the disease , the treatment of lymphoma is based on the use of polychemotherapy and radiation therapy programs. The most commonly used cytostatic agents are cyclophosphamide, rubomycin, vincristine, prednisolone (CHOP program) and some other drugs.
In the absence of leukemization (damage to the bone marrow) of the disease, there is a good opportunity for intensive chemotherapy followed by transplantation of autologous bone marrow, harvested from the patient before intensive treatment.In addition to autologous transplantation, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is used to treat lymphoma, if the conditions are right.
The choice of treatment program depends on the type of lymphoma and the patient’s condition. Indolent lymphomas in some cases may not require treatment, the observation of a doctor (hematologist or oncologist) is sufficient. However, the appearance of the first signs of lymphoma progression (enlarged lymph nodes, increased weakness, fever, etc.) is a signal for starting treatment.For locally advanced stages, radiation therapy is often used – irradiation of the lymph nodes affected by the tumor. In generalized stages, chemotherapy is preferred, radiation therapy is used to consolidate the effect of chemotherapy. The range of possible drugs for the treatment of indolent lymphomas is quite large: chlorbutin, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, rituximab (mabthera), etc. Indolent lymphomas are diseases that are unlikely to be completely cured today.The main goal of the treatment of indolent lymphomas is considered to increase the duration and improve the quality of life of the patient.
Aggressive lymphomas usually require immediate treatment. One of the most common chemotherapy programs is the CHOP program combined with the monoclonal antibody Rituximab. Highly aggressive lymphomas are treated with chemotherapy programs for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or similar. The goal of treatment for aggressive and highly aggressive lymphomas is cure, but this is not possible in all cases.
The five-year survival rate for non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas varies widely depending on the morphological variant: for B-cell lymphomas of the marginal zone, MALT lymphomas, follicular lymphomas, it exceeds 70%, which is interpreted as a good prognosis. Whereas in T-lymphoblastic, peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, this figure is below 30%. In addition, tumors are very diverse in prognosis: favorable options (5-year survival rate above 60%) include primary lymphomas of the orbit, gastrointestinal tract, Pirogov-Waldeyer ring, salivary glands, and lungs.In contrast, primary testicular and ovarian lymphomas, bones, mammary gland, and central nervous system are characterized by high malignancy.
The life expectancy of patients with high-grade lymphomas is directly dependent on the results of treatment: the 5-year survival rate upon achieving complete remission is 50%, while with partial remission it is only 15%. This necessitates active intensive therapy for high-grade lymphomas immediately from the moment of diagnosis in order to achieve the maximum effect – complete remission.In low-grade lymphomas, the dependence of life expectancy on the effectiveness of treatment is less pronounced: 5-year survival rate exceeds 80%, regardless of the achievement of complete or partial remissions.
Articles on Lymphomas:
Cytomegalovirus infection as a cause of cytopenia after chemotherapy for hemoblastosis
Kanvinde S, Bhargava P, Patwardhan S
Open-label randomized trial of bendamustine-rituximab versus R-CHOP / R-CVP in first-line therapy for generalized lymphomas, including mantle cell lymphoma: BRIGHT study
Flinn IW, van der Jagt R, Kahl BS, Wood P, Hawkins TE, MacDonald D, Hertzberg M, Kwan YL, Simpson D, Craig M, Kolibaba K, Issa S, Clementi R, Hallman DM, Munteanu M, Chen L, Burke JM
Jain T, Offord CP, Kyle RA, Dingli D
Tuberculosis in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases
Latent malignant lymphoma diagnosed at autopsy in a patient with cold agglutinin disease and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Shigeoka T, Yamagata H, Ishido A, Tominaga T, Kamei T, Takahashi T
Efficacy and safety of rituximab and low-dose oral fludarabine and cyclophosphamide as first-line treatment for elderly patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas
Fabbri A, Cencini E, Rigacci L, Bartalucci G, Puccini B, Dottori R, Gozzetti A, Boschia M
Radiation test predicts the outcome of lymphoma treatment
Karin C Lee
Trends in US Burkitt’s Lymphoma / Leukemia (LLB) Survival: Analysis of 3691 Cases
Costa LJ, Xavier AC, Wahlquist AE, Hill EG
Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
Usmani GN, Woda BA, Newburger PE
Imatinib disrupts lymphoma angiogenesis by targeting vascular pericytes
Ruan J, Luo M, Wang C, Fan L, Yang SN, Cardenas M, Geng H, Leonard JP, Melnick A, Cerchietti L, Hajjar KA
Preliminary results of radiotherapy for primary intraocular lymphomas
Mikami R, Nakayama H, Goto H, Kimura K, Nogi S, Okubo M, Kanesaka N, Sugahara S, Tokuuye K
Extragastric MALT lymphomas in advanced stages are worse than gastric lymphomas despite rituximab therapy
Ueda K, Terui Y, Yokoyama M, Sakajiri S, Nishimura N, Tsuyama N, Takeuchi K, Hatake K
Telomere length in mantle cell lymphoma
Jebaraj BM, Kienle D, Lechel A, Mertens D, Heuberger M, Ott G, Rosenwald A, Barth TF, Möller P, Zenz T, Döhner H, Stilgenbauer S
Development of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma 6 years after improvement in primary cold agglutination disease resulting from rituximab treatment
Tanaka H, Hashimoto S, Sugita Y, Sakai S, Takeda Y, Abe D, Takagi T, Nakaseko C
Puncture biopsy and core biopsy for diagnosing lymphadenopathy of unknown etiology
Metzgeroth G, Schneider S, Walz C, Reiter S, Hofmann W-K, Marx A, Hastka J
Frequency of lymphoproliferative diseases in celiac patients
Leslie LA, Lebwohl B, Neugut AI, Gregory Mears J, Bhagat G, Green PH
Fatal HHV-8-associated hemophagocytosis syndrome in HIV-negative patient without immunodeficiency with plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castelmann disease (plasmablastic microlymphoma)
Li CF, Ye H, Liu H, Du MQ, Chuang SS
Rituximab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in rheumatoid arthritis
Clifford DB, Ances B, Costello C, Rosen-Schmidt S, Andersson M, Parks D, Perry A, Yerra R, Schmidt R, Alvarez E, 9000 Tyler 900
Maintenance rituximab therapy after chemoimmunotherapy induction in mantle lymphoma: long-term results from a pilot study from the Wisconsin Oncology Network
Kenkre VP, Long WL, Eickhoff JC, Blank JH, McFarland TA, Bottner W, Rezazedeh H, Werndli HE, BSH, BS
Primary colon lymphoma: analysis of 74 cases with localized large cell lymphoma
Tang TC, Kuo MC, Chang H, Dunn P, Wang PN, Wu JH, Lin TL, Hung YS, Shih LY, Kuo TT
Notch2 in primary effusion lymphoma: clinical pathological study
Wang HY, Fuda FS, Chen W, Karandikar NJ
Visceral seronegative recurrent leishmaniasis with fatal course after rituximab therapy
Casabianca A, Marchetti M, Zallio F, Feyles E, Concialdi E, Ferroglio E, Biglino A
How do I treat HIV-associated common Castleman disease
Immune pancytopenia associated with leukemic B-cell tumor with t (14; 18) (q32; q21) translocation
Mizumoto C, Ohno H, Katsurada T, Oguma S, Yoshida Y
Gray area between Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from the point of view of genetics
Salaverria I, Siebert R
Increased risk of lymphoid tumors in patients with myeloproliferative tumors: a study of 1915 patients
Rumi E, Passamonti F, Elena C, Pietra D, Arcaini L, Astori C
Development and measurement of clinical guidelines based indicators for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Wennekes L, Ottevanger PB, Raemaekers JM, Schouten HC, de Kok MW, Punt CJ, Grol RP, Wollersheim HC, Hermens RP
Diagnosis and surgical treatment of primary liver lymphoma
Yang XW, Tan WF, Yu WL, Shi S, Wang Y, Zhang YL, Zhang YJ, Wu MC
Clinical features and prognosis of damage to the nervous system by non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (dissertation abstract for the degree of candidate of medical sciences)
Review of the dissertation abstract
Survival of European patients diagnosed with lymphoid tumors in 2000-2002: HAEMACARE results
Marcos-Gragera R, Allemani C, Tereanu C, de Angelis R, Capocaccia R, Maynadie M, Luminari S, Ferretti S, Johannesen TB, Sankila R, Karjalainen-Lindsberg ML, Simonetti A, Martos C, Raphael M, Giraldo P, Sant M
Development of human transferrin receptor antibodies that effectively inhibit the growth of leukemias and lymphomas
Crépin R, Goenaga AL, Jullienne B, Bougherara H, Legay C, Benihoud K, Marks JD, Poul MA
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis: how the look has changed over 4 decades
Katzenstein AL, Doxtader E, Narendra S
Targeted lymphoma therapy
Johnston PB, Yuan R, Cavalli F, Witzig TE
Cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas (CLMZ) are divided into two subgroups with distinctive features
Edinger JT, Kant JA, Swerdlow SH
Lymphomatoid gastropathy (LIGa): a separate clinical and pathological syndrome of self-limiting pseudomalignant NK cell proliferation (PLP)
Takeuchi K, Yokoyama M, Ishizawa S, Terui Y, Nomura K, Marutsuka K, Nunomura NK-cell proliferation, Fukyushima Nakamine H, Akiyama F, Hoshi K, Matsue K, Hatake K, Oshimi K
Lymphomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts: clinical and pathological study and biological significance
Mani H, Climent F, Colomo L, Pittaluga S, Raffeld M, Jaffe ES
Successful dexrazoxane therapy for potentially severe extravasation of concentrated doxorubicin
Conde-Estevez D, Saumell S, Salar A, Mateu-de Antonio J
Primary hematolymphoid tumors affecting the extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder
Hwang DW, Lim CS, Jang JY, Lee SE, Yoon SO, Jeon YK, Uk Lee K, Kim SW
Risk of secondary malignancy after treatment for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: differences depending on the subtype of lymphoma
Linet MS, Bluhm EC, Tucker H, Ries LA, Fraumeni JF
Subcutaneous “lipoma-like” B-cell lymphoma associated with hepatitis C: a new understanding of primary extranodal B-cell lymphoma of the MALT-type marginal zone (LMZ)
Paulli M, Arcaini L, Lucioni M, Boveri E, Capello D, Passamonti F , Merli M, Rattotti S, Rossi D, Riboni R, Berti E, Magrini U, Bruno R, Gaidano G, Lazzarino M
Recommendations for risk assessment and prevention of tumor lysis syndrome (TLLS) in adults and children with malignant diseases: consensus expert group
Cairo MS, Coiffier B, Reiter A, Younes A
Thrombotic complications in adult patients with lymphomas: a meta-analysis of 29 independent cohort studies
Caruso V, Di Castelnuovo A, Meschengieser S, Lazzari MA, de Gaetano G, Storti S, Lacoviello L, Donati MB
Fertility in men with advanced Hodgkin’s lymphoma after BEASOPP therapy
Sieniawski M, Reineke T, Nogova L, Josting A, Pfistner B, Diehl V, Engert A
Fertility preservation after CT Hodgkin’s lymphoma
van der Kaaij MA, van Echten-Arends J, Simons AH, Kluin-Nelemans HC
Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with lymphoma.Who Should Provide Prevention?
Solomon BM, Holtan SG, Letendre L
Lesions of the central nervous system in patients with monoclonal gammopathy and polyneuropathy
Lehmann HC, Hoffmann FR, Meyer zu Horste G, Hartung HP, Kieseier BC
Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity and extraoral localization: similarities and differences in clinical characteristics
Stefanovic A, Hansra DM, Montague N, Akunyili I, Harzand A, Natkunam Y,
de la Ossa M, Byrne GE, Lossos IS
Final analysis of the UKLG LY02 study comparing 6-8 CHOPs with 3 CHOPs followed by autologous transplant with BEAM in patients under 65 years of age with poor histological prognosis in aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas
Linch DC, Yung L, Smith P, Maclennan K , Jack A, Hancock B, Cunningham D, Hoskin P, Qian W, Holte H, Boesen AM, Grigg A, Browett P, Trneny M
Serious complication in both HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients – hepatitis B virus reactivation after rituximab therapy
Pei S-N, Chen C-H, Lee C-M, Wang M-C, Ma M-C, Hu T-H, Kuo C-Y
Circulating Serum Free Light Chains as Predictive Markers of AIDS-Related Lymphoma
O Landgren, JJ Goedert, CS Rabkin, WH Wilson, K Dunleavy, RA Kyle, JA Katzmann, SV Rajkumar, EA Engels
Sclerosing encapsulated peritonitis (abdominal cocoon), liver cirrhosis and diffuse B-cell lymophoma (DLBCL): autopsy
Yamada S, Tanimoto A, Matsuki Y, Hisada Y, Sasaguri Y
Treatment of recurrent mantle lymphoma is still a challenge
Ruan J, MD, PhD, Coleman M, MD, Leonard JP, MD, Silver RT
Phase II study SGN-30 (anti-CD30 mAb) Hodgkin’s lymphoma or generalized anaplastic large cell lymphoma
Forero-Torres A, Leonard JP, Younes A, Rosenblatt JD, Brice P, Bartlett NL, Bosly A, Pinter-Brown L, Kennedy D, Sievers EL, Gopal AK
Lymphatic tumors of the orbit and accessory apparatus of the eye (PAG)
Surgical interventions in the diagnosis and therapy of lymphatic tumors of the mediastinum and lungs
General genetic variants in candidate genes and the risk of familial lymphoid malignancy
Liang XS, Caporaso N, McMaster ML, Ng D, Landgren O, Yeager M, Chanock S, Goldin LR
ASCO 2009: An Overview of Hematology. Modern practical significance
Comprehensive geriatric evaluation is more effective than clinical judgment in identifying elderly patients with diffuse large cell lymphoma who benefit from aggressive therapy
Tucci A, Ferrari S, Bottelli C, Borlenghi E, Drera M, Rossi G
Hexavalent bispecific antibodies represent a new class of anticancer therapy: 1.Properties of anti-CD20 / CD22 antibodies in lymphoma
Rossi EA, Goldenberg DM, Cardillo TM, Stein R, Chang CH
Monoclonal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients treated with rituximab, natalizumab and efalizumab: review of adverse effects study
Carson KR, Focosi D, Major EO, Petrini M, Richey EA, West DP, Bennett CL
Helicobacter pylori (HP) as a leading etiological factor of carcinogenesis in the gastrointestinal tract and the development of autoimmune processes.The role of eradication in complex therapy. Literature review
Phase II study of the maximum tolerated infusion dose of rituximab with monitoring of its effect on heart function
Siano M, Lerch E, Negretti L, Zucca E, Rodriguez-Abreu D, Oberson M, Leoncini L, Mora O, Sessa C, Gallino A , Ghielmini M
Fatal HHV-8 associated hemophagocytosis syndrome in HIV negative patient without immunodeficiency with plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castelmann disease (plasmablastic microlymphoma)
Li CF, Ye H, Liu H, Du MQ, Chuang SS
Population study of the correlation between autoimmune conditions and the risk of specific lymphoid tumors
Anderson LA, Gadalla S, Morton LM, Landgren O, Pfeiffer R, Warren JL, Berndt SI, Ricker W, Parsons R, Engels EA
Recent advances in the treatment of refractory celiac disease: a review
Ho-Yen C, Chang F, van der Walt J, Mitchell T, Ciclitira P
High-dose methotrexate (HTMTC) in combination with procarbazine and CCNU in the treatment of primary CNS lymphoma (PLCNS) in the elderly: results of a phase 2 prospective pilot study
Illerhaus G, Marks R, Müller F, Ihorst G, Feuerhake F, Deckeragt M, Oster C, Finke J
The role of positron emission tomography in the follow-up of patients with lymphoma
Zinzani PL, Stefoni V, Tani M, Fanti S, Musuraca G, Castellucci P, Marchi E, Fina M, Ambrosini V, Pellegrini C, Alinari L, Derenzini E, Montini G, Broccoli A, Bacci F, Pileri S, Baccarani M
Reactivation of hepatitis B virus during anticancer therapy with or without rituximab in patients with lymphoma
Yeo W, Chan TC, Leung NWY, Lam WY, Mo FKF, Chu MT, Chan HLY, Hui EP, Lei KIK, Mok TSK, Chan PKS
The level of free light chains in HIV patients is associated with the risk of developing non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Use of fludarabine in lymphoproliferative diseases: experience of one center
Prabhash K, Vikram GS, Nair R, Sengar M, Gujral S, Bakshi A, Gupta S, Parikh PM
Clinical use of histone diethylase inhibitors: literature review
Richter’s syndrome: an overview of clinical, ocular, neurological and other manifestations
Omoti CE, Omoti AE
The role of heredity in the development of lymphoproliferative diseases
Brown JR, Neuberg D, Phillips K, Reynolds H, Silverstein J, Clark JC, Ash M, Thompson C, Fisher DC, Jacobsen E, LaCasce AS, Freedman AS
Case description of Castelmann’s disease with POEMS syndrome
Frequency and mortality from non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) in Europe: can we talk about the end of the epidemic?
Bosetti C, Levi F, Ferlay J, Lucchini F, Negri E, La Vecchia C
Best tactics for diagnosing lymphomas
Parker A, Bain B, Devereux S, Gatter K, Jack A, Matutes E, Rooney N, Ross F, Wilkins B, Wotherspoon A, Ramsay A.
Recent clinical trials of cladribine used in the treatment of malignant hematological diseases and autoimmune disorders
Tadeusz Roebak, Agnieszka Wierzbowska and Eva Roebak
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma – Docrates
This type of cancer most often occurs at a young age. To date, the prognosis for the treatment of the disease is very positive. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is classified into different subtypes according to the prevalence (classical and lymphocytic).
The exact causes of the disease are not known. Typically, Hodgkin’s lymphoma is diagnosed in people who already have an immunodeficiency disorder (such as AIDS) or a condition triggered by medications that cause immunodeficiency (such as organ transplantation). Epstein-Barr infection (mononucleosis) is also a risk factor.
The only early symptom of Hodgkin’s disease may be an enlarged cervical lymph node, but most patients are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis.Signs of Hodgkin’s lymphoma depend to some extent on the location of the tumor. It may be accompanied by a painless cough with an increase in mediastinal (intrathoracic) lymph nodes. Some develop general symptoms such as fever, sweating, and fatigue.
Diagnosis is made after a tissue sample (biopsy) is taken, usually by removing an enlarged lymph node. After confirming the diagnosis, it is found out to what extent the tumor has spread.Typically, a full-body CT scan and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (FDG-PET) are done. A bone marrow biopsy may be done to accurately determine the prevalence.
The choice of treatment depends on the symptoms and how far the disease has spread. Most often, specialists resort to drug or radiation therapy, separately or in combination. In the event of a relapse of the disease, it is possible to use targeted biological drugs and stem cell transplantation.
After completing the course of treatment, patients undergo systematic follow-up.