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Types Of Yeast Infections And How To Treat Them

Last updated: November 2019

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Understanding the Microbiome and Yeast Infections

There are as many bacterial cells as there are human cells in our bodies (Sender, Fuchs, & Milo, 2016). These microorganisms live on our skin, in our gut, and on our mucous membranes. They synthesize vitamins, break down food into essential nutrients, and regulate our immune system. By feeding your gut bacteria with high-fiber foods and supplementing with probiotics when needed, you’re encouraging “good” bacteria to thrive and play defense against overgrowth of harmful bacteria and fungi.

Unfortunately, there are plenty of things that can disrupt your microbiome, like a weak immune system that doesn’t keep microbes in check or taking too many antibiotics, which can kill off both the good and bad microorganisms in your gut. Eating a poor diet, drinking a lot of alcohol, or having chronically high stress levels may also influence your microbiome. And in the absence of beneficial gut bacteria, certain strains of bacteria, viruses, or fungi can begin to overproduce, creating various health problems.

What Is Candida?

Most infections related to fungal overgrowth are caused by a yeast known as candida. There are more than one hundred species of candida present in humans, with the most common being Candida albicans. Having a certain amount of candida throughout your body is normal, and it’s usually kept under control by local bacteria and the body’s immune system. However, if the candida population grows out of control, it can cause infections throughout the body known as candidiasis. Since candida is a fungus, it prefers to grow on warm, moist areas of the body, such as the mouth, gut, vagina, and skin surfaces like the armpit or groin. In most cases, antifungal medications will easily clear up any infection. In rare cases among hospitalized patients or people with immune deficiencies, candida can become invasive and enter the bloodstream, creating more serious problems of the bones and joints.

Types of Yeast Infections and How to Treat Them

Yeast can affect nearly any part of your body—your skin, nails, mouth, genitals, or even bloodstream. We’ve broken down the various types of yeast infections and how doctors conventionally treat them.

Topical Candida

Candida can overgrow on the skin, causing a red rash, scaly patches, swelling, or itching. Typically, these symptoms develop in moist areas of the body such as skin folds, under the breasts, near the groin, the armpits, or between fingers and toes. Topical azole antifungals (medication containing an azole ring, such as clotrimazole or miconazole) as well as polyene medications, such as nystatin, are effective. Be sure to keep the area dry to encourage healing (Pappas et al., 2003).

Nail Infections

Candida and other fungi can also cause rare toenail and fingernail infections. This may look like white, brown, or yellow nails that may break easily or start to crumble. Debris may also collect under the nail, and the nails may be thick and hard to trim. Fungal nail infections are usually painless, but wearing certain shoes may be uncomfortable. Some fungal nail infections will go away on their own, while others need treatment, which can range from an oral antifungal, such as terbinafine or itraconazole, to something more drastic, like nail removal (Pappas et al., 2003).

Oral Thrush

A candida infection of the mouth or throat is called thrush. It generally appears as white, bumpy patches on the tongue, cheeks, gums, tonsils, or throat that can be painful or bleed at the touch. Thrush can also cause sore throat and difficulty swallowing if it spreads further down to the esophagus. To diagnose thrush, a swab is usually taken from the back of throat and studied under a microscope for the presence of yeast. It is treated by oral azole antifungal medications, such as clotrimazole, or oral polyenes, such as nystatin (Pappas et al. , 2003).

Thrush is most common in babies, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Babies can pass thrush from their mouths to their mother’s breasts during breastfeeding, which may result in sensitive red, cracked nipples, flaky skin, or pain during nursing. The mother and child may both want to be treated with an antifungal, such as nystatin or fluconazole (which are both safe for infants), to provide relief (Pappas et al., 2003).

Vaginal Yeast Infections

Almost half of women worldwide will have a vaginal yeast infection before age fifty (Blostein, Levin-Sparenberg, Wagner, & Foxman, 2017). While the symptoms are uncomfortable—itching, burning, thick discharge—yeast infections are easily treatable. Many people opt not even to see a doctor; they just take an over-the-counter antifungal vaginal suppository, such as miconazole, or use boric acid. It’s also common practice for health care practitioners to diagnose a vaginal yeast infection based on symptoms alone. They may prescribe an antifungal medication, such as fluconazole; you take one tablet by mouth.

If you still have symptoms of a yeast infection after treatment or if the infections continue to recur, you should see a doctor for further assessment. Many women continue to treat themselves with over-the-counter medication but don’t fully clear the infection. You may need more aggressive treatment to kill all of the candida, or it may be “azole resistant”—meaning resistant to miconazole, fluconazole, or similar antifungal medications. Alternatively, you may be dealing with a different, less common strain of candida that requires different treatment (like boric acid). Or your symptoms might be due to a different health issue.

To diagnose you correctly, your health care practitioner should take a vaginal swab for testing. Here’s the tricky part: The vaginal culture could contain candida, but you could just be someone who has naturally high levels of candida in your vagina that don’t cause any problem. In that case, the symptoms could be related to something else, like an STI or bacterial vaginosis (White & Vanthuyne, 2006).

If your doctor does determine that you have a recurrent yeast infection, they may prescribe two weeks of vaginal antifungal medication or two weeks of oral antifungal medication, possibly with a six-month maintenance regimen (Pappas et al., 2003). The ReCiDiF regimen, which consists of decreasing doses of oral fluconazole, has been shown to be quite effective for recurrent yeast infections (Donders, Bellen, & Mendling, 2010). In certain situations, your doctor may also prescribe long-term vaginal boric acid suppositories. You’ll also want to maintain proper vaginal and sexual hygiene while limiting your use of antibiotics to situations where they are needed; see more in the lifestyle section on preventing yeast infections.

Boric Acid for Vaginal Yeast Infections

Boric acid suppositories are inserted vaginally to restore the proper pH balance of the vagina and help resolve itching and burning. Vaginal boric acid is sometimes recommended by gynecologists or health care practitioners for maintenance of recurrent yeast infections. Boric acid (600 milligrams per day for fourteen days) has also been shown to improve candida infections by non-albicans species, such as C. glabrata or C. krusei (Pappas et al., 2003). Never take boric acid by mouth—it can be toxic—and keep it away from children (NPIC, 2013). If you are pregnant, ask your doctor before using boric acid.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria like E. coli, but candida may also cause a UTI. UTIs are characterized by uncomfortable symptoms such as a frequent urge to urinate accompanied by a burning sensation, pain in the lower abdomen, or cloudy, dark urine. Hospitalized patients are at increased risk for candida UTIs due to catheter use, and older adults are at increased risk as well. Treatment includes oral or intravenous fluconazole, intravenous amphotericin B, or oral flucytosine. Discontinuation of catheter use alone may clear up the infection in some patients (Pappas et al., 2003).

Male Genital Yeast Infections

Genital yeast infections are really rare in men, and if they do occur, they are contracted from a woman partner. If a man has sexual intercourse with a woman who has a vaginal yeast infection, they are not likely to develop a yeast infection on their own genitals. However, in the rare case that it does happen, men may experience inflammation of the head of the penis, redness, itching, burning, white patches on the skin, and white, liquid substances on the skin of the penis. Or there may be no symptoms at all. Men who are immune compromised, have diabetes, or are uncircumcised may be more susceptible to yeast infections (CDC, 2015).

Small Intestinal Fungal Overgrowth (SIFO)

A good portion of people with uncomfortable gastrointestinal symptoms that cannot be explained by other diagnoses may be suffering from small intestinal fungal overgrowth. SIFO is a condition characterized by bloating, indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, or gas. It’s not clear what exactly causes SIFO, but people who use proton pump inhibitors may be at a higher risk for it.

To diagnose SIFO, a small sample of fluid from the small intestine is taken via endoscope. Blood or stool tests may also be used, but they are less accurate. For treatment, two to three weeks of antifungal medication are usually prescribed (Erdogan & Rao, 2015). More research into SIFO is needed to determine the causes and most effective treatments.

What’s the Difference Between SIBO and SIFO?

While SIFO refers to fungal overgrowth in your gut, a similar condition called SIBO refers to bacterial overgrowth in the intestine. Some doctors believe that one may lead to the other as the gut microbiome becomes dysregulated and allows fungus and bacteria to overgrow. SIBO appears clinically similar to SIFO with symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, fatigue, and gas. (To learn more about SIBO, see our article on IBS and our Q&A with Dr. Amy Myers.)

Invasive Candidiasis

When candida spreads and enters the bloodstream or organs, it is known as invasive candidiasis, which can be very dangerous and has a high mortality rate. Hospitalized patients, infants in neonatal units, and people with compromised immune systems are most prone to invasive candida. To diagnose invasive candidiasis, doctors often do a urine test to determine the levels of d-arabinitol, a metabolite of most candida species. The current front-line treatment option for adults with invasive candidiasis is an IV of echinocandin. Other options include antifungal medications, such as fluconazole or amphotericin B. Unfortunately, the mortality rate from invasive candida remains high, and there are emerging cases of drug-resistant candida, meaning that even after treatment with traditional antifungal medications, the infection persists (CDC, 2019).

Resistant Candida Strains

When standard medications don’t do the job, you may be dealing with a drug-resistant bacteria or fungus, which has become a major public health issue. One such fungus, Candida auris, was discovered in 2009 and has spread in health care facilities in several countries, including the US. While C. auris is rare, it’s also deadly; it infects the bloodstream and causes a serious invasive infection. Patients who are hospitalized or have previously taken antibiotics or antifungals are at the highest risk. While most cases can be treated with an IV of echinocandin, several cases have been found to spread from skin contact even after treatment, and other cases may be completely resistant to treatment with the three classes of antifungal medications. The CDC is working to develop models to contain and manage C. auris and other drug-resistant fungal species (CDC, 2018).

Yeast infections are caused by an imbalance in the microbiome that allows yeast to thrive. People with compromised immune systems or diabetes are most susceptible to yeast infections. Other diseases may be related to yeast infections—see the new research section for more.


Candida is hypothesized to thrive in a hyperglycemic (high sugar) environment that is characteristic of diabetes. A 2017 study found that glucose encouraged candida cells to grow while fructose, a sugar that is digested more slowly than glucose, decreased candida cell growth (Man et al., 2017). This research was carried out on candida cells in test tubes, and whether this is relevant in the human body is yet to be determined. To learn more about diabetes and treatment options, see our research article on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Dietary Changes

You’ll often hear that you should avoid sugar and carbs if you have recurrent yeast infections, but there isn’t enough conclusive dietary research at this point. One promising food that’s being further studied is coconut oil.

Sugar and Carbs

If people with diabetes have a higher risk of candida, then would reducing sugar and carbohydrate intake reduce candida growth? A 1999 study found that adding a moderate amount of refined carbohydrates to the daily diet did not significantly increase candida colonization in most people, but may have increased candida in a small subgroup (Weig, Werner, Frosch, & Kasper, 1999). A 2013 study found that eating carbohydrates was associated with more candida; however, it wasn’t determined whether the culprit was all carbs or just sugars (Hoffmann et al., 2013). Another study from 2018 found that while antifungal medication was effective against intestinal candida over the short term, combining an antifungal medication with probiotics and a diet low in sugar, yeast, dairy, alcohol, and cured meats was more effective in preventing regrowth over the next few months. It’s not clear whether the hero here was the probiotics, the diet, or the many other recommended supplements (Otašević et al., 2018). So more research on how diet affects candida growth is warranted.

Coconut Oil and MCTs

With the rise of drug-resistant candida species, there has been an interest in new antifungals. Of particular interest are coconut oil and MCTs (medium-chain triglycerides), which both have been researched for potential antimicrobial and antifungal properties with promising results. Coconut oil is typically fractionated to produce medium-chain triglycerides—also known as MCT oil. A 2007 study found that coconut oil reduced the growth of various strains of candida, with the strongest antifungal activity against C. albicans (Ogbolu, Oni, Daini, & Oloko, 2007). The relevance of this “test tube” study to the human body isn’t clear, but the results may lend credence to the popularity of oil-pulling, where undiluted oil is swished around the mouth for several minutes. A more recent study from 2019 supplemented preterm infants with medium-chain triglycerides, which significantly reduced their total fungal count (Arsenault et al., 2019). While more clinical research is needed to confirm if coconut oil and MCT oil are potent against candida, it seems like a promising option.

Nutrients and Supplements for Yeast Infections

Probiotics are hugely important to your overall gut health.


To keep your good bacteria healthy and happy, you need to eat plenty of high-fiber foods. If you’re prone to yeast infections or are currently taking an antibiotic, you may want to supplement with a probiotic to support a healthy gut flora. Find one that contains several different Lactobacillus strains—they have been shown to be effective against candida (Matsubara, Bandara, Mayer, & Samaranayake, 2016). A combination of L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Saccharomyces boulardii, and Streptococcus thermophilus was found to reduce the risk of candida infections among children in a pediatric intensive care unit who were on broad-spectrum antibiotics, so a mix of these probiotics may be helpful (Kumar, Singhi, Chakrabarti, Bansal, & Jayashree, 2013). For vaginal yeast infections, there are oral probiotics as well as vaginal probiotic suppositories that may be more useful, but there is not solid evidence to recommend one over the other. Other medications that may weaken the immune system and encourage fungal growth include corticosteroids and TNF inhibitors, so you may want to take a probiotic with these medications too (CDC, 2017b).

Lifestyle Changes for Yeast Infections

It’s important to keep up with personal hygiene and healthy sexual practices to avoid unwanted infections. Also be careful with excessive antibiotic intake.

Personal Hygiene

Within reason, keep your skin clean and dry to prevent candida from growing on your skin. To prevent nail infections, keep your nails clean and trimmed. Wear shoes when using public restrooms. Don’t share nail clippers with other people. If you go to nail salons, be sure they are sanitizing their tools and equipment (CDC, 2017a).

To maintain a healthy mouth and prevent thrush, practice good oral hygiene by brushing your teeth twice a day. Replace your toothbrush regularly—and definitely get a new one if you develop oral thrush. If you have a baby, regularly clean their toys, bottles, pacifiers, or anything else they often put in their mouth. If you have diabetes, see your dentist regularly. If you wear dentures, ensure that they fit correctly and clean them every night to prevent infection.

What Does Vaginal Hygiene Look Like?

For vaginal hygiene: Avoid using vaginal washes—even if they claim to be “pH balanced” or “gynecologist approved”—as well as vaginal douches. They can change the natural chemistry and pH of the vagina, which could lead to infection. The vagina is self-cleaning, so there’s no need to invest in any fancy washes or worry too much about it. Showering regularly should be sufficient. If you have concerns about any abnormal discharge or smells, ask your doctor as it may be symptomatic of an infection.

Other tips to keep in mind if you are susceptible to recurrent infections: Don’t stay in hot tubs or warm baths for long periods of time—they can be a breeding ground for bacteria and yeast. Change out of your workout clothes or wet bathing suit as soon as you can since this moisture can encourage yeast growth (Wynne, 2008).

Sexual Health

If you suspect you have a yeast infection or have been diagnosed with one, abstain from sex until the infection is cured. Yeast infections can spread with sexual contact, including oral sex. This can give your partner an infection and could lead to you being reinfected after your infection clears up (Donders et al., 2010). In terms of lubrication, choose wisely. Some water-based lubes contain sugars, such as glycerin or sorbitol, to make them more slippery, which may essentially feed vaginal yeast. Invest in a good, nontoxic lube and stay away from petroleum jelly or anything in your kitchen cabinet as these oils can trap bacteria. (They also make latex condoms less effective.)

The Issue with Antibiotics

Antibiotics have been a huge triumph for worldwide public health. They treat many bacterial infections that were once severe and life-threatening illnesses. However, with the growing use of antibiotics worldwide, antibiotic resistance has become a major issue. When a person takes antibiotics, especially for too short a course, the weakest bacteria are killed, but the strongest, most resistant ones may survive and multiply. Overuse of antibiotics is one of the largest causes of drug-resistant bacteria. A 2016 study stated that over 30 percent of prescribed antibiotics are not needed (Fleming-Dutra et al., 2016). Antibiotics should be used only when a doctor prescribes them for a bacterial infection. Chronic use of antibiotics can lead to a disrupted microbiome as all of the native, good bacteria are killed along with the bacterial infection. When one type of organism is killed, the entire microbiome goes into flux, which can lead to a candida takeover and illness.


Choosing the right form of contraception can be a long and arduous process, consisting of a lot of trial and error. You want something that you will use consistently, with minimal side effects, that’s effective—and doesn’t cause yeast infections. New research has suggested that certain contraceptives may encourage candida growth, increasing the risk for recurrent yeast infections.

A 2017 study found that women who started using hormonal IUDs or combined oral contraceptives increased their risk of yeast infections as well as bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis (Rezk, Sayyed, Masood, & Dawood, 2017). Another 2017 study found that women who used hormonal or nonhormonal (copper) IUDs had more vaginal candida compared to women who took progesterone-only oral contraceptive pills (Donders et al., 2017). A small 2016 study found that oral contraceptives containing estrogen were associated with increased candida counts in the mouth, suggesting that hormones effects on candida are not just localized to the vagina area (Aminzadeh, Sabeti Sanat, & Nik Akhtar, 2016). More studies are needed to piece out which contraceptives cause a potential issue for those who are candida-prone or whether it’s all contraceptives across the board.

Alternate Diagnoses and Treatment Options for Yeast Infections

Some functional and alternative health practitioners believe that candida goes beyond acute infections or rare invasive conditions. They believe that many individuals have chronic candida, perhaps without knowing it. The theory is that chronic yeast overgrowth leads to a vast array of symptoms and illnesses, including fatigue, leaky gut syndrome, and even depression. While modern Western medicine largely dismisses this theory, the idea has become popularized, specifically among people whose health conditions are not attributable to other diagnoses.

Chronic or Systemic Candida

Some practitioners believe it’s common for people to have candida overgrowth due to antibiotic or oral contraceptive use, poor diet, and environmental stressors. They believe that this can contribute to a wide variety of chronic illnesses that we see today, such as autoimmune conditions, digestive disorders, neurological conditions, and mood disorders. This is sometimes referred to as chronic candida, systemic candida, or simply candida. Symptoms can include just about anything: brain fog, mood swings, fatigue, eczema, sinus infections, dandruff, sugar cravings, and digestive issues, in addition to the more traditional topical rashes, oral thrush, or vaginal yeast infections (Boroch, 2015).

Functional health care practitioners may recommend a urine test or fecal test to determine levels of candida. Keep in mind, however, that candida is present in most people, and there may be wide variability in healthy levels of candida from person to person. In the Human Microbiome Project study, a healthy group of patients was found to have C. albicans species in 64 percent of their stool samples (Nash et al., 2017). A holistic practitioner may also recommend blood tests to check your levels of immune antibodies to candida. Self-spit tests have also grown in popularity, where you spit in a cup of water in the morning and wait fifteen minutes to see if the water turns cloudy, which would indicate candida. The self-spit test is not scientifically supported and is prone to error.

The Candida Cleanse Diet

Holistic doctors may recommend a candida cleanse diet, which involves removing some or all of the following from your diet: sugar, fermented foods, yeast, dairy, gluten, refined carbs, corn, alcohol, and caffeine. The theory is that these foods promote candida overgrowth, so removing them from the diet will reduce candida growth. While there have been no scientific studies to confirm this (see the lifestyle section), eating a healthier diet with less processed food and added sugars will almost certainly help you feel better, whether mentally or physically, and there seems to be little risk involved. For more on candida cleanse diets, see our article with functional medicine doctor Amy Myers, MD.

Practitioners may also recommend herbal antifungals for daily use or for use after a round of antibiotics. There are many dietary supplements on the market that claim to help with candida cleansing and support, but the majority of their ingredients do not have clinical studies to support their use.

New and Promising Research on Yeast Infections and Associated Health Issues

Scientists are beginning to better understand the mycobiome and how it may be related to gastrointestinal issues, mood disorders, and even Alzheimer’s disease.

How Do You Evaluate Clinical Studies and Identify Promising Results?

The results of clinical studies are described throughout this article, and you may wonder which treatments are worth discussing with your doctor. When a particular benefit is described in only one or two studies, consider it of possible interest, or perhaps worth discussing, but definitely not conclusive. Repetition is how the scientific community polices itself and verifies that a particular treatment is of value. When benefits can be reproduced by multiple investigators, they are more likely to be real and meaningful. We’ve tried to focus on review articles and meta-analyses that take all the available results into account; these are more likely to give us a comprehensive evaluation of a particular subject. Of course, there can be flaws in research, and if by chance all of the clinical studies on a particular therapy are flawed—for example with insufficient randomization or lacking a control group—then reviews and meta-analyses based on these studies will be flawed. But in general, it’s a compelling sign when research results can be repeated.

The Mycobiome

The microbiome describes all the organisms throughout our whole body. The mycobiome is made up of the specific fungal communities in our bodies. Much of the existing research largely ignores our native fungal kingdom. The mycobiome is particularly interesting due to the distinct differences in the fungal makeup of different parts of our body, from our mouth to our gut to our skin, that researchers have only just begun to unearth. In a study of the makeup of healthy people’s gastrointestinal tracts, their mycobiomes contained a total of 184 fungal species, which were mostly candida species (Mukherjee et al., 2015).

Gastrointestinal Issues and Crohn’s

Various gastrointestinal issues beyond SIFO have been linked to candida overgrowth in the gut. Interactions between inflammation in the gut and candida may create a vicious cycle, leading to recurring intestinal issues.

In a 2017 study, researchers found that patients with Crohn’s disease, a gastrointestinal condition characterized by inflammation and scarring of the intestine, had higher levels of Candida tropicalis as well as the bacteria E. coli and Serratia marcescens compared to their non-Crohn’s family members. This particular yeast together with these bacteria can form a robust biofilm—essentially a mix of bacteria and fungi living in a thick, protective layer that protects them from antibiotics and immune cells. They also found that candida was able to create a thicker, more stubborn biofilm than other non-candida yeast species (Hoarau et al., 2016). The researchers, led by Mahmoud Ghannoum, PhD, are working on developing a novel probiotic (with the digestive enzyme amylase) that would break apart these biofilms and provide relief for patients with Crohn’s and other gastrointestinal issues (Hager et al., 2019).

More research is needed on how candida and gastrointestinal diseases are related—i.e., which one causes the other—and we hope to see more approaches to reduce and clear up biofilms.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia, which involves memory loss and deterioration of other cognitive functions. But nobody really knows what causes Alzheimer’s—it’s probably some mix of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors that cause certain proteins (called amyloid and tau) to accumulate and form large deposits of plaque on the brain. But we still don’t know the basics, like does the amyloid itself cause damage? Or is it forming to play defense against invading bacteria that has been found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s? New research has found that people with Alzheimer’s may also have fungus in their brains: A 2015 study by researchers in Spain compared the brains of Alzheimer’s patients to healthy controls. What they found was that every one of the Alzheimer’s patients had fungus in their brain sections and even in their blood, whereas the healthy controls did not. The researchers hypothesize that a fungal infection may trigger amyloid deposits to form in the brain, which leads to the development of Alzheimer’s (Pisa, Alonso, Rábano, Rodal, & Carrasco, 2015). For now, these are associations and hypotheses; much more research is needed to uncover how bacteria and fungi may be intricately related to Alzheimer’s.

Mood Disorders

You’ve probably heard of the gut-brain axis: A happy stomach makes a happy mind through an intricate connection between our microbiome and our mental health. Our gut creates much of our serotonin, and researchers have begun to figure out how your gut microbiome is related to depression and other mood disorders. Do our fungal communities—our mycobiome—affect our mental health? A 2016 study at Johns Hopkins found that men who tested positive for antibodies to Candida albicans in their blood (evidence of candida infection) had increased odds of a schizophrenia diagnosis (Severance et al., 2016). More research is needed to better understand this association.

Clinical Trials for Yeast Infections

Clinical trials are research studies intended to evaluate a medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention. They are done so that researchers can study a particular treatment that may not have a lot of data on its safety or effectiveness yet. If you’re considering signing up for a clinical trial, it’s important to note that if you’re placed in the placebo group, you won’t have access to the treatment being studied. It’s also good to understand the phase of the clinical trial: Phase 1 is the first time most drugs will be used in humans, so it’s about finding a safe dose. If the drug makes it through the initial trial, it can be used in a larger phase 2 trial to see whether it works well. Then it may be compared to a known effective treatment in a phase 3 trial. If the drug is approved by the FDA, it will go on to a phase 4 trial. Phase 3 and phase 4 trials are the most likely to involve the most effective and safest up-and-coming treatments.
In general, clinical trials may yield valuable information; they may provide benefits for some subjects but have undesirable outcomes for others. Speak with your doctor about any clinical trial you are considering. To find studies that are currently recruiting for yeast infections, go to clinicaltrials.gov. We’ve also outlined some below.

Where Do You Find Studies That Are Recruiting Subjects?

You can find clinical studies that are recruiting subjects on clinicaltrials.gov, which is a website run by the US National Library of Medicine. The database consists of all privately and publicly funded studies that are happening around the globe. You can search disease or a specific drug or treatment you’re interested in, and you can filter by country where the study is taking place.

MCT Oil for Infants

There is some preliminary evidence showing that medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), like the ones found in coconut oil, can protect against candida overgrowth. Joseph Bliss, MD, an associate professor of pediatrics at the Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, is conducting a clinical trial to determine if MCT oil is beneficial for premature infants with detectable amounts of candida in their stool. Researchers will administer MCT oil to infants during their feedings for a minimum of two weeks or until they are discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit.

Better Diagnosis

There are many issues with the current methods for diagnosis and treatment of candida. It’s not only confusing, but it can also be risky for the patient if they’re not treated promptly and the candida spreads, causing other systematic issues. Robert Krause, MD, head of the section of infections and tropical medicine at the Medical University of Graz in Austria, is recruiting subjects for a clinical trial to determine if there’s a better way to diagnose invasive candidiasis. That is, are there biological markers that can help differentiate between normal colonization versus candida infection? As a secondary objective, they also hope to identify factors that increase people’s risk for invasive candidiasis, such as certain underlying diseases.

Immune Deficiency

Sergio Rosenzweig, MD, a pediatrician and clinical immunologist at the National Institutes of Health, is studying people with compromised immune systems to see what makes them so much more susceptible to fungal infections. Patients will be asked to provide their medical history, give blood and tissue samples, and undergo genetic testing so that researchers have a complete biological profile. This study will help uncover key factors related to candida and other fungal infections so they can be better understood and prevented in the future.

  1. • Leah Millheiser, MD, on how to avoid yeast infections and take care of your vagina

  2. • Biologic dentist Gerry Curatola on how to take care of your oral microbiome

  3. • Mycobiome researcher Mahmoud Ghannoum, PhD, explains how fungi impacts your body

  4. • Functional medicine doctor Amy Myers, MD, walks us through her guide to probiotics


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This article is for informational purposes only, even if and to the extent that it features the advice of physicians and medical practitioners. This article is not, nor is it intended to be, a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment and should never be relied upon for specific medical advice. The information and advice in this article is based on research published in peer-reviewed journals, on practices of traditional medicine, and on recommendations made by health practitioners, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control, and other established medical science organizations; this does not necessarily represent the views of goop.

Yeast Infections in Men: Is it Possible?

The Big Question: Can Men Get Yeast Infection?

While yeast infections are often seen as a strictly female health issue, everyone can get a yeast infection, including men. These cases are much less frequent than the most common vaginal yeast infections, but nonetheless can arise. A variety of factors can cause male yeast infection symptoms. With proper care and timely treatment, yeast infections in men will go away either by themselves, or within a few days. Read on to learn more about how to identify a yeast infection in men and what to do about it.

What is a Yeast Infection?

Candida is a strain of yeast found on most human bodies. Populations of candida are usually kept in check by bacteria that cohabitate these spaces. When the bacteria are not able to feed on the yeast, the yeast can overgrow, often leading to a yeast infection. A yeast infection can develop in various places on the human body, but is especially prone to spaces that are moist, warm, and dark.

The most common manifestation of this imbalance is a vaginal yeast infection. This is mostly since yeast thrives in the environment of the vaginal canal, and when both isolated and cyclical changes in hormones occur, yeast can begin to overgrow without its bacterial adversaries to stop it.

When we ask the question, “Can men get yeast infections?” the inherent lack of a vaginal canal makes the answer seem like a pretty obvious “no.” However, a man’s genitals cultivate a similar environment that is generally moist, warm and dark as well as requires bacteria to keep yeast levels in check. For this reason, men can also develop genital yeast infections, as well as yeast infections that occur in other parts of the body with imbalances.

Symptoms of Yeast Infection In Men

Yeast infection symptoms in men typically manifest in penile yeast infections. This means that the skin in and around the penis may become infected, which can come with a series of uncomfortable symptoms. The most common are:

  • Irritation and redness on and around the penis
  • Light colored, shiny patches of skin on the penis
  • Burning sensations during intercourse and/or urination
  • Itchiness on and around the penis
  • Red rash in and around the penis (can sometimes spread to inner thighs and buttocks)

Note that you should contact your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms, as they may indicate a more serious problem or infection. Seeing a PlushCare doctor by phone or video chat can usually help you determine if you are suffering from a yeast infection within only one appointment (yes, an online doctor can prescribe a medication!).

How Can a Man Get a Yeast Infection?

As in women, men can get yeast infections from a variety of causes that are related to both environmental conditions and personal habits. In men, yeast infections are most commonly due to the following:

  • Unprotected sexual intercourse with someone who has a yeast infection – Skin-to-skin contact with someone who has a yeast infection is the easiest way for it to transmit to someone else. Open a dialogue with your partner about sexual health to ensure that both of you are being protected. If your partner has a yeast infection, refrain from sexual contact until treatment has ceased and the infection has gone away. If left untreated, yeast infections can be transmitted several times back and forth between partners.
  • Uncircumcised – Uncircumcised penises are more prone to penile yeast infections because they can harbor more bacteria under the foreskin. Developing excellent hygiene habits can help reduce your risk of getting a yeast infection.
  • Type 2 Diabetes – Having Type 2 Diabetes can increase your risk of developing yeast infections. This prevalence is because yeast feeds off sugar. Spikes in blood sugar create favorable environments for yeast to thrive, which can sometimes lead to a yeast infection. In fact, some people discover that they have diabetes because of increased frequency of yeast infections. Check with your doctor to be sure.
  • HIV status – HIV has been linked to an increase in yeast infections, mainly because of the immune system’s weakened state.
  • Frequent or prolonged antibiotic use – Using antibiotics can throw off the body’s natural balance between yeast and bacteria. If too many bacteria are killed off, this may stimulate overgrowth of yeast, which leads to a yeast infection.
  • Hygiene Habits – Exercising proper hygiene habits can help reduce your risk of yeast infection. Bacteria build-up, especially in sheltered areas such as the genitals and armpits, can lead to various skin infections. To prevent penile yeast infections, it is very important to regularly clean your genitals.
  • Clothing/Detergent – Wearing clothing that restricts airflow can help yeast infections develop. Some men report discomfort and infections caused by a change in laundry detergent. The skin of your genitals is extremely sensitive, and may be irritated by certain ingredients in detergents. If you notice discomfort associated with a new regimen, changing your detergent may help relieve irritation, or in this case, uncomfortable symptoms of male yeast infection.

Other Types of Yeast Infection in Men

  • Feet – Extended physical activity, especially in the warmer months of the year, can make feet susceptible to yeast infections. Using clean, dry socks and exercising good personal hygiene will minimize this risk. Antifungal sprays and creams may also be helpful if uncomfortable symptoms persist.
  • Mouth – Yeast infections of the mouth are also known as “oral thrush.” It is unclear whether this type of yeast infection can be transmitted through oral sex. However, oral thrush can develop from other physical imbalances that cause the same candida yeast to overgrow. Yeast infections of the mouth are usually indicated by a bright red, usually irritated oral environment, speckled by small white dots. Consult your doctor if you experience these symptoms.
  • Skin Yeast Infection – Yeast infections can develop on virtually any surface of the skin, but areas that have higher levels of moisture, such as the armpits and mouths, are more likely to develop yeast infections. The causes of these isolated types of yeast infections will mainly depend on your lifestyle and personal hygiene.

Treatments for Yeast Infection in Men

Treatments for yeast infections in men are easy to access and with proper use will quickly relieve uncomfortable symptoms. In more severe cases of infection, your doctor may recommend an extended plan of treatment or lifestyle change. This information will help you understand your treatment options if you have a yeast infection.

If you have had yeast infections in the past and feel comfortable identifying the problem when it persists, you can use over the counter (OTC) treatment options to get rid of the infection. However, you should consult your doctor every time, to be sure that your symptoms are not actually indicative of a different, potentially serious problem.

Over the Counter (OTC) Treatment Options

Most OTC treatments for yeast infection are antifungal medications. The most popular are:

  • Miconazole (Lotrimin AF, Ting Antifungal) – Topical antifungal cream/spray which can eradicate yeast infection in both men and women.
  • Clotrimazole (Lotrimin AF, Desenex) – Topical cream for treatment of fungal growths on the skin.

Prescription Treatment Options

  • Prescription antifungal pills – Antifungal pills such as Diflucan are only available with a prescription, but require only one pill to kill most yeast infections. For persistent yeast infections, your doctor may recommend you use this method.

Home Treatment Options

After speaking with your doctor, you may elect to use home remedies to get rid of a yeast infection, especially if you have had a yeast infection before. Home remedies typically revolve around a common antifungal property. Examples include:

  • Oil of Oregano – Oil of oregano has strong antifungal powers and is taken orally (in a carrier oil, or highly diluted – never in essential oil form) to ward off yeast infections.
  • Coconut Oil – The gentle, yet powerful antifungal properties of coconut oil can be used topically on yeast infections.
  • Greek Yogurt – A natural antifungal, un-sweetened Greek yogurt can help relieve the symptoms of yeast infection. It is important to use yogurt without added sugar, as yeast thrives off sugar if introduced into the diet.

If left untreated, male yeast infections can become extremely uncomfortable and potentially dangerous if the infection is able to penetrate the blood stream. Consult with your doctor immediately after noticing signs of yeast infection in men.

In rare, persistent cases of penile yeast infections, your doctor may recommend circumcision as a treatment option. While circumcision is normally performed on infants, the procedure can safely be done on adult males of any age.

Why Antibiotics May Not Be Right

Oftentimes, when we hear the word “infection,” we assume that antibiotics will remedy the problem. In the case of some infections, this is true. In the case of a yeast infection, however, killing off healthy bacteria will continue to stimulate the growth of yeast. Taking antibiotics could exacerbate your symptoms and turn a yeast infection into a more serious health issue. Consult your doctor to find out if antibiotics are the right course of treatment for you.

Your doctor can help you determine what is a yeast infection and what could be a different, more serious problem.

How PlushCare Works

In today’s age of unpredictable waiting rooms and swamped doctors, online services like PlushCare save you time and stress. All of our visits with patients are confidential and convenient and require as little as a phone or video consultation. This can be especially helpful for addressing personal health problems, especially when they are of a sensitive nature.

Our team of medical professionals has extensive experience consulting with patients about their treatment options, including both over the counter and prescription medicines, and can help you understand which method is right for you.

Read more from related articles:

How To Treat A Male Yeast Infection

Male Yeast Infections Suck. Go On, Ask Me How I Know

“You, my friend, need to stick your c**k in a pot of yogurt.”

So went the advice of a friend of mine a couple of years ago when I told her I’d recently gone through a new first in my life: picking up a yeast infection from my girlfriend. Prior to this, I hadn’t really thought such a thing happened to men.

When I told her, I had figured the admission would surprise her. After all, yeast infections are known overwhelmingly as a women’s issue. According to the CDC, 75% of women will pick up at least one throughout the course of their lives (that number actually seems low, somehow) and that only on “rare occasions, men may also get genital candidiasis.” The Mayo Clinic chimes in that “Sexual transmission of yeast infections is uncommon.”

Lies, damn lies, all of them. From the first one a few years ago, I’ve managed to pick up a few more from my girlfriend, now-fiancee, including just last week. Far from being rare, they’re a semi-regular thing for me. And they suck.

Don’t believe me? There’s even a scientific word for a yeast infection of the penis: candidal balanitis. According to Everyday Health, it can cause “burning and itching around the head of the penis” and even “small, rash-like bumps called papules, which may have pus.” 

Symptoms of Male Yeast Infections

  • Itchiness and irritation
  • Tight, chapped skin — which can sometimes even split
  • Whitish discharge
  • Maddening frustration
  • Terror of having to take another piss

It lasts about a week, with symptoms like the above. The fortunate thing is that it’s very treatable. The unfortunate thing is that it lasts about a week, you’ll be cutting back on sugar, drinking no booze, and sipping friggin kefir to cope, all while mildly irritated. You’ll go to the pharmacy and find yourself buying Monistat, and give a knowing look to the cashier. “Yeah, this is for my girlfriend,” your eyes will say, just like when you end up buying tampons. Except you’ll be lying — you’ll be grasping for that Monistat like it’s a ladder in Hades.

Who Is At Risk?

They don’t target this kind of ad at men.

Men with diabetes: The higher sugar content in your piss makes you a bigger target for yeast, who love that sort of thing.

Uncircumcised men: They’ve done studies on this sort of thing: you’re way better off if you’ve been circumcised. You can pick up a yeast infection but have virtually no symptoms. The only problem? You can then pass it back to your partner without ever knowing you had one. Yep, sucky.

I’ve actually read stories of men on forums who get circumcised as a way to cut down on chronic yeast infections. Enticing. Then I’ve read about what it’s like to get circumcised as an adult. Less enticing, although the follow-up article “Being Circumcised As An Adult Sucks. Ask Me How I Know” would at least be worth something.

People with weak immune systems: This one is a bit odd, because I have a very good immune system in most things.

People taking antibiotics: Basically the same issue as above — antibiotics kill a lot of the good bacteria in your system, making you more vulnerable.

Sexual transmission: While it is not considered a STI, men can get candida balanitis by having sex with someone who has a yeast infection, according to Everyday Health.

How To Prevent Male Yeast Infections

(Note: I should point out here that I’m not a doctor, so the following is researched from several studies and websites which are linked , as well as personal experience. The best advice for this sort of thing always comes from your doctor, with whom you should consult about treatment/prevention.)

Wear a condom: Like for STIs, condoms make transmission way, way less likely. 

Communication: Make sure your partner can tell you if she’s symptom-free.

Wash-up after sex: Despite the above, women can have yeast present without showing symptoms. If you wash up afterwards, it’s an added layer of protection.

Patience: You can actually pick one up from your girlfriend, start showing symptoms, have your girlfriend be healed, and then of course want to have sex again as soon as your girlfriend is healed… and then give it back to her. You can pass this thing back and forth like some sort of game of warped ping pong. If either of you is infected, don’t be hasty about stuff. You’ll only make it worse.

Treatment Options For Yeast Infections In Men

The same creams your girlfriend/wife uses: Borrow hers — over-the-counter stuff like Monistat works when applied directly to the affected area. Some men swear by mixing it with white vinegar first, presumably because they’re auto-sadists or something. I never did try it. For obvious reasons. Clotrimazole (Lotrimin) and Econazole (Spectazole) are other topical medications that treat penile yeast infections. 

Stay dry and breathy: Yeast love warm, moist environments. Stick to loose-fitting underwear made of cotton or another breathable material.

No sugar: There’s some debate over this — some people maintain that the sugar/yeast infection is an urban myth. Others, particularly some women suffering from chronic yeast infections, maintain that cutting sugar out of your diet is the best thing you can do. Ditto with alcohol — it can kill helpful bacteria in your system.

Yogurt or kefir: Another treatment I didn’t try: my friend’s advice to stick my cock in a pot of yogurt — I have a rule about conflating food and genital treatments. But eating yogurt, particularly probiotic yogurt with loads of helpful bacteria, is an essential. You can also go for probiotic kefir, which is also bacteria-laden and a bit more drinkable, if that’s your thing. It also tastes relatively disgusting to some people (hello, me!) but you’ll do what you have to. And in a week you’ll be good to go, and you’ll then of course forget all of this advice until the next time. Sigh.

Health Issues
Sexual Health

Yeast Infection in Men: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

  • Yeast infections in men have symptoms like itching, swelling, redness, and irritation. 
  • Male yeast infections are often caused by unprotected sex or poor hygiene. 
  • To get rid of a yeast infection in men, doctors often prescribe an antifungal like fluconazole.
  • Visit Insider’s Health Reference library for more advice.

With 75% of women experiencing a yeast infection in their life, the condition is widely associated with being a vaginal problem. But, what about the rest of the population — can men get a yeast infection?

Here’s everything you need to know about penile yeast infections.

Can men get yeast infections? 

Yes, men can get yeast infections just like women, but how many men get one each year is unclear. 

A yeast infection occurs when there is an overgrowth of the fungus candida. This fungus typically lives in trace amounts on the skin and is kept in check by beneficial bacteria that help regulate the skin’s pH levels. However, under the right conditions — specifically warm, moist environments like the genitals — candida can grow and spread. 

An overgrowth of the candida fungus leads to a condition in men known as balanitis, in which the head of the penis becomes inflamed. This is known as a penile yeast infection. The condition is generally treatable, and knowing the symptoms of penile yeast infections can not only help you cure it early on but also ensure you spend less time in discomfort.

Symptoms of yeast infection in men

  • Itching
  • Irritation 
  • White discharge that is the consistency of cottage cheese
  • Swelling 
  • Redness
  • Tenderness
  • General aching in the area 

Causes and risk factors of male yeast infections 

According to Robert Mordkin, MD, CMO of LetsGetChecked and chief of urology at Virginia Hospital Center, other factors — in addition to a moist environment — that can lead to penile yeast infections include:

  • Poor hygiene can provide a breeding ground for candida to develop into a penile yeast infection. Thoroughly cleaning your genitals under every skin fold, especially if you are uncircumcised, can decrease your chances of an infection occurring. 
  • Irritated or damaged skin from a cut or friction from clothing. 
  • Unprotected intercourse with a partner who has a yeast infection. When a man has sex with someone who has a vaginal yeast infection, the condition can spread to their penile area. Until a yeast infection is treated, avoiding sex — especially without a condom — can ensure that the condition does not spread to others. While condoms may help to prevent the spread, it is not a guaranteed method.

Certain pre-existing conditions can also increase your risk of a penile yeast infection, says Giuseppe Aragona, MD, a general practitioner and family doctor at Prescription Doctor, an online healthcare service. According to Aragona and Mordkin, risk factors include:

  • Having an uncircumcised penis which allows for candida to potentially get trapped under the foreskin 
  • Aging 
  • Having a weakened immune system
  • Having diabetes — a condition Morkin calls the “single greatest risk factor” for penile yeast infections
  • Taking a long course of antibiotics, as the medicine can potentially kill off beneficial bacteria that work to prevent yeast infections  

Yeast infection treatment for men 

Yeast infections in men should be treated similarly to those in women, says Aragona.

Oral antifungal medications like fluconazole are the best treatment for most penile yeast infections, says Mordkin. However, he cautions that more severe cases may necessitate the use of intravenous medications.

If you are exhibiting signs of a yeast infection, it is recommended that you visit a doctor immediately. “Particularly in a man with

, medical evaluation and possible treatment should be pursued so that the infection can be brought under control rather than advancing into a more serious situation,” says Mordkin.

If left untreated, penile yeast infections can lead to numerous adverse health effects including: 

  • The skin turns hard and white, making it difficult to urinate. 
  • Scarring on the penis, which constricts the foreskin so severely that it can not retract. 
  • A greater risk of developing balanoposthitis, a condition in which the foreskin and glands become inflamed. 

In rare cases, a severe course of action involving surgical circumcision may also occur, Mordkin explains. The latter is recommended when a person has recurring yeast infections, usually the result of incredibly tight foreskin. 

Important: Anyone who believes that they have a yeast infection can also visit a sexual health clinic to obtain a prescription for antifungal medicine. Once treatment begins, Aragona says the yeast infection should resolve itself within a week. 

Insider’s takeaway

While commonly associated with women, men are also able to get yeast infections. Penile yeast infections can not only be painful but also dangerous if left untreated. 

If you notice itching, irritation, or white discharge, visit your doctor. They can prescribe you an antifungal that resolves the infection in about a week.

Best Treatments for Yeast Infections Available Online [2021]

Medically reviewed by: Dr. Poonam Merai, MD

Last Updated: Feb 4, 2021

Yeast infections are most commonly caused by the fungus candida albicans and lead to vaginal irritation, an increase in discharge, and/or severe itchiness of the vagina and vulva. Symptoms can also include a burning sensation during sexual intercourse or urination, redness or swelling of the vulva, and a vaginal rash or pain.

Very prevalent, nearly 75% of women will experience a yeast infection in their lifetime and many will experience more than one. Yeast infections can become a chronic problem.

Fortunately, over-the-counter vaginal creams or suppositories will clear up most yeast infections within seven days. Women who get yeast infections regularly (four or more infections in a year) or who have an infection caused by less common fungi may require a prescription. And nowadays there are options to access yeast infection treatments online, without leaving home at all. That’s the focus of this guide.

So which treatment is best for yeast infections in 2021? We thoroughly explored the options and will provide all the details below. For those in a hurry, here is a summary of our top pick.

Our recommendations for best yeast infection treatment online:

  • Best for OTC treatment: Hers
  • Best for quick prescription: Wisp

Best OTC

Hers Yeast Infection Treatment

Hers gives women a convenient, hassle-free and cost-effective way to access OTC yeast infection treatment.

Get yeast infection treatment quickly and easily from Hers, which offers a convenient, subscription-based service that brings Miconazole to your doorstep.

Hers: Editors’ Choice for OTC Treatment

Hers offers miconazole, which does not require a prescription. You can look for treatments at your local pharmacy or drugstore if you need immediate relief, but Hers makes it quick and easy to get yeast infection treatment from the convenience of home, without any trips to the pharmacy. The experience is seamless, fast, and discreet. You can create an account and place your order online in just a few minutes. Hers’ 3-day yeast infection treatment will be at your door in a matter of days.

Hers also offers $39 telemedicine consultations with a primary care doctor, during which you can discuss your infection and seek prescription treatment if needed.

In general, based on thorough testing, we are very impressed by Hers. We recommend Hers for women who have had previous yeast infections or have a chronic problem and want to have their yeast infection treatment on hand.

Best Rx

Wisp Prescription Treatment

At a very affordable price, Wisp offers virtual medical consultation and access to prescription yeast infection treatment.

With Wisp, you can get your prescription yeast infection treatment within 24 hours from ordering. Wisp’s attention to quick prescription access brings great convenience.

Wisp: Best for Prescription Treatment Access

Wisp is an impressive telemedicine provider that offers fast and convenient access to a good prescription treatment for yeast infections. Based on testing, we recommend Wisp for those who are in need of immediate treatment (within 24 hours) but prefer ordering from home and not seeing a doctor in person. Wisp’s prescription offering is fluconazole.

Wisp really wins for those in a hurry because it can deliver a certain amount of your prescription yeast infection treatment directly to your doorstep within 24 hours if necessary, while sending the rest of it to your local pharmacy for pickup. This convenience and rapid-response capability set Wisp apart. Its consultations are also not as expensive as some other competitors.

Innerbody Research recently celebrated its 20-year anniversary. Over the past two decades, we have helped tens of millions of readers make more informed decisions about staying healthy and living healthier lifestyles.

This guide, like all health-related content on this website, is thoroughly vetted by one or more members of our Medical Review Board for accuracy. Additionally, we extensively analyze each health-related service we review. We evaluate the entire customer experience from signing up use of the product or service, and then offer unbiased, marketing-jargon-free analysis based on the latest scientific evidence and medical standards.

Yeast infection treatment options

Most yeast infections can be treated with over-the-counter creams, ointments, or suppositories, though some infections may require prescription medication.

Yeast infections can be tricky to self-diagnose. If you suspect you’re dealing with your first yeast infection, it’s best to consult a physician to confirm it. However, if you’ve been diagnosed with a yeast infection in the past, you’ll likely recognize the symptoms and be able to treat the infection on your own.

Start with over-the-counter yeast infection treatments. If you don’t experience relief within seven days, consult a doctor as you may require a prescription.

The vast majority of yeast infections can be treated with over-the-counter vaginal creams, tablets or suppositories that prevent the growth of the yeast that causes infection. The following are all azole antifungals and should cure yeast infections as well as reduce vaginal itching, burning, and discharge in most patients within seven days:

  • Miconazole nitrate (brand names include Monistat and Micatin) comes as a vaginal cream or vaginal tablet.
  • Clotrimazole (brand names include Lotrimin and Mycelex) comes as a vaginal cream or vaginal tablet.
  • Tioconazole (Vagistat-1) comes as a vaginal cream.

If you are still experiencing vaginal discomfort or other symptoms seven days after starting an over-the-counter treatment, you should discuss your condition with a physician.

The most common prescription yeast infection treatment is fluconazole (Diflucan). Typically this is administered as a one-time, single oral dose, but more severe cases may require two single doses, three days apart.

Fluconazole works by killing or preventing the growth of fungus and yeast. However, it doesn’t just target your vaginal region. It kills fungus and yeast throughout your body, so you may have minor side effects, such as an upset stomach or headaches, for a short time afterward.

You shouldn’t take fluconazole to treat yeast infections if you’re pregnant, because it may cause miscarriage or birth defects. Fluconazole can also interact with warfarin, a blood thinner. These are a couple of the reasons why fluconazole requires a prescription; by consulting with a physician, it will become clear whether the treatment is right for you.

Yeast infection treatment providers

Since yeast infections often clear up with over-the-counter treatments, most drugstores, pharmacies and online healthcare providers offer treatment options. Make sure to review the “active ingredients” list on the box before you purchase. While yeast infection treatments are prevalent, there are also many products intended to treat the symptoms, but not the underlying infection.

For example, Vagisil – a well-known feminine care product – relieves itch, but isn’t an antifungal treatment. This means that it can help with your yeast infection symptoms, like pain and itching, but will not cure the infection itself. The active ingredient in Vagisil and its competitors is benzocaine, which is a topical, local anesthetic that dulls nerve endings.

Look for “azole” as part of the active ingredient list in the product you choose, in order to ensure you’re treating your yeast infection and not just its symptoms.

Online yeast infection treatment options

A rapidly growing number of Americans are seeking telemedicine services, opting for the online route to access medicine and medical consultation for a variety of reasons. If you’re looking to find your yeast infection treatment online, you have several great options.

First, you’ll need to decide whether you’re looking for an over-the-counter treatment or if you need a prescription.

If you need an over-the-counter miconazole cream quickly, or on an ongoing basis, we recommend Hers as the best online option.

If you’re not sure what you need, or you think prescription fluconazole is the better choice for you, you’ll need to speak with a healthcare professional. In this case, we recommend you opt for Wisp.

In addition to Hers and Wisp, there are other telemedicine providers that offer online consultations with a physician or nurse practitioner who can recommend a treatment plan and/or write you a prescription. Some will send your prescription to your local pharmacy where you can pick it up in person. Others will ship the medication directly to you. Some accept insurance, which means your cost will vary depending on your plan, while others have a set price.

We’ve compared many of your options for treating your yeast infection in the chart below.

Company What you get Cost (with fees) Where treatment is sent Accepts Insurance
Hers Two 3-day Miconazole treatment courses $25 total You No
Wisp Virtual doctor visit + Fluconazole $30-65 total You or a local pharmacy No
PlushCare Virtual doctor visit + Fluconazole $99 visit + medication cost Local pharmacy Yes
Alpha Virtual doctor visit + prescription medication $30 visit + medication Local pharmacy Yes
VirtuWell Virtual doctor visit + prescription medication $49 visit + medication Local pharmacy Yes
PushHealth Virtual doctor visit + prescription medication Varies Local pharmacy Yes
SmartDocMD Virtual doctor visit + prescription medication $30 visit + medication Local pharmacy Yes
CallonDoc Virtual doctor visit + prescription medication $40 visit + medication Local pharmacy Only for prescription

Local pharmacy or drugstore

If you have a yeast infection and need immediate relief, the quickest solution is to head to the pharmacy section of your local grocery or drugstore. They’ll have a variety of creams that you can try

The most common, name-brand yeast infection treatment is Monistat 1, 3, or 7 – the numbers indicate how many days you’ll need to apply the treatment. Keep in mind, even with one- or three-day treatments, it could take up to seven days to see results.

If you’re hoping to avoid the expense of a name-brand, you can look for generic competitors. Just ensure the primary active ingredient is an azole antifungal and you can be confident you’re treating your yeast infection.

Who should consider yeast infection treatments?

If you’ve never had one before, you should consult with a healthcare professional to confirm that you have a yeast infection.

It’s unclear what causes yeast infections and, unfortunately, most women will experience at least one in their lifetime. For many, yeast infections become a chronic issue. If you’ve had a yeast infection in the past, you’ll likely know if you’ve got another one.

Yeast infections are most common in women experiencing a monthly period. It’s uncommon for premenstrual girls to get a yeast infection and they are also less prevalent in post-menopausal women.

If you get a regular period and are experiencing the following symptoms, chances are you could have a yeast infection:

  • Pain while urinating
  • Pain during sex
  • Itching and soreness around the vulva and vaginal opening
  • Red, swollen or sore vaginal tissue
  • Vaginal discharge that is watery, white and clumpy (though this is not always present)

Although self-diagnosis and treatment is encouraged for women with chronic yeast infections, you should consult a physician if you are pregnant or taking oral antibiotics or drugs that suppress the immune system. You should also refrain from using tampons, douches and spermicides while you are treating your yeast infection.

Make sure to read all warnings and directions before administering any medication, whether prescription or over-the-counter.

How do yeast infection treatments work?

Yeast infections are very common because your vagina naturally contains bacteria and yeast. The good bacteria (lactobacillus acidophilus) typically keeps the yeast (candida albicans) in check, preventing too much yeast from growing. However, there are a variety of reasons this relationship might become unbalanced.

External factors like antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes, a compromised immune system, or an increase in estrogen levels due to birth control or hormone therapy can all result in an overgrowth of candida and, ultimately, a yeast infection.

Regardless of the reason, when too much yeast grows you’ve got an infection. Yeast infection treatments work by simply stopping the growth of the yeast. Once fungal growth is back to its normal level, your body’s natural bacteria will kick in and resume control of your vaginal yeast levels.

How yeast infections are treated

While some yeast infection treatments (such as fluconazole) are oral, meaning you take a pill or liquid by mouth, we’ll focus on how to apply topical azole cream.

Most over-the-counter yeast infection treatments come as a cream-filled applicator similar to a tampon. You should insert the applicator into your vagina, push the “plunger” until all the medication is out of the device, then remove the applicator and dispose of it in the garbage.

This should be done prior to bedtime, which will help prevent leakage. Depending on the medication you choose, you’ll be administering the cream once daily for one, three, or seven days in a row.

Always thoroughly read the directions that come with any over-the-counter or prescription medication.

How we evaluate health products and services

At Innerbody Research, we customize our evaluation criteria depending on the type and nature of the health-related service. For sexual health products and companies, we have five areas that we use for our evaluations, including:

Quality: How well does the company deliver its core service(s) and/or product(s) to the customer? Is the quality of the product and/or telehealth service high enough that we would recommend it to loved ones without hesitation? If not, why not?

User-friendly: How intuitive and user-friendly is the service? Does the device/program/app/website achieve a good degree of user-friendliness for its customers?

Value: Are you getting your money’s worth? Are there any hidden costs or charges? Does the company offer discounts?

Privacy: If health data is stored, will your data be stored securely? Are payments secure?

Customer support: Particularly in situations where ‘one size fits all’ doesn’t make sense, how well does the company help to make the service or product ideal for you?

At Innerbody Research, we take transparency seriously.

Innerbody Research is supported by readers like you. Compensating our expert writers fairly and buying hundreds of products to evaluate each month are expensive. In order to cover these costs and to keep our information free to users, we instead accept referral fee compensation from some companies referenced on our site. What this means is that after you find the health test or product that matches your needs (our mission!), click the link to the company’s website, and ultimately make a purchase, we sometimes receive a small commission from that company at no additional cost to you. Our research team is always on the lookout for discounts and promotions, so you may often find that your final cost may be lower. We can’t guarantee it will always be lower, but we can guarantee that it will never be higher.

If you prefer that we not receive this small commission, we recommend that you go to the company’s website directly (without clicking on our links). This will ensure we are not compensated in any way. The choice is always 100% up to you.

Editorial integrity matters to us.

Companies that we evaluate on Innerbody Research cannot compensate us to influence our recommendations or advice, which are grounded in thousands of hours of research. Additionally, we purchase all the products we review ourselves and do not accept free products. Getting our readers unbiased reviews and information written by qualified experts is our very top priority.

Nonprescription Management of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

US Pharm
. 2015;40(9):13-19.

Vulvovaginal complaints are among the most common reasons women seek medical care. Vaginitis, defined as a variety of inflammatory conditions that can result in vaginal and sometimes vulvar symptoms such as itching, burning, irritation, odor, and vaginal discharge, accounts for approximately 10 million physician office visits annually.1,2 Among the many causes of vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), also referred to as a yeast infection, is the second most common cause after bacterial vaginosis.3 VVC, caused by fungi of the genus Candida, is diagnosed in up to 40% of females presenting with vaginal complaints in the primary care setting.1 The prevalence of VVC is highest among women of reproductive age; it is estimated that about 75% of women will have at least one episode of VVC, and 40% to 45% will have two or more episodes.4 Approximately 5% to 8% of VVC cases are recurrent, defined as four or more episodes per year.5

VVC is the only vaginal infection for which OTC treatments are available, allowing women to self-diagnose and self-treat their condition. Since the introduction of these OTC products in the early 1990s, many women have associated vaginitis-type symptoms with yeast infections, leading to increased self-treatment of presumed VVC. From 1993 to 1997, OTC sales of vaginal antifungal products and feminine hygiene products increased from $90 million to $250 million6; during this same time period, physician office visits for vaginal conditions and prescriptions decreased by 15%.7 Today, healthcare costs are estimated to be between $4 and $5 billion annually, with OTC sales reaching $295 million.8,9

Although there are many advantages to having vaginal antifungals readily available, there is a potential for inappropriate therapy. Some women may have difficulties identifying VVC based on symptoms alone, and others may have problems selecting and using these products appropriately. One study found that only one-third of women correctly diagnosed themselves; prior diagnosis only moderately affected their ability to correctly diagnosis vaginal Candida infection.10 Similarly, another study reported that many women who purchased an OTC antifungal vaginal product did not have VVC, and many utilized the product up to three times in a 6-month period.11 Pharmacists play a pivotal role in managing VVC by helping patients understand the importance of proper diagnosis, product selection, and use.


Under normal circumstances, the vagina maintains a balance among organisms that make up the vaginal microflora. Vaginal pH is maintained between 3.8 and 4.2 by Lactobacillus acidophilus, diphtheroids, and Staphylococcus epidermidis.12,13 The normal vaginal environment protects women against vaginal infections. Any alterations in this environment allow for the overgrowth of organisms normally suppressed, including Candida.

Candida albicans is the most common pathogen identified, responsible for 85% to 95% of VVC episodes.14 Asymptomatic colonization is also common; it is identified in almost one-third of women without any symptoms.15 The second most common pathogen is Candida glabrata, which is isolated in 7% to 16% of all cases.5 The incidence of non–C albicans VVC is increasing, and this may be attributed to overuse of OTC antifungal vaginal products, single-dose treatments, and low-dosage azole maintenance regimens.14

Although many women will develop VVC sporadically, there are several factors that can increase the risk.13-15 These factors include antibiotic use, hormones, immune system status, diabetes, and lifestyle habits. Broad-spectrum antibiotic use alters the bacterial microflora, allowing for the overgrowth of Candida organisms. Colonization with C albicans increased from 10% to 30%, and VVC was diagnosed in 28% to 33% of cases.14 Women who are already colonized may have a greater risk.16 However, some studies have failed to show a link between antibiotic use and development of VVC.17 Elevated estrogen levels, either through oral contraceptives, hormone replacement, or pregnancy, enhance adherence of Candida to vaginal epithelial cells.13,14 Immunosuppression lowers the patient’s ability to fight infections, reducing vaginal protection by immunoglobulins.13 Diabetic patients who are uncontrolled are more prone to VVC, as hyperglycemia also enhances binding of Candida to the vaginal epithelial wall.13 Those who are nondiabetic but consume a diet high in refined sugars may be susceptible to VVC as well.14

Lifestyle habits also play an important role by introducing microorganisms to the vaginal environment and altering the normal flora, as by not cleansing correctly after bowel movements or wearing tight-fitting clothing that promotes a warm, moist environment. VVC is often associated with sexual activity, although women who are not sexually active can develop infections. Asymptomatic colonization of the male genitalia with Candida is four times more common in the sexual partners of infected females.14 Use of diaphragms, intrauterine devices, and sponges may also pose a risk; these items can increase the adherence of a yeast, potentiating the development of VVC in susceptible patients.18,19


VVC can be classified as either un-complicated or complicated based on clinical presentation, microbiology, host factors, and response to therapy.4 Uncomplicated VVC occurs sporadically or infrequently, is mild-to-moderate in nature, is most likely caused by C albicans, and affects nonimmunocompromised women. VVC is considered complicated if it is recurrent, severe in nature, and caused by non-albicans, or if it affects women with diabetes, immunocompromising conditions, debilitation, or those on immunosuppressive therapy.

Clinical Presentation

The symptoms of VVC are usually nonspecific and can be due to a variety of causes. The hallmark symptoms in most women are vulvar pruritus and burning. This is usually accompanied with soreness and irritation, which can lead to dyspareunia and dysuria in more severe cases.1 Other common symptoms include vaginal soreness, irritation, and a white vaginal discharge, which varies from watery to homogenously thick, described typically as cottage cheese–like.14 If there is an odor present, it is usually very faint.14 Upon examination, the labia and vulva will be erythematous and swollen. Approximately 25% of patients will have fissures and excoriations on the external genitalia.20 Usually, symptoms worsen the week before menses and during pregnancy.14,20

Assessing Self-Treatment

Self-treatment with the available OTC vaginal antifungals is only appropriate in patients with uncomplicated, infrequent episodes of VVC with symptoms ranging from mild-to-moderate in severity. It is important to be able to differentiate between VVC and other causes of vaginitis, including bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, so that appropriate treatment is not delayed.1,21 The pharmacist can assist patients in determining the most appropriate course of action by first obtaining pertinent information about their symptoms. Pharmacists can also recommend the use of vaginal screening kits to help patients identify, confirm, or rule out VVC. When compared to standard diagnostic testing for VVC, rapid testing was shown to be accurate and affordable.22 The patient should be referred for a medical diagnosis if this is her first episode of VVC; she is pregnant; experiences recurrent episodes or recurrence of symptoms within 2 months after treatment; experiences persistent symptoms despite treatment; has concomitant symptoms of fever, lower abdominal pain, or pain in the back or shoulders; has a malodorous vaginal discharge; or is <12 years of age.4,13,23

Nonprescription Treatment

All OTC vaginal antifungal products are approved for the treatment of VVC. Short-course topical formulations or single-dose oral treatment has been shown to effectively treat up to 90% of uncomplicated VVC.4 No single agent, topical or oral, has demonstrated superiority; they all have shown equivalent results.24 The various topical azoles available OTC include clotrimazole, miconazole, and tioconazole. They come in 1-, 3-, and 7-night regimens, in a variety of formulations including suppositories (vaginal tablets/ovules), creams, and ointments and in combination packages (TABLE 1).4,25,26

These products are generally considered safe, although some patients have complained about a burning sensation.14 Single-dose or short-course topical therapy is the preferred regimen of the CDC.4 Studies to date have not demonstrated that one duration of therapy is significantly better.27,28 Combination products, containing both a vaginal insert and external cream, have an additional use for the relief of itching and irritation on the skin outside the vulva. One comparative study concluded that the combined use of both clotrimazole vaginal suppositories and clotrimazole cream for external use was better at treating VVC than the suppositories alone.29

Product selection will be based mostly on patient preference. Factors to be considered include cost, length of therapy, formulation, convenience, and ease of use. Creams should be used at bedtime, preferably with a sanitary pad to help absorb any leaking. Ovules have the advantage that they may be used at any time of day. If a patient is currently taking warfarin, any product containing miconazole should be used cautiously. Although there is limited absorption with topical agents, an increased INR has been documented with concomitant use of warfarin and intravaginal miconazole.30

Patient counseling should include information on proper use, including instructions on cleaning the applicator if using reusable applicators. Symptoms should improve within 2 to 3 days after initiating therapy. Patients need to be informed that the length of therapy does not indicate when symptom resolution will occur; full resolution usually takes up to 1 week. A full course of therapy should be completed even after resolution of symptoms. Therapy should also be continued even if the patient’s menstrual period begins. In addition, patients need to be informed that the creams and suppositories are oil-based, which may weaken latex condoms and diaphragms.4

Some patients have turned to probiotics for preventing VVC. In VVC infections, Lactobacillus bacteria help maintain the normal vaginal flora and prevent the overgrowth of Candida organisms. Published studies have shown conflicting results, but Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14, and L acidophilus have been shown to be somewhat effective; eating 8 oz of yogurt with live cultures daily may also provide some benefit.31 Further research is needed before specific recommendations on its use can be made.


VVC is a very common gynecologic condition that will affect almost every woman at least once in her lifetime. With the availability of many OTC treatment options, women have the ability to quickly and effectively treat this condition; however, pharmacists play an important role in helping patients accurately assess and properly use these products.


What Causes Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC)?

VVC is most commonly caused by a fungus known as Candida albicans (it can also be caused by other fungi). C albicans is normally found in the vaginal environment; overgrowth of this fungus, or any other fungi, could lead to VVC. Several conditions and behaviors allow for fungal overgrowth, predisposing individuals to VVC. Conditions include pregnancy, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, or any immunocompromised state. Behavioral risk factors include the use of high-dose estrogen oral contraceptives, antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, tight synthetic underwear, spermicides, and oral sexual contact.

VVC vs. Bacterial Infections

It is imperative to differentiate between yeast infections and bacterial infections; only yeast infections are self-treatable. Antifungal medications would not be effective in treating bacterial infections. Symptoms of VVC include burning pain, itchiness, swelling, and redness of the vulva, which may lead to painful/difficult urination. A thick, odorless, cottage cheese–like discharge is a paramount predictor of VVC; bacterial infections tend to present with foul odor.

If unable to determine whether the infection is of fungal origin, you can use an OTC screening kit (e.g., Fem-V or Vagisil Screening Kit). These test the pH of vaginal secretions. A pH higher than 4.5 indicates that the infection is not likely fungal, making antifungal treatments useless. You cannot use these kits until 72 hours after the use of any vaginal or antifungal product, 48 hours after sexual intercourse or douching, and/or 5 days after menstruation.

Uncomplicated vs. Complicated Infections

Uncomplicated infections may be self-treated, but complicated cases require a medical consult. Complicated infections include recurrent VVC (4 or more episodes within 12 months or recurrent symptoms within 2 months), VVC with severe symptoms, and/or VVC while pregnant, diabetic, or immunocompromised.

OTC Treatments

There are many OTC antifungal agents that can treat VVC. They generally differ in cost, formulation, and duration of treatment (1, 3, or 7 days), but are all equally effective. These include miconazole (Monistat), tioconazole (Vagistat), and clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin). Although adverse effects are not common, you may experience vaginal burning and/or irritation. It is vital to know that length of treatment does not always correspond with resolution of symptoms, particularly for shorter treatments; symptoms may take up to a week to resolve.

A sitz bath may be used to provide prompt relief. Daily consumption of yogurt with live cultures may help prevent VVC recurrences. It is also important to refrain from sexual intercourse during and for 3 days after treatment; antifungals may damage condoms and diaphragms, leading to unreliable contraception.

When to Seek Medical Attention

Several factors require a medical consult. These include age under 12 years; pregnancy; fever; pain in the lower abdomen, lower back, or shoulder; complicated VVC; use of corticosteroids, antineoplastic drugs, or immunosuppressants; and failure of symptoms to resolve after 1 week of treatment.

Remember, if you have questions, Consult Your Pharmacist.


1. Anderson MR, Klink K, Cohrssen A. Evaluation of vaginal complaints. JAMA. 2004;291(11):1368-1379.
2. Hainer BL, Gibson MV. Vaginitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;83(7):807-815.
3. Martin Lopez JE. Candidiasis (vulvovaginal). BMJ Clin Evid. 2015;2015:pii0815.
4. Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64(RR-03):1-137.
5. Dovnik A, Golle A, Novak D, et al. Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review of the literature. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2015;24(1):5-7.
6. Theroux R. Factors influencing women’s decisions to self-treat vaginal symptoms. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2005;17(4):156-162.
7. Lipsky MS, Waters T, Sharp LK. Impact of vaginal antifungal products on utilization of health care services: evidence from physician visits. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2000;13(3):178-182.
8. Consumers Healthcare Products Association. OTC sales by category 2011-2014. www.chpa.org/OTCsCategory.aspx. Accessed July 20, 2015.
9. NovaDigm Therapeutics. Vulvovaginal candidiasis. www.novadigm.net/development-programs/vulvovaginal-candidiasis.php. Accessed July 30, 2015.
10. Ferris DG, Nyirjesy P, Sobel JD, et al. Over-the-counter antifungal drug misuse associated with patient-diagnosed vulvovaginal candidiasis. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99(3):419-425.
11. Sihvo S, Ahonen R, Mikander H, Hemminki E. Self-medication with vaginal antifungal drugs: physicians’ experiences and women’s utilization patterns. Fam Pract. 2000;17(2):145-149.
12. Egan ME, Lipsky MS. Diagnosis of vaginitis. Am Fam Physician. 2000;62(5):1095-1104.
13. Schlesselman L. Superficial fungal infections. In: Chisholm-Burns MA, Wells BG, Schwinghammer TL, et al, eds. Pharmacotherapy: Principles and Practice. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2013:1425-1438.
14. Sobel JD. Vulvovaginal candidosis. Lancet. 2007;369(9577):1961-1971.
15. Achkar JM, Fries BC. Candida infections of the genitourinary tract. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23(2): 253-273.
16. Pirotta MV, Garland SM. Genital Candida species detected in samples from women in Melbourne, Australia, before and after treatment with antibiotics. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44(9):3213-3217.
17. Glover DD, Larsen B. Relationship of fungal vaginitis therapy to prior antibiotic exposure. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2003;11(3):157-160.
18. Camacho DP, Consolaro ME, Patussi EV, et al. Vaginal yeast adherence to the combined contra-ceptive vaginal ring (CCVR). Contraception. 2007;76(6):439-443.
19. Chassot F, Negri MF, Svidzinski AE, et al. Can intrauterine contraceptive devices be a Candida albicans reservoir? Contraception. 2008;77(5): 355-359.
20. Ilkit M, Guzel AB. The epidemiology, patho-genesis, and diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis: a mycological perspective. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011;37(3):250-261.
21. Farage MA, Miller KW, Ledger WJ. Determining the cause of vulvovaginal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2008;63(7):445-464.
22. Chatwani AJ, Mehta R, Hassan S, et al. Rapid testing for vaginal yeast detection: a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196(4):309.e1-309.e4.
23. Goad JA, Hess KM. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: Alldredge BK, Corelli RL, Ernst ME, et al, eds. Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:1619-1647.
24. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes D, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(5): 503-535.
25. Monistat product information. Prestige Brands Holdings, Inc. 2015. www.monistat.com. Accessed July 30, 2015.
26. Vagistat product information. Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. 2015. www.vagistat.com. Accessed July 30, 2015.
27. Edelman DA, Grant S. One-day therapy for vaginal candidiasis. A review. J Reprod Med. 1999;44(6):543-547.
28. Upmalis DH, Cone FL, Lamia CA, et al. Single-dose miconazole nitrate vaginal ovule in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis: two single-blind, controlled studies versus miconazole nitrate 100 mg cream for 7 days. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000;9(4):421-429.
29. Mendling W, Schlegelmilch R. Three-day combination treatment for vulvovaginal candidosis with 200 mg clotrimazol vaginal suppositories and clotrimazol cream for the vulva is significantly better than treatment with vaginal suppositories alone—an earlier, multi-centre, placebo-controlled double blind study. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2014;74(4):355-360.
30. Wooltorton E. Drug advisory: the interaction between warfarin and vaginal miconazole. CMAJ Can Med Assoc J. 2001;165(7):938.
31. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Athanasiou S. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;58(2):266-272.

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Best Treatment For Yeast Infection For Men

Best Treatment For Yeast Infection For Men

>>> Yeast Infection Treatment

Be aware of the various candidiasis symptomsYeast is really a fungus. Yes that’s something you should know about. Why? Well, because knowledge is part of finding a solution to your issues. The truth is vaginal infections do vary. In spite of some inherent similarities, there are different causes of the infection and each one may require specific kinds of therapy. If you don’t know which is which, you might end up applying a different treatment which may trigger more harm than good I bet. Yeast infection symptoms don’t have very unique qualities which would allow you to distinguish it from other potential problems. Of course, we do encourage that you have your doctor look at your condition to get a more accurate diagnosis and thus a far more effective yeast infection treatment. Yeast, or Candida as it is known scientifically, is present on any normal human skin. Also, moist areas like the mouth and more specifically your vaginal canal are common places where yeast can develop and form this particular fungal infection. Do not be concerned. According to studies, a large number of women carry yeast in their vaginal area. And it’s also said that almost Fifty will experience problems of recurring yeast infections. The reasons why yeast infections recur may be due to more underlying medical conditions that may be present. Yeast infection symptoms are generally treated from the outside through the medical profession by way of creams. While these do not necessarily provide a yeast infection remedy they do slow up the candidiasis and help to rid the yeast infection symptoms. Meals you should avoid knowing you have yeast infection symptoms or Candida are things like brewers candida found in beer as well as bread yeast present in many commonly baked bread. Yeast allergy or yeast intolerance is also quite common these days because people are becoming more sensitive to commonplace foods and other chemicals. A free from yeast diet is sometimes the easiest method to rid or c

>>> How to prevent a yeast infection

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90,000 What We Are Being Treated: Nystatin – Indicator

Trials in 4,226 patients, summarized in a review that looked at the ability of antifungal drugs to prevent oral candidiasis with chemotherapy, have provided strong evidence that drugs that are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract are doing their job, but Nystatin (which is not absorbed) works the worst. It was not possible to establish the effectiveness of Nystatin for the prevention of oral candidiasis in children and adults with HIV.In general, the authors of another review (this time based on 14 studies on 1569 patients) do not recommend Nystatin for patients with suppressed immunity: it has been proven that it is useless for prophylaxis.

Pregnancy, newborns and dialysis

With vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women, Nystatin in the form of creams and ointments has shown its effectiveness. However, drugs from the imidazole group worked better than him. True, the standard course of four days was insufficient for most patients, but the seven-day course allowed 90% of the participants to be cured.

Very low birth weight Nystatin may help prevent fungal infections, although it does not reduce the risk of death. However, the review authors recommend that these results be treated with caution, since the quality of research on this topic is questionable. The evidence that nystatin helps in the prevention of fungal infections in severely ill children and adults but with normal levels of neutrophils (a type of immune cell called white blood cells) in the blood is also weak. But although the question remains open about the suppression of infections, it is known that the growth of fungi in the body (excluding blood), even when they are not yet pathogenic, such drugs suppress.

Finally, another review looks at the efficacy of antifungal drugs in peritoneal, or peritoneal, dialysis, in which a serous membrane called the peritoneum is used as a membrane to filter fluids and exchange them with the blood. Such a procedure is needed for people who have kidney failure, but because of it, an infection can be brought into the peritoneum, causing peritonitis. According to available data (39 studies on 4435 patients), Fluconazole and Nystatin taken by mouth help to avoid fungal infection.

Indicator.Ru recommends: better placebo, but weaker than imidazoles

Nystatin is a veteran in the war against werewolf fungi. It is not surprising that the drug is included in the list of the most important, cheap and effective drugs according to the World Health Organization. Despite the fact that fungi are gaining resistance, and new drugs (Fluconazole and other imidazoles) are stronger in action, Nystatin still remains effective against fungal infections when wearing dentures and diapers.For prevention, however, it is not always useful: for patients with HIV, immunosuppressed patients and during chemotherapy, it most likely will not help. However, in peritoneal dialysis, Nystatin prevents fungal peritonitis.

What are the treatments for male yeast infection?

Some people can equate yeast infections with women, but men can develop them too. Fortunately, there are over-the-counter (OTC) treatments for yeast infections in men. Treatment for a yeast infection in men usually involves purchasing an over-the-counter cream labeled for use in vaginal yeast infections.A man can apply cream to the affected area twice a day for a week. It can also help to spend some time without underwear so that air can enter the area by wearing cotton underwear and avoiding sexual intercourse until the infection is gone.

Before a man thinks about treating a yeast infection in men, he usually needs to make sure he is indeed having a yeast infection and not another type of genital infection. Typically, a person with a yeast infection will notice redness and irritation in the genital area.He may have a rash as well as itching and burning, which is especially noticeable on or around the tip of his penis. If a person is certain they have a yeast infection, they can treat it with over-the-counter medications. If he is unsure, however, or if he is experiencing such symptoms for the first time, he may do well to see a doctor.

The most common treatments for yeast infections in men are those that can be purchased without a prescription. A man can buy the same medicated creams that a woman makes, which often contain miconazole or clotrimazole to get rid of a yeast infection.However, unlike a woman, he will not use the cream inside. Instead, he will likely have to apply it to the affected area twice a day. With regular use, such a cream can relieve yeast infection symptoms in men in about a week.

Aside from over-the-counter medications, there are several natural ways a person can help themselves when they have a male yeast infection. For example, he may wear cotton underwear that allows his genital area to receive more air circulation, and avoid very tight pants.He can also do well to change his workout clothes and wet swimwear right away. He may even temporarily dispense with underwear when he is at home so the area can breathe. In addition, avoiding sex during treatment can help prevent the spread of the yeast infection to your sexual partner and reduce the chances of reinfection.

Sometimes, typical treatments for yeast infections in men do not work as expected, or yeast infections recur frequently.In such a case, a man can succeed in finding a prescription drug from his doctor. However, if a person has repeated cases of male yeast infection, they may also be tested to rule out an underlying condition such as diabetes.


Miramistin – a universal antiseptic | Weekly PHARMACY

Pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa have always been and remain the objects of study by specialists in clinical medicine and the pharmaceutical industry, since they are etiological factors of various infectious diseases of a person, which cause disruption of his health and ability to work, as well as tangible economic costs of society as a whole.Antiseptic drugs are traditionally used to influence pathogenic microorganisms located on the outer covers (skin and mucous membranes) and causing local infectious and inflammatory processes. They are successfully used for both prevention and treatment of infections. The most important quality of drugs in this group, which determines their effectiveness, is the breadth of the spectrum of activity against various pathogens. The drug MIRAMISTIN (0.01% solution in a bottle of 100 ml), which can without exaggeration be called a universal antiseptic, is jointly represented on the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market by ZAO Pharmaceutical Firm Darnitsa (Ukraine) and ZAO Infamed (Russia).It is a broad-spectrum antiseptic belonging to the class of cationic surfactants. Along with the pronounced antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral activity, a significant advantage of MIRAMISTIN is the absence of local irritating action and allergenic properties, which made it possible to use it for the treatment and prevention of various infections by applying to the skin and mucous membranes. This drug is widely used in surgery and traumatology, obstetrics and gynecology, dermatology and venereology, otorhinolaryngology and ophthalmology, combustiology, urology, dentistry.This publication is devoted to a review of the clinical use of MIRAMISTIN in various fields of medicine.

MIRAMISTIN is an antiseptic, effective against a number of pathogenic microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, fungal flora. Its action is based on the hydrophobic interaction of the molecule of the active substance with the lipids of the membranes of microorganisms, as a result of which their fragmentation and destruction occurs. At the same time, part of the miramistin molecule, immersed in the hydrophobic section of the membrane, increases its permeability to high-molecular substances, changes the enzymatic activity of the microbial cell, inhibiting enzyme systems.As a result, the inhibition of vital activity and cytolysis of microorganisms occurs. An extremely important property of miramistin is the high selectivity of action against microorganisms – the drug practically does not affect the cell membranes of the human body, since their lipid radicals are longer than those of the membranes of microorganisms, which limits the possibility of hydrophobic interaction with miramistin.

MIRAMISTIN has a pronounced antimicrobial effect on gram-positive and gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic, spore-forming and asporogenic bacteria both in the form of monocultures and in the form of microbial associations.The drug is also effective for infections caused by hospital strains of microorganisms that are multiresistant to antibacterial drugs. The latter property is of particular importance in connection with the widespread resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to antibacterial drugs, which is an urgent problem of world health.

The spectrum of the antifungal activity of MIRAMISTIN is also extremely broad. It has a fungicidal effect on ascomycetes of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium , yeast ( Rhodotorula rubra , Torulopsis gabrata , etc.) and yeast-like ( Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis , Candida krusei , etc.) fungi, dermatophytes ( Trychophyton rubrum , Trichophyton mentagrophytes , Trychophyton verrucosum , Trychophyton , Epidermophyton Kaufman-Wolf , Epidermophyton floccosum , Microsporum gypseum , Microsporum canis , etc.), as well as some other pathogenic fungi ( Pityrosporum orbiculare , Malassezia furfur ).MIRAMISTIN is also effective against fungal flora resistant to other antifungal agents. Due to these properties, the drug has found application in dermatology for the complex treatment of candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes, mycoses of the feet and large folds of the skin.

The drug has a detrimental effect on a number of bacterial pathogens: gonococci, pale treponema, Trichomonas, chlamydia. The virucidal activity of MIRAMISTIN also deserves attention, in particular against the herpes virus, because herpes infections remain one of the most common and difficult to control human infections (Ershov F.I., Ospelnikova T.P., 2001). Therefore, the prevention of infection is relevant. Experimental data were obtained that MIRAMISTIN causes dose-dependent inactivation of HIV-1: at a concentration of 0.1 μg / ml, the drug prevents its replication in cell culture, and at a dose of 0.05 μg / ml, 1000 times reduces its infectious properties (Krivorutchenko Yu.S., 1998).

All these properties determine the breadth of the scope of therapeutic use of MIRAMISTIN. Currently, the clinical experience of using this drug in various fields of medicine has been accumulated.However, perhaps the most interesting is the possibility of using MIRAMISTIN for the purpose of emergency individual prevention and complex treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). These include a group of infections caused by viruses – cytomegalovirus, papillomavirus, HIV, Epstein-Barr virus, molluscum contagiosum, hepatitis, etc .; bacteria – syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid, donovanosis, mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, etc.; protozoa – trichomoniasis; mushrooms – genital candidiasis; parasites (Rogovskaya S.I., Prilepskaya V.N., 2002). Currently, more than 20 STD pathogens are known (Mavrov I.I., 2002). During sexual intercourse with a casual partner without using a condom, there is a high probability of contracting one or more STDs at once. In this case, the development of these diseases can be prevented by drugs intended for emergency individual prophylaxis, in particular MIRAMISTIN. It is effective in preventing STDs when used promptly. For this purpose, a single topical application of Miramistin solution is shown no later than 2 hours after intercourse.

In addition to direct action on pathogenic microorganisms, MIRAMISTIN has an anti-inflammatory and immunoadjuvant effect, enhances local defense reactions, regenerative processes, activates nonspecific defense mechanisms due to modulation of the cellular and local humoral immune response. MIRAMISTIN can be used both as monotherapy and in combination with antibacterial drugs. This combination is justified, since this drug increases the effectiveness of topical antibiotics.When using MIRAMISTIN, there were no serious side effects. Only in some cases can there be a short-term burning sensation that disappears on its own after 15–20 s and does not require discontinuation of the drug. This drug has an exclusively local effect and does not enter the systemic circulation.

Release form MIRAMISTIN – vials with urethral and spray nozzles – provides simplicity and ease of use.

If necessary, the drug should be administered to men in the urethra, and to women in the urethra and in the vagina, and also to treat the skin of the inner surfaces of the thighs, pubis and external genital organs with MIRAMISTIN.

The scope of use of this drug in venereology is not limited to the prevention of STDs – it is also used for their complex treatment. Established a stimulating effect of the drug on local cellular immunity in patients with chronic and sluggish urogenital diseases (Milyavsky A.I. et al., 1996). When Miramistin is used in the complex etiopathogenetic treatment of urogenital chlamydia, the duration of antibiotic therapy, the length of stay of patients in the hospital and the number of relapses are reduced (Bad Z.N. et al., 2001).

The universal antiseptic MIRAMISTIN is widely used in other fields of medicine. In obstetrics and gynecology, the drug is prescribed for the prevention and treatment of suppuration due to birth trauma, perineal and vaginal wounds; infection of the birth canal; inflammatory diseases of the external genital organs and the vagina. In urology, endourethral instillations of MIRAMISTIN are used as part of the complex treatment of patients with acute and chronic urethritis of both specific (chlamydia, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea) and non-specific nature.In surgery and traumatology, MIRAMISTIN is used locally for complicated infected wounds of various localization and etiology, prevention of secondary infection of granulating wounds, in combustiology – for superficial and deep burns of II – IIIA degree, as well as dressing and preparation for autodermoplasty of burn wounds. As a result of the timely use of MIRAMISTIN in surgical practice, the duration of general antibacterial therapy is reduced (Blatun L.A., 2001). A solution of Miramistin in 0.01% concentration is effective for infection in combustiology: its use causes a decrease in the amount of purulent discharge, the appearance of granulations and islet epithelialization, activation of reparative processes, and a significant decrease in microbial contamination of wounds.MIRAMISTIN is also successfully used in otorhinolaryngology – in the complex therapy of patients with acute and chronic otitis media, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngolaryngitis. The clinical efficacy of conservative treatment of patients with chronic nonspecific tonsillitis with 0.01% solution of miramistin in monotherapy has been established (Ababiy I.I. et al., 2002). The use of MIRAMISTIN as a means for sanitation of the paranasal sinuses promoted recovery and the absence of disease recurrence within 2 years in 71.2% of patients with sinusitis of various etiologies (Zavaliy M.A. et al., 2001). In dentistry, MIRAMISTIN is used in complex treatment for periodontitis, stomatitis, as well as for hygienic processing of removable dentures. The results of using a 0.01% solution of Miramistin in patients with caries, pulpitis and periodontal pathology indicate its higher efficiency compared to chlorhexidine, and also that the drug does not have a local irritating and allergenic effect and is well tolerated (Moroz B. T. et al., 2001).

So, MIRAMISTIN is an effective agent for the prevention and treatment of a number of infectious diseases, which does not have a systemic effect on the body.The drug is available without a prescription and is affordable for a wide range of consumers. The main advantages of MIRAMISTIN, allowing it to be used for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes in various fields of medicine, are a wide range of antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral activity, good tolerance, additional immunostimulating and regenerative effect, convenience and ease of use. Thus, it is advisable to include this universal antiseptic in your home medicine cabinet – after all, MIRAMISTIN can become your reliable protector in the most unforeseen situations.And wide popularity among specialists and active advertising support will undoubtedly become the key to the successful sale of the drug in pharmacies. o

Elena Barsukova

90,000 sooty fungus treatment

sooty fungus treatment

sooty fungus treatment


What is black fungus treatment?

Ease of use is one of the drug’s advantages.Remitazol gel is perfectly absorbed, does not cause stickiness and discomfort after itself. It is used: By applying to the affected area. Twice a day for one month. The procedure is repeated daily, avoiding gaps. Only in this case, the manufacturer guarantees the result and long-term remission.

Effect of soot fungus treatment

The antifungal agent Remitazol has a broad spectrum of action against various infectious agents – mold, yeast, dermatophytes.Due to its versatility, it can be used against mycosis of the skin and onychomycosis of nails at any stage of the development of the disease, including in advanced cases.

Expert opinion

Remitazol literally saved me after giving birth. I was still on the GW and managed to pick up a fungus somewhere. Naturally, it was impossible to smear hormonal ointments on oneself, but the feet itched so that I wanted to tear off my skin. This drug was advised by a dermatologist at the local clinic, for which I am very grateful to her.The cream helped and since then has always been in the home medicine cabinet.

How to order

In order to place an order for sooty fungus treatment, you must leave your contact information on the site. The operator will contact you within 15 minutes. Will clarify all the details with you and we will send your order. In 3-10 days you will receive the parcel and pay for it upon receipt.

Customer Reviews:


I ordered the cream via the Internet, it came quickly enough, right to the nearest post office.He attracted a drug with a price of 0 rubles, but it turned out to be for a course. But at the same time, one package was given free of charge. I used it for two months and was satisfied. The fungus has not yet returned.


The natural composition of the cream from the fungus Remitazol (Remitazol) allows you to use it for long courses against any type of mycoses.

When using the cream against the fungus Remitazol as a preventive measure, you can minimize the risks of infection if you regularly visit saunas, swimming pools and other crowded places.Also, such prevention is necessary if someone in the family is already sick with the fungus. Where to buy black fungus treatment? Remitazol literally saved me after giving birth. I was still on the GW and managed to pick up a fungus somewhere. Naturally, it was impossible to smear hormonal ointments on oneself, but the feet itched so that I wanted to tear off my skin. This drug was advised by a dermatologist at the local clinic, for which I am very grateful to her. The cream helped and since then has always been in the home medicine cabinet.

Fungal infection is one of the most common plant diseases…. Fungus is a lower organism that easily adapts to new conditions and forms. A sooty fungus on cucumbers or other horticultural crops by itself. Treatment. In horticulture, the following methods of combating soot fungus are used: Removal of affected leaves. Treatment of sooty fungus on an apple tree. Sooty fungus is a rather dangerous and rapidly spreading disease, the manifestations of which cannot be ignored. Let’s consider the main methods of treatment. About sooty. Treatment advice. … Sooty fungus is a well-known fungus, aspergillus, which is the causative agent of diseases in both humans and plants, and mainly affects the body without immunity.Treatment of sooty fungus on an apple tree: how to treat trees to combat black. Sooty fungus on an apple tree: causes and measures to combat black bloom. Published on October 14th, 2020. Hits 642. Time is on. Sooty fungus, also called black, is a fungal disease that mainly affects young and weakened plants, as well as plants. Sooty fungus is a very dangerous disease that greatly damages the tree and. Treatment of this fungal disease should be comprehensive and include. Sooty fungus on a fruit tree.The causes of this fungal disease. Methods of control and prevention of soot or soot fungus. And what a sooty fungus can bring in your garden, without a proper one. Sooty fungus (Black) is a fungal disease of indoor plants. First of all, it is dangerous to young or weakened plants.






The antifungal agent Remitazol has a wide spectrum of action against various causative agents of infection – mold, yeast, dermatophytes. Due to its versatility, it can be used against mycosis of the skin and onychomycosis of nails at any stage of the development of the disease, including in advanced cases.
sooty fungus treatment

Ease of use is one of the advantages of the drug. Remitazol gel is perfectly absorbed, does not cause stickiness and discomfort after itself. It is used: By applying to the affected area. Twice a day for one month. The procedure is repeated daily, avoiding gaps. Only in this case, the manufacturer guarantees the result and long-term remission.

Candidiasis during antibiotic treatment.The mechanism of development of fungal and inflammatory diseases of the mucous membrane is of great interest. Fungi of the genus Candida live on the mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynx. How to treat mycosis of the vagina after taking an antibiotic? Antibiotics work against bacteria, but not against fungi. … If symptoms are very severe or prolonged and the infection is extensive, fluconazole treatment may be required. Fungus: where does it appear, what it looks like and how to deal with it – advice and assistance in treating fungal infections. Brittle hair at the base.Symptoms of fungal diseases also depend on the type of lesion. … Refusal of treatment after starting it. Patients who do not see an effect in the first few days count. Treatment of skin fungus – broad spectrum preparations. … Antibiotic and antifungal therapy is always available. It is strictly forbidden to choose tablets and other forms of drugs for oral administration at your own discretion. At the first sign of fungus, it is important to choose the best thrush pills for men. … Yeast infections on the skin can usually be treated with an over-the-counter antifungal cream.Antifungal antibiotics. Antimicrobial and antiparasitic medicines. … Like other polyene antibiotics, it has significant toxicity (damaging effects) when administered intravenously. Indications for use. Fungal diseases. Thrush after antibiotics is quite common, because. Candidiasis after taking antibiotics: signs, how and how to treat? … The main such fungi are representatives of the genus Candida, which are the main causative agents of thrush.[23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31]. Please tell me my father was sick with coronavirus, after taking antibiotics in the mouth White plaque (fungus). How should I take flucanazole? Prescribed 150 mg for 7 consecutive days. In this case, fungi that are not affected by antibiotics begin. Before starting treatment for oral candidiasis in adults and children it is necessary. Rinses are carried out 2-3 hours after each meal, before bedtime. The course of therapy is 1-2 weeks. Rinses are carried out until.Treatment of fungus in the mouth with medications. Complex treatment, including taking antifungal drugs. … An excellent environment for the growth of fungi is created in the oral cavity. … Rinse your mouth after each meal.

12 home remedies for yeast infection (treatment and prevention) – Wellness


Although yeast infections can be common, they can also be annoying and, even worse, embarrassing for women.While severe infections may require a doctor’s visit and a prescription, there are over-the-counter options and several home remedies for yeast infections. Learn how to spot a yeast infection, when to see your doctor, how to treat a yeast infection at home, and how to prevent recurrence.

Types of yeast infections

There are different types of yeast infections, but they all occur when an area of ​​the body becomes infected with a yeast-like fungus called candida (about yeast infections).This fungus thrives on moist, warm, folded areas of the skin, such as the groin, under the breast, or underarms. Candidiasis is the main type of fungal infection in the body: it is caused by yeast and can occur in the mouth, intestines, throat and vagina, explains Niket Sonpal, MD, a physician and gastroenterologist based in New York. If not treated correctly with medication, it can spiral out of control and infect your kidneys and heart.

There are many different types of candida infections, depending on where it occurs on the body and the type of candida present.While they do have some common symptoms, they can also have different symptoms. The most common candidal infections are:

  • Cutaneous candidiasis occurs when the skin on the body is infected. The most common sites for candida growth are the skin between the fingers or toes, nails, armpits, under the breast, or around the groin. The main symptom is a red itchy rash.
  • Diaper rash in babies can sometimes be caused by candida overgrowth, which occurs when a wet environment from wet diapers promotes candida.A red rash appears between the folds of the skin, and small red dots indicate the infected area.
  • Oral thrush occurs when candidiasis affects the lining of the mouth or throat. Oral thrush is a white rash on the inside of the cheeks or on the tongue. Symptoms may also include bad breath, pain when swallowing, impaired taste, and dry mouth (more on thrush in the mouth).
  • Vaginal yeast infections , also called vulvovaginal candidiasis, occurs when candida overgrows in the vagina.Candida albicans is a common strain of yeast infections. Symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection are irritation, itching, inflammation, and a thick, white vaginal discharge.

According to Dr. Sonpal, yeast infections are common and occur in three out of four women at least once in their lives. Since vaginal yeast infections happen to most women, this article will only focus on the treatment and prevention of vaginal yeast infections.

Can a fungal infection go away on its own?

Dr. Sonpal explains that mild yeast infections can go away on their own.However, it is not a good idea to ignore a yeast infection because it is more likely to return if left untreated.

While some people may try home remedies for a yeast infection or over-the-counter medications, there are certain people who should see their doctor if they develop symptoms of a yeast infection. These patients include:

average cost of a doctor’s visit without insurance 2017

  • Those who have recurrent yeast infections (four or more times a year)
  • Pregnant women
  • Those who may have had a sexually transmitted disease (STD)
  • Women who are not sure are related whether their symptoms are with a yeast infection
  • Individuals who have not had success with home remedies or over-the-counter medications.
  • Patients with uncontrolled diabetes or a weakened immune system due to certain drugs or conditions, such as HIV

What can a doctor prescribe for a yeast infection?

OTC antifungals treat yeast infections and are available as creams or suppositories for internal use. Yeast infections can last anywhere from three days to two weeks, so one-day, three-day, or weekly treatments are available.

There are also antifungal anti-itch creams that are included in most external itch treatments. The most popular brands of antifungal creams for vaginal yeast infections are Monistat (get a Monistat coupon | What is Monistat?) Or Vagistat. These treatments are also available online for those who find it inconvenient to shop for them.

A doctor may prescribe Diflucan (coupons for Diflucan | More about Diflucan) fluconazole (Coupons for fluconazole | fluconazole details) a tablet to treat vaginal fungal infections or a prescription antifungal, such as terconazole (Coupons for which terponazole) inserted inside before going to bed.

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Home Remedies for Yeast Infections

There are natural treatments for yeast infections. These home remedies for yeast infections are convenient for those looking to follow a more natural and invisible path.

1. Apple cider vinegar.

Apple cider vinegar has been found to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, a strain of fungi that commonly causes yeast infections.

To use this natural remedy, take a bath, add half a cup of apple cider vinegar and soak in the bath for at least 20 minutes.

Never use apple cider vinegar at full strength. Since apple cider kills bacteria and fungi, it can also kill healthy bacteria in the body. Dilute apple cider vinegar before use.

2. Boric acid

Vaginal suppositories with boric acid treat yeast infections due to the antiseptic properties of boric acid.So far research support The use of these suppositories has led to the conclusion that they should only be used for recurrent and difficult to treat yeast infections. Because boric acid is very potent, milder treatments should be used first.

3. Coconut oil.

Coconut oil, obtained from the pulp of coconuts, has natural antifungal properties. A Scientific study found that coconut oil may help suppress the growth of candida bacteria that cause yeast infections.To use this remedy, simply apply coconut oil to the affected area.

4. Cranberry juice or tablets.

Cranberry juice has been found to help with urinary tract infections by preventing the formation of Candida albicans (the fungus that causes yeast infections). Although studies have not shown its ability to cure Candida albicans in the vagina, some women claim to have received results. Cranberry juice and tablets are also very rich in vitamin C, which can also help prevent infection.

5. Douching

OTC douches can fight yeast infections and reduce inflammation and irritation. However, most studies show the side effects of douching, with only a few studies showing positive results. According to the FDA, doctors recommend that women not douch because douching can lead to pregnancy problems, vaginal infections, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

6. Garlic.

Garlic and garlic oil are well known antifungal agents. Research has even found that it has antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While more traditional approaches may recommend injecting a clove of garlic directly into the vagina, a less invasive approach is to simply add more fresh garlic to food and include it in other meals.

7. Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a powerful antiseptic that has been found to kill yeast.It has not been studied specifically in strains of vaginal yeast infections. Before applying to the vagina, be sure to dilute the hydrogen peroxide first.

8. Oregano oil.

Oil of oregano or oregano oil has been shown to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. To use oregano oil, add a couple of drops to a carrier product such as coconut oil or olive oil and apply to the affected area.

9. Probiotics

Probiotics contain live bacteria such as bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus , which helps maintain a healthy balance of bacteria in the vagina.They can treat or prevent bacterial vaginosis urinary tract infections in addition to yeast infections.

Buy probiotic supplements online or in stores. It can take up to 10 days to get results from these oral supplements. To shorten the time to results, some women have used probiotics in the form of vaginal suppositories. Eating yogurt (with live and active cultures) is another good way to increase your probiotic intake.

However, like many natural remedies, there is no evidence that probiotics treat yeast infections. Researchers are still studying probiotics to treat yeast infections, but many doctors recommend taking them every time antibiotics are prescribed because yeast infections are a possible side effect of antibiotics.

RELATED: Find out which probiotics are best

10. Tea tree oil.

Tea tree oil is an antifungal essential oil that some people claim to treat yeast infections.It works by killing the cell walls and membranes of the yeast. While more research is currently needed, a 2015 study found that vaginal suppositories containing tea tree oil could act as a fungicidal agent, killing Candida albicans.

As with all essential oils, use a few drops of tea tree oil with a carrier oil when applied to the body. Women can purchase tea tree oil vaginal suppositories online.

11. Vitamin C

Vitamin C (coupons for vitamin C | What is vitamin C?) Increases the body’s immunity, and with a strengthened immune system, the body can better fight yeast infection. Add more vitamin C by taking supplements or consuming vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables such as oranges and broccoli.

12. Yogurt.

Yoghurt (with live and active cultures) is a good way to treat yeast infections due to its high content of probiotic concentrate.As mentioned above, probiotics help fight Candida Albicans. And a recent study found that consuming yogurt containing probiotics with Lactobacillus acidophilus helps suppress yeast growth. While consuming probiotic yogurt can reduce yeast infections, some women even find relief by soaking a tampon with yogurt and injecting it vaginally, remembering to change it frequently. When using this method, use only plain unsweetened yogurt or unsweetened Greek yogurt.The sugar-rich yogurt will help candidiasis grow and thrive.

How to prevent a yeast infection

There are several ways to prevent a yeast infection.

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  1. Avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. Antibiotics can kill healthy bacteria in the vagina, causing yeast overgrowth, leading to yeast infection.
  2. Wear cotton underwear. Loose cotton underwear is most conducive to a healthy microbiome. Avoid tight and non-breathable clothing such as leggings. These clothes can create a damp and humid environment, which is an ideal environment for candida to grow. For this reason, it is also important to quickly change into wet or sweaty clothes such as sportswear or a bathing suit.
  3. Avoid hot baths and hot baths that promote candida growth due to warm, humid environments.
  4. Take probiotics or eat yogurt with probiotics as they help balance the vaginal flora. In addition to treating yeast infections, probiotics help prevent yeast infections. It is best to take probiotics containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 bacteria.
  5. Avoid behaviors that can lead to yeast infections, for example: poor hygiene. Avoid douching, perfumed vaginal washes or perfumed lotions, and perfumed hygiene products near the genitals, which can disturb the balance of the vaginal flora, while maintaining good personal hygiene.
  6. Avoid sweet and processed foods . Yeast grows from sugar, so this can cause it to overgrow.

Causes of Recurrent Yeast Infections

Some women are more susceptible to yeast infections than others and will have recurrent yeast infections or chronic yeast infections. There are several possible reasons why someone might be dealing with recurring fungal infections:

  • Sexual activity . Although yeast infections are not sexually transmitted infections (STIs), partners can pass candidiasis to each other. To prevent this, use condoms or dental pads and practice good hygiene after intercourse, such as showering. Avoid intercourse if either partner has a fungal infection.
  • The original yeast infection was not completely cured or the fungal infection was caused by the drug-resistant strain .Symptoms may go away before the infection is completely healed. When this happens, the fungal infection will return. There are also strains of yeast that are more resistant to drugs, making them harder to get rid of than others.
  • This is not a yeast infection. There are other infections, such as bacterial vaginosis or STIs, that can have similar symptoms. This is one of the most important reasons to visit a doctor, such as a gynecologist or therapist, when a yeast infection persists.
  • Those with certain conditions, such as a weakened immune system , pregnancy , or uncontrolled diabetes , are more susceptible to yeast infections.

While they can help, home remedies for yeast infections are not regulated by the FDA. Results vary. If symptoms persist within a few days, be sure to see a doctor.

Lomexin instructions for use: indications, contraindications, side effects – description Lomexin cream for vaginal. and outdoor approx. 2%: tubes 30 g, 78 g with dispenser (13232)

With the development of local hypersensitivity reactions and allergic reactions, the patient must stop using the drug, contact the attending physician and start appropriate treatment.

It is necessary to use the preparation according to the method of administration and in the doses indicated in the instructions for use.If necessary, the patient should consult a doctor before using the medicinal product.

In case of accidental contact with the eyes, rinse with plenty of water.

When applied externally, when applied to large areas of the skin for a long time, the risk of sensitization increases.

If clinical signs of infection persist after completion of treatment, a second microbiological study should be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

The excipients of the cream (propylene glycol, lanolin, cetyl alcohol) can cause irritation reactions. If side effects appear, the patient should stop using the drug and consult a doctor.

When treating vaginal infections, the drug should not be used during menstruation; it is advisable to start treatment after menstruation.

It is recommended to use contraceptives during treatment.

Lomexin is non-greasy, does not stain and can be easily washed off with water.

The excipients contained in the preparation, containing fat and oils, can disrupt the integrity of contraceptives made of latex.

Influence on the ability to drive vehicles and mechanisms

There is no data on the negative effect of the drug on the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities that require increased concentration of attention and speed of psychomotor reactions (driving, working with moving mechanisms).

90,000 how to choose the best drug – effective remedies for intestinal dysbiosis

Problems with stool, an unpleasant feeling in the abdomen can be associated not only with food poisoning. In adults and children, these symptoms often hide dysbiosis. Doctors do not consider it a disease, this condition often accompanies other pathologies or is their consequence. But it is necessary to eliminate the violation of microflora as early as possible.

What is dysbiosis

The child is born sterile, there are normally no bacteria in his body.The intestines, the skin are colonized gradually, starting from the first attachment of the baby to the breast. The older the child becomes and the more varied his food, the more various bacteria enter the intestine and form its microflora. In adults, the composition of microorganisms stabilizes, but becomes diverse. It can be compared to a fingerprint, despite the similarity, it is not repeated in any person.

Among intestinal bacteria, there are hundreds of types of good microorganisms, but normally there are also bad ones, the growth of which the body can restrain.Three types of microbes are conventionally distinguished:

  • dominant – present in all healthy people, these include eubacteria, bacteroids, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli;
  • non-permanent species – not found in all or under certain conditions, these are streptococci, Escherichia coli, Proteus, cytobacter;
  • transient species – sometimes they enter the intestines, but they do not stay there for a long time, these are types such as yeast fungi, clostridia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The dominant bacteria are good microorganisms and should be in the majority.Due to the presence of normal microflora, food is digested. Bacteria help ferment some indigestible foods, are involved in the absorption of vitamins, amino acids, and sugars. They themselves also synthesize vitamins of group B, K, fatty acids. Therefore, with dysbiosis, signs of hypovitaminosis appear.

Good bacteria act as a human shield. They form a protective layer on the intestinal wall that prevents pathogenic microorganisms from adhering and restricts them in nutrients.The immune function consists in training immune cells and regulating its response to the penetration of foreign microorganisms or proteins.

But with a change in the ratio of bacteria, an increase in the number of transient species, the appearance of yeast fungi, dysbiosis develops. It cannot be called a disease, but a person’s well-being is impaired. With dysbiosis, there are no pathogenic microorganisms in the intestine (Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia, pathogenic Escherichia, and viruses).Changes in the composition occur due to an imbalance of the normal flora and an increase in the concentration of opportunistic bacteria, the appearance of fungi.


The intestinal microflora in adults is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. It contains certain bacteria, which make up the majority, and about 3% of microorganisms that change their composition. Normally, fluctuations occur under the influence of food and dietary habits. The microflora is influenced by the predominance of sweet and fatty foods or mainly plant foods in the diet.

Studies show that fatty foods inhibit bifidobacteria and enterococci, but bacteroids multiply under these conditions. A predominantly carbohydrate diet stimulates the multiplication of bifidobacteria and the total number of microorganisms. But the changes are temporary and do not lead to the appearance of symptoms of dysbiosis. They disappear on their own after a change in diet.

Intestinal dysbiosis in adults appears as a result of other diseases. The main causes of microflora disorders are:

  • long-term antibiotic treatment;
  • pathologies of the overlying parts of the digestive tract;
  • long-term mono-diets and persistent malnutrition;
  • intestinal infections.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics are non-selective. They inhibit the growth or kill all microorganisms. The longer the course of treatment, the higher the likelihood that dysbiosis will develop after it. Tetracycline antibiotics are especially dangerous. They significantly inhibit the reproduction of intestinal microflora, which leads to hypovitaminosis B, K, an increase in the risk of bleeding.

Gastritis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, hepatitis or biliary dyskinesia can lead to the development of dysbiosis.Dangerous cirrhosis of the liver, tumor processes in the stomach or an ulcer. These pathologies are accompanied by impaired digestion of food, the production of enzymes. Therefore, food enters the intestines insufficiently processed and cannot serve as a breeding ground for bacteria. Some of them die, and in their place comes like a pathogenic flora.

Fasting day, when the diet is based on the use of one food product, does not harm the body. But a mono diet that lasts for several weeks or becomes a way of life can lead to dysbiosis.Dangerous constant consumption of food containing simple carbohydrates, animal fats. This is a sweet, starchy, fast food dish. Such a diet inhibits the reproduction of normal flora, fermentation processes are activated in the intestine, a large number of yeast fungi appear.

Foodborne infections cause double harm to the intestines. They damage the mucous membranes, and antibiotic treatment kills beneficial bacteria. Therefore, recovery from illness is especially difficult.

Smoking has a negative effect on intestinal health.It creates conditions for the multiplication of yeast, so smokers often suffer from unpleasant symptoms.

Symptoms of dysbiosis

There are no severe symptoms that most likely indicate dysbiosis. The manifestations of pathology often do not correspond to the severity of the disorders. The most common symptom is indigestion, such as intestinal dyspepsia. It manifests itself with the following symptoms:

  • rumbling in the stomach;
  • flatulence, increased gas formation;
  • bloating;
  • stool disorders;
  • the appearance of pathological impurities in the feces.

An increase in gassing at the initial stage occurs after a power failure. If on a certain day milk, legumes, a large amount of flour and sweets were present in the diet, the symptoms appear brightly.

Stool disorders are variable. Most often, dysbiosis is manifested by diarrhea. It can be accompanied by cramps and abdominal pain. Sometimes loose stools appear only once a day, so they do not meet the criterion for diarrhea.

Diarrhea can be replaced by constipation.This process is observed in people who limit the amount of fiber and dietary fiber in the diet. This deprives bacteria of essential nutrients and prevents water from retaining in the intestinal lumen. Mucous pathological impurities in the feces, abdominal pain appear with advanced forms of dysbiosis.

Violation of the microflora composition leads to vitamin deficiency. If it is not compensated for with food or taking multivitamin preparations, symptoms of hypovitaminosis appear:

  • the condition of hair, nails worsens;
  • rashes appear on the skin;
  • manifest allergic reactions or food intolerances;
  • fatigue increases, performance decreases;
  • Sleep is disturbed.

Intestinal microorganisms synthesize vitamin K, which is involved in blood clotting. With hypovitaminosis, the appearance of bruises, hematomas under the skin from a slight mechanical effect becomes more frequent. With stomach ulcers, minor injuries, the risk of prolonged bleeding increases.

In severe cases, dysbiosis, which is accompanied by diarrhea, leads to dehydration. Many patients lose weight.

What kind of examination is needed

Nonspecific dysbiosis symptoms.For the same signs, the pathology of the digestive system or hypovitaminosis can be masked. Therefore, dysbiosis is considered a clinical laboratory syndrome.

Diagnostics begins with a coprological study, which allows you to assess the digestive function, the state of enzyme systems, peristalsis and the speed of movement of the food bolus.

But a change in the composition of feces does not yet indicate dysbiosis. It is necessary to confirm the change in the composition of bacteria in the intestinal lumen.In Moscow, many clinics use the methods of gas-liquid and ion chromatography. They allow you to determine the composition of the microflora by the metabolites obtained.

Bacteriological research is often used. To do this, washings from the intestinal mucosa, feces or scrapings are sown on special nutrient media. This method allows you to obtain colonies of bacteria and determine their type with high accuracy. They also use a special analysis of feces for dysbiosis. But a prerequisite is that the biological material must reach the laboratory no later than an hour after it is received from the patient.Feces must be kept warm so as not to kill bacteria. The method does not justify itself by the fact that it gives an idea only of the state of the flora of the large intestine.

The gold standard for the diagnosis of dysbiosis is intestinoscopy. This is an endoscopic method, during which a flexible tube with a video camera is inserted into the cavity of the small intestine through the mouth and stomach or rectum and colon. It is necessary for examining the intestinal mucosa and obtaining an aspirate of its contents. The resulting liquid is also inoculated on a nutrient medium.The disadvantage of this method is the need for general anesthesia, special bacteriological media and a long wait for the result. Sometimes a breath test with labeled H2 is used to diagnose dysbiosis.

Preparations and their action

The most effective way to restore microflora and get rid of dysbiosis is to use drugs from the probiotic group. Manufacturers offer medicines in different forms:

  • capsules;
  • tablets;
  • powder;
  • drops;
  • solution.

The doctor selects the dosage form depending on the patient’s age. Children and the elderly who find it difficult to swallow tablets are prescribed a solution or powder for its preparation. At the age of 0-3 years, it is easier for a child to give drops with a probiotic. All others are recommended funds in the form of capsules or tablets.

Drugs for dysbiosis are drugs that can be purchased without a doctor’s prescription. But self-medication is not recommended, only a specialist can tell which type is better to take.

As part of probiotics, there are usually 1-2 types of bacteria that are good at restoring mucous membranes. Usually these are lacto- and bifidobacteria. They are normal gut dwellers that help improve microbial balance. The mechanism of action of this therapeutic group is associated with the suppression of the growth of pathogenic flora. Lactic acid bacteria compete for receptors on the epithelium of the mucous membrane, nutrients. They secrete lactic acid, cytokines, which have an inhibitory effect on pathogens.

Preparations from the group of prebiotics help to effectively cure dysbiosis. These are drugs that belong to the group of dietary fiber: inulin and lactulose, as well as drugs based on them.

They are not broken down by digestive enzymes and enter the large intestine unchanged, where they become a nutrient substrate for lacto- and bifidobacteria. Therefore, microbes multiply well, increase the volume of the bacterial mass, and restore the intestinal wall. For the most effective treatment, it is recommended to drink prebiotics and probiotics at the same time.

Treatment of dysbiosis is not contraindicated in case of concomitant pathologies of the digestive tract. Probiotics are not harmful to patients with stomach ulcers, liver or gallbladder disease. And in some cases, they will speed up recovery.

In advanced cases of intestinal dysbiosis and when the symptoms of dyspepsia are too painful, drugs from the group of enzymes can help. They should be selected by a doctor, depending on the type of digestive disorder. These funds must be drunk daily before meals

How long it will take to treat dysbiosis is hard to say.In some cases, this can take several weeks, and in neglected conditions, it can take several months.

Prevention of dysbiosis

Even if you use effective drugs and get rid of dysbiosis, it is impossible to say for sure whether it will have to be treated again. Therefore, doctors recommend taking preventive measures.

The most effective is to stick to your diet all the time. It is selected depending on the type of dyspepsia. A universal means of prevention is to eat foods that contain natural probiotics.These include cereals, dairy products with sourdough from bifidobacteria, and some types of bread. If fermentation is constantly felt in the intestines, carbohydrates, milk, peas and soy should be excluded from the diet during therapy. It is not recommended to consume foods rich in essential oils. They include onions, garlic, radishes, radishes.

It is good to drink at least 1.5 liters of clean water per day. An effective way to stabilize the composition of microflora is to take vegetable juices. Carrot, pumpkin, potato help with this.Many plant products help: blueberries, strawberries, apricots, cranberries. The doctor may prescribe decoctions of medicinal plants. Dysbiosis with a predominance of fungal flora can be treated with soluble chicory. In some cases, eucalyptus, calendula, soy, St. John’s wort are effective.

The list of useful substances for dysbiosis includes inulin. It accelerates the growth and reproduction of bifidobacteria, which helps to increase the volume of beneficial microbes in the intestines. Inulin helps rebuild mucus by increasing mucus production, changing pH levels, and creating a friendly environment for bacteria.

Measures for the prevention of dysbiosis include the use of probiotics in advance in patients who need to undergo antibiotic treatment or chemotherapy. This allows maintaining the normal composition of microflora and avoiding unpleasant symptoms after the end of therapy.

Tokareva Lyudmila Georgievna, therapist of medical offices 36.6