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Medicines that coat the stomach: Carafate: Uses, Dosage, Side Effects

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Carafate: Uses, Dosage, Side Effects

Generic name: sucralfate (oral) (soo KRAL fate)
Brand name: Carafate
Drug class: Miscellaneous GI agents

Medically reviewed by Kaci Durbin, MD. Last updated on April 6, 2021.

What is Carafate?

Carafate (sucralfate) is an anti-ulcer medication.

Carafate is not greatly absorbed into the body through the digestive tract. It works mainly in the lining of the stomach by sticking to ulcer sites and protecting them from acids, enzymes, and bile salts.

Carafate is used to treat an active duodenal ulcer. Sucralfate can heal an active ulcer, but it will not prevent future ulcers from occurring.

Warnings

The liquid form of Carafate should never be injected through a needle into the body, or death may occur.

Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

Avoid taking any other medications within 2 hours before or after you take Carafate. Sucralfate can make it harder for your body to absorb other medications you take by mouth.

Before taking this medicine

You should not use Carafate if you are allergic to sucralfate.

To make sure this medicine is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:

>Older adults may be more sensitive to the effects of sucralfate.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Do not give Carafate to a child without medical advice.

How should I take Carafate?

Take Carafate exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets.

Take this medicine on an empty stomach.

Shake the oral suspension (liquid) before you measure a dose. Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device (not a kitchen spoon).

If you are diabetic, check your blood sugar regularly. Your doctor may adjust your dose based on your blood sugar levels.

The liquid form of this medicine should never be injected through a needle into the body, or death may occur. Carafate oral suspension is to be taken only by mouth.

It may take 2 to 8 weeks before you receive the full benefit of taking Carafate. Use this medicine for the full prescribed length of time, even if your symptoms quickly improve.

Your doctor may want you to keep taking Carafate at a lower dose once your active ulcer has healed. Follow your doctor’s dosing instructions very carefully.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

Dosing information

Usual Adult Dose for Duodenal Ulcer:

1 g orally 4 times a day
-Duration of therapy: 4 to 8 weeks

Comments:
-Each dose should be taken on an empty stomach.
-For most patients, treatment should continue for 4 to 8 weeks; however, treatment may be stopped early if healing is demonstrated on x-ray/endoscopic tests.
-Antacids may be given, but use should be separated by at least 30 minutes.

Use: Short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcers

Usual Adult Dose for Duodenal Ulcer Prophylaxis:

Oral Tablets: 1 g orally 2 times a day
-Duration of therapy: Up to 1 year

Comments:
-Each dose should be taken on an empty stomach.
-Controlled studies did not extend beyond 12 months.

Use: Maintenance therapy for patients after healing of acute duodenal ulcers

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the medicine as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What to avoid

Avoid taking any other medications within 2 hours before or after you take Carafate. Sucralfate can make it harder for your body to absorb other medications you take by mouth.

Ask your doctor before using an antacid, and use only the type your doctor recommends. Some antacids can make it harder for sucralfate to work in your stomach. Avoid taking an antacid within 30 minutes before or after taking Carafate.

Carafate side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Carafate: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Common Carafate side effects may include:

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect Carafate?

Other drugs may interact with sucralfate, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any medicine you start or stop using.

Frequently asked questions

More about Carafate (sucralfate)

Consumer resources

Professional resources

Related treatment guides

Further information

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use Carafate only for the indication prescribed.

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Medical Disclaimer

Copyright 1996-2021 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 10.01.

Treatment for Peptic Ulcers (Stomach Ulcers)

In this section:

How do doctors treat peptic ulcer disease?

There are several types of medicines used to treat a peptic ulcer. Your doctor will decide the best treatment based on the cause of your peptic ulcer.

How do doctors treat an NSAID-induced peptic ulcer?

If NSAIDs are causing your peptic ulcer and you don’t have an H. pylori infection, your doctor may tell you to

  • stop taking the NSAID
  • reduce how much of the NSAID you take
  • switch to another medicine that won’t cause a peptic ulcer

Your doctor may also prescribe medicines to reduce stomach acid and coat and protect your peptic ulcer. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine receptor blockers, and protectants can help relieve pain and help your ulcer heal.

PPIs

PPIs reduce stomach acid and protect the lining of your stomach and duodenum. While PPIs can’t kill H. pylori, they do help fight the H. pylori infection.

PPIs include

  • esomeprazole (Nexium)
  • dexlansoprazole (Dexilant)
  • lansoprazole (Prevacid)
  • omeprazole (Prilosec, Zegerid)
  • pantoprazole (Protonix)
  • rabeprazole (AcipHex)

Histamine receptor blockers

Histamine receptor blockers work by blocking histamine, a chemical in your body that signals your stomach to produce acid. Histamine receptor blockers include

  • cimetidine (Tagamet)
  • famotidine (Pepcid)
  • ranitidine (Zantac)
  • nizatidine (Axid) Protectants

Protectants

Protectants coat ulcers and protect them against acid and enzymes so that healing can occur. Doctors only prescribe one protectant—sucralfate (Carafate)—for peptic ulcer disease.

Tell your doctor if the medicines make you feel sick or dizzy or cause diarrhea or headaches. Your doctor can change your medicines.

If you smoke, quit. You also should avoid alcohol. Drinking alcohol and smoking slow the healing of a peptic ulcer and can make it worse.

What if I still need to take NSAIDs?

If you take NSAIDs for other conditions, such as arthritis, you should talk with your doctor about the benefits and risks of using NSAIDs. Your doctor can help you determine how to continue using an NSAID safely after your peptic ulcer symptoms go away. Your doctor may prescribe a medicine used to prevent NSAID-induced ulcers called Misoprosotol.

Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medicines you take. Your doctor can then decide if you may safely take NSAIDs or if you should switch to a different medicine. In either case, your doctor may prescribe a PPI or histamine receptor blocker to protect the lining of your stomach and duodenum.

If you need NSAIDs, you can reduce the chance of a peptic ulcer returning by

  • taking the NSAID with a meal
  • using the lowest effective dose possible
  • quitting smoking
  • avoiding alcohol

How do doctors treat an NSAID-induced peptic ulcer when you have an

H. pylori infection?

If you have an H. pylori infection, a doctor will treat your NSAID-induced peptic ulcer with PPIs or histamine receptor blockers and other medicines, such as antibiotics, bismuth subsalicylates, or antacids.

PPIs reduce stomach acid and protect the lining of your stomach and duodenum. While PPIs can’t kill H. pylori, they do help fight the H. pylori infection.

PPIs include

Histamine receptor blockers

Histamine receptor blockers work by blocking histamine, a chemical in your body that signals your stomach to produce acid. Histamine receptor blockers include

Antibiotics

A doctor will prescribe antibiotics to kill H. pylori. How doctors prescribe antibiotics may differ throughout the world. Over time, some types of antibiotics can no longer destroy certain types of H. pylori.

Antibiotics can cure most peptic ulcers caused by H. pylori or H. pylori-induced peptic ulcers. However, getting rid of the bacteria can be difficult. Take all doses of your antibiotics exactly as your doctor prescribes, even if the pain from a peptic ulcer is gone.

Bismuth subsalicylates

Medicines containing bismuth subsalicylate, such as Pepto-Bismol, coat a peptic ulcer and protect it from stomach acid. Although bismuth subsalicylate can kill H. pylori, doctors sometimes prescribe it with antibiotics, not in place of antibiotics.

Antacids

An antacid may make the pain from a peptic ulcer go away temporarily, yet it will not kill H. pylori. If you receive treatment for an H. pylori-induced peptic ulcer, check with your doctor before taking antacids. Some of the antibiotics may not work as well if you take them with an antacid.

Check with your doctor before taking antacids while your
ulcers are healing.

How do doctors treat an

H.pylori-induced peptic ulcer?

Doctors may prescribe triple therapy, quadruple therapy, or sequential therapy to treat an H. pylori-induced peptic ulcer.

Triple therapy

For triple therapy, your doctor will prescribe that you take the following for 7 to 14 days:

Quadruple therapy

For quadruple therapy, your doctor will prescribe that you take the following for 14 days:

  • a PPI
  • bismuth subsalicylate
  • the antibiotics tetracycline and metronidazole

Doctors prescribe quadruple therapy to treat patients who

  • can’t take amoxicillin because of an allergy to penicillin. Penicillin and amoxicillin are similar.
  • have previously received a macrolide antibiotic, such as clarithromycin.
  • are still infected with H. pylori after triple therapy treatment.

Doctors prescribe quadruple therapy after the first treatment has failed. In the second round of treatment, the doctor may prescribe different antibiotics than those that he or she prescribed the first time.

Sequential therapy

For sequential therapy, your doctor will prescribe that you take the following for 5 days:

Then the doctor will prescribe you the following for another 5 days:

Triple therapy, quadruple therapy, and sequential therapy may cause nausea and other side effects, including

  • an altered sense of taste
  • darkened stools
  • a darkened tongue
  • diarrhea
  • headaches
  • temporary reddening of the skin when drinking alcohol
  • vaginal yeast infections

Talk with your doctor about any side effects that bother you. He or she may prescribe you other medicines.

How do doctors treat peptic ulcers caused by ZES?

Doctors use medicines, surgery, and chemotherapy to treat Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Learn more about Zollinger-Ellison syndrome treatment.

What if a peptic ulcer doesn’t heal?

Most often, medicines heal a peptic ulcer. If an H. pylori infection caused your peptic ulcer, you should finish all of your antibiotics and take any other medicines your doctor prescribes. The infection and peptic ulcer will heal only if you take all medicines as your doctor prescribes.

When you have finished your medicines, your doctor may do another breath or stool test in 4 weeks or more to be sure the H. pylori infection is gone. Sometimes, H. pylori bacteria are still present, even after you have taken all the medicines correctly. If the infection is still present, your peptic ulcer could return or, rarely, stomach cancer could develop. Your doctor will prescribe different antibiotics to get rid of the infection and cure your peptic ulcer.

Can a peptic ulcer come back?

Yes, a peptic ulcer can come back. If you smoke or take NSAIDs, peptic ulcers are more likely to come back. If you need to take an NSAID, your doctor may switch you to a different medicine or add medicines to help prevent a peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcer disease can return, even if you have been careful to reduce your risk.

How can I prevent a peptic ulcer?

To help prevent a peptic ulcer caused by NSAIDs, ask your doctor if you should

  • stop using NSAIDs
  • take NSAIDs with a meal if you still need NSAIDs
  • take a lower dose of NSAIDs
  • take medicines to protect your stomach and duodenum while taking NSAIDs
  • switch to a medicine that won’t cause ulcers

To help prevent a peptic ulcer caused by H. pylori, your doctor may recommend that you avoid drinking alcohol.

A Guide to Carafate Medication

Sucralfate, also called Carafate, is a prescription medication used to treat duodenal ulcers, which form in the first part of the small intestine. Duodenal ulcers are a type of peptic ulcer. This type of ulcer forms when the lining of the stomach or small intestine gets worn down by the acids that are produced to aid in digestion.

Symptoms of duodenal ulcers include:

  • Pain in the stomach or chest
  • Feeling sick or full after eating only a small amount of food
  • Having no appetite
  • Losing weight when you aren’t trying
  • Feeling sick to your stomach or throwing up 
  • Blood in your vomit or stool

Doctors used to think that ulcers were caused by stress, but today we know that peptic ulcers are usually caused by bacteria (H. pylori) that hurts the mucus lining of the stomach or small intestine. Sometimes, ulcers can form when patients are taking high doses of NSAIDs, a type of over-the-counter pain medication like ibuprofen or aspirin. Taking a lot of these medications, or taking them for a long time, can wear down the lining of the stomach and allow ulcers to form. 

SDI Productions / Getty Images

Mechanism of Action

Carafate is a type of medication called protectants. These medications adhere to tissue in the lining of the stomach or small intestine that have been damaged and protect them from digestive acid and enzymes while they heal.

Protectants do not get absorbed by the body as other medications do. Instead, they act as a coating that helps prevent the ulcer from getting worse. Carafate is prescribed to treat active ulcers, but the medication doesn’t prevent new ulcers from forming. A doctor may also prescribe additional medications, such as antibiotics, for patients who are at risk of developing additional ulcers.

Dosage

Your doctor can prescribe Carafate in a pill or liquid form. The liquid form is sometimes referred to as Carafate suspension.

When prescribed for an active stomach ulcer, the pills or liquid dose are usually taken several times a day. In order for the medication to work, you need to take Carafate exactly as your doctor prescribes it for you. It may take many weeks (up to eight) for the ulcers to heal.

Usually, your doctor will tell you to take Carafate:

  • By mouth, either as a pill or liquid
  • At the same time every day
  • On an empty stomach, either one hour before eating or two hours after eating

Side Effects

Carafate can cause minor side effects, though they are rarely serious enough for patients to stop taking the drug. The most common side effect is constipation, which occurs in about 2 percent of patients.

Other side effects include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Upset stomach
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dry mouth
  • Dizziness
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Headache

Serious side effects are rare but possible. Seek emergency medical care if you experience any of the following after you start taking Carafate:

  • Rash or hives
  • Trouble breathing
  • Signs of an anaphylactic allergic reaction (swelling of the throat or mouth)

Warnings

  • Patients with kidney disease or diabetes may not be able to take Carafate. Tell your doctor if you have either of these conditions or are being treated for them (such as being on dialysis).
  • If you have diabetes, your doctor will monitor you for episodes of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) that can happen when you are taking Carafate.
  • Carafate can affect how your body absorbs certain medications.  Make sure you tell your doctor about any medication you take before you start Carafate. 
  • If you are taking certain medications, like antacids, antibiotics, or drugs that thin your blood (warfarin), your doctor may tell you to take less or stop taking them while you are taking Carafate. Make sure to tell your doctor about any medications you take, even if they are over-the-counter, nutritional, or herbal supplements. 
  • Based on available research, the American College of Gastroenterology considers Carafate safe to take if you are pregnant. Be sure to tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
  • It is not known whether Carafate is safe or effective for children. Keep this medication out of reach of children.

Do not take more of this medication than your doctor prescribes. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. Overdose of Carafate is not common, but if you think you have taken too much, call Poison Control: 1-800-222-1222 or go to the emergency room.

A Word From Verywell 

Carafate is a safe and effective prescription medication used to treat duodenal ulcers. Before you start taking Carafate, let your doctor know if you have conditions like diabetes or kidney disease, are nursing, pregnant, or plan to become pregnant, or have had adverse reactions to medications like Carafate before.

Tell your doctor about any other medications you are taking, even if they are over-the-counter or dietary/herbal supplements. Carafate can change how your body absorbs certain medications, so your doctor might want you to take less or stop taking certain medications while you’re taking Carafate.

Make sure you only take as much as your doctor prescribes and take the medication for as long as your doctor tells you to. Carafate make take many weeks (up to eight) to help duodenal ulcers heal. Carafate can cause minor side effects, though they are usually not serious enough for patients to stop taking the drug. If you experience any serious side effects, such as swelling of the mouth or trouble breathing, stop taking Carafate and call your doctor.

How Peptic Ulcers Are Treated

A peptic ulcer is a sore or lesion that forms in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. Peptic ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacterium that lives in the mucous lining of the stomach and intestine. Symptoms of these ulcers include pain, discomfort, heartburn, nausea, or gas, though some people may not experience any symptoms at all.

Treatment of peptic ulcers include antibiotics to clear H. pylori, prescription and over-the-counter medicines to manage symptoms, and lifestyle modifications to help ulcers heal.

A peptic ulcer is one of the most common gastrointestinal tract issues seen by doctors; an estimated 5% to 10% of all people will experience one in their lifetime.

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Therapies

The first line of treatment for many people with ulcers is OTC medications to relieve symptoms. Two common non-prescription medications are:

  • Antacids: Tums, Alka-Seltzer, Milk of Magnesia, Maalox, Mylanta, and Rolaids are over-the-counter antacids that offer temporary relief from ulcer pain by neutralizing stomach acid. They may also have a mucosal protective role.
  • Bismuth subsalicylate: Sold under the brand name Pepto-Bismal, bismuth subsalicylate has both a protective effect and an antibacterial effect against H. pylori. Used to treat digestive disorders since the early 1900s, Pepto-Bismal comes as a liquid, tablet, or chewable tablets.

Prescriptions

There are a few different types of medications your doctor might prescribe.

Antibiotics

If H. pylori is found in your digestive tract (your doctor can test for it), you may be prescribed a short-term course of antibiotics, usually a two-week treatment. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacterium and may vary depending on the current antibiotic resistance rate in your area.

Common antibiotics used to treat peptic ulcers include:

  • Amoxil (amoxicillin)
  • Biaxin (clarithromycin)
  • Flagyl (metronidazole)
  • Tindamax (tinidazole) 
  • Tetracycline HCL (tetracycline) 
  • Levaquin (levofloxacin)

Side effects of antibiotics are typically mild and may include vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, bloating, indigestion, and loss of appetite.

Most ulcers caused by H. pylori do not recur following successful eradication. However, for some patients, their ulcers return, and they must continue maintenance therapy for years.

h3-Blockers

Most doctors treat ulcers (stomach or duodenal) with these acid-suppressing drugs. Examples include Tagamet (cimetidine), Zantac (ranitidine), and Pepcid (famotidine).

April 1, 2020 Update: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the recall of all medications containing the ingredient ranitidine, known by the brand name Zantac. The FDA also advised against taking OTC forms of ranitidine, and for patients taking prescription ranitidine to speak with their healthcare provider about other treatment options before stopping medication. For more information, visit the FDA site.

They reduce the amount of acid the stomach produces by blocking histamine, a powerful stimulant of acid secretion. They reduce pain significantly after several weeks.

For the first few days of treatment, doctors often recommend also taking an antacid to relieve pain. The treatment initially lasts six to eight weeks.

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)

Proton pump inhibitors change the stomach’s production of acid by stopping the stomach’s acid pump—the final element involved in acid secretion. Prilosec (omeprazole) and has been used for short-term treatment of ulcer disease. Similar drugs, including Prevacid (lansoprazole), may also be used.

Mucosal Protective Medications

Mucosal protective medications protect the stomach’s mucous lining from acid, but these protective medications do not inhibit the release of stomach acid. Instead, they shield the stomach’s mucous lining from the damage of the acid.

Two commonly prescribed protective agents are:

  • Carafate (sucralfate): This medication adheres to the ulcer, producing a protective barrier that allows it to heal and inhibits further damage from stomach acid. Sucralfate is approved for short-term treatment of duodenal ulcers and for maintenance treatment.
  • Cytotec (misoprostol): This synthetic prostaglandin, a substance naturally produced by the body, protects the stomach lining by increasing mucus and bicarbonate production and by enhancing blood flow to the stomach. It is approved only for the prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced ulcers.

Home Remedies and Lifestyle

While medication is likely necessary to heal peptic ulcers, there are a few things you can do at home to help relieve symptoms and help to speed healing.

Reduce Stress

Research shows people who are under stress are more likely to develop peptic ulcers. In fact, a 2016 study published in the journal BMC Gastroenterology tracked 17,525 residents of a community in Denmark and found that people with the highest level of perceived everyday life stress were at greater risk for peptic ulcers.

Learning to manage your stress in healthier ways can help reduce uncomfortable peptic ulcer symptoms and help your body heal. Mind-body exercises, such as deep breathing, meditation, yoga, tai chi, or massage are tools that can help to reduce your stress.

Some people also find that working one-on-one with a therapist can help them to learn better coping mechanisms to alleviate anxieties, worries, and negative thinking, helping ulcers to heal.

Quit Smoking

Smoking has been shown to delay ulcer healing and has been linked to ulcer recurrence. Therefore, if you smoke, you should try to quit.

Avoid Alcohol

Drinking alcohol can inhibit ulcer healing and exacerbate symptoms. That’s because alcohol increases the production of stomach acid, which will irritate an ulcer. Alcohol also relaxes the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), allowing stomach contents to reflux back up into the esophagus.

If you still want to consume alcohol, ask your doctor about how and when to do so when you suffer from heartburn.

Modify Your Diet

In the past, doctors advised people with peptic ulcers to avoid spicy, fatty, and acidic foods. However, since the discovery that H. pylori is the underlying cause of ulcers and the advent of effective medications to treat infection, a bland diet is no longer recommended. (It won’t cause harm, but it likely won’t help either.)

Some people who have peptic ulcers can eat whatever they want with no problems. For many others, however, eating certain foods can cause irritation, excessive acid production, and heartburn. Some common foods that exacerbate ulcer symptoms are coffee, milk, alcoholic beverages, and fried foods.

In general, a diet rich in vitamins and minerals is best. Adding yogurt, kefir, and other fermented foods that contain live bacteria organisms can help make the gut environment conducive to healing your ulcer by fighting H. pylori.

Eating foods rich in flavonoids or polyphenols may also have protective effects. According to a scientific review published in the Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences, foods that contain polyphenolic compounds such as quercetin (found in olive oil, grapes, dark cherries, and dark berries such as blueberries, blackberries, and bilberries) and cinnamic acid (found in olive oil, strawberries, and cranberries) can prevent and reduce some ulcers.

Westend61/Getty Images

Surgeries and Specialist-Driven Procedures

Many times, peptic ulcers can be successfully treated with medication. In some cases, however, ulcers can be severe and cause internal bleeding requiring surgery. Surgical procedures for ulcers include:

  • Vagotomy: The vagus nerve sends messages from the brain to the stomach. A vagotomy cuts part of the nerve that controls acid-secretion, reducing stomach acid.
  • Antrectomy: The antrum is the lower part of the stomach that produces a hormone that stimulates the stomach to secrete digestive juices. An antrectomy removes the antrum. This is typically done along with a vagotomy.
  • Pyloroplasty: The pylorus is the opening to the duodenum and small intestine. This surgery enlarges that opening enabling stomach contents to pass more freely out of the stomach. This may be done along with a vagotomy.

Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

There is limited evidence to support the use of supplements, herbs, homeopathy, and other complementary medicine methods to treat peptic ulcers and relieve symptoms. The following supplements may be effective but speak with your doctor before incorporating them into your treatment plan.

Probiotics

Probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilus in particular, have been shown to help suppress H. pylori infection. A 2016 review article published in the journal Best Practice & Research in Gastroenterology reports that probiotics can reduce H. pylori by up to 64% and fully eradicate the bacteria in almost a third of cases. The only reported side effect was diarrhea.

While encouraging, the ideal strains, dosage, and treatment duration have not been determined and more research is needed. 

Cranberry Extract

Supplementing with cranberry extract may also help to resolve peptic ulcers and eliminate H. pylori infections. Research published in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology found cranberry extract inhibited H. pylori in the laboratory. The study authors suggest the effect is due to certain polyphenols in the fruit.

This is promising, but human trials are needed to confirm cranberry can help treat peptic ulcers.

Cranberry supplements contain salicylic acid and should not be used by people who are allergic to aspirin. In addition, cranberry is high in oxalates, which may increase the risk of kidney stones or other kidney disorders and should not be used by people with kidney disease.

Cranberry may interfere with certain medications, including Coumadin (warfarin). If you are taking any medications, talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking cranberry.

Frequently Asked Questions

How long does it take a peptic ulcer to go away?

It varies depending on the individual, but it can take up to eight weeks with treatment. The ulcer likely will not heal without treatment.

What over-the-counter pain medication can you take if you have a peptic ulcer?

Tylenol (acetaminophen) is thought to be a safe pain reliever if you have a peptic ulcer. That’s because it’s not a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which can sometimes cause peptic ulcers. Talk to your doctor before taking NSAIDs, including aspirin, Advil (ibuprofen), and Aleve (naproxen).

A Word From Verywell

Living with a peptic ulcer can be uncomfortable, but there are things you can do to relieve symptoms and heal. If you think you may have an ulcer, speak to your doctor. With the right treatment plan, reduced stress, and lifestyle modifications, you should be on your way to healing soon.

Stomach ulcer – Treatment – NHS

If you have a stomach ulcer, your treatment will depend on what caused it. With treatment, most ulcers heal in a month or two.

If your stomach ulcer is caused by a Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacterial infection, a course of antibiotics and a medication called a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is recommended.

This is also recommended if it’s thought your stomach ulcer is caused by a combination of an H. pylori infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

If your stomach ulcer is just caused by taking NSAIDs, a course of PPI medication is recommended.

Your use of NSAIDs will also be reviewed, and taking an alternative painkiller may be advised.

An alternative type of medication, known as h3-receptor antagonists, is occasionally used instead of PPIs.

Sometimes you may be given additional medication called antacids to relieve your symptoms in the short term.

You may have a repeat gastroscopy after 4 to 6 weeks to check that the ulcer has healed.

There aren’t any special lifestyle measures you need to take during treatment, but avoiding stress, alcohol, spicy foods and smoking may reduce your symptoms while your ulcer heals.

Antibiotics

If you have an H. pylori infection, you’ll usually be prescribed a course of 2 antibiotics, which each need to be taken twice a day for a week.

The antibiotics most commonly used are amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole.

The side effects of these antibiotics are usually mild and can include:

  • feeling and being sick
  • diarrhoea
  • a metallic taste in your mouth

You’ll be retested at least 4 weeks after finishing your antibiotic course has been completed to see whether there are any H. pylori bacteria left in your stomach.

If there are, a further course of eradication therapy using different antibiotics may be given.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)

PPIs work by reducing the amount of acid your stomach produces, preventing further damage to the ulcer as it heals naturally. They’re usually prescribed for 4 to 8 weeks.

Omeprazole, pantoprazole and lansoprazole are the PPIs most commonly used to treat stomach ulcers.

Side effects of these are usually mild, but can include:

These should pass once treatment has been completed.

h3-receptor antagonists

Like PPIs, h3-receptor antagonists work by reducing the amount of acid your stomach produces.

Ranitidine is the most widely used h3-receptor antagonist for treating stomach ulcers.

Side effects are uncommon, but may include:

  • diarrhoea
  • headaches
  • dizziness
  • rashes
  • tiredness

Antacids and alginates

All of the above treatments can take several hours before they start to work, so your GP may recommend taking additional antacid medication to neutralise your stomach acid and provide immediate, but short-term, symptom relief.

Some antacids also contain a medicine called an alginate, which produces a protective coating on the lining of your stomach.

These medications are available to buy over the counter at pharmacies. Your pharmacist can advise on which is most suitable for you.

Antacids should be taken when you experience symptoms or when you expect them, such as after meals or at bedtime.

Antacids containing alginates are best taken after meals.

Side effects of both medications are usually minor and can include:

Reviewing NSAID use

If your stomach ulcer has been caused by taking NSAIDs, your GP will want to review your use of them.

You may be advised to use an alternative painkiller not associated with stomach ulcers, such as paracetamol.

Sometimes an alternative type of NSAID that’s less likely to cause stomach ulcers, called a COX-2 inhibitor, may be recommended.

If you’re taking low-dose aspirin (an NSAID) to reduce your risk of blood clots, your GP will tell you whether you need to continue taking it.

If you do need to keep taking it, long-term treatment with a PPI or h3-receptor antagonist may be prescribed alongside the aspirin to try to prevent further ulcers.

It’s important to understand the potential risks associated with continued NSAID use.

You’re more likely to develop another stomach ulcer and could experience a serious complication, such as internal bleeding.

Page last reviewed: 17 September 2018
Next review due: 17 September 2021

What can you take for nausea relief? 20 nausea medications and remedies

We’ve all felt nauseated before, whether from getting car sick, eating something unpleasant, or taking medicine on an empty stomach. Nausea—the sensation of an upset stomach that can sometimes lead to vomiting—is not an enjoyable feeling. But thankfully, there are nausea medications and home remedies for nausea relief (even during pregnancy).

RELATED: How to treat nausea in pregnancy

How to get rid of nausea

“Nausea can be prompted by a wide variety of circumstances such as motion or sea sickness, certain medications, emotional distress, intense pain, food intolerances, drinking too much alcohol, overeating, and early pregnancy,” explains Sunitha Posina, MD, an NYC-based internist.

There are two primary ways to treat nausea: nausea medication and home remedies. Medications work in a variety of ways, depending on which drug you take. One way anti-nausea drugs work is by blocking the receptors that cause the sensation of nausea. Another way is to coat and calm the stomach. Some nausea medicines may also move food through the stomach faster.

Nausea medication 

Anti-nausea medications work in a variety of ways. One of the most popular over-the-counter medicines for nausea, Pepto Bismol, contains an active ingredient called bismuth subsalicylate (bismuth subsalicylate coupons | bismuth subsalicylate details). “Bismuth subsalicylate works by protecting your stomach lining and reduces excess stomach acid to ease any discomfort,” Dr. Posina says. 

Dramamine (dramamine coupons | dramamine details) is an antiemetic, which means it prevents vomiting. It used to prevent and treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness caused by motion sickness. It works by blocking receptors in your gut that trigger nausea in the brain. “It may cause drowsiness, so opt for the non-drowsy formula if that is a concern,” Dr. Posina suggests. 

Emetrol, another popular over-the-counter medication, works immediately by calming the stomach. Emetrol (emetrol coupon | emetrol details) has fewer common side effects when compared to Dramamine. Many antihistamines are used as nausea medications as they are good at reducing the sensation of nausea from motion sickness.

Get the SingleCare prescription discount card

We have created a list of the most popular prescription drugs and over-the-counter nausea medicines on the market. 

Best anti-nausea medications

Zofran (ondansetron) Rx No evidence of risk, but data is conflicting Get Coupon
Promethegan (promethazine) Rx Risk cannot be ruled out – Category C Get Coupon
Phenergan (promethazine) Rx Risk cannot be ruled out – Category C Get Coupon
Reglan (metoclopramide) Rx No evidence of risk Get Coupon
Compro (prochlorperazine) Rx & OTC FDA has not classified this drug Get Coupon
Ativan (lorazepam) Rx Positive evidence of risk Get Coupon
Dramamine (dimenhydrinate) Rx & OTC No evidence of risk – Category B Get Coupon
Bonine (meclizine) Rx & OTC No evidence of risk Get Coupon
Atarax (hydroxyzine) Rx  FDA has not classified this drug Get Coupon
Emetrol (phosphorated carbohydrate) OTC FDA has not classified this drug Get Coupon
Scopolamine Rx Risk cannot be ruled out – Category C Get Coupon
Driminate (dimenhydrinate) Rx & OTC No evidence of risk – Category B Get Coupon
Pepto-Bismol (bismuth subsalicylate) OTC Risk cannot be ruled out – Category C Get Coupon

Home remedies for nausea relief

There are many popular home remedies you can try to help alleviate nausea. Here is a list of some of the most helpful home treatments.

Bland foods 

To help calm the stomach and relieve nausea symptoms, “consume clear fluids like water, Jell-O, or broth and gradually introduce bland food, like crackers or plain bread, as tolerated,” suggests Lili Barsky, MD, an LA-based hospitalist and urgent-care physician. “Avoid heavy, greasy, sweet, or spicy foods.” Eating bland foods is also helpful if you frequently experience heartburn.

RELATED: What to eat when you have the flu

Cannabinoids

One of the first medical benefits found for cannabis was nausea treatment. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved two cannabinoid receptor agonists for patients receiving chemotherapy to help alleviate nausea—Marinol (dronabinol) and Cesamet (nabilone). In addition to their anti-nausea properties, cannabinoids can also stimulate a person’s appetite. You might also explore CBD oil as a natural solution for nausea.

Ginger

Ginger is one of the safest home remedies for nausea during pregnancy. Taking 1 gram of ginger each day is an effective way to control nausea and vomiting in pregnant women across multiple studies. Most drugstores sell ginger capsules, but ginger candy is also an option. For children suffering from nausea, ginger ale is a popular drink to help with symptoms. 

Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy will relieve nausea fast. Peppermint oil aromatherapy is effective against nausea. One study found that postoperative patients with nausea had their perception of nausea decreased by 50% when using peppermint oil aromatherapy. Lemon aromatherapy may have similar results to peppermint oil, as well as cardamom aromas, which have had positive benefits with chemotherapy patients. 

Acupressure

Acupressure is an alternative therapy. Similar to acupuncture, acupressure is done by applying pressure to specific points in the body. There are findings that acupressure can be useful in alleviating stomach issues.

Vitamin B6

Taking vitamin B6 has been proven helpful for chemotherapy patients and pregnant women experiencing morning sickness. However, research has not shown its effectiveness in managing nausea. One study found that 42% of people had less nausea after this technique.

Herbal tea

Herbal teas can help soothe an upset stomach. Lemon, ginger, and peppermint herbal teas are good options since these herbs are good for nausea. This hot drink will help settle an upset stomach.

Is it nausea or something else? When to see a doctor

“Nausea may often have a benign cause but can also be a harbinger of something dangerous,” Dr. Barsky says. “If nausea persists, recurs, worsens, or is accompanied by other symptoms, one should consider seeking medical attention.”

If you have the following symptoms in addition to nausea, seek medical advice immediately:

  • Chest pains
  • Dehydration
  • Severe abdominal cramping
  • Blood in vomit
  • Severe headache
  • High fever
  • Confusion
  • Blurred vision or visual changes
  • Dizziness 
  • Weakness

The combination of these symptoms with nausea can be an indicator of a more serious condition including kidney failure, meningitis, heart attack, intracranial pressure due to concussion or traumatic brain injuries, vestibular disorders, or carbon monoxide poisoning along with other toxin exposure.

Keep in mind that nausea is also a symptom of COVID-19. If you’re unsure what’s causing your nausea and if any of the following symptoms accompany it, it’s best to speak with your healthcare provider to rule out coronavirus:

  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Body aches
  • Headache
  • Lethargy or fatigue
  • Loss of taste or smell
  • Sore throat
  • Diarrhea

GERD: Heartburn and more – Harvard Health

ARCHIVED CONTENT: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date each article was posted or last reviewed. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician. 

Doctors call it gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD. Millions of men call it heartburn, and many others have coughing, wheezing, or hoarseness without realizing that GERD is to blame. By any name, GERD is common, bothersome, and sometimes serious. It is also expensive, draining the American economy of more than $9 billion a year. But once you know you have GERD, you can control it and prevent complications.

Normal swallowing

A complex set of 29 muscles in your mouth and tongue get the process started. They close off your windpipe (trachea) to protect your lungs, and then move food into your esophagus, or food pipe. The esophagus is a narrow 10- to 13-inch-long tube leading from your throat to your stomach. But food doesn’t just slide down the esophagus. Instead, muscles that encircle the food pipe contract in an orderly, wave-like fashion to propel food into the stomach. That’s why an adventurous (and athletic) guy can perform the old parlor stunt of drinking while standing on his head (as they say on TV — don’t attempt this at home).

Swallowing is normally a one-way affair. To prevent food from returning to the esophagus, the ring-like muscles of the lower esophagus pinch the tube closed. Doctors call these muscles the lower esophageal sphincter, or LES (see figure).

GERD: Acid on the rise

In GERD, stomach acid backs up into the esophagus, injuring sensitive tissues.

What is GERD?

Every time you swallow, the LES relaxes so food can enter your stomach. When your stomach is full, a tiny amount of food can sneak back into the esophagus when you swallow — that’s normal. But in people with GERD, substantial amounts of stomach acid and digestive juices get into the esophagus. The stomach has a tough lining that resists acid, but the food pipe doesn’t. Its sensitive tissues are injured by acid, and, if the acid makes it all the way to the mouth, other structures can be damaged.

Causes

Poor function of the LES is responsible for most cases of GERD. A variety of substances can make the LES relax when it shouldn’t, and others can irritate the esophagus, exacerbating the problem. Other conditions can simply put too much pressure on the LES. Some of the chief culprits in GERD are shown below.

Common causes of GERD symptoms

Foods

Medications

  • Alpha blockers (used for the prostate)

  • Nitrates (used for angina)

  • Calcium-channel blockers (used for angina and high blood pressure)

  • Tricyclics (used for depression)

  • Theophylline (used for asthma)

  • Bisphosphonates (used for osteoporosis)

  • Anti-inflammatories (used for arthritis, pain, and fever)

Other causes

Symptoms

Heartburn and “acid indigestion” are the most common complaints. A burning pain is typical, and when it’s accompanied by burping or bloating, it points to GERD as the cause. But GERD can sometimes cause belly pain that mimics an ulcer. And if acid in the food pipe triggers esophageal spasms, it can cause a heavy or constricting pain that may feel like a heart attack.

If the acid makes it all the way to the throat and mouth, it can cause other problems. And since these problems can occur in the absence of heartburn, they are often misdiagnosed. Here are some of the stealthy signs of GERD:

Mouth and throat symptoms

  • A sour or bitter taste in the mouth

  • Regurgitation of food or fluids

  • Hoarseness or laryngitis, especially in the morning

  • Sore throat or the need to clear the throat

  • Dental erosions

  • Feeling that there is a “lump in the throat.”

Lung symptoms

Complications

About 19 million Americans have GERD. Most have heartburn and many experience throat or lung symptoms. But a few go on to develop complications. The most common is esophagitis, inflammation of the food pipe. It produces consistent burning pain that can make swallowing and eating difficult. Left untreated, the inflammation can cause ulcers of the tube’s lining, bleeding, or both. Repeated cycles of esophagitis and healing can lead to a scarring and narrowing of the tube (a stricture).

Severe esophagitis only strikes about 2% of people with GERD. An even smaller number develop Barrett’s esophagus, a condition in which severe inflammation and acid conspire to produce premalignant changes in the cells that line the esophagus. Some 2% to 5% of people with Barrett’s esophagus go on to develop cancer. To prevent that, people with severe esophagitis should take medications to suppress acid indefinitely. In addition, patients with Barrett’s esophagus require regular endoscopies to detect any progression toward cancer.

Diagnosis

Most people with GERD don’t need any tests at all. If your symptoms are typical and mild, you may even be able to treat yourself. Similarly, if doctors suspect you have uncomplicated GERD, they may recommend a trial of therapy as the next step; if you respond promptly, you probably won’t be asked to have additional tests.

GERD can be puzzling, however, so if the diagnosis is uncertain, tests may be in order. The old standby is the barium swallow, or upper GI series. You’ll be asked to swallow a paste-like solution of barium while a technician takes x-rays to look for ulcers, strictures, a hiatus (also called hiatal) hernia, abnormal contractions of the esophagus, or reflux of barium from the stomach into the food pipe.

Esophageal monitoring is a better way to diagnose GERD. One type, pH monitoring, measures the level of acid in the lower esophagus over a 24-hour period, while manometry measures the pressure in the esophagus during swallowing.

Endoscopy is the best way to detect the complications of GERD, including inflammation, ulcers, strictures, and abnormal or malignant cells. After giving you sedatives and numbing your throat, your doctor will pass a fiber-optic tube through your mouth into your esophagus and stomach. Endoscopy allows the physician to inspect and photograph your tissues and to perform biopsies on any suspicious areas.

Endoscopy is an important test, but it’s not risk-free, so it shouldn’t be done unless necessary. Here are some warning symptoms that may call for endoscopy:

  • Longstanding or severe GERD

  • GERD that does not respond to therapy

  • GERD that begins after age 50

  • GERD that is accompanied by loss of appetite or weight, vomiting, bleeding or anemia, difficulty swallowing, or the sensation of food sticking in the esophagus.

Therapy: Lifestyle

You can control many symptoms of GERD with simple lifestyle modifications. Here are some tips:

  • Don’t smoke. It’s the first rule of preventive medicine, and it’s as important for GERD as for heart and lung disease.

  • Avoid foods that trigger GERD (see “Common causes of GERD symptoms”).

  • If you are taking certain painkillers, antibiotics, or other medications that can irritate the esophagus or contribute to GERD, ask your doctor about alternatives, but don’t stop treatment on your own.

  • Avoid large meals and try to be up and moving around for at least 30 minutes after eating. (It’s a good time to help with the dishes.) Don’t lie down for two hours after you eat, even if it means giving up that bedtime snack.

  • Use gravity to keep the acid down in your stomach at night. Propping up your head with an extra pillow won’t do it. Instead, place four- to six-inch blocks under the legs at the head of your bed. A simpler (and very effective) approach is to sleep on a large, wedge-shaped pillow. Your bedding store may not carry one, but many maternity shops will, since GERD is so common during pregnancy. And because GERD is also so common in general, you won’t be the only man looking for a pillow in a maternity shop.

  • Chew gum, which will stimulate acid-neutralizing saliva.

  • Lose weight.

  • Avoid tight belts and waistbands.

Treatment: Medications

If you doubt that GERD is a big problem in the U.S., just check out your local drug store. You’ll find a vast array of over-the-counter (OTC) products to treat it, plus numerous prescription medications behind the pharmacist’s counter. Here is a look at the five types of medication that can help:

Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). PPIs are the most effective medications for GERD. That’s because they are the best at shutting down the stomach’s acid production. They act rapidly, but even after you feel better, it may take four to eight weeks to heal an inflamed food pipe. Because GERD tends to recur, patients usually need prolonged therapy, and those with severe esophagitis or Barrett’s esophagus may need high-dose, lifelong treatment. Fortunately, side effects are uncommon, with diarrhea, rash, or headache in fewer than 3% of people taking the medications. Long-term use, particularly at high doses, can increase the risk of osteoporosis (“thin bones”) and fractures. One PPI, omeprazole, is available OTC and by prescription. The others — lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (AcipHex), pantoprazole (Protonix), and esomeprazole (Nexium) — are prescription medications.

h3-receptor blockers. These popular drugs were the first to reduce the production of stomach acid. They are widely available OTC in low doses and by prescription in full doses. h3 blockers can provide temporary relief for mild GERD, but are less effective than PPIs. Examples include cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), and nizatidine (Axid).

Antacids. Antacids do not reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach, but they do neutralize some of it. Many are available over the counter. They reduce acid faster than acid-suppressing medications but provide only temporary relief for mild heartburn. In general, liquid forms work faster than chewable tablets. Antacids that contain magnesium can produce loose stools. Those with calcium can be used as dietary supplements to build stronger bones, but men should not overdo it since they can cause constipation, and high doses of calcium (above 1,200 mg a day) may increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer.

Coating agent. Sucralfate (Carafate) is a prescription drug that protects the esophagus and stomach by forming a protective film on the surface. It is very safe, but long-term benefits are unclear.

Motility agent. Metoclopramide (Reglan), another prescription drug, promotes normal contractions of the esophagus and helps the stomach empty faster. Side effects such as drowsiness, agitation, and tremors limit its usefulness, but it can help some patients with GERD.

Treatment: Surgery

Lifestyle modifications and medications — particularly the PPIs — have produced such good results that surgery for GERD is recommended much less often than it used to be. But surgery has improved, too, and it can be very beneficial for patients with severe GERD who don’t respond fully to medical therapy and, perhaps, in young people who are leery of lifelong medication.

The major advance is the introduction of laparoscopic surgery for GERD. While the patient is under general anesthesia, the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen that are used to introduce a fiber-optic tube and tiny surgical instruments. The most popular GERD operation is the Nissen fundoplication, in which the upper portion of the stomach is wrapped around the lower esophagus to prevent reflux. New approaches include using radiofrequency energy to tighten the LES (the Stretta procedure) and tightening the LES with sutures (the Bard system).

Getting the better of GERD

GERD is a problem of modern life. Smoking, poor eating habits, obesity, alcohol abuse, and stress all fuel the fire of heartburn. A little heartburn from time to time is no big deal — but persistent GERD can lead to serious complications. Fortunately, this modern problem can be solved with old-fashioned lifestyle changes, modern drug therapy with PPIs or other agents, and new surgical options.

As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.
Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date,
should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

Micromotors protected drugs from the action of gastric juice

Release of hydrogen bubbles by micromotor

Jinxing Li et al., Angewandte Chemie, 2017

American scientists have developed micromotors that
neutralize stomach acid and release drugs at a predetermined value
acidity.The results of the work are published
in the magazine Angewandte Chemie .

The acidic environment in the stomach is necessary for the denaturation of food
proteins and the normal operation of the enzyme pepsin that breaks them down. She also kills
many foodborne microorganisms. In addition, the acid in the stomach neutralizes
many drugs. Such medicines protect against its action,
placing them in an enteric coating. However, for acid-sensitive drugs,
acting directly in the stomach (for example, antibiotics that
used to treat peptic ulcer disease), this method of protection is not suitable.That’s why
they are prescribed in combination with proton pump inhibitors (potassium-proton
ATPases), which block the synthesis of acid by the parietal cells of the stomach. but
these drugs, especially with prolonged use, have serious side effects
effects, which limits their use.

In search of an alternative method of drug delivery to
gastric wall staff at UC San Diego
developed micromotors that use acid as fuel and
neutralizing it in the process of work.The basis of such a micromotor is
a magnesium sphere with a diameter of about 20 micrometers. These spheres are placed on a glass
substrate and covered with a 10-nanometer layer of gold so that in contact with
with glass, a portion of the sphere remained uncoated. A layer of pH-sensitive is applied to the gold layer.
polymer that contains the drug and releases it at a given value
acidity (pH greater than 5.5).

When ingested, magnesium uncovered with gold enters into
reaction with acid protons, resulting in the formation of bubbles
hydrogen gas.Due to the reactive force of these bubbles, the micromotors
actively move through the stomach at an average speed of 60 micrometers per second,
neutralizing the next protons. In less than 20 minutes, they raise the pH to
a given level (proton pump inhibitors need about an hour for this),
whereupon the polymer breaks down, releasing the drug.

In an experiment on mice, five milligrams of micromotors per
20 minutes increased the average pH in the stomach of the animals from 1.88 to 7.81, after
which released a fluorescent dye.Due to the movement of microspheres, delivery
the drug in various parts of the gastric mucosa was more effective
and uniform than with passive diffusion. Acid-neutralizing effect was dose-dependent
(2.5 milligrams raised the pH to 4.24; 10 milligrams to 9.43).

Operation of micromotors with fluorescent dye in the stomach of mice

Jinxing Li et al., Angewandte Chemie, 2017

The experiment also showed the complete biocompatibility of micromotors:
no side effects of their use in histological examination
was not registered. The acidity of the gastric juice returned to
normal performance during the day.

Based on the results obtained, the developers named
their micromotors are an attractive alternative to proton pump inhibitors
(you can add – in everything except cost).

Interest in this development can be increased by the data obtained
recently by the American research team. Scientists have found that inhibitors
proton pump disrupt the work of lysosomes – cellular organelles that cleanse
cage from worn-out and defective structural elements. Because of this,
premature aging of the endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels, which, in
turn, increases the risk of dementia, myocardial infarction and renal
failure.

Oleg Lishchuk

90,000 Stomach ulcers: symptoms and treatment

Stomach ulcers are open ulcers that develop on the lining of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine.The most common symptomatic picture of peptic ulcer disease is pain in the stomach.

Symptoms

Symptoms include:

• burning sensation of pain in the stomach;
• feeling of fullness, bloating or belching;
• intolerance to fatty foods;
• heartburn;
• feeling of nausea.

The most common symptom of peptic ulcer disease is a burning sensation in the stomach. Stomach acid makes the pain worse, just like having an empty stomach.Pain can often be alleviated by eating certain foods that trap stomach acid or by taking acid-reducing drugs, but then it may return. The pain may worsen between meals and at night.

Almost three quarters of patients with ulcers are asymptomatic. Less commonly, ulcers can cause serious signs or symptoms such as vomiting (which may appear red or black), dark blood in waste or black or tarry stools, shortness of breath, feeling weak, nausea or gagging, unexplained weight loss, loss appetite.

When should I go to the hospital?

It is worth going to the hospital if you have any of the serious signs or symptoms listed above. Also if over-the-counter antacids and acid blockers reduce pain, but pain returns. Lesions occur when acid in the digestive tract flows to the lining of the stomach or small intestine. This substance can create a painful wound that can bleed. The digestive tract is lined with mucous membranes, which usually protects against acid.But when the amount of acid increases or the amount of mucous material decreases, an ulcer can develop.

Why does this disease develop?

Bacteria are among the common causes of the development of the disease. They usually live in a mucous membrane that covers and protects the tissues that line the stomach and small intestine. Often, the bacterium does not cause any problems, but it can inflame the inner layer of the stomach, causing an ulcer. It is unclear how the infection spreads.It can spread from person to person through close contact such as kissing. Humans can also become infected through food and water. Frequent use of certain pain relievers. The use of aspirin and other over-the-counter and prescription pain relievers can irritate or inflame the lining of the stomach and small intestine. The disease is most common in older people who often use pain relievers or people who use drugs to treat osteoarthritis.

The use of other drugs along with NSAIDs such as steroids, anticoagulants, low-dose aspirin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can significantly increase the chances of developing ulcers.

Treatment

Antibiotics to fight bacteria. If there is H. pylori in your digestive tract, the hospital may recommend several antibiotics to fight the bacteria. These often include amoxicillin, some clarithromycin, metronidazole, tiniddazole, tetracycline (tetracycline HCL).The drugs must be consumed for at least 10 days, and also include drugs that reduce acidity in the stomach.

PPI drugs reduce stomach acid by blocking the action of the parts of cells that are responsible for acid secretion. These medicines consist of the prescription and over-the-counter drugs omeprazole, lansaprazole, rabiprazole, esomiprazole, and pantoprazole. Such use of inhibitors is not recommended in high doses, as the risk of fractures is high.

Acid-lowering drugs – blockers, also known as histamine (H-2) blockers – reduce the amount of stomach acid released into the digestive tract, which removes ulcer pain and promotes healing.

Antacids that neutralize stomach acid. The hospital may include an antacid in the course of therapy. Antacids neutralize existing stomach acid and are able to achieve rapid pain relief. Side effects often include constipation or diarrhea, depending on the underlying ingredients. Antacids can quickly relieve symptoms, but are usually not used to treat the disease. Drugs that protect the walls of the stomach and small intestine. Sometimes doctors prescribe drugs that are known medically as cytoprotective agents that help protect the tissues that line the stomach and small intestine.

Why should medicines be taken with drinking water?

Many people drink tablets not only with plain water, but also with tea, coffee, juices, milk, soda. Any drinks that are at hand. However, in most cases this cannot be done.

Water is a neutral substance that serves as an excellent medium for chemical reactions between many other compounds.

Any medications, if the doctor has not specified the specifics of their administration, should be taken with only regular drinking water. It is not recommended to use juices, teas, compotes and other drinks for this. Because all these are some substances dissolved in water. They just give it taste, color, make it sweet. These substances can interact with certain medications. And the result may be different: the drug may start to act stronger or weaker, change its effect, or even become toxic. And sometimes nothing special happens.

To take the medicine, 50-70 ml is enough. If the instructions indicate that you need to drink a sufficient amount of water, this implies a volume of 150-200 ml.

Tea and coffee. Tea contains tannins – substances with tanning properties. They negate the effects of many drugs. For example, tea neutralizes the effect of oral contraceptives, forms precipitated compounds with iron, and disrupts the absorption of certain drugs. The effect of antidepressants, on the contrary, is enhanced: if you drink them with tea, too strong arousal and insomnia may occur. Coffee contains caffeine, a drug itself that can interact with other drugs.In some cases, the drug begins to act weaker, while in others, on the contrary, its effect is enhanced. So, in combination with coffee, pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs have a stronger toxic effect on the liver, kidneys, and heart.

Mineral water. Ions are dissolved in mineral water that can react with a number of drugs. Therefore, not all medicines can be taken with “harmless” mineral water.

Juices. Organic acids in fruits react with medicinal substances, change their chemical structure and effects.As a result, drugs begin to show more toxic properties, to the extent that they can cause poisoning. On the other hand, the effect of antibiotics with fruit juices slows down. They reduce and neutralize the effects of certain drugs.

Milk. Milk slows down the action of stomach enzymes, antibiotics. Some tablets are specially coated with an acid-resistant coating so that they do not dissolve prematurely in the stomach. Such drugs should also not be taken with milk.

When prescribing a drug, the doctor assumes that taking a strictly specified amount of the drug will have the expected effect. But if you drink the drugs not with water, but with juice, soda and other drinks, part of the drug is neutralized. As a result, the therapeutic effect will not be achieved. Therefore, when prescribing a drug, it is better to immediately ask what drinks and products it can be taken with. Sometimes you can also find useful information in the annotation. These two sources are the most reliable. If you do not know how to drink the drug, it is better not to risk it – use plain water!

Anna Pigulevskaya,
paramedic-valeologist
of the public health department
of the Gomel regional CHE and OZ

90,000 Interchangeable medicines: brand or generic medicines

Today you can go to a pharmacy and be confused by the abundance of drugs.In addition, an expensive drug can often be replaced with a cheaper one, but how can this be done without harm to health? We will help you figure it out.

1. Why can one and the same medicinal substance be sold under different names at completely different prices?

Pharmaceuticals today is a truly big business. Companies invest a lot of money in advertising and promoting their drugs. They conduct long-term clinical studies that determine the effectiveness of the drug, reveal previously unexplored positive effects, as well as side effects.Chemists are investigating what additional buffering agents or formulas can help improve drug efficacy. Quite often, a separate production line equipped with the latest technology is opened for a new drug.

Then a “new” drug appears on the market. It may be based on an eternal substance, for example, acetylsalicylic acid (it has been sold for a hundred years in every pharmacy “for three kopecks”), but improved, strengthened, proven. And with new properties, for example, it is not so badly damaging to the stomach.This drug is called brand name, the right to it belongs to one specific manufacturer. And acetylsalicylic acid in this case becomes an international non-proprietary drug (generic), it can still be produced by every pharmaceutical company. But also sell under the general name – acetylsalicylic acid. Although, in fact, we are talking about the interchangeability of these drugs.

2. Which drugs are better – branded or generics?

In theory, branded drugs are more modern: the use of the latest equipment ensures greater “chemical purity” of the active ingredient.Often they include supplements to reduce the main side effects. But the cost of these drugs can be tens, and sometimes hundreds of times higher than the cost of a generic analogue. Such treatment is not affordable for everyone.

The second important point is that there are many examples when a cheap generic product is not inferior in efficiency to an expensive analogue. But this information is possessed only by a physician with certain clinical experience.

Therefore, the only way out is to explain to the doctor your focus on treatment in each specific situation and at the same time tell about your financial capabilities.The doctor is obliged to choose the therapy in accordance with the realities of life, guided by the principle of interchangeability of drugs, because the patient’s adherence to treatment is more important for him than the appointment of branded drugs.

3. Is confusion possible with such an abundance of drugs?

New drugs appear on the market every week. Not only the patient, but even the doctor can become entangled in such an abundance. A negative role is also played by repeated, alternative consultations, when all subsequent doctors begin to repeatedly change the original scheme, often simply crossing out and adding new drugs on top.

In this case, it happens that patients, without understanding, begin to take two branded drugs of the same action, or a branded and generic drug from the same group. This often happens when prescribing Russian analogues of imported drugs.

This is dangerous, since the dose is doubled, an excessive decrease in blood pressure may occur, an exorbitant decrease in heart rate, dangerous blood thinning, the kidneys and liver suffer from additional stress.

4. Are there any drugs that are on the market only in branded versions?

There are not many such drugs, but they exist. A striking example can be called the most popular drug for male potency, which for many years was sold in a single brand performance and became a household name in Russian. For a long time he did not have similar medicines, neither Russian nor imported.

Unfortunately, there are a lot of such drugs in oncology, and their prices leave much to be desired.But it is also understandable for manufacturers – they need to cover the costs of long-term research, laboratory and clinical research. In this case, one can only hope for the state, which buys these funds for the treatment of a particular patient.

For this, a consultation of the leading specialists of the institution where the patient is observed is held, the act of the medical commission is filled out, an application is made to the regional Department of Health. Yes, there is a lot of bureaucratic red tape, but the road will be mastered by the one walking and, most importantly, in recent years it really works, even when it comes to purchasing prohibitively expensive drugs.

5. In what situations is it better to opt for branded drugs?

When it comes to the treatment of serious diseases, and the most modern technologies were used in the development and production of drugs, it is better to opt for more expensive branded drugs.

Another important argument “for” is the need for a clear implementation of the effect and the extremely high cost of an error. First of all, this concerns the treatment of oncological diseases, serious antibacterial therapy, immunotherapy, anticoagulant therapy.

In other cases, you can ask the doctor about replacing an expensive drug with a similar, cheaper one. Perhaps, in recent years, a Russian analogue of an imported drug has appeared, which is produced at a recently opened, modern pharmaceutical enterprise.

The problem of drug interchangeability, on the one hand, requires a great skill of a doctor who, depending on the situation, is able to prescribe drugs of different price ranges to patients from different social groups, eventually achieving adherence to treatment from all.On the other hand, it is the responsibility of the patient, who is able to economize unnecessarily on treatment, although financial opportunities allow him to invest in his own health.

And given the large number of drugs on the market, the patient should not change the course of treatment on his own, risking starting taking several drugs with different names, but the same active substance.

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Esophagitis of the esophagus: description of the disease, causes, symptoms, cost of treatment in Moscow

Esophageal inflammation, esophagitis, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is an inflammatory disease caused by dysfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter.It is characterized by the return of food from the stomach to the esophagus. If the clinical picture is observed for a long time, it means that the esophagitis has passed into the chronic stage. Among diseases of the esophagus, esophagitis is diagnosed most often, in 35% of cases it can proceed without pronounced symptoms. Often, for the treatment of pathology, it is enough to change the diet, but if the patient has advanced esophagitis, the treatment consists in the use of medications or in surgery.

Features of esophagitis of the esophagus

Depending on the course, the disease is of 3 types:

  • Acute;

  • Subacute;

  • Chronic.

Acute esophagitis is divided into 3 degrees:

  • Lesion of the surface of the esophagus without ulcerative and erosive defects;

  • Lesion of the mucous organ with necrosis and ulcerative defects;

  • The lesion covers the submucosal layers, causing deep defects and bleeding. Scar structures may form after treatment.

According to the classification of Savary and Miller, chronic esophagitis is divided into 4 degrees:

  • First. Hyperemia without erosive changes in the distal regions;

  • Second. Small erosions merge, but do not affect the entire mucous membrane.

  • Third. It is characterized by the formation of ulcerative lesions in the lower third of the esophagus.

  • Fourth. Chronic ulcer and stenosis occurs.

In the chronic form of the disease, the mucous membrane of the esophagus becomes loose, edematous and covered with mucus. In the course of histological examination, the doctor reveals cellular infiltration, atrophy of the esophageal glands with the formation of microabscesses and cysts. Prolonged absence of treatment leads to dysplasia and mucosal atrophy with the formation of heterotopic gastric-type sites.They secrete hydrochloric acid, which leads to the development of Barrett’s syndrome.

By the nature of the inflammatory process and the clinical picture, doctors distinguish the following types of esophagitis:

  • Hemorrhagic;

  • Catarrhal;

  • Necrotic;

  • Edematous;

  • Pseudomembranous;

  • Phlegmonous;

  • Exfoliative;

  • Erosive.

Necrotizing esophagitis appears in severe infectious pathologies and agranulocytosis, characterized by the formation of deep ulcers.

The appearance of hemorrhagic esophagitis is influenced by some viral and infectious diseases. They cause hemorrhages in the wall of the esophagus.

The most common are catarrhal and edematous forms. They are characterized by hyperemia and swelling of the mucous membrane.

The cause of phlegmonous esophagitis can be the ingress of a foreign body into the wall of the esophagus.

The pseudomembranous and exfoliative form of the disease develops with diphtheria and scarlet fever.

Erosive esophagitis occurs with acute infectious pathologies and the action of irritating substances on the wall of the esophagus.

According to the prevalence of inflammation and its localization, gastroesophageal reflux disease is of 3 types:

Depending on the factor that provoked esophagitis, it can be of 4 forms:

  • Alimentary.Occurs when using spicy and hot dishes, strong alcoholic beverages.

  • Allergic. Develops against the background of food allergies.

  • Stagnant. Appears when food debris is retained in diverticula

  • Infectious. It develops as a result of viral and bacterial infections.

  • Professional.Occurs when exposed to harmful production factors.

Diagnostics

First of all, the doctor analyzes the patient’s complaints. Then he directs him to the delivery of a general analysis of blood and urine.

To clarify the diagnosis, the following diagnostic methods are used:

  • ultrasound of the abdominal organs;

  • Radiography;

  • Stomach acidity test;

  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy;

  • Impedansometry of the esophagus;

  • Computed tomography;

  • Manometry;

  • Scintigraphy;

  • Billimetry;

  • Helicobacter pylori breath test.

In some cases, a histological examination of a biopsy specimen of the esophageal mucosa is required. It is obtained using targeted biopsy.

If a patient has esophagitis, diagnosis and treatment of pathology in Moscow can cost him an average of 10,500-50,000, depending on the diagnostic methods and type of treatment.

How to understand that esophagitis of the esophagus began to develop

The severity of symptoms in the acute course of pathology depends on the severity of organ inflammation.In the catarrhal form, esophagitis may not cause symptoms, only occasionally it manifests itself as an increased sensitivity of the esophagus to cold or hot food. Severe forms of pathology are accompanied by severe pain behind the sternum, radiating to the back and neck, dysphagia due to severe pain syndrome, heartburn and increased salivation. In especially severe cases, there is vomiting with blood impurities up to a state of shock. After a week, the patient may feel imaginary well-being and notice the disappearance of unpleasant symptoms, but without proper treatment, after a few weeks, esophagitis will lead to the formation of rough scars and stenosis, which will provoke the progression of swallowing disorder and food regurgitation.

The main symptom of chronic esophagitis is considered to be heartburn, which increases after taking spicy and fatty foods, coffee and carbonated drinks. Overeating can also cause a burning sensation in the epigastric region. The patient may experience regurgitation at night.

Often, other pathologies join with esophagitis:

  • Bronchial asthma;

  • Laryngospasm;

  • Respiratory disorders;

  • Frequent pneumonia.

In children under the age of 1 year, insufficiency of the esophageal sphincter is diagnosed with repeated profuse regurgitation in a horizontal position immediately after feeding. At an older age, children complain of paroxysmal epigastric pain, especially after eating hot food. The pain syndrome increases with torso bending, exercise and at night. Young children are often worried about nausea and vomiting, older children – heartburn and belching.Upon awakening, a colorless or yellowish wet spot may be found on the baby’s pillow due to regurgitation. If the disease is not treated in childhood, then it threatens with bleeding, scarring and stenosis of the esophagus, the development of aspiration pneumonia and anemia.

Causes of the disease

The following factors influence the development of esophagitis:

  • ingress of foreign bodies into the esophagus;

  • overweight;

  • burns of the esophagus;

  • poisoning by chemical and toxic substances;

  • alcoholism;

  • malnutrition;

  • stomach and duodenal ulcer;

  • cholecystitis;

  • pancreatitis;

  • gallstone disease;

  • damage to the gastric mucosa;

  • Zollinger-Elysson syndrome;

  • hiatus hernia;

  • stomach tumors;

  • chronic constipation;

  • hereditary predisposition;

  • weight lifting;

  • stress;

  • vagus nerve pathology;

  • infectious diseases.

In children, acute esophagitis occurs for the same reasons as in adults. At the same time, the risk of developing the disease in children is much higher. It is more often observed with scarlet fever and sepsis, the effect of weak acid solutions on the mucous membrane of the esophagus. Secondary damage to the mucous membrane of the esophagus in children is associated with ulcers, gastritis, gastroduodenitis, cholecystocholangitis and pathologies of other parts of the intestine. In 85% of cases, they are diagnosed with superficial forms, in 15% – erosive and ulcerative esophagitis.

Diet for esophagitis of the esophagus

With esophagitis of the esophagus, the following foods should be excluded from the diet:

  • alcoholic beverages;

  • strong tea;

  • carbonated drinks;

  • coffee;

  • chocolate;

  • mushrooms;

  • smoked products;

  • pickles;

  • hot spices;

  • ketchup;

  • mayonnaise;

  • legumes;

  • canned food;

  • fresh and sauerkraut;

  • black bread;

  • sour juices;

  • fatty and fried foods;

  • chewing gum;

  • fast food.

If discomfort occurs after eating, you should pay attention to what foods were eaten and remove them from the menu.

It is useful for inflammation of the esophagus (esophagitis) to add the following foods to the diet:

  • fat-free pureed cottage cheese;

  • low fat milk and sour cream;

  • fresh and boiled eggs;

  • any cereals;

  • steam cutlets;

  • baked vegetables;

  • boiled and baked fish;

  • homemade croutons.

It is recommended to take food 4-5 times a day, avoiding the rush and fuss. After eating, it is advisable to walk or work while standing. You should also wear loose clothing that does not restrict movement in the abdomen. You can not strain the abdominal muscles, therefore lifting weights is excluded.

Coating agents for the stomach: medicines, folk remedies

In most cases, diseases of the digestive tract are inflammatory.Disturbances in the upper gastrointestinal tract are manifested by unpleasant symptoms: pain and discomfort in the epigastric region during or after eating, heartburn and other dyspeptic disorders. To eliminate pathological processes, the doctor conducts additional diagnostics and prescribes therapy, which includes different groups of drugs and dietary products.

Enveloping agents for the stomach and intestines provide an improvement in the condition of the epithelium. The drugs are available in the form of tablets or gels, which have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.The active components are able to increase in volume when combined with water, forming a mucous layer on the inner surface of the organ. The colloidal solution protects the gastric mucosa from the effects of an aggressive environment, reduces the sensitivity of nerve endings and reduces the absorption of certain chemical elements.

Table of Contents

Indications for use

In case of gastrointestinal tract pathology, several types of medicinal substances are used that reduce pain and alleviate the patient’s condition.Enveloping products for the stomach have not lost their relevance for many years. This is due to the low likelihood of adverse reactions and a relatively rapid analgesic effect.

Experts recommend drugs in this group for the following conditions:

  1. Gastritis, gastroduodenitis with high acidity and low acidity.
  2. Reflux esophagitis, duodenogastric reflux.
  3. For the treatment of chemical burns of the esophagus.
  4. After removal of a foreign body from the pharynx, esophagus and stomach.
  5. Peptic ulcer of the upper digestive tract.
  6. Erosive forms of gastrointestinal tract pathology.
  7. Acute drug poisoning and toxic infections.
  8. After endoscopic examination.
  9. In young children in the complex therapy of aspiration syndrome with frequent regurgitation.
  10. For slowing down the action of certain medicinal substances.

Attention!

Preparations with an enveloping effect can be used as first aid for pain syndrome and intestinal functional disorders.


Classification of coating preparations for the stomach and intestines

Medicines that create a protective colloid layer on the mucosal surface are of different origins. They are classified according to their chemical composition, which determines the activity and therapeutic effect of the main substances.The coating preparations for the stomach and their analogs are classified as follows.

Table 1. Classification

Categories Variants
Organic Products – potato, rice starch, oats, flax, egg white.

Herbal products – mallow flowers, marshmallow leaves and root, medicinal comfrey.

Inorganic White clay.

Antacids:

with aluminum salts – Phosphalugel;

with magnesium and aluminum salts – Almagel, Maalox, Gastal;

with magnesium, aluminum, silicon or calcium salts – Gaviscon, Secrepat;

combined substances – Almagel Neo, Gestid, Rennie.

Phosphalugel

This is one of the most popular remedies for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which can be found in almost every home medicine cabinet. It rarely causes unwanted reactions and has a positive therapeutic effect.Preparations enveloping the walls of the stomach, which contain aluminum phosphate as the main substance, have additional properties:

  • exhibit a sorption effect;
  • normalize the pH in the stomach without causing excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid;
  • do not affect the physiological processes of food digestion;
  • reduce the aggressive action of pepsin, bile acids and lysolecithin;
  • improve cytoprotective activity by stimulating the synthesis of prostaglandin followed by the release of mucus and bicarbonates.

Phosphalugel does not affect the exchange of phosphorus and calcium, therefore it does not disturb metabolic processes. Therefore, the suspension is safe for use in young children. Aluminum salts are not absorbed into the systemic circulation, excreted with feces. In pharmacies, the medicine is sold in sachets.

Alumag

It is a combination of magnesium and aluminum hydroxide. Has the benefits of monocomponent antacids, including acid neutralizing, protective, binding action.This coating for the stomach and intestines does not alter the character of the stool. Therefore, patients who take Alumag do not experience constipation. But with prolonged use, there is a risk of developing osteomalacia, encephalopathy, weight loss, and impaired renal function.

The medicine is produced in tablets, which is very convenient for the patient.

Gaviscon

Refers to combined antacids. The therapeutic effect is provided by three compounds: calcium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium alginate.The medicine that envelops the stomach reacts with hydrochloric acid to form an alginic acid gel. The substance is quickly distributed over the mucosal surface, preventing the development of reflux. The drug has the ability to bind bile acids and pepsin, reducing their irritant effect on tissues. Can be used during pregnancy.

The substance is found in lozenges with mint and strawberry flavors, as well as in the form of a gel.

Secrepat

The drug of choice among antacids is Sekrepat.

This is a balanced stomach lid that combines aluminum, magnesium and calcium salts. The optimal composition neutralizes hydrochloric acid within a few minutes after eating, quickly eliminates heartburn and pain. The components contribute to the accumulation of epidermal growth factors in the area of ​​defects in ulcers and erosive processes, accelerating their healing. Due to the combined composition, the likelihood of flatulence and stool disorders is reduced.

Sekrepat on the pharmaceutical market is represented by chewable tablets with anise and mint flavor.

Rennie

The main distinguishing feature of the preparation is the formation of water and soluble mineral salts in the process of reaction with hydrochloric acid.

Therefore, such coating agents for the stomach and intestines are recommended to eliminate unpleasant symptoms in pregnant women. Two active components – calcium and magnesium carbonate – quickly lead to the normalization of the pH of the medium.A small amount of compounds is absorbed into the systemic circulation, excreted in the urine, insoluble substances are excreted in the feces.

Rennie is available in tablets. You can choose from a choice of chewable lozenges – menthol, orange and sugar free with mint.

Natural Stomach Covers

Along with inorganic compounds, natural remedies are prescribed for gastritis and duodenitis. Coating preparations for the stomach and intestines, prepared on the basis of natural substances, gently affect the body.They cover the walls of the digestive tract with a mucous layer, reduce the inflammatory process, and create conditions for tissue regeneration.

The medicine is created by thermal treatment of plant materials – roots, seeds, leaves, inflorescences. Some funds are taken strictly in time, others can be consumed fractionally, like drinks during the day.


Important!

Before preparing a folk remedy, it is better to agree with the doctor on the rules for its use against the background of drug therapy.


Altey

The plant is used to treat diseases of the digestive tract and pulmonary system.

Healing substances are mainly found in the roots and rhizomes. These parts contain a large amount of polysaccharides and other components, which are represented by:

  • starch;
  • pectin;
  • sugars;
  • betaine;
  • phytosterol;
  • carotene;
  • lecithin;
  • fatty oils;
  • mineral salts.

After preparation, a substance enveloping the stomach is obtained, which covers the epithelium with a thin film. The protective layer remains on the mucous membrane for a long time. Therefore, the negative effect of hydrochloric acid on cells decreases, the regenerative capacity of tissues increases, and inflammation decreases.

For gastritis and gastroduodenitis, marshmallow rhizomes are used in the form of an aqueous extract (dissolved in large volumes of water), syrup or decoction. In case of intestinal lesions of an infectious nature, dry powder is recommended.

To prepare a decoction, take 6 grams of raw materials and combine with 200 ml of water. The liquid is boiled in a water bath for 30 minutes, then cooled for 10 minutes and filtered, having squeezed out the roots well. The solution is made up to the original amount and left in a dark place. You need to drink 70-100 ml after the main meals.

Spotted orchis

The popular name of the plant is “cuckoo tears”. For medicinal purposes, a young and juicy root is used. Salep powder is prepared from it.The substance is used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, intestinal infections, respiratory pathology, tuberculosis, problems in the genitourinary sphere, in the postoperative period as a tonic. The powder is prescribed for purulent wounds, carbuncles as a local preparation.

If there is an inflammatory pathology of the upper digestive tract, it is recommended to prepare a medicine enveloping the stomach, based on orchis. The root part of the plant contains up to 50% of mucous components and starch, which exhibit anti-inflammatory and protective properties.

A colloidal solution of salep is infused.

Mix half a teaspoon of the powder and a glass of warm water. Prepare the infusion, stirring the mixture from time to time for 50 minutes until a mucous liquid is formed. You can add honey or sugar syrup to the thick mass to taste. Take the composition twice a day before meals, dividing the total volume into equal parts.

Mallow or stock-rose

The flower not only decorates garden plots, but also has a healing effect.Medicines are prepared from all parts of the plant – inflorescences, leaves, seeds, tubers. The components combine well with other herbs, so the folk remedy is often present in the collection.

The following components provide the therapeutic effect:

  • minerals;
  • vitamins A, B₅;
  • tannins;
  • phytosterols;
  • bitterness;
  • iron, magnesium, cadmium;
  • starches and natural mucus.

The rich medicinal composition makes it possible to prepare enveloping preparations for the stomach and intestines from the plant, as well as remedies for the treatment of diseases of the respiratory and genitourinary system.The powder is used in some countries as a seasoning for dishes.

Mucous substances based on mallow cover the inner walls of the hollow organs with a protective layer. Thus, the sensitivity of nerve endings decreases and the irritating effect of aggressive factors decreases. Colloidal liquid reduces pain syndrome, improves the process of mucous membrane recovery.

In case of gastrointestinal tract pathology, it is suggested to take an infusion. For this, the grass and tubers are crushed. Pour two tablespoons with a glass of boiling water and leave for 120 minutes.After that, the mucous liquid is filtered and drunk 3-4 times during the day.

Comfrey

Another name for the plant is larkspur. The herb has healing properties and is used for various diseases.

Comfrey is a folk coating agent for the stomach walls. It is used as a hemostatic drug. For dysentery and other intestinal disorders, medications are prescribed based on natural raw materials, taking into account antimicrobial qualities.

The larkspur contains useful components:

  • pyrrolizidine alkaloids – echimidine, cinoglossin, symphitin;
  • glycoalkaloid consolidin;
  • tannins;
  • mucus;
  • Choline

  • ;
  • essential oils;
  • vitamin B₁₂;
  • potassium;
  • allantoin;
  • triterpene saponins.

Comfrey preparations should be taken very carefully, in small quantities.With the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, a decoction is recommended. To do this, 10 grams of roots are mixed with 200 ml of water and boiled for 10 minutes. After 15 minutes, filter the solution and cool. Drink a quarter of a glass of liquid 4 times a day.

Products that cover the stomach and protect the mucous membrane

A special diet for inflammatory pathology of the digestive tract provides a positive result of drug therapy. Therefore, the diet includes foods that envelop and protect the gastric mucosa.They contain starches. Dishes made from them have a slimy consistency. The edible components capable of forming a colloidal solution can be consumed as a side dish or as a drink.

Potatoes

Tubers contain complex polysaccharide complexes, which acquire a slimy structure during heat treatment. Potato dishes are products that envelop the stomach lining. They are well absorbed, gently restore food tolerance during an exacerbation of the disease.With gastritis and gastroduodenitis, it is recommended to include mashed potatoes, baked or boiled potatoes in the diet.


Potato juice for gastritis


The product is rich in the following components:

  • organic acids;
  • starch;
  • vitamins – A, PP, C, H, E;
  • fiber.

Ready-made tubers are a high-calorie dish that quickly saturates the body, removes toxic substances, and improves metabolic processes.

Oats

A healthy and popular dish is oat porridge. Cereal broth contains many elements such as:

  • vitamins A, B, E;
  • mineral components – potassium, iodine, manganese, zinc, copper, selenium, bromine, silicon;
  • pantothenic acid;
  • enzymes;
  • amino acids;
  • essential oils.

Liquid oatmeal is a food that envelops the walls for pain in the stomach. The mucous consistency reduces the adverse effects of hydrochloric acid on organs, normalizes the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract.Regular consumption of the dish contributes to the rapid restoration of the digestive process. The broth has a beneficial effect on metabolism, removes excess fluid, eliminates edema, strengthens vascular walls, and reduces blood glucose levels.


Kissel for gastritis: 13 recipes for the treatment of the stomach


Linen

Plant seeds contain polysaccharide complexes and proteins.

During cooking, a slimy liquid is formed, in which a high concentration of starch and mucus is noted.These substances – envelop the mucous membrane of not only the stomach, but also the intestines. They are distributed along the inner surface of the digestive tract and have a protective function. Flax plant fibers have antioxidant properties, normalize intestinal motility. Polyunsaturated fatty acids increase immunity and reduce inflammation.

To prepare a solution, combine 3 tablespoons of seeds with a liter of boiled water. The infusion is left for 10 hours under a lid in a saucepan.Strain and take half a glass 2 times a day 20 minutes before meals.

What else can you wrap your stomach with

Sometimes discomfort and pain in the abdomen are taken by surprise, and medications are not at hand. If this is the case, you can prepare a stomach envelope at home.

A substance of natural origin, which almost every housewife has, is starch. For cooking, use corn or potato.To improve the condition, you can boil a slimy decoction from water and starch. A more delicious drink is a jelly based on fruit or milk. It will complement the menu and relieve gastritis symptoms.

Among medicinal preparations dioctahedral smectite has enveloping properties. The substance is part of Smecta, Apsorbin, Smectalia. The compound is a double silicate of aluminum and magnesium. Reaches the intestinal mucosa and covers the villi of the epithelium. Promotes the restoration of inflamed and destroyed tissues, reduces the negative effects of bacteria and viruses, reduces diarrhea.The drug is produced in the form of a powder, which must be diluted with water. To improve the organoleptic properties, various flavors with fruit and vanilla flavors are added.

Another inorganic coating product is white clay. Natural kaolin is a natural sorbent that effectively binds toxic compounds. It is a source of mineral elements – phosphorus, iron, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, potassium. The drug is produced in capsules and cans with powder.

Currently, the gastroenterologist has a large selection of medications and natural products with an enveloping effect.The combination of traditional and alternative methods of treatment contributes to the rapid restoration of gastrointestinal tract function and full recovery of the patient.

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90,000 Enveloping products are… What are Enveloping Products?

Medicines that form colloidal solutions or suspensions with water and protect mucous membranes and skin from irritating physical and chemical factors.
Some herbal preparations and a number of inorganic substances are referred to as envelopes. As O. s. of vegetable origin are used mainly mucus from starch, flax seeds and marshmallow root, and as inorganic O. s. chemically indifferent substances – white clay and aluminum hydroxide, which also have adsorbing properties (see.Adsorbents). In addition, some food products have enveloping properties, for example, milk, decoctions of rice and oat flour, and egg white.

Covering the surface of mucous membranes and skin, O. p. form a protective layer that prevents the irritating effect on the nerve endings of various physical and chemical factors, and in this regard, they have a local analgesic effect. At inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract O. page. along with the analgesic effect, they cause moderately pronounced antiemetic and anti-inflammatory effects due to the weakening of the corresponding reflex influences from the mucous membranes.Resorptive action of O. of page. practically do not render, tk. almost not absorbed from the surface of the skin and mucous membranes or absorbed in the form of inactive metabolites.

Inside O. s. prescribed for inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (enteritis, gastroenteritis, colitis, etc.) and burns of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract with acids, alkalis and other cauterizing substances. Outwardly O. s. used for various skin diseases, burns, diaper rash, ulcers, etc.d.

In addition, separate O. of page. (starch, white clay) is used in pharmacy as auxiliary substances in the manufacture of certain dosage forms, for example, in order to reduce the local irritating effect of medicinal substances or slow down their absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, as well as as a filler in the manufacture of pills and tablets.

Basic O. page, their doses, methods of application, release forms and storage conditions are given below.

Aluminum hydroxide (Aluminum hydroxydum) is prescribed externally in the form of powders and internally in the form of a 4% aqueous suspension, 1-2 teaspoons 4 6 times a day (mainly as an antacid) for gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, hyperacid gastritis, food poisoning.In the form of a gel, it is a part of the combined antacid preparations “Almagel” and “Almagel A”. Release form: powder.
White clay (Bolus alba) is applied externally (in powders, pastes, ointments) for skin diseases, ulcers, diaper rash, burns. Inside appoint adults 20-30 g (sometimes up to 100 g ), children – 5-10 g for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (colitis, enteritis, etc.). Release form: powder. Storage: in a well-closed container.

Starch (Amylum) is prescribed externally in the form of dusts and powders (often mixed with zinc oxide, talc, etc.). Inside and in enemas, it is used in the form of starch paste or mucus to weaken the local irritating effect of certain medicinal substances (for example, chloral hydrate) and to slow down the absorption of drugs.

Flax seed (Semen Lini) is prescribed externally for poultices and internally in the form of mucus, which is prepared ex tempore, for inflammatory and ulcerative lesions of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract.