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Male Reproductive System – Explore Anatomy with Detailed Pictures

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Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System


The scrotum is a sac-like organ made of skin and muscles that houses the testes. It is located inferior to the penis in the pubic region. The scrotum is made up of 2 side-by-side pouches with a testis located in each pouch. The smooth muscles that make up the scrotum allow it to regulate the distance between the testes and the rest of the body. When the testes become too warm to support spermatogenesis, the scrotum relaxes to move the testes away from the body’s heat. Conversely, the scrotum contracts to move the testes closer to the body’s core heat when temperatures drop below the ideal range for spermatogenesis.


The 2 testes, also known as testicles, are the male gonads responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone. The testes are ellipsoid glandular organs around 1.5 to 2 inches long and an inch in diameter. Each testis is found inside its own pouch on one side of the scrotum and is connected to the abdomen by a spermatic cord and cremaster muscle. The cremaster muscles contract and relax along with the scrotum to regulate the temperature of the testes. The inside of the testes is divided into small compartments known as lobules. Each lobule contains a section of seminiferous tubule lined with epithelial cells. These epithelial cells contain many stem cells that divide and form sperm cells through the process of spermatogenesis.


The epididymis is a sperm storage area that wraps around the superior and posterior edge of the testes. The epididymis is made up of several feet of long, thin tubules that are tightly coiled into a small mass. Sperm produced in the testes moves into the epididymis to mature before being passed on through the male reproductive organs. The length of the epididymis delays the release of the sperm and allows them time to mature.

Spermatic Cords and Ductus Deferens

Within the scrotum, a pair of spermatic cords connects the testes to the abdominal cavity. The spermatic cords contain the ductus deferens along with nerves, veins, arteries, and lymphatic vessels that support the function of the testes.

The ductus deferens, also known as the vas deferens, is a muscular tube that carries sperm superiorly from the epididymis into the abdominal cavity to the ejaculatory duct. The ductus deferens is wider in diameter than the epididymis and uses its internal space to store mature sperm. The smooth muscles of the walls of the ductus deferens are used to move sperm towards the ejaculatory duct through peristalsis.

Seminal Vesicles

The seminal vesicles are a pair of lumpy exocrine glands that store and produce some of the liquid portion of semen. The seminal vesicles are about 2 inches in length and located posterior to the urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum. The liquid produced by the seminal vesicles contains proteins and mucus and has an alkaline pH to help sperm survive in the acidic environment of the vagina. The liquid also contains fructose to feed sperm cells so that they survive long enough to fertilize the oocyte.

Ejaculatory Duct

The ductus deferens passes through the prostate and joins with the urethra at a structure known as the ejaculatory duct. The ejaculatory duct contains the ducts from the seminal vesicles as well. During ejaculation, the ejaculatory duct opens and expels sperm and the secretions from the seminal vesicles into the urethra.


Semen passes from the ejaculatory duct to the exterior of the body via the urethra, an 8 to 10 inch long muscular tube. The urethra passes through the prostate and ends at the external urethral orifice located at the tip of the penis. Urine exiting the body from the urinary bladder also passes through the urethra.


The prostate is a walnut-sized exocrine gland that borders the inferior end of the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra. The prostate produces a large portion of the fluid that makes up semen. This fluid is milky white in color and contains enzymes, proteins, and other chemicals to support and protect sperm during ejaculation. The prostate also contains smooth muscle tissue that can constrict to prevent the flow of urine or semen.

Unfortunately the prostate is also particularly susceptible to cancer. Thankfully, DNA health testing can tell you whether you’re at higher genetic risk of developing prostate cancer due to your BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.

Cowper’s Glands

The Cowper’s glands, also known as the bulbourethral glands, are a pair of pea-sized exocrine glands located inferior to the prostate and anterior to the anus. The Cowper’s glands secrete a thin alkaline fluid into the urethra that lubricates the urethra and neutralizes acid from urine remaining in the urethra after urination. This fluid enters the urethra during sexual arousal prior to ejaculation to prepare the urethra for the flow of semen.


The penis is the male external sexual organ located superior to the scrotum and inferior to the umbilicus. The penis is roughly cylindrical in shape and contains the urethra and the external opening of the urethra. Large pockets of erectile tissue in the penis allow it to fill with blood and become erect. The erection of the penis causes it to increase in size and become turgid. The function of the penis is to deliver semen into the vagina during sexual intercourse. In addition to its reproductive function, the penis also allows for the excretion of urine through the urethra to the exterior of the body.

Erectile dysfunction is a common reproductive issue; in each decade of men’s lives, it affects about an equivalent percentage of peers. For instance, roughly 20% of men in their 20s experience a degree of erectile dysfunction. The rate rises to 30% of men experiencing ED symptoms in their 30s, and 50% of men in their 50s (and so on). Because it’s so common, the medical community has responded with increasingly convenient ways to treat ED. Read our Hims ED review for more information.


Semen is the fluid produced by males for sexual reproduction and is ejaculated out of the body during sexual intercourse. Semen contains sperm, the male reproductive gametes, along with a number of chemicals suspended in a liquid medium. The chemical composition of semen gives it a thick, sticky consistency and a slightly alkaline pH. These traits help semen to support reproduction by helping sperm to remain within the vagina after intercourse and to neutralize the acidic environment of the vagina. In healthy adult males, semen contains around 100 million sperm cells per milliliter. These sperm cells fertilize oocytes inside the female fallopian tubes.

Physiology of the Male Reproductive System


Spermatogenesis is the process of producing sperm and takes place in the testes and epididymis of adult males. Prior to puberty, there is no spermatogenesis due to the lack of hormonal triggers. At puberty, spermatogenesis begins when luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are produced. LH triggers the production of testosterone by the testes while FSH triggers the maturation of germ cells. Testosterone stimulates stem cells in the testes known as spermatogonium to undergo the process of developing into spermatocytes. Each diploid spermatocyte goes through the process of meiosis I and splits into 2 haploid secondary spermatocytes. The secondary spermatocytes go through meiosis II to form 4 haploid spermatid cells. The spermatid cells then go through a process known as spermiogenesis where they grow a flagellum and develop the structures of the sperm head. After spermiogenesis, the cell is finally a sperm cell, or spermatozoa. The spermatozoa are released into the epididymis where they complete their maturation and become able to move on their own.


Fertilization is the process by which a sperm combines with an oocyte, or egg cell, to produce a fertilized zygote. The sperm released during ejaculation must first swim through the vagina and uterus and into the fallopian tubes where they may find an oocyte. After encountering the oocyte, sperm next have to penetrate the outer corona radiata and zona pellucida layers of the oocyte. Sperm contain enzymes in the acrosome region of the head that allow them to penetrate these layers. After penetrating the interior of the oocyte, the nuclei of these haploid cells fuse to form a diploid cell known as a zygote. The zygote cell begins cell division to form an embryo.

Male Anatomy – Everything You Need to Know Penis

Welcome back to “Loving Your Ladyparts,” a bi-weekly series where we’ll be discussing everything you need to know about what’s going on below your belt, from why we wax to how you orgasm. Last week, we discussed the myths and facts about female orgasms. Today, we’re going to temporarily call the column “Boyparts,” because we’re talking everything…penis.

Now that we’ve told you just about everything you need to know about the vagina, we bet you’re probably a little curious about the male anatomy and how it works. Some questions that have probably crossed your mind might include: Why do boys ejaculate? What do testicles actually do besides sit there? And, are there any parts of a penis that are more sensitive than others? Male genitalia might seem more self-explanatory, but there’s a lot hidden under the surface that affects a guy’s health and sexual functioning. Just as with your own anatomy, it’s complicated. So, to un-complicate things, we thought we’d bring you a no-holds-barred explanation of a guy’s mini-me.

Photo: Lucy Han @lucy.han

The Penis

The interior of the penis is made up of two different types of tissue, called the corpus cavernosum and the corpus spongiosum, as well as nerves and blood vessels. When a man gets sexually stimulated, blood flows to the penis and fills up the tissue “like a sponge,” according to Dr. Darius Paduch, MD, a urologist and male sexual medical specialist at New York Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center. The result is an erection. According to Dr. Paduch, the average size of a penis is about 5 to 6 inches when erect, but size varies widely so don’t hold us, or any guy you meet, to that approximation.

Men can be very self-conscious about their penis size, and just like a woman’s parts, men too come in all sizes. We talk a lot about body positivity, and that goes for guys too. Be nice. It can wreck a guy’s self-esteem, says Dr. Paduch. Ashley Manta, a sexuality educator, agrees. She also notes that men can get erections even when they are not necessarily consciously turned on, so be sensitive to that and don’t make a big deal about it, if say, you notice a dude “getting hard” while you’re both watching So You Think You Can Dance.


The glans is the bulbous part at the tip of the penis that looks like a hat — officially called the “head.” It’s generally more sensitive than the shaft (the long part) of the penis. In the glans is the opening to the urethra, the tube through which urine and semen, which aids in fertilizing a woman’s egg in order to make a baby, both come out.

How a viral image of breasts exposes science’s obsession with the male body | Jill Filipovic

It has taken a viral tweet for thousands of people to realize that all human bodies are not male bodies – and that women’s muscular systems look different from men’s.

To be fair, the image, which displays milk ducts in all their raw, floral detail, is indeed a new one for many of our eyes (my own included). That isn’t out of personal ignorance, or at least not entirely. It’s also because American scientific and medical education – and, troublingly, research, treatment and standards – presume the male body is the default.

I just realized I never saw a photo of a female muscle system. This is NOT what I imagined milk ducts to look like. pic.twitter.com/GBK6trgXF8

— Artist formerly known as Byeonce (@lemonadead) April 21, 2019

Just think about the images of skeletal, nervous and muscular systems you’ve seen before. Without skin (and a face) it’s not immediately obvious that you’re looking at a man. And yet it’s also clear that the default is a man. Even without milk ducts, the scientific images of human bodies that we typically see have male builds and musculature. Troublingly, we don’t even necessarily identify them as male and therefore specific only to half of the population. We see them as “normal”.

Men continue to dominate political, economic and public life more generally in part because their presence is normal and unquestioned

And that means female bodies are the abnormal other, even if, numerically, we make up more than half of the world’s population. This male default extends beyond the pictures we study in science class. It means that for more than a century, drugs have been primarily tested on men, their side-effects not well understood for women, who have different physical bodies and different hormones.

Dosing may be calculated by weight – assuming women who are two-thirds the size of men should take two-thirds of the dose – but that doesn’t actually account for how women’s bodies process drugs. Pregnant women are excluded from clinical trials, even though they may still use medications while pregnant – with no information on what it does to their bodies or their growing fetus. That can have deadly consequences.

When the male body is the default in biology classes, medical education and research, women get substandard care. And it goes deeper than that: defaulting to men in education is both a reflection and reinforcement of male defaults more generally. Men continue to dominate political, economic and public life more generally in part because their presence is normal and unquestioned. That’s not the case for women, who have to justify their entrance and see their presence questioned. Is this female politician likable enough? Is that female boss “difficult” or a Queen Bee? Are women funny?

This is the same reason we treat “women’s issues” like they are a special interest instead of the norm, and why questions like “should it be women or the government who controls a woman’s uterus?” are seriously debated in the political sphere – while no one debates a man’s right to choose Viagra.

It may seem like a stretch to say that we haven’t seen milk ducts for the same reason we haven’t had a female president. But it does come down to the same root: when only one sex is the default, the other becomes, well, the other.

Self-ratings of genital anatomy, sexual sensitivity and function in men using the ‘Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function, Male’ questionnaire


To assess the perceptions of healthy men of their genital anatomy and sexual sensitivity, along with the re-test reliability of these ratings, in a new self-reported questionnaire, the Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function, Male (SAGASF-M).

Subjects and methods:

Eighty-one healthy, sexually active, men aged 22-57 years (median 33), with no history of genital surgery, completed the SAGASF-M. This questionnaire comprises written text and images enabling men to rate details of their genital appearance, overall genital erotic and pain sensitivity, orgasm intensity, and effort required for achieving orgasm through stimulation of specified areas around the glans and shaft of the penis, scrotum and anus, along with the contribution of other sexually sensitive areas of the body. Anatomical locations were compared for the functional ratings by mixed-model analysis of variance (anova). A second sample of 38 healthy men (median age 26 years, range 22-64) from the same source completed the SAGASF-M twice with an interval of 2 weeks.


There was little variability in anatomy ratings. Ratings of overall penile sensitivity to sexual stimulation gave higher values of ‘sexual pleasure’ for penile stimulation by the partner than by self (P = 0.002) and marginally higher ratings of ‘orgasm intensity’ by partner stimulation (P = 0. 077), but there were no corresponding differences on ratings of ‘effort needed to reach orgasm’ or of ‘discomfort/pain’. Overall discrimination between genital areas was highly significant (mixed-model anova, P = 0.001) for ratings of ‘sexual pleasure’, ‘orgasm intensity’ and ‘orgasm effort’, but was not significant for ‘discomfort/pain’. Ranked by degree of ‘sexual pleasure’, the area ‘underside of the glans’ was highest, followed by ‘underside of the penile shaft’, ‘upper side of the glans’, ‘left and right sides of the glans’, ‘one or both sides of the penis’, ‘upper side of the penile shaft’, ‘foreskin’ (11 subjects), ‘skin between the scrotum and anus’, ‘back side of the scrotum’, ‘front side of the scrotum’, and ‘around anus’, but not all pair differences were significant. The rank order was similar for ‘orgasm intensity’, but less similar and with fewer significant pair differences for ‘orgasm effort’. Overall discrimination of other body parts that help orgasm when touched/stimulated was also highly significant (P = 0. 001) and included (in order of degree) scrotum, ear, skin between scrotum and anus, neck, breast/nipples, buttocks, anus (exterior skin), anus (inside with penetration), wrist, and axilla, but many pair differences were not significant. In the reliability study, which was limited to the 45 function items with sufficient variability and sample size, the re-test reliability values (Pearson r) were distributed as follows: seven were >or=0.80, 16 >or=0.70, 15 >or=0.60, four >or=0.50, two >or=0.40, and one >or=0.30.


The SAGASF-M discriminates reasonably well between various genital and nongenital areas in terms of erotic sensitivity, when administered to genitally unoperated men varying widely in age and socio-economic level.

The Male Reproductive System – TeachMeAnatomy

The male reproductive system mainly resides within the pelvis. Some tissues sit outside of the pelvis, in the scrotum, which provides a cooler environment. The male reproductive system can be split into seven parts: the penis, the testes and epididymis, the scrotum, the spermatic cord, the prostate gland, the bulbourethral glands and the seminal vesicles.

The penis has three main anatomical sections: the root (where the penis is fixed to the pelvic floor), the body (the length of the penis) and the glans (where the urethral opening is located).

The testes and epididymis are located in the scrotum, suspended by the spermatic cord. This is the location of sperm production, maturation and storage.

The scrotum is a fibromuscular sac located posteriorly to the penis. The dartos muscle is located deep to the skin and helps adjust the surface area of the scrotum, and therefore its internal temperature.

The spermatic cord is a collection of blood vessels, nerves and ducts that connect the testes to the pelvic cavity. Many important structures run in this bundle, including the testicular artery, pampiniform plexus of testicular veins and vas deferens.

The prostate gland sits inferiorly to the bladder. It secretes enzymes into the semen which maintain the semen’s fluid state. These enzymes enter the prostatic urethra via the prostatic ducts. The prostate’s anatomy consists of three zones, the central, transitional and peripheral zones, where different pathologies arise.

The bulbourethral glands, or Cowper’s glands, are located posterolaterally to the membranous urethra. They produce a mucus secretion which serves as lubrication, expels any urine residue from the urethra and neutralises residual acidity within the urethra.

The seminal vesicles sit superiorly to the prostate, and drain a fructose-rich alkaline fluid into the prostatic urethra.

In this section, learn more about the male reproductive system, including the penis, testes and the accessory glands.

Male Genital Anatomy » Sexual Medicine » BUMC

Male Genital Anatomy

The penis is composed of 3 spongy cylinders. The three cylinders consist of paired corpora cavernosa and a single corpus spongiosum. The crural (roots) of the corpora cavernosa attach at the under surface of the ischiopubic rami as two separate structures. Such anatomy prevents the erect penis from sinking into the perineum when faced with an axially-oriented vaginal compressive load during intercourse. This unique anatomic arrangement, however, unfortunately places the penile crus at great danger from crush injuries during blunt perineal trauma.

The tunica albuginea consists of layers of collagen which can accommodate a considerable degree of intracavernosal pressure prior to rupture. To function effectively, these fascial layers must provide the penis with a wall container capable of withstanding a high degree of rigidity and axial strength when erect, yet be supple when flaccid. The tunica must be able to elongate symmetrically and increase in girth with tumescence, assuring a straight erection. The tensile strength of the tunica is approximately 1200 – 1500 mmHg making this fascia one of the most strong in the body. Approximately 5% of the tunica is elastin which enables the penis to develop elongation. The average volume increase of the erect penis from the flaccid volume is 3-fold with a range from 1.7 – 5 fold. The mechanical properties of the tunica which allow for maximum volume changes of the erect penis are called tunica dispensability. Regions of the tunica with focal poor dispensability cause the erect penis to bend. This focal tunical abnormality in dispensability is called Peyronie’s disease.

The substance of the corpora cavernosa (erectile tissue) consists of numerous sinusoids (lacunar spaces) among interwoven trabeculae of smooth muscles and supporting connective tissue. The corpora cavernosa sinusoids are widely communicative and larger in the center of the corpora, having a Swiss-cheese appearance. This fact enables the blood within the penis to transfer easily from the top to the bottom of the corpora. This also enable the penis to have a common intracavernosal pressure and a common penile rigidity. The sinusoids are smaller in the periphery and have a grape-like appearance. Peripheral sinusoids have a greater individual surface area than central sinusoids. These characteristics aid in the passive process of corporal veno-occlusion by sub-tunical venule compression against the tunica albuginea. All lacunar spaces are lined with endothelial cells, thought previously to have only a slippery surface preventing blood clotting. Recent research has revealed that endothelial cells have secretory function and synthesize factors involved in the regulation of corporal smooth muscle tone.

The paired internal pudendal artery, a branch of the hypogastric artery is the main source of arterial blood supply to the penis.

The internal pudendal artery terminates when the artery divides into the scrotal and common penile artery.

The common penile artery defines the condition whereby all red blood cells in the artery somehow end up in the penis. The common penile artery branches into 3 arteries, the bulbourethral, the dorsal and the cavernosal arteries. The common penile artery has direct apposition to the ischiopubic ramus. This artery is therefore commonly injured during blunt perineal traumatic events such as falling onto the top tube of a bicycle.

The penis is innervated by autonomic (parasympathetic and sympathetic) and somatic (sensory and motor) nerves.

The cavernosal nerves are branches of the pelvic plexus that innervate the corpora cavernosa of the penis. Injury to this branch may occur during radical prostatectomy, during urethral surgery, such as internal urethrotomy and from electrocautery injury during transurethral surgery.


The penis is the common output tract for urine and sperm. It is a structure that is under the control of a complex series of reflexes, neuronal and humoral control. It contains several aggregations of “cavernous” tissue that under certain conditions can become engorged with blood, causing the penis to become rigid. In this state the penis is capable of delivering the genetic material contained in the sperm during

The penile erectile apparatus consists of paired vascular spongy organs (corpora cavernosa) that are closely attached to each other except in the proximal third. The corpus spongiosum with the urethra is related to the ventral aspect of the penile shaft and expands distally to from the glans penis. The pendulous part of the penis if 4-6 inches (?10.2-15.2 cm) long. The penile skin is continuous with that of the lower abdominal wall and continues over the glans penis to form the prepuce; it then folds itself to reattach at the coronal sulcus. The penile skin envelopes the shaft and can be moved freely over the erect organ. The underlying fascial layer or dartos fascia (Colles’ fascia) is continuous with Scarpa’s fascia of the lower abdominal wall; inferiorly, it continues as the dartos fascia of the scrotum and Colles’ fascia of the perineum and attaches to the posterior border of the perineal membrane. The superficial dorsal vein is seen in this layer of the fascia. Buck’s fascia is the deep layer of the penile fascia that covers both the corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum in separate fascial compartments. Proximally, Buck;s fascia is attached to the perineal membrane; distally, it is tightly attached to the base of the glans penis at the coronal sulcus, where it fuses with the ends of the corpora. Th ischiocavernosus and the bulbospongiosus muscles lie beneath Colles’ fascia, but superficial to Buck’s fascia, to which their intrinsic fascia is loosely attached. Buck’s fascia has a dense structure and is composed of longitudinally running fibers; it is firmly attached to the underlying tunica albuginea and encloses the deep dorsal vein, dorsal arteries and dorsal nerves.

The fundiform ligament is a thickening of the superficial penile fascia, deep to which is the suspensory ligament which is a continuity with Buck’s fascia. The attachment of the ligament to the pubic symphysis maintains the penile position during erection. Severance of this ligament will lead to a lower angulation of the penile shaft during erection.

The tunica albuginea forms a thick fibrous coat to the spongy tissue of the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum. It consists of two layers, the outer longitudinal and the inner circular. The tunica albuginea becomes thicker centrally where it forms a groove to accommodate the corpus spongiosum. As the crura diverge proximally, the circular layer provides the support. The corpora are separated in the center by an intercavernous septum. The septum is incomplete distally, perforated on its dorsal margin by vertically orientated openings in the pectiniform septum that provides communication between the corpora. Along the inner aspect of the tunica albuginea, numerous flattened columns or sinusoidal trabeculae composed of fibrous tissue, elastin fibers and smooth muscle surround the endothelium-lined sinusoids or cavernous spaces. In addition, a row of structural trabeculae arises near the junction of the three corporal bodies and inserts in the wall of the corpora about the midplane of the circumference. The tunical albuginea provides a tough uniform backing for the engorged sinusoidal spaces. The tunical albuginea of the corpus spongiosum is thinner and contains smooth muscles that aid ejaculation. The glans is devoid of tunica albuginea. The corpus spongiosum becomes bulbous where it is covered by the bulbospongiosus to form the urethral bulb.

The ischiocavernosus is a paired muscle that arises from the inner surface of the inschial tuberosity and inserts into the medial and inferior surface of the corpora. These muscles increase penile turgor during erection beyond that attainable by arterial pressure alone. They are supplied by the perineal branch of the perineal nerve (S3-4).

The bulbospongiosus muscle invests the bulb of the urethra and distal corpus spongiosum. It arises from the central tendon of the perineum. The fibres run obliquely upwards and laterally on each side of the bulb and insert in the midline dorsally. The muscle is supplied by a deep branch of the perineal nerve and helps to empty the last few drops of urine and to ejaculate semen.


The arterial supply to the erectile apparatus originates from superficial and deep arterial systems. The superficial arterial system arises as two symmetrically arranged vessels arising from the inferior external pudendal artery (a branch of the femoral artery). Each of these vessels divides inito a dorsolateral and ventrolateral branch, which supply the skin o fhte shaft and prepuce. At the coronal sulcus there is a communication with the deep arterial system. The deep arterial system arises from the internal pudendal artery, which is the final branch of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery. This passes dorsal to the sacrospinous ligament at the level of the ischial spine and passes through Alcock’s canal. As it emerges, it divides into the perineal and penile arteries, running deep to the superficial transverse perineal muscle and pubic symphysis. It pierces the urogenital diaphragm meddial to the inferior ramus fo the ischium close to the bulb of the urethra and then divides into three branches—the bulbourethral artery, the urethral artery and the cavernous artery or deep artery of the penis; it terminates as the deep dorsal artery of the penis. An accessory internal pudendal artery may arise from the obturator, inferior vesical or superior vesical and may be damaged during radical prostatectomy in as many as 50% of patients. The bulbo-urethral artery supplies the bulb of the urethra, the corpus spongiosum and the glans penis. It may arise from the cavernous, dorsal or acessory pudendal arteries. The urethral artery commonly arises as a separate branch form the penile artery, but may arise from the artery to the bulb, the cavernous or the dorsal artery. It runs on the ventral surface of the corpus spongiosum beneath the tunica albuginea.

The cavernous artery (deep artery fo the penis) usually arises form the penile artery, but may originate from the accessory pudendal. It runs lateral to the cavernous vein along he dorsomedial surface of the crura to enter the erectile tissue where the two corpora fuse; it then continues in the center of the corpora cavernosa.

The dorsal artery of the penis is the termination of the penile artery; it runs over the resepctive crus and then along the dorsolateral surface of the penis as far as the glans between the dorsal vein medially and dorsal nerve of the penis laterally. This artery has tortuous configuration to accommodate for elongation during erection. It may arise from the accessory internal pudendal artery within the pelvis, and thus may be at risk during radical pelvic surgery. On its way to the glans, it gives off circumflex arteries to supply the corpus spongiosum. Distally, the dorsal artery runs in a ventrolateral position near the sulcus prior to entering the glans. The frenular branch of the dorsal artery curves around each side of the distal shaft to enter the frenulum and glans ventrally.


Arterial blood is conveyed to the erectile tissues in the deep arterial system by means of dorsal, cavernous and bulbo-urethral arteries. The cavernous artery (deep artery of the penis) gives off multiple helicine arteries among the cavernous spaces within the center of the erectile tissue. Most of these open directly into the sinusoids bounded by trabecular, but a few helicine arteries terminate in capillaries that supply the trabeculae. The petiniform septum distally provides communication between the two corpora. The emissory veins at the periphery collect the blood from the sinusoids through the subalbugineal venous plexuses and empty it into the circumflex veins which drain into the deep dorsal vein. With erection, the arteriolar and sinusoidal walls relax secondary to neurotransmitters and the cavernous spaces dilate, enlarging the corporal bodies and stretching the tunica albuginea. The venous tributaries between the sinusoids and the subabugineal venous plexus are compressed by the dilating sinusoids and the stretched tunica albuginea. The direction of blood flow could be summarized as follows: cavernous artery -> helicine arteries -> sinusoids -> post-cavernous venules -> subalbugineal venous plexuses -> emissary vein.


The venous drainage system consists of three distinct groups of veins—superficial, intermediate and deep. The superficial drainage system consists of venous drainage from the penile skin and prepuce which drain into the superficial dorsal vein that runs under the superficial penile fascia (Colles’) and joins the saphenous vein via the external pudendal vein. The intermediate system consists of the deep dorsal vein and circumflex veins that drain the glans, corpus spongiosum and distal two-thirds of the corpora cavernosa. The veins leave the glans via a retrocoronal plexus to join the deep dorsal vein that runs in the groove between the corpora. Emissary veins from the corpora join the circumflex veins; the latter communicate with each other at the side by lateral veins and corresponding veins from the opposite side, and run under Buck’s fascia before emptying obliquely into the deep dorsal vein. The latter passes through a psace in the suspensory igament and between the puboprostatic ligament and drains into the internal iliac veins. The deep drainage system consists of the cavernous vein, bulbar vein and crural veins. Blood from the sinusoids from the proximal third of the penis, carried by emissary veins, drains directly into the cavernous veins at the periphery of the corpora cavernosa. The two cavernous veins join to form the main cavernous vein that lies under the cavernous artery and nerves. The cavernous vein runs between the bulb and the crus to drain into the internal pudendal vein; it forms the main venous drainage of the corpora cavernosa. The crural veins arise from the dorsolateral surface of each crus and unite to drain into the internal pudendal vein. The bulb is drained by the bulbar vein, which drains into the prostatic plexus.


The lymphatics from the penile skin and prepuce run proximally towards the presymphyseal plexus and then divide to right and left trunks to join the lymphatics from the scrotum and perineum. They run along superficial external pudendal vessels into the superficial inguinal nodes, especially the superomedial group. Some drainage occurs through the femoral canal into Cloquet’s node. The lymphatics from the glans and penile urethra drain into deep inguinal nodes, presymphyseal nodes and, occasionally, into external iliac nodes.


Somatic innervation arises from sacral spinal segments S2-4 via the pudendal nerve. The perineal branch of the pudendal nerve supplies the posterior part of the scrotum and the rectal nerve to the inferior rectal area. The pudendal nerve continues as the dorsal nerve of the penis, which runs over the surface of the obturator internus under the levator, runs deep to the urogenital diaphragm, and passes through the deep transverse perineal muscle to run along the dorsum of the penis accompanied by the dorsal vein and dorsal artery. In epispadia and exstrophy the dorsal nerves are displaced laterally in the middle and distal portion of the penile shaft. Cultaneous nerves to the penis and scrotum arise form the dorsal and posterior branch of the pudendal nerve. The anterior part of the scrotum and proximal penis is supplied by the ilioinguinal nerve after it leaves the superficial inguinal ring. The pudendal nerve supplies the ischiocavernous and bulbocavernous muscles. It branches into the inferior rectal nerve and the scrotal nerve and continues as the dorsal nerve of the penis.

Autonomic nerves consist of sympathetics that arise from lumbar segments L1 and L2 and parasympathetics from S2-4 (nervi erigentes or pelvic nerve). Lumbar splanchnic nerves join the superior hypogastric plexus over the aortic bifurcation, left common vein and sacral promontory. From this plexus, right and left hypogastric nerves travel medial to the internal iliac artery to the inferior hypogastric plexus. The pelvic plexus adjacent to the base of the bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles and rectum contain parasympathetic fibers as well. Nerves from the inferior pelvic plexus supply the prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymis, membranous and penile urethra and bulbo-urethral gland.


The cavernous nerves arise from the pelvic plexus from the lateral surface of the rectum. These nerves run posterolateral to the apex, mid-portion and base of the prostate anterior to Denonvilliers’ fascia between the posterolateral surface of the prostate and the rectum to lie between the lateral pelvic fascia and the prostatic fascia. The branches from the cavernous nerve accompany the branches of the prostatovesicular artery and provide a macroscopic landmark for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. The cavernous nerve leaves the pelvis between the transverse perineal muscles and membranous urethra before passing beneath the pubic arch to supply each corpus cavernosum; it also supplies the corpus cavernosum and penile urethra, and terminates in a delicate network around the erectile tissue.

The History of the Female Reproductive System

The History of the Female Reproductive System


“Turn outward the woman’s, turn inward, so
to speak, and fold double the man’s, and you will find the same in both in every
respect.”  — Galen, 2nd century A. D.

Physicians throughout time have analyzed, compared,
and puzzled over the male and female
reproductive organs.  In 1620, the Scottish medical student John Moir aptly
summed up the problems of this elusive subject:  “A consideration of
the genital members is very difficult, and everything should not be revealed
particularly with youths, because sin makes the subject of generation diabolical
and full of shame, and a discussion might excite impure acts.” 
Christianity, at least, had to overcome its special shame over this part of the
body in order to inquire further into its structure.

Were men and women different?  Were they
different in degree or in kind?  From antiquity through the Renaissance, most physicians
portrayed the female and male reproductive organs as counterparts of each
other and wrote of homologous anatomical structures.  Female genital organs
were often explained as “lesser” male organs due to differences
in size, complexion and orientation.  Words such as testes applied
to both male and female reproductive parts, since it was believed that both
produce substance by similar means that contributed to generation.  What
that substance was became a matter of heated debate.  In the fourth century
B. C., Aristotle wrote that man contributed the form of humanity through his
semen, while woman contributed only brute matter — a substance less pure and
less sanctified than semen itself.  Hippocrates and Galen preferred to
describe human conception as occurring from two “seeds,” though they
differed slightly on the relative importance of each contribution.  In this
model, both men and women produced semen.

The Aristotelian model of the body emphasized
sexual difference, though it harbored the potential for a Platonic universe in
which all creatures might become male.  Galen, as a physician, could not
envision such a world.  Instead he sought to understand
the nature of the difference of the sexes through their commonality.  His
elaborate though experiment yielded the following:  “[T]he scrotum would necessarily take the place of the uteri, with
the testes lying outside, next to it on either side; the penis of the male
would become the neck of the cavity that had been formed; and the skin at
the end of the penis, now called the prepuce, would become the female pudendum
[the vagina] itself.”  Look at the two images from Vesalius.  How
does they contain traces of Galen’s idea?

Debates about these different models of the body continued
throughout the Middle Ages.  We might even say that they intensified as
Aristotle and Galen became key authorities in philosophy and medicine
respectively, and moral questions of sexuality became of increasing interest in
medieval society.  In the early eleventh century, we can see the Islamic
medical philosopher Avicenna reintroducing Aristotle’s ideas of sexual
difference.  In the Canon of Medicine, he
wrote:  “According to the teaching of philosophy, the process of generation
may be compared with the processes which take place in the manufacture of
cheese. Thus the male ‘sperm’ is equivalent to the clotting agent of milk,
and the female ‘sperm’ is equivalent to that of milk. The starting point
of the clotting is in the rennet; so the starting-point of the clot ‘man
‘ is in the male semen.”  He even cited a saying of the Prophet to
support this idea:   “We made the life-germ a clot.” 
By contrast, Master Nicolaus of Salerno appears a fairly orthodox Galenist in
the late twelfth century, when he writes of the testes:  “In
men they are large, in women small. In both sexes they germinate sperm.” 
Compare these two medieval images of male and female anatomy from Islam and
Europe.  What information is each trying to convey?

Galen’s neat idea of the uterus as an interior
scrotum notwithstanding, most medieval medical practitioners believed the uterus
to be a distinctly female organ that caused a host of specifically female
diseases.  “The uterus is called also matrix because it is the
mother of all,” wrote John Moir in 1620.  It was a cold and dry
organ.  Less attractively, some proposed that the uterus was a
“sewer” — a site of noxious poisons that caused diseases such as the
“suffocation of the mother,” a condition in which the womb wandered
throughout the body and which the Greeks described as hysteria.  No
equivalent male organ could be found that affected the body so dramatically.

The uterus was also the site of a great deal of
reproductive speculation.  For centuries, its structure was thought to
reveal the mysteries of the number and sex of its offspring.  “It is hollow and villous within,
smooth outside, divided into seven cells, and has two openings,” wrote
Master Nicolaus, reflecting the standard view that the womb had as many
divisions as the days of the week and could yield a maximum of seven children at
a time.  Mondino de’ Liuzzi affirmed this idea in 1316.  Others divided the womb simply into two
parts, arguing that males were born on the right side and females on the
left.  “Woman was endowed with two wombs,” wrote Moses Maimonides
in the late twelfth century, arguing that they corresponded to the number of
breasts.  Many insisted on a central cell in which hermaphrodites were
born.  Finally, anatomists argued for the presence of uterine horns, an
error that arose from dissecting animals.  Look at the medieval images of
the uterus on the right.  Can you see the uterine horns?  What other
peculiarities do you observe?  Look at the sixteenth-century diagram of the
uterus on the left.  What features of the medieval uterus do you still see?

By contrast, the male reproductive organs
were described in far less detail, undoubtedly because there was little
considered to be peculiar about them.  “The origin of the penis is situated upon the pubic bone in that
it can resist it’s active force on coition,” wrote Leonardo da Vinci at the
end of the fifteenth century.  “If this bone did not exist,
the penis in meeting resistance would turn backwards and would often enter
more into the body of the operator that into that of the operated.” 
Medical practitioners devoted far more attention to male reproductive fluids
than to male reproductive anatomy.  In the Galenic model, both men and
women were believed to have “seminal vessels” that carried sperm to
its point of exit; at the end of the fifteenth century, Jacopo Berengario da
Carpi affirmed that these vessels must be longer in the male because male semen
was “thicker.”  How male sperm was generated was a source of some
speculation.  Did it come directly from the brain via the spinal
cord?  Was it concocted from purified blood?  “The semen is a superfluous nourishment of the body, a material
pure and separate from the principle members necessary for generation,”
wrote Alessandro Benedetti in 1497.  ” It is believed on the authority of Galen that it is drawn from the brain.”  

Benedetti also noted one fact of male anatomy that
continued to suggest the connections between the sexes.  “When [the
testicles] are cut off the masculine form and behavior is almost completely
changed and becomes feminine, for men lose their strength, boldness, habits, and
beard.”  In 1653, William Harvey also concurred, citing ancient
authority: “Rufus says that eunuchs, as I believe, are
women.”  Males could become more female, though it rarely happened by
nature alone but through surgical intervention.  Accounts of lactating
monks and fathers who breastfed their daughters after the death of the mother
suggested that other circumstances might render the male body female.  More
easily, the female body might become male at puberty, much in the way that Galen
had suggested:  the inside simply dropped out.  While the uterus was
predominantly female and a strong, life-giving semen predominantly male, neither
sex could claim absolute autonomy.

Several key developments altered the traditional
images of the reproductive organs.  Vesalius and his followers began to
give more physical specificity to the human uterus.  Initially, Vesalius in
1543 prominently displayed the uterine horns — he described them as “two
blunt angles .. which resembe the immature honrs on the foreheads of
calves” — but he began to wonder why they, like the cells of the uterus
were so difficult to see.  In the 1570s, Laurent Joubert stoutly
contradicted the idea of the womb “being divided in two in the manner of
animals” or having “booths separated one from another.”

New anatomical features of the female genitalia
emerged.  In 1559, the anatomist Realdo Colombo claimed to have discovered
the clitoris, which cast some doubt on Galen’s claims about the nature of an
interior penis, not to mention the idea that women took no pleasure in
conception.  By the end of the century, Gabrielle Fallopia had identified
the Fallopian tubes, though no one was yet sure what there function was. 
Look at the Renaissance illustration to the right.  How can we see some of
the changes in female anatomy depicted here?

In the seventeenth century, the vocabulary for the
male and female bodies grew much more specific to each sex.  Terms such as
“ovaries” are a product of an era of increased dissection and
ultimately the introduction of the microscope as a tool of investigation. 
In 1672, for example, the Dutch anatomist Renier de Graaf published On the
Generative Organs of Women
, in which he mistakenly identified the Graafian
follicles, by which we now remember him, as “eggs.”  Like his
predecessor William Harvey, de Graaf placed great emphasis on woman’s
contribution to reproduction.

By contrast, the Dutch microscopist Antoni van
Leeuwenhoek argued by the end of the 1670s that “a human being originates not from an egg but from an
animalcule that is found in the male semen.”  The sins of Adam and Eve
had yet to be resolved.  In the meantime, the formation of the offspring of
this union remained the ultimate mystery of all — a human seed, both male and
female, immaterial and material, that both sexes claimed for their
own.   Look at Leonardo’s famous image of the human fetus to the
right.  Its uterus resembles nothing more than an acorn cracked open, a
birth of nature rather than of mankind.




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Some Additional Readings

90,000 Anatomy of the male genitourinary system. Urology and Andrology

Anatomy of the male genitourinary system

Human upper urinary tract

Lower urinary tract and male genital organs

Urinary bladder

human urinary system. The bladder is located in the pelvis behind the bones of the bosom, up from the prostate, in front of the rectum.Part of the upper and posterior walls of the bladder is covered by the parietal peritoneum.
The following parts are anatomically distinguished in the bladder:

  • Bladder floor
  • Bladder walls (anterior, lateral, posterior)
  • Bladder neck

The right and left ureters are suitable for the posterior inferior surface of the bladder. The bladder neck continues into the urethra (urethra). When full, the bladder can protrude above the bosom. In this state, the bladder can be palpated with hands in the lower abdomen directly above the bosom in the form of a rounded formation, when pressed, the urge to urinate arises.The bladder capacity is usually 200-400 ml. The inner surface of the bladder is covered with a mucous membrane.
The main functions of the urinary bladder

  • In the accumulation and retention of urine (continuously flowing from the kidneys through the ureters)
  • In urine excretion

Urine accumulation in the bladder occurs due to the adaptation of the walls of the bladder to the volume of incoming urine (relaxation and stretching the walls without significantly increasing intravesical pressure).With a certain degree of stretching of the walls of the bladder, the urge to urinate is felt. A healthy adult can retain urine despite the urge to urinate. The retention of urine inside the bladder is carried out using the apparatus of sphincters (valves), which compress the lumen of the bladder neck and urethra. There are two main sphincters of the bladder: the first is involuntary (consists of smooth muscle fibers), located in the urinary neck at the exit to the urethra, the second is arbitrary (consists of striated muscle fibers), located in the middle part of the pelvic urethra and is part of pelvic floor muscles.During the act of urination, which is normally carried out in an adult at will, both sphincters relax and the walls of the bladder contract, which leads to the expulsion of urine. Dysfunction of the muscles that expel urine and the sphincters leads to various disorders of urination. Frequent diseases of the bladder are infectious inflammation of the mucous membrane (cystitis), stones, tumors and disorders of the nervous regulation of its functions.

Corpus cavernosum

The corpus cavernosum is the structural part of the penis.The cavernous bodies (right and left) are cylindrical and located inside the penis. The spongy (spongy) body of the penis is subject to the ventral surface of the cavernous bodies, parallel to them.
Anatomically in the cavernous body distinguish:

  • Apex (apex) – distal part
  • Middle part
  • Leg – proximal part

In the apical part, the cavernous bodies are covered by the head of the penis, which is part of the spongy body.At the pubic joint in the proximal part, the cavernous bodies diverge to the sides downward and posteriorly parallel to the descending (ischial) branches of the pubic bones, to which they are attached by ligaments. In the area of ​​the pubic articulation, the cavernous bodies are attached to the bones using the unpaired funnel-shaped ligament. Cavernous bodies can be felt in the form of rollers on the right and left inside the penis.
The main function of the corpus cavernosum is to ensure an erection of the penis (increase in size and hardening of the penis during sexual arousal).
The corpus cavernosum consists of a cavernous tissue surrounded by a tunica albuginea. The cavernous tissue has a cellular structure. Each cavity (cell) has the ability to change its internal volume by changing the tone of smooth muscle elements (trabecular muscles) included in the structure of the cavity walls. Blood enters the caverns through arterioles radiating from the cavernous artery, located centrally inside the corpus cavernosum. With sexual arousal, in response to the release of a mediator (NO – nitric oxide) due to relaxation of the trabecular muscles and muscles of the walls of the cavernous arteries, the lumen of the cavernous arteries and the volume of the caverns increase.The increase in blood flow to the cavernous tissue and the filling of the cavernous tissue with a large volume of blood leads to an increase in the total volume of the cavernous tissue (tumescence or swelling of the penis). Normally, the outflow of blood from the cavernous tissue is carried out through the venous plexuses located directly under the tunica albuginea. When the venous plexuses are pressed against the tunica albuginea due to an increase in the volume of the cavernous tissue during tumescence (the basis of the veno-occlusive mechanism), there is a decrease in the outflow of blood from the cavernous bodies, leading to the appearance of a hard erection.At the end of sexual activity (usually after ejaculation), the release of norepinephrine, a sympathetic mediator that increases the tone of the trabecular muscles, leads to the disappearance of an erection (detumescence) in the reverse order of the appearance of an erection. Insufficient blood flow to the corpora cavernosa, excessive outflow of venous blood from the corpora cavernosa, damage to the nerves that conduct signals to the appearance of an erection, as well as damage to the cavernous tissue leads to a deterioration in the quality of sperm and erection up to its complete absence (impotence).
The tunica albuginea is the sheath of the corpus cavernosum and consists of elastic connective tissue. During an erection, the tunica albuginea, evenly stretching in different directions, provides a symmetrical enlargement of the penis. Congenital disorders of the elasticity of the tunica albuginea, scarring after penile trauma, and the formation of fibrous plaques on the tunica albuginea in Peyronie’s disease can lead to curvature of the penis during erection.


The kidneys are the main and most important paired organ of the human urinary system.The kidneys are bean-shaped, 10–12 x 4–5 cm in size and are located in the retroperitoneal space on the sides of the spine. The right kidney is cut in half by the line of the right 12th rib, while 1/3 of the left kidney is above the line of the left 12th rib, and 2/3 is below (i.e., the right kidney is slightly lower than the left). On inspiration and during the transition of a person from a horizontal to a vertical position, the kidneys are displaced downward by 3-5 cm. The fixation of the kidneys in the normal position is ensured by the ligamentous apparatus and the supporting effect of the perirenal tissue.The lower pole of the kidneys can be felt with the hands while inhaling in the right and left hypochondria.
The main functions of the kidneys are:

  • In the regulation of the body’s water-salt balance (maintaining the necessary concentrations of salts and the volume of fluid in the body)
  • In the removal of unnecessary and harmful (toxic) substances from the body
  • In the regulation of blood pressure

The kidney, by filtering the blood, produces urine, which is collected in the cavity system and excreted through the ureters into the bladder and further out.Normally, all the blood circulating in the body passes through the kidneys in about 3 minutes. In a minute, 70-100 ml of primary urine is filtered in the renal glomeruli, which subsequently concentrates in the renal tubules, and per day an adult eventually releases an average of 1-1.5 liters of urine (300-500 ml less than he drank) … The renal cavity system consists of cups and pelvis. There are three main groups of kidney cups: upper, middle and lower. The main groups of cups, connecting, form the renal pelvis, which then continues into the ureter.The advancement of urine is provided by peristaltic (rhythmic wave-like) contractions of the muscle fibers of the walls of the renal cups and pelvis. The inner surface of the renal cavity system is lined with a mucous membrane (transitional epithelium). Violation of the outflow of urine from the kidney (stone or narrowing of the ureter, vesicoureteral reflux, ureterocele) leads to increased pressure and expansion of the cavity system. Prolonged impairment of the outflow of urine from the cavity system of the kidney can cause damage to its tissue and serious impairment of its function.The most common kidney diseases are: bacterial inflammation of the kidney (pyelonephritis), urolithiasis, tumors of the kidney and renal pelvis, congenital and acquired abnormalities of the kidney structure, leading to impaired outflow of urine from the kidney (hydrocalicosis, hydronephrosis). Other kidney diseases include glomerulonephritis, polycystic and amyloidosis. Many kidney diseases can lead to high blood pressure. The most serious complication of kidney disease is renal failure, which requires the use of an artificial kidney device or a donor kidney transplant.


The prostate gland (prostate) is one of the organs of the male reproductive system. The prostate has the shape of a chestnut, is located in the small pelvis of a man downward from the bladder, posterior to the bones of the womb, anterior to the rectum and covers the initial sections of the urethra on four sides. The seminal vesicles are subject to the posterior surface of the prostate. The posterior surface of the prostate can be felt with a finger through the anterior rectal wall. The prostate, being a gland, produces its own secret, which enters the lumen of the urethra through the excretory ducts.
The main functions of the prostate are:

  • In the production of a part of semen (about 30% of the ejaculate volume)
  • In participation in the mechanism of sperm release during intercourse
  • In participation in the mechanisms of urinary retention

To the mechanism of erection penis and violations of its quality, the prostate has no direct relationship.

In the prostate, there are five anatomical and physiological zones:

  • Anterior fibromuscular
  • Peripheral
  • Central
  • Transient (transitional)
  • Periurethral

From a clinical point of view, the peripheral and peripheral zones are of the greatest importance.With age, the transient zone, as a rule, increases in size. With an increase in the size of the transient zone, mechanical compression of the urethra can occur, leading to a violation of the outflow of urine from the bladder. An increase in the transient zone and associated urination disorders is called adenoma or benign hyperplasia of the prostate, which approximately 50% of men at the age of 50 have and, accordingly, 90% of men at the age of 80 years. The importance of the importance of the peripheral zone lies in the fact that about 80% of all cancers of the prostate develop in it.Every sixth to seventh man over 50 has a chance of developing prostate cancer, and this chance increases with age. Another common prostate disease that disrupts a man’s quality of life is prostatitis, or inflammation of the prostate.


Testicles (testes) are the male sex glands. The testicles (right and left) are located in the corresponding halves of the male scrotum. The spermatic cords, consisting of the membranes of the testicle, the testicular artery, the veins of the testicular venous plexus and the vas deferens, fit the upper pole of each testicle.On the lateral surfaces of the testicles, from the upper to the lower poles, the epididymis are located, which at the lower pole of the testicle continue into the vas deferens. The testicles can be felt by hands through the skin of the scrotum in the form of rounded formations of an elastic consistency. The epididymis is felt in the form of rollers on the lateral surface of the testicles.
Basic functions of the testicles :

  • Production of the male sex hormone (testosterone)
  • Production of sperm (male germ cells necessary for the fertilization process)

Basic functions of the epididymis :

  • Conducting the sperm into the testicles duct
  • Implementation of the sperm maturation process.

Anatomically, the testicle has a parenchyma (testicular tissue itself) and a dense and elastic white membrane surrounding the parenchyma. The bulk of the testicular parenchyma is made up of many convoluted microscopic tubules lined with spermatogenic epithelium, consisting of Sertoli cells, on which the formation and maturation of spermatozoa occurs. The tubules collect to the upper pole of the testicle (a network of rectus tubules), where they pass into the tubules of the epididymis. Moving along the tubules of the epididymis, the sperm mature, after which they enter the vas deferens and then through the ejaculatory canals outward through the urethra during ejaculation.Between the tubules in the testicular parenchyma, there are Leydig cells that produce the main male sex hormone, testosterone. The regulation of the concentration of testosterone in the blood is carried out by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland – structures of the brain, due to more or less release of luteinizing hormone, which in turn stimulates Leydig cells to release testosterone. Lack of testosterone secretion can be caused both by poor work of Leydig cells with damage to the testicle (congenital, traumatic or inflammatory changes), and by insufficient release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland.Lack of testosterone leads to infertility, decreased sex drive and sometimes erectile dysfunction.

The testicle, initially developing in the abdominal cavity of the fetus, in the process of intrauterine development gradually moves downward and by the time of delivery (or immediately after them) descends into the scrotal cavity. The need to move the testicles from the abdominal cavity to the scrotum is due to the fact that the process of sperm formation requires a lower temperature than body temperature. Normally, the temperature in the scrotum is 2–4 ° C lower than body temperature.
The transfer of the testicle into the scrotum leads to some peculiarities of the blood supply and structure of the membranes. When passing from the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal, the testicle carries along the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall and the peritoneum, thus acquiring the muscular and vaginal membranes.
The vessels feeding the testicle (artery and veins) originate in the upper abdomen (on the right side – from the aorta and inferior vena cava, on the left side – from the renal artery and vein) and repeat the path of the testicle into the scrotum in the retroperitoneal space and inguinal canals.Violation of the outflow of the testicular veins (occurs more often on the left) leads to the appearance of varicocele (varicose veins of the spermatic cord), which is a common cause of male infertility.
The presence of a muscular membrane (cremaster muscle or muscle lifting the testicle) leads to the appearance of the possibility of pulling the testicle to the outer ring of the inguinal canal. In an upright position, when you run your finger over the skin along the inner surface of the thigh, the testicle begins to rise upward (cremasteric reflex).
The fascination with the testicle behind the parietal (parietal) peritoneum during intrauterine movement of the testicle into the scrotum leads to the formation of a vaginal process (protrusion) of the peritoneum, which by the time of delivery overgrows along the spermatic cord, forming a closed serous cavity near the testicle. Failure of the vaginal process of the peritoneum leads to the appearance of a congenital inguinal hernia or dropsy of the testicle communicating with the abdominal cavity. The accumulation of fluid in a closed cavity inside the vaginal membranes of the testicle leads to the formation of true dropsy of the testicle (hydrocele).
Non-descent of the testicle into the scrotum (cryptorchidism) or stopping further advancement of the testicle in the abdominal cavity or inguinal canal often results in significant damage to all testicular functions (infertility) and is a risk factor for the development of testicular cancer.
Infection from the urethra through the vas deferens into the epididymis often leads to the development of epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis). In sexually active men under the age of 30, acute epididymitis in 65% of cases is associated with a chlamydial infection acquired through sexual contact.Inflammation of the epididymis can lead to male infertility due to tubular blockages. In addition to inflammation, a common disease of the epididymis is the spermatocele (epididymis cyst). One of the acute diseases of the testicle is its torsion, a condition requiring urgent help. This disease is similar to inflammation of the testicle and its epididymis (epididymitis orchiditis), but in the absence of timely assistance, it can lead to testicular necrosis. It occurs more often before the age of 20.


Ureters are part of the human urinary system.The ureters (right and left) begin at the renal pelvis, pass in the retroperitoneal space on the sides of the spinal column, crossing approximately in the middle of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, descend into the pelvic cavity, go along the posterior-inferior surface of the bladder and, passing through the wall, open with the mouths into its cavity. It is impossible to feel the ureters through the abdomen and lower back. The ureters are ducts 27-30 cm long, 5-7 mm in diameter, having a wall with a muscle layer and lined with a mucous membrane along the inner surface (transitional epithelium).The main function of the ureters is to carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Conduction of urine is carried out due to involuntary peristaltic (rhythmic wave-like) contractions of the muscular membrane of the walls of the ureters. Every 15–20 seconds, alternately from the ureters, urine enters the bladder cavity in portions. Each ureter has mechanisms that prevent the backflow (reflux) of urine from the bladder cavity with an increase in intravesical pressure (including when the bladder contracts during urination).Reflux of urine can impair the function of the ureter and kidney.
Each ureter has 3 physiological constrictions I, located at the site of origin from the renal pelvis; on the border of their middle and lower third at the intersection with the iliac vessels; at the point of passage inside the wall of the bladder.
The presence of narrowing of the ureters is important in urolithiasis, when a calculus (urinary calculus) that has entered the ureter from the kidney can linger at the site of the narrowing, disrupting the outflow of urine through the ureter, thus causing renal colic (paroxysmal pain in the lower back and the corresponding half belly).The most common diseases of the ureters are: stones of the ureters, strictures of the ureters (pathological narrowing of the lumen), vesicoureteral reflux, ureterocele (cystic enlargement of the intravesical part of the ureter). Tumors of the ureter are rare.


The urethra (urethra) is part of the woman’s urinary system and the man’s urinary and reproductive systems.
In men, the urethra, 20 cm long, is located both in the pelvis and inside the penis, and opens with an external opening on its head.

Anatomically distinguish the following sections of the male urethra :

  • Outside foramen
  • Scaphoid fossa
  • Penile section
  • Bulbous section
  • Membranous section
  • Prostatic section (proximal and distal sections

    taken from

    The prostatic urethra passes through the prostate and divides into proximal and distal portions at the level of the seminal tubercle.In the proximal part of the prostatic urethra, along the posterolateral surfaces, the excretory ducts of the prostatic glands open with the mouths. On the sides of the seminal tubercle are the mouths of the right and left ejaculatory ducts, through which sperm enters the lumen of the urethra from the seminal vesicles and vas deferens. Elements of the urethral sphincter are located in the distal section of the prostatic section and in the membranous section of the urethra. Starting with the bulbar section, the urethra runs inside the corpus spongiosum of the penis.The bulbar section is located inside the bulb of the spongy body. In the membranous and bulbar regions, the urethra bends anteriorly upward. In the penile section, the urethra is located medially along the ventral surface of the penis from top to bottom from the cavernous bodies. The capitate part of the urethra is located inside the glans penis. The inner surface of the male and female urethra is covered with a mucous membrane (transitional epithelium, with the exception of a non-extended area near the external opening, where there is a squamous non-keratinizing epithelium).

    Basic functions of the urethra in a man:

    • Conducting urine from the bladder to the outside
    • Conducting sperm outside during ejaculation (ejaculation)
    • Involvement in the mechanism of urinary retention

    The most common diseases of the urethra


  • Urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) is often due to sexually transmitted infections (gonococcus, chlamydia, ureoplasma, etc.).
  • Strictures (narrowing of the lumen) of the urethra in its various parts (due to the formation: congenital, traumatic and inflammatory origin).
  • Anomalies in the development of the urethra: the most common – hypospadias (the location of the external opening of the urethra on the ventral surface of the penis is more proximal than the apex of the glans).

Seminal vesicles

Seminal vesicles are organs of the male reproductive system. The seminal vesicles (right and left) are located on the posterior surface of the prostate on the sides of it, posterior to the bladder, anterior to the rectum. The seminal vesicles can be felt with a finger through the anterior rectal wall on the sides of the basal prostate.The vas deferens are suitable for the seminal vesicles, which, after joining the seminal vesicles, pass into the ejaculatory ducts. The ejaculatory ducts pass through the prostate and open with their mouths into the lumen of the prostatic urethra on the sides of the seminal tubercle. The tissue of the seminal vesicle has a cellular structure.

The main functions of the seminal vesicles are:

  • In the production of a significant part of the seminal fluid (up to 75% of the ejaculate volume).
  • In the accumulation of semen components until the moment of ejaculation (there are usually no spermatozoa from seminal vesicles, and the main receptacle of spermatozoa is the ampulla of the vas deferens).
  • Participation in the mechanism of ejaculation (at the time of ejaculation, the contents of the seminal vesicles and vas deferens enter the urethra through the ejaculatory ducts, where it mixes with the secretion of the prostate and is excreted).

Pathology of the seminal vesicles (usually inflammation – vesiculitis) can lead to a deterioration in the quality of sperm and infertility.

Testicular arteries and veins

Testicular veins and arteries are the vessels that feed the male sex glands – the testes. On each side are located one testicular artery and one, and more often several, testicular veins. On the right side, the testicular artery departs from the aorta, and the testicular vein flows into the inferior vena cava. On the left side, the testicular artery departs from the left renal artery, and the testicular vein flows into the left renal vein. The testicular vessels pass vertically to the right and left in the retroperitoneal space lateral to the ureters, penetrate into the inguinal canal through the inner inguinal ring, and as part of the spermatic cord, leaving through the outer inguinal ring, they approach the upper pole of the testis.As part of the spermatic cord and in the scrotum, the testicular veins form the testicular venous plexus. The outer diameter of the testicular artery is usually 0.5–1.0 mm.
The most common pathology associated with testicular vessels is varicocele (varicose veins of the testicular venous plexus). Varicocele develops, as a rule, in young people aged 12-15 years more often on the left side. With insufficiency of venous valves and increased pressure in the system of the left testicular vein (anatomical predisposition) due to the flow of blood in the opposite direction, compensatory expansion of the scrotal veins of varying degrees occurs.Disturbances in the blood supply to the testicle (high venous pressure) and disturbances in the thermoregulation of the scrotum (the testicle is located in the scrotum to work at temperatures below body temperature, and a large mass of blood in the dilated veins violates these conditions) leads to dysfunction of the testicle. Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Moreover, the longer there is a varicocele, the greater the likelihood of pronounced violations of sperm quality (sperm concentration and their motility) and the degree of hormonal changes.In recent years, it has been established that varicocele can be the cause of an earlier onset of male menopause.

The ideal body as imagined by the ancient Greeks

  • Vincent Dowd
  • Art Correspondent, BBC World Service

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In Greece, the naked body of a man was perceived in a positive way curator of the British Museum Iyan Jenkins

Artists of ancient Greece were not at all shy about nudity, especially male.They sometimes covered women’s uniforms, but everywhere they depicted men without clothes.

The “Definition of Beauty” exhibition at the British Museum demonstrates to visitors how the Greeks were imbued with the idea of ​​physical perfection. According to the curator of the exhibition, they were guided by approximately the same motives as our contemporaries who pump their muscles in the gym.

Dr. Iyan Jenkins is a specialist in Classical Greek Sculpture at the British Museum. However, even he cannot say for sure why it was in Ancient Greece that the naked body was valued more than in other cultures of that time.

“If you remember the culture of Assyria or Egypt, or Cyprus, they had certain complexes regarding nudity, in particular male, – unlike the Greeks,” he says.

“The same was true of Roman culture until it was influenced by the Greek. I don’t think there is a simple explanation.”

“Perhaps partly this stems from the fact that culture as such played an extremely important role in Greece. Common cultural values, a common language and the recognition of the Olympian gods are what united the Greeks,” the scientist said.

“So, the understanding of bodily beauty may have been one of the links between disparate city-states that would otherwise be difficult to perceive as one nation or empire. Of course, not all works of ancient Greek art depict nudity, but there are many of them. For For the Greeks, the body had only a positive meaning: they were not ashamed of it. ”

Some of the exhibits are teetering on the brink of decent. But, according to Jenkins, “nudity” can be different.

“It’s one thing if in the middle of the main street of Athens your elastic band in your underwear was torn – it’s embarrassing. But there was another nudity – so to speak, a sign of a club, at least a man’s one. It was clearly stipulated by the rules.”

“For example, getting naked in an ancient Greek school of martial arts is, in fact, entering a sophisticated society. Images of nudity were found everywhere and hardly shocked anyone.”

The “Definition of Beauty” exhibition includes about 150 exhibits, mainly sculptures.There are excellent originals from ancient times (dated 2500 BC), as well as marble or bronze copies from the Roman and modern times.

Pidpis to photo,

According to curator Iyan Jenkins, modern fitness fashion brings us and the ancient Greeks closer together

The museum’s management included a part of Elgin marble in the exhibition, prompting us to consider them in a new context. Some other colors of the British Museum have also temporarily moved here, in particular the marble statue “Discobolus”.

Among the exhibits – and many borrowed, such as the “Belvedere Torso” from the Vatican – severely damaged, but still striking sculpture, dating back to the 1st century. BC.

The Bronze Apoxyomenos (an athlete wiping sweat from his naked body) came from Croatia, near the coast of which he was accidentally discovered in 1996.

“The Definition of Beauty” does not just talk about the “alpha males” of Ancient Greece – it is this part of the exhibition that finds the greatest response in the present.

Paul Stendell – actor and private trainer; his site invites clients to achieve a certain type of figure that few aspired to twenty years ago.

Customers today often express a desire to “have a body like a Greek statue.”

“This desire is typical for men. Perhaps they really want to have the appearance of Brad Pitt from” Troy “or Dwayne Johnson from” Hercules “- I suspect that it is from the films that they get their idea of ​​what kind of body they had Greek heroes or gods.They want to pump up their biceps and chest, have “cubes” on their stomach. “

What does Paul think about the 3000-year-old bronze athlete? Both Apoxyomenus and Discobolus possess most of the physical qualities that are still required of athletic models today, “he says.

” The most important thing is proportion. The ratio of the waist and shoulders should be 1: 1.4 – this is exactly what the characters of the exhibition have. They also have a nice abs with oblique muscles that outline the middle of the body. “

“They have beautifully sculpted calves, and the shoulders and chest are visually separated, as it should be. This is what many of our contemporaries strive for,” the coach said.

“But interestingly, today’s tastes go even further. Regrettably, an agent hiring athletic models in London or Los Angeles might have sent the ancient Greek guys to extra classes – to have even more relief, even more expressiveness. Or maybe they just do not have enough tan. “

After examining the exhibition, Stendell concluded that the ancient Greeks had a more realistic view of anatomy than we do today.

“Of course they didn’t have Photoshop!” he jokes.

Jenkins notes that the female exhibits show more modesty – their bodies are only partially open.

Pidpis to the photo,

The female body in art was portrayed more restrained than the male

According to the social norms of Ancient Greece, decent women never showed their naked bodies.

“Therefore, for example, Aphrodite (the goddess of love. – Ed. ) is presented at the moment when she is preparing to swim – after all, this is an example of a situation in which a woman has a good reason to be naked. And even such stories appeared closer to the end of ancient period “.

“Sculptors often covered shameful places with drapery or the hand of a sculpture. Of course, one can argue here that drapery in a delicate sculptural performance can only enhance the effect of eroticism.”

According to Jenkins, modern fitness fashion brings us closer to the ancient Greeks, who also admired the beauty of the body.

“We have become more outspoken about fitness, and this trend is increasing. Just remember the newest interest in tattoos and piercings: these ways of decorating the body, give people a sense of freedom.”

At the same time, he says, we must understand that three thousand years ago, society was very concerned about issues of honor. Dishonest acts led to shame and punishment.

“For example, in ancient Greece it was possible to speak honestly and openly about homosexuality. For young people it was considered acceptable.”

“But in general, their society was not as liberal as it is sometimes imagined. Certain city-states significantly limited the rights and freedoms of citizens,” says the scientist.

The exhibition “Defining Beauty” will run at the British Museum until 5 July.

Features of the male body: interesting facts that no one thinks about

Psychology, which we talk about often, is one thing. The thinking of men and women is fundamentally different, but experts from this field are doing everything possible so that both sexes learn to understand each other and perceive them as they are.Anatomy is a completely different matter. Obvious differences are natural, but what about some of the characteristics of the male body? Joinfo.com will reveal interesting facts that no one thinks about.

The male body hides many surprises. Some of the features remain largely unknown. And not only for women, but also for men themselves. From head to toe, the male body is a whole new look.

1 – Slowing down the aging process

Nature took care of the main earners and rewarded men with such a feature as slowing down the aging process.Of course, this only happens if the man leads a healthy lifestyle.

This fact has been scientifically proven and substantiated by the fact that the density of collagen, which is responsible for the strength and elasticity of human connective tissue, deteriorates by 1% per year after the onset of the 20th anniversary. However, fibrillar protein in women loses its function much faster at the time of menopause. Because of this, men age more slowly.

2 – Male weight

The average adult male has about 50% more muscle mass and 50% less fat than the average adult female.

3 – Hair loss

It is generally accepted that the genetic tendency to baldness is transmitted exclusively by the mother’s X chromosomes, but this is not entirely true. There are other, equally important factors.

If the father of the son is bald, then the chances of the child that he will also lose hair will increase by 60%. The activity of male hormones affects the hair follicles in such a way that the body gradually loses its ability to produce new hair. Stress and poor diet also significantly increase the risk of baldness.

4 – Male PMS

Many may be surprised, but still 26% of men every month go through a stage so familiar to women as premenstrual syndrome.

During these periods, a man becomes more sensitive, irritable and hungry, and may also feel discomfort in the abdomen. That is, he is experiencing the same symptoms as the woman.

5 – Color perception

For men, colors are not divided into purple or lavender. They see only seven colors: red, purple, pink, orange, yellow, green, and blue.In contrast to the female perception, men do not classify colors according to their shades. Naturally, if the occupation is not associated with knowledge of colors.

6 – Adam’s Apple

Have you ever wondered why men have larger Adam’s apple than women? In women, there is only a small ridge in the neck, made up of thyroid cartilage, whose sole purpose is to protect the vocal cords. This cartilage is also responsible for the higher tone of a person’s voice.

During the adolescence of a young man, its angle relative to the annular cartilage changes, forming the apple of Adam, and leads to the so-called “breaking” of the voice.This angle is smaller in males than in females, which makes the protrusion larger and their voice lower.

Scientists continue to study not only human bodies and come to new discoveries that in the future may help in the treatment of various diseases, but also their psychology. Servants of science often share important information that saves people from mistakes. We believe that you would be interested to know what secrets are kept by the beautiful ladies . Men should know how female psychology works.

The structure of the male reproductive system

The male reproductive system includes the external and internal genital organs. They are designed to drain urine from the body, form and deliver sperm cells (reproductive function). The former includes the scrotum and penis. The second group includes testicles, epididymis, seminal vesicles, vas deferens and prostate gland.

Each of the components of the genitourinary system has structural and functional features.This article discusses the genitals of an adult man, possible common problems that may arise with each of them.

External (external) genitals

The penis (phallus or penis) is the genital organ through which urine and sperm are excreted from the body during intercourse. A member has a root or base, a trunk and a head. The root is attached to the pubic bone. The trunk consists of cavernous and spongy bodies that fill with blood. At the end of the trunk is a head covered with delicate skin that has glands that produce smegma.

The foreskin is connected to the head by an elastic skin fold – the frenum. With its help, during an erection, the head is completely exposed. Tears are painful, but rupture can affect sexual dysfunction. The head of the penis is usually mushroom-shaped. Pointed heads are found in long, narrow penises. In rare cases, a cylindrical shape is also possible.

The head itself has a large number of nerve endings, which makes it extremely sensitive.The shaft of the penis is slightly less sensitive in the area 2-3 cm below the head. There is an opening at the top of the head, which is the exit from the urethra, through which urine or semen is excreted during ejaculation.

Externally, the penis may differ. During an erection, it often bends, in a straight form, when in an excited state, it is rare. The average penis size depends on the state: in a calm – 5-10 cm, during an erection – 14-16 cm, that is, correspond to the depth of the female vagina.

Smegma (lubricant) – is the secretion of the glands of the foreskin, consisting of the fats of mycobacteria. They are white and evenly distributed over the surface of the head. Its function is to reduce friction between the head and the foreskin. Stagnation of smegma in violation of personal hygiene leads to its stagnation and formations of inflammatory processes. It must be removed by washing, without waiting for hardening.

Sperm is a mixture released during ejaculation (orgasm) during intercourse or masturbation.It is a product of the internal genital organs: the testes and their appendages, the prostate gland, the urethra and the seminal vesicles. It consists of seminal plasma and sperm.

Semen composition:

  • seminal vesicle fluid – 65%;
  • prostate fluid – 30%;
  • 90,030 sperm – 5%.

According to medical standards, the proportion of motile sperm must be at least 70% of the total. These data are determined using a special test that is taken as part of the examination of the male reproductive system – spermogram.

The scrotum is a musculocutaneous organ, consisting of the outer skin and the inner cavity, where the testes, their appendages and the initial section of the spermatic cord are located. The skin of this organ has a pigmented appearance, contains a large number of sweat and sebaceous glands and is covered with sparse hair. The scrotum is also a man’s erogenous zone.

Your attending doctor
Onis Vladimirovich Kalaychev

Internal genital organs

Testicles – a sex gland with a paired structure.Its function is the formation of sperm and the release of male sex hormones (testosterone). They are located in the scrotum at different levels, the left is just below the right. They can be of different sizes – 4-6 cm in length and 2.5-3.5 in width.

Their temperature must be about 4 degrees lower than the general body temperature, otherwise sperm cells may not be produced. Also, a sedentary lifestyle or work has a detrimental effect on them.

The vas deferens are ducts that carry sperm from the testicles.They are a continuation of the canal of the epididymis passing through the inguinal canal. The movement of sperm along is carried out as a result of their contractions during orgasm, as a result of falling into the urethra.

The spermatic cord is a paired anatomical component located from the epididymis to the place of confluence with the duct of the seminal vesicle. It supplies the testicles with the blood flow necessary for their functioning and the semen from into the vas deferens.

The prostate gland (prostate) is an organ of the reproductive system that produces a secret that is part of the sperm.It is located between the bladder and rectum. The urethra passes through the prostate. The secret of the prostate dilutes the semen, activating the movement of sperm. The prostate is also involved in the formation of libido and orgasm.

Seminal vesicles – glandular formations that produce a secret that is part of the sperm.

Each organ of the genitourinary system is important, therefore, in case of any problems, pain, burning, cramps and other symptoms during urination and intercourse, including orgasm, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible.

Medical center “ Onis Clinic ” has modern medical equipment, laboratory and experienced staff. Here you can undergo diagnostics, physiotherapy, treatment, as well as consult with specialists on any issues related to the male reproductive system.

90,000 Chapter 3 Male and female body. Anthropology of Sex

Chapter 3

Male and female body

3.1. Anthropometric characteristics

Anthropological studies make it possible to understand by what parameters of the body of a man and a woman are most different from each other.In men, the muscular type of constitution predominates: they are characterized by broad shoulders and narrow hips. In women, asthenoid and thoracic types predominate. They are typically narrow shoulders, developed bust, narrow waist and wider hips. The chest in women is shorter and wider, the trunk is longer, and the limbs are somewhat shorter (by about 10%) than in men. The wider pelvis of women is located lower than that of men, therefore the center of gravity is also lower. Differences in body proportions are not just a whim of nature, they have biological meaning.A wider and deeper pelvis in women provides a wide birth canal, and a greater relative length of the spinal column and wider inter-articular spaces provide women with greater flexibility. Shorter legs and a low center of gravity make the female body more stable, which is especially important during pregnancy. Differences in body structure underlie the characteristic differences between male and female gait: more sweeping and impulsive in men and smoother, with swaying of the hips in women.

Women, on average, have a shorter body length (for Europe, the average difference is 12 cm). Perhaps this is partly due to the different duration of the growth process: men continue to grow up to 25-32 years old, while in women growth stops much earlier – at 17-18 years old.

Women are lighter than men by an average of 10-15 kg. At the same time, the ratio of muscle, adipose and bone tissues is different for them. In adult men, muscle tissue makes up 40% of the body weight (on average, about 30 kg), and in women, about 30% (on average, 18 kg).And the structure of the muscles itself is different: in women, they consist mainly of slow fibers, and in the muscles of men, fast fibers predominate. The predominance of slow fibers in the muscle structure in women is the most important biological adaptation associated with longer, in comparison with other primates, childbirth and intense straining.

Adipose tissue, on the contrary, is more developed in women. This is due to the innate ability to more efficiently produce fatty substances and store them in the form of stores under the skin.On average, adipose tissue accounts for 25% of body weight in women and only 15% in men. A large fat layer in women protects the internal organs and the fetus from blows and gives the female body a characteristic rounded shape. Adipose tissue is practically waterless, so the total water content in a woman’s body is lower than in a man’s. Modern cosmetologists recommend that women drink up to 2 liters of water per day to look younger and fresher.

Differences between men and women in muscle and fat mass are of fundamental importance for their physiology.The metabolism of androgens occurs in the muscles, and large muscle mass plays an essential role in the masculinization of the male body. On the contrary, estrogen synthesis occurs in adipose tissue, therefore the presence of a larger fat mass contributes to the formation of feminine characteristics.

Modern films, plays, stories are replete with plots in which women, along with men, master martial arts, lift heavy barbells, conquer peaks, overcome various obstacles, run race with men, and finally fight.Extremely curious, in this vein, is the movie “Soldier Jane” with Demi Moore in the title role. “Achievements” of the girl Jane is a good advertisement for those who are trying to determine the limits of their life possibilities, but, alas, a bad advertisement for women who lead their gender-specific lifestyle and plan to become a mother in the future.

Observations of athletes involved in bodybuilding indicate that, on the basis of the development of strength, women are able to rebel against their nature – with special training they pump up muscles to fantastic sizes.However, at the same time, the physiological functions of the body are often violated, and the woman loses her most essential – she loses her reproductive functions, her periods stop.

Is this good or bad? Is it worth seeking equality with men at the cost of giving up the feminine essence? Is a different question. One thing is important in our story – in order to be and remain a woman, you need to have a body that is different from a man’s in terms of the shape and ratio of muscle and fat components. The soft, flowing lines of the female body and the rough, straight outlines of the male are not a whim of any one cultural tradition.These universal differences, closely related to the reproductive abilities of the sexes and the basic division of labor characteristic of primitive society, are the result of millions of years of evolution of the male and female body.

This text is an introductory fragment.

Continuation for liters

90,000 which parts of the female body excite men

Unlike women, who give in to emotional attraction and are ready to close their eyes to some of the physical imperfections of a partner, provided they are sympathetic, men are visuals.They are excited by the visual picture: the appearance and physical data of the partner. Only in their taste preferences for the female anatomy, they somewhat disagree. So which parts of our body excite men the most?

1. Lips

Men are fascinated by any manipulations that you perform with your mouth. Biting the lip, licking the tongue, eating a banana, chupa chups – all this is incredibly erotic in the minds of men.

2. Buttocks

Lush buttocks have always been the subject of admiration for men.It is not for nothing that women do exercises so diligently to give the desired shape to the fifth point. No matter how much sexologists try to explain this by reproductive functions and instincts, the fact remains that a woman’s bottom is a magnet for men’s looks.

3. Chest

This part of the body is the first thing that men appreciate when they first look at a woman. No matter how beautiful your eyes are, rest assured that your breasts will still receive more male attention. Moreover, it does not matter what size the bust is.The main thing is to have it.

4. Clavicle

These thin bones protrude very gracefully and are visible when a woman moves. Men find them touching and inviting to kiss.

5. Belly

Part of a woman’s body that is very sweet for kissing. Note that men like a soft, bulging tummy, not hard abs. The belly is a very flirtatious area that you want to caress until you go downhill.


The female vagina, for obvious reasons, is exciting and desirable for men, as it takes the main part in sexual intercourse. But some males find her more attractive than others. Hence the addiction to Cooney, for which some individuals are literally ready to sell their souls.

7. Knees

Both the knees themselves and the place under the knees are also exciting for the male look. Especially when the woman is in a short skirt and thin tights.

8. Lobes

One of the favorite places for kissing, licking, sucking. An integral part of love prelude before sex. The sight of a woman’s ear, touching it with fingers, when strands of hair are wound behind the ear or an earring is getting better – part of the erotic play of the man’s imagination. Don’t ignore this fact.

Men should not be scolded for what they love with their eyes – this is their natural feature, which is better used for their own purposes than ignored.Knowing which part of your body drives your partner crazy, the easiest way to seduce him and arouse desire in him.

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FGBNU NTsPZ. ‹› Body structure and character ››

B) athletic type

Table 2 The main body sizes in people of the athletic type



Weight (in kg)



Body length (cm)



Shoulder width



Breast volume






in the thighs












Leg length



Male athletic type (Fig.3 and 4) is characterized by a strong development of the skeleton, muscles, skin.

The general appearance of the most striking representatives of this genus: an average or tall man with especially wide and protruding shoulders, a stately chest, an elastic belly, with a body shape that tapers downward, so that the pelvis and still stately legs in comparison with the upper parts of the body and especially hypertrophic shoulder girdle sometimes seem thin. The dense, high head rests straight on the free neck, and the linear contours of the trapezius, visible from the front, give the neck of the shoulder a special impression.

The lines outlining the body are formed by the protruding muscles of good or hypertrophic muscles, which appear plastically, like a muscular relief. Bony relief is most noticeable in facial features. Rough bone structure is characteristic of the clavicle, wrist and metatarsus. Along with the shoulder girdle, the trophic emphasis also lies on the ends of the limbs, which may resemble acromegaly. The largest arm volume in athletes reaches 25 cm, a value exceeding the average size by 5 cm is relatively moderate, almost normally expressed.This primarily determines the precise muscular relief, and the overdeveloped musculature prominently protrudes through the thin fat layer.

Rice. 3. Athletic type. Frontal shot. (Schizophrenia.)

in men. The arm volume of 23 cm is quite frequent. In addition to the volume of the arm with this type, the width of the shoulders is also curious, which in two cases reaches the largest figure of 42.5 cm, exceeding the average shoulder width of our population (37.5 – 38 cm) by 5 cm.The length of the limbs is long rather than short. Along with bones and muscles, skin also participates in hypertrophy. She has a good elastic-elastic turgor, and on the face the skin is especially dense, thick, sometimes pasty. In contrast to all these tissues, the fat layer.

Rice. 4. Athletic type. Profile. (Acromegaly.)

Body height is generally above average; length more than 180 cm is quite common – the largest athlete in our study had a height of 168 cm.It is impossible to fix the lower limit, since the morphological transitions between the athletic type and the type of hypoplastic shoulder (see below) are rather unclear. The transitions to the forms of giants are curious, they will be described later.

Otherwise, in representatives of the athletic type, mainly in the facial features, variants are observed (see below). In the structure of the body, we find, along with the just outlined type, which has a relatively slender lower part of the body and plastic protrusion of body shapes, another variant that is distinguished by its general awkwardness.The difference in the development of the shoulders and pelvis does not deserve attention, everything is ugly, rough, clumsy, the skin of the face is pasty, the muscular relief is obscured by the diffuse development of fat. Purely morphologically, it is impossible to decide whether there is a variant, combination, another stage of development, or, more likely, a special type with a significant deviation of the biological basis.

There are only a few cases of this kind in my research; one of the patients, along with severe catatonic dementia, suffered from epileptic seizures.A patient with infantile development of fat had underdeveloped genitals and bilateral cryptorchidism. Among the awkward athletes, I met in the hospital those who had a huge upper body sitting not just on a slender, but extremely thin lower part, on an infantile narrow pelvis and asthenic thin legs.

There are also numerous morphological relationships between the athletic type and the dysgenital group. Combinations of athletic elements with eunuchoid great stature are not uncommon, such as excessive limb length with large hands, partial bone density, muscular shoulder girdle, etc.There is also strong feminism. I recently saw a schizoid psychopath with an athletic build, but with narrow, drooping, rounded shoulders, a waist, and a large female pelvis.

For now, we must leave aside the question of whether the broad-shouldered short type described below with acromicry is based on the interference of infantile and athletic structural principles, which is quite possible, or is something independent.

The study of the development of athletic type depending on age provides little interesting.This type appears clearly already in the ripening period from about 18 years; with full development of the head after 25 years, it becomes more plastic and clear. I was able to establish several cases of athletes at the age of 50. At a later age, in my sixties, I do not have a single subject at my disposal, which is explained by chance, since the athletic group is much less asthenic and covers only about 30 cases, counting men and women together. It is difficult to assume that this well-pronounced type at a later age is leveled out so quickly that it cannot be recognized even by its head and skeletal structure.On the contrary, in idiotic hospital catatonics of middle age who have been in bed for years, the muscles are often flabby and not so voluminous, while the skeleton and overall body size indicate a very strong previous development. This is easily explained by action-induced muscle atrophy; it is necessary, however, to find out whether endogenous trophic moments can lead to muscle atrophy both in asthenics and in such patients for whom inaction is no longer possible.

The athletic type in women, since it can be recognized here, is the same as in men, but with certain characteristic differences.The development of fat in athletic women is not delayed, but abundant; of course, it is in harmony with other tissues, primarily with bones and muscles, and, at least in the cases we have observed, it is not electrically enhanced, like in picnics. Along with this type of athletic women with femininely rounded forms, we meet, however, patients with pronounced masculinism in facial features and body structure. Several such cases, which in terms of muscular relief and proportions of the shoulders and pelvis closely resemble men, will be described in Chapter 5.In general, it should be borne in mind that trophic accentuation of the shoulder girdle can often be observed in athletic women (up to 39 cm shoulder width), and it does not go along the line of secondary sexual characteristics, but rather contradicts it. The latter indicates that such a structure of the shoulder girdle is not something accidental, but follows from peculiarly directed growth impulses. In addition to the sterno-shoulder girdle, the pelvis is often highly developed.

The body structure of athletic women gives the impression of being abnormal, over-protruding, rough and massive in contrast to the body structure of athletic men.This is because athletic men sometimes approach our artistic ideal of beauty, while our ideal of feminine beauty is inconsistent with the athletic one. Here it is appropriate to warn against making subjective assessments in the diagnosis of body structure. We will achieve little by characterizing “normal” and “abnormal” in relation to our three main types. All three are found in healthy people as well as in the mentally ill and patients with internal diseases. Nor can it be argued that one of the three types is physically better adapted to the struggle of life.It is easier for an athletics to be a fighter, an asthenic to be a pilot, in many professions it is completely indifferent whether one or the other devotes himself to them. Many asthenics are healthy throughout their lives and live to a ripe old age, while their more stately peers have long died from a heart stroke. Therefore, it is wrong (and here I completely agree with Bauar) to speak of morbus asthenicus. And the definition of “arthritic habit” or “physical habit” are narrow clinical terms. For a completely objective naturalistic doctrine of the structure of the body, they, as extremely one-sided establishing a tendency towards a specific disease, cannot be used.